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Torque vs. Tension Interpretation Instructions The enclosed 2008 raise drill Steel Torque-Tension charts are the latest

Torque vs. Tension Interpretation Instructions

The enclosed 2008 raise drill Steel Torque-Tension charts are the latest edition from Mining Technologies International of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

The DI-22 threaded raise drill steel was originated by Drilco Industrial of Midland, Texas in 1965. However, it was not until 1975 that Drilco introduced the first torque tension charts to aid in the application and use of the steel. In that 10 year period, with the exception of the 12-7/8” steel with 10-1/8” DI-42 connections, most of the current steel sizes were produced and put into service. As a result, the Torque-Tension charts did not have the significance that they should have had. A lack of instruction and understanding in how to apply the charts also presented a problem in the use of the charts. To add to the confusion, in the following years, other suppliers of drill steel entered the market without a background in the market and proceeded to publish charts without the required engineering and metallurgical knowledge to define properly the operational limits of the system. As a result, for all present applications, users have relied mostly on their own operational experience to set their operating parameters, with reasonable success.

Now, with the need for longer and larger diameter raises requiring up-rated machines and drill steel, it is necessary to review the form, construction and interpretation of the Torque-Tension charts in the light of 40 years of experience.

In reviewing in detail a number of published Torque-Tension charts since the origination of the 1975 charts, it is obvious that the original Drilco charts are more correct that any others published after 1975. The major discrepancy in the original charts was a failure to understand and explain how to use the charts properly. The most important fact to understand about the charts is the concept of initial makeup torque, because the initial makeup torque controls the capacity of the drill steel to handle safely the drilling loads applied to the reamer.

The Torque-Tension chart is a visual plot of the equation developed by A.P. Farr of Hughes Tool in 1957, based upon the “Screw Jack” principle, as shown in the enclosed illustration, and applied to a rotary shouldered connection. It is theoretical, but the values indicated on the latest Torque-Tension chart format, show de-rated operational levels that we consider to be safe for reasonable life of the connection fully described on each chart. It is important to understand that each MTI chart describes only MTI produced connections represented by that chart and that it not be indiscriminately applied to other suppliers products.

2
2
Farr’s formula, for “Torque only”, addresses, in its most basic form, what occurs when a box

Farr’s formula, for “Torque only”, addresses, in its most basic form, what occurs when a box and pin are screwed together to produce a load on the joint shoulders. Assume a connection, with the box critical area for torque equal to the pin critical area for torque, and that a torque is applied, until the material yield stress in the critical areas of the box and pin is reached. The connection is now pre-loaded with the maximum load possible on the threads and shoulders. We now can apply an external torque load that can vary from zero to maximum without affecting the joint. However, there is a need also to apply an external tension load. Because of the shoulder load, we can do this. But, as the tension load is applied, the internal joint loads are affected. The shoulder loads are reduced as tension is applied up to the maximum value of the shoulder pre-load from pre-torque. As the shoulder loads are reduced by the external tension, any external torque load applied must be reduced accordingly. This fact is defined on the Torque-Tension diagram by the right hand sloping line.

The shoulder separation zone, shown on the chart, is derived by looking at the joint merely screwed together with the shoulders in contact, but without load. As external tension is applied, the pin will stretch up to the material yield point. To keep the shoulders together, but unloaded, will require an external torque to be applied to the joint as external tension is applied. This zone is defined on the Torque-Tension diagram by the phantom shoulder separation line from the zero torque and tension axes to the maximum tension-torque point which is coincident with the maximum Torque-Tension point of the right hand torque plus tension line. This zone is only of value for fishing purposes and to define the limits of subsequent torque plus tension lines. The other sloping lines reflect the effects of box O.D. wear which limits initial makeup torque.

As shown on the diagram, the operating zone with initial makeup torque is defined by the sloping lines and the tension line drawn over to the left to the tension axis from the intersection of each sloping line with the phantom shoulder separation line. It is especially important to understand that the pre-torque (initial makeup torque) determines the safe allowable operating torque and tension. With that in mind, it is time to see how to use the Torque-Tension chart. There are two ways to use the charts - I) from an operator’s viewpoint; II) from an engineer’s or planner’s viewpoint.

  • I) Torque-Tension – operator’s viewpoint

From an operator’s viewpoint, the new Torque-Tension charts can be used very readily to set maximum machine operational limits, and then, to determine the required initial makeup or pre- torque required to allow safe operation within the limits of the machine and drill steel.

The initial information required for chart selection is specific to each machine.

  • a) The machine reaming torque,

  • b) The machine reaming thrust,

  • c) The machine makeup torque,

  • d) Drill steel size (connection, box O.D. pin I.D.) and type (hi-strength / std. strength)

Note: each chart shows “Thread dope friction factor”. FF 1.00 is B.O.L 270 or equal. FF1.18 is CITGO Tuff-Torq.

Proceed as follows, using above information: A. Select proper Torque-Tension chart, using d) above B. Use

Proceed as follows, using above information:

  • A. Select proper Torque-Tension chart, using d) above

  • B. Use the following sketch as a guide to interpret the selected Torque-Tension chart.

  • C. On the sketch, 1), 2), 3) represent the drill steel maximum operation line on the selected Torque-Tension chart.

  • D. Lines 4 through 9 on the sketch represent the machine reaming thrust and torque to be plotted onto the selected Torque-Tension chart. Follow the arrows in the order indicated to arrive at the required machine makeup torque required, # 10.

1
1
3 8 7 9 10 2
3
8
7
9
10
2

TENS.

5 6
5
6
4
4

0

TORQ.

1)

Maximum drill steel tension (.6 yield) on Torque-Tension chart

2)

Maximum drill steel initial makeup torque (.6 yield) on Torque-Tension chart

3)

Maximum drill steel operating Torque +Tension with initial makeup torque (2)

4)

& 5) Machine rated reaming thrust

6)

& 7) Machine rated reaming torque

8)

Intersection of machine rated thrust and torque

9) Allowable machine operating torque and tension when drill steel is initially torqued to (10) Note: Draw line 9) from 8) and parallel to line 3) to determine (10) 10) Initial makeup torque required for operation within the operating zone defined by line 5) and 9).

Interpretation of Chart Plot 1. If line 9) plots to the right of line 3) the

Interpretation of Chart Plot

  • 1. If line 9) plots to the right of line 3) the machine has more power than the drill steel can with stand. Then machine setting must be adjusted to line 3) levels, if the drill steel O.D. is to “new” diameter. On the Torque-Tension chart, there are 4 operating levels indicated, which indicate reduced operating levels for various diameters corresponding to wear diameters of the steel. Always select the makeup torque according to steel diameter. The 70% line is shown to be the minimum recommended makeup torque. The reason for this recommendation is that this wear diameter has been considered to be the time to replace the steel. It is important to understand that, regardless of steel diameter. The initial makeup torque defines the chart location of line 9) and thus determines the limit of operation. For instance, if the makeup torque at 70% is used with new drill steel, the operating zone line 9) is still the limit of operation, and not line 3).

  • 2. If line 9) plots to the left of the 70% line, then it is possible that the drill steel is too large for the rig, unless experience has shown otherwise. In all cases, the operating limit is always to the left of line 9).

  • 3. If the rig makeup torque is less than 10) on the chart as determined to be necessary in step 1) and 2) above, then it will be necessary to plot the available makeup torque as new item 10). Then draw line 9) from 10) parallel to line 3) and this new line 9) becomes the new maximum operating limit at the new intersection 8).

II) Torque-Tension – Engineer’s or Planner’s viewpoint

Understanding the Torque-Tension chart provides an engineer or planner with a tool to match a drilling machine to the proper drill steel to meet the job requirements. The initial parameters needed are the raise diameter, type of formation, formation hardness, length of hole and hole angle.

1) The process of evaluation begins with the reamer head. Using the raise diameter and

2)

formation information, it is necessary to determine the type cutter required, the number of cutters, the total cutter load required, and the resultant torque required to rotate the reamer when properly loaded. The reamer weight is also needed. Normally, this information is available from the reamer suppliers. If not, the attached tabulation of generic information can be used for initial estimation. The tabulated estimated torque values are for an essentially vertical hole. For a 60 degree dip angle hole, it would be advisable to add 10% to the chart values for rotational frictional drag of the bit and pipe. For a dip angle of 45 degrees, add 15% to the chart values. With the preliminary bit operating requirements having been selected, it is necessary next

to make a preliminary selection of a drill to match the bit torque requirements. Each drill will have design reaming torque and pull specifications listed. Generally, the drill specifications will list the drill steel size to match the machine. 3) The next selection check is to see if the machine pull or reaming thrust is sufficient to handle the total pull required. The total required machine pull is the sum of the cutter load, plus the reamer head weight, plus the machine drive head weight, plus the drill

string weight. The machine drive head weight must be estimated or obtained from the drill manufacturer.

string weight. The machine drive head weight must be estimated or obtained from the drill manufacturer. The drill string weight is primarily a function of the length of hole and can be calculated by dividing the hole length by the shoulder to shoulder length of an individual piece of drill steel suitable to the drill. The attached chart lists dimensions and weights of MTI drill steel. The preliminary total drill string tension (reamer weight + cutter load + drill steel weight) can be determined. 4) With the preliminary torque and drill string tension determined, select the appropriate Torque-Tension chart, paying attention to the drill steel material and thread dope requirements.

5) Plot the torque and pull requirements on the chart and follow the procedures of part I to determine the required drill steel makeup torque. If any requirements do not match the drill or the drill steel, the process must be repeated.

6)

Most reamer cutters have a maximum allowable peripheral rotational speed of about 300- 350 ft/min. To determine the required reamer rotational speed, divide the 300-350 ft/min cutter speed by the reamer circumference in feet. To check that the rig drive has sufficient rotational horsepower, calculate the horsepower by multiplying the reamer torque required by the reamer rotational speed and divide by 5252.(HP= TN/5252)

MTI Raise Drill Steel Weights

O.D

 

PIN I.D.

S/S Length

Connection

Unit Weight

(Inches)

(Inches)

(Inches)

Nomenclature

(lbs)

5

3/4

 

2 13/16

48

4 3/4

DI-22

205

6

3/4

4

48

5 3/4

DI-22

225

8

4 3/4

48

6 3/4

DI-22

385

8

4 3/4

60

6 3/4

DI-22

440

10

4 3/4

48

8 1/4

DI-22

600

10

4 3/4

60

8 1/4

DI-22

750

11

1/4

5

7/16

60

9 1/4

DI-22

1000

12

7/8

5

7/16

60

10 1/2 DI-22 &

10 1/8 DI-42

1400

12

7/8

5 7/16

138

10 1/8

DI-42

2870

13

1/8

4 3/4

138

10 1/2

DI-22

2500

13

1/8

4 3/4

60

10 1/8

DI-42

1520

13

3/8

4

60

10 1/8

DI-42

1645

14

1/8

4 3/4

60

10 7/8

MTI315

1900

14

1/8

4 3/4

84

10 7/8

MTI315

2460

14

1/2

5

7/16

60

11 1/4

MTI315

2020

14

1/2

5 7/16

84

11 1/4

MTI315

2600

14

3/4

4 3/4

60

11 1/4

MTI315

2150

15

4 3/4

60

11 1/2

MTI315

2250

The above discussions cover only Torque-Tension drilling requirements. Torque-Compression drilling requirements require separate charts and parameters. Consult Mining Technologies International for requirements.

MTI ESTIMATED REAMER OPERATING PARAMETERS UCS 20-30,000 PSI UCS 10-20,000 PSI #/cutter K=11.5 K=11.5 K=10 K=10

MTI ESTIMATED REAMER OPERATING PARAMETERS

UCS 20-30,000 PSI UCS 10-20,000 PSI #/cutter
UCS 20-30,000 PSI
UCS 10-20,000 PSI
#/cutter

K=11.5

K=11.5

K=10

K=10

x (cutter arms)

Torque =

k

20,000 #/cutr 20,000#/cutr 30,000#/cutr 10,000#/cutr No. of cutrs bit load (#) bit load (#) bit load
20,000 #/cutr
20,000#/cutr
30,000#/cutr
10,000#/cutr
No. of cutrs
bit load (#)
bit load (#)
bit load (#)
bit load (#)
Estimated
Bit Dia.
UCS 30-50,000 PSI K=14 30,000#/cutr bit load (#) torque (FT#) 240,000 300,000 35,820 360,000 49,885
  • UCS 30-50,000 PSI

K=14
K=14
30,000#/cutr bit load (#)
30,000#/cutr
bit load (#)
torque (FT#) 240,000
torque (FT#)
240,000
300,000 35,820
300,000
35,820
360,000 49,885
360,000
49,885
420,000 64,715
420,000
64,715
480,000 82,930
480,000
82,930
600,000 122,660
600,000
122,660
720,000 142,930
720,000
142,930
220,500 780,000
220,500
780,000
277,885 960,000
277,885
960,000
1,140,000 384,640
1,140,000
384,640
1,200,000 510,810
1,200,000
510,810
1,260,000 551,270
1,260,000
551,270
1,320,000 650,570
1,320,000
650,570
681,430
681,430
K=14 40,000#/cutr bit load (#) torque (FT#) 320,000 400,000 47,830 480,000 66,510 560,000 86,285 640,000 110,570
K=14 40,000#/cutr bit load (#) torque (FT#) 320,000 400,000 47,830 480,000 66,510 560,000 86,285 640,000 110,570
K=14
K=14
40,000#/cutr bit load (#)
40,000#/cutr
bit load (#)
torque (FT#) 320,000
torque (FT#)
320,000
400,000 47,830
400,000
47,830
480,000 66,510
480,000
66,510
560,000 86,285
560,000
86,285
640,000 110,570
640,000
110,570
800,000 163,540
800,000
163,540
960,000 190,570
960,000
190,570
1,040,000 294,000
1,040,000
294,000
1,280,000 370,510
1,280,000
370,510
1,520,000 512,850
1,520,000
512,850
1,600,000 681,085
1,600,000
681,085
1,680,000 735,030
1,680,000
735,030
1,760,000 867,430
1,760,000
867,430
908,570
908,570
∑ cutr arms (ft) reamer wt.(#) torque (FT#) 8 80,000 torque (FT#) torque (FT#) torque (FT#)
∑ cutr arms (ft) reamer wt.(#) torque (FT#)
8 80,000
torque (FT#)
torque (FT#)
torque (FT#)
240,000
160,000
160,000
FT
M
10 100,000 16.74 8,900 5 1.52 200,000 200,000 300,000 29,110 33,480 16,740 43670
10 100,000
16.74 8,900
5 1.52
200,000
200,000
300,000
29,110
33,480
16,740
43670
12 120,000 23.28 10,700 240,000 240,000 360,000 46,560 40,490 23,280 60,730 1.83 7 6
12 120,000
23.28 10,700
240,000
240,000
360,000
46,560
40,490
23,280
60,730
1.83
7
6
14 140,000 30.20 12,500 420,000 280,000 280,000 52,520 30,200 78,780 60,400 2.13
14 140,000
30.20 12,500
420,000
280,000
280,000
52,520
30,200
78,780
60,400
2.13
16 160,000 38.70 14,300 480,000 320,000 320,000 100,960 38,700 77,400 67,300 2.43 8
16 160,000
38.70 14,300
480,000
320,000
320,000
100,960
38,700
77,400
67,300
2.43
8
20 200,000 57.24 25,000 10 3.04 400,000 400,000 600,000 114,480 149,320 57,240 99,550 12
20 200,000
57.24 25,000
10 3.04
400,000
400,000
600,000
114,480
149,320
57,240
99,550
12
24 240,000 66.70 57,000 480,000 480,000 720,000 133,400 116,000 174,000 66,700 4.27 3.66 14
24 240,000
66.70 57,000
480,000
480,000
720,000
133,400
116,000
174,000
66,700
4.27
3.66
14
26 260,000 102.90 63,000 205,800 268,400 520,000 520,000 780,000 102,900 178,960
26 260,000
102.90 63,000
205,800
268,400
520,000
520,000
780,000
102,900
178,960
32 320,000 129.68 67,000 16 4.88 259,360 225,530 338,300 640,000 640,000 960,000 129,680
32 320,000
129.68 67,000
16 4.88
259,360
225,530
338,300
640,000
640,000
960,000
129,680
38 380,000 179.50 71,300 1,140,000 468,260 359,000 312,170 760,000 760,000 179,500 5.49 18
38 380,000
179.50 71,300
1,140,000
468,260
359,000
312,170
760,000
760,000
179,500
5.49
18
40 400,000 238.38 80,000 1,200,000 476,760 414,570 238,380 800,000 800,000 621,860 6.10 20 22
40 400,000
238.38 80,000
1,200,000
476,760
414,570
238,380
800,000
800,000
621,860
6.10
20
22
42 420,000 257.26 95,000 1,260,000 447,410 257,260 514,520 840,000 840,000 671,110 6.70 24
42 420,000
257.26 95,000
1,260,000
447,410
257,260
514,520
840,000
840,000
671,110
6.70
24
303.6 110,000 7.93 44 1,320,000 440,000 528,000 303,600 792,000 607,200 880,000 880,000 7.31 26
303.6 110,000
7.93 44
1,320,000
440,000
528,000
303,600
792,000
607,200
880,000
880,000
7.31
26
318.0 125,000 553,040 318,000 636,000 829,570
318.0 125,000
553,040
318,000
636,000
829,570