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A project report On



B.E IV (7TH SEM.) (CIVIL) GUIDED BY- Prof. Priti A. Patel



C.K.Pithawalla College of Engineering & Technology, Surat Certificate

This is to certify that following students:
Sr. No 1 2 3 4 Enrolment No. 090090106017 090090106011 100093106007 080090106203 Name Of The Student SRIVASTAV RITIKA U. SHAH PARTH N. SAPARIYA PARESH V. HADIYA PRATIK

of Final year, seventh semester Civil Engineering have submitted and presented the Industrial Defined Problem (IDP)/ Project report as per guidelines of Gujarat Technological University (GTU) on GEOTECTNICAL PROPERTIES OF LIME FIBRE TREATED EXPANSIVE SOIL. The work done by them is found satisfactory. Place: Surat Date:



In charge of Departme



1. Introduction 1.1. Types of Soil 1.2. Black Cotton Soil 1.3. Where it is present in India?! 1.4. Soil Stabilization 1.5. Methods of Soil Stabilization 1.6. Types Of Fibers 1.7. Lime Fibre Stabilization 2. Objectives of Work 3. Literature Review 4. Scope of work 5. Methodology 5.1. Explanation Of Test 5.2. Flow Chart 6. Experimental program 7. References


It has been observed that soil of Surat region possess typical properties like high compressibility, low bearing capacity, swelling during saturated condition and shrinking during dry weather condition. Such Expansive soils undergo volumetric increase corresponding to increase in moisture content. They also exhibit shrinkage when water evaporates from them. Thus, because of swell and shrinkage in rainy and summer seasons, lightly loaded civil engineering structures founded in them develop distress. Thus such Expansive soils are the main cause of damages to many civil engineering structures such as spread footings, roads, highways, airport runways, and earth dams constructed with dispersive soils (Abduljauwad 1993). Many innovative foundation techniques and stabilization methods have been devised to counteract the problems caused by expansive soils. Stabilization by chemical additives, pre-wetting, squeezing control, overloading, water content prevention are general ground improvement methods that are used to mitigate swelling problems. There has been a growing interest in recent years in the influence of chemical modification of soils which upgrades and enhances the engineering properties. Especially use of lime admixture has proved to have a great potential as an economical method for improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils and alsoa wide range of reinforcements have been used to improve soil performance to increase the soil strength. This has caused increased interest in identifying new accessible resources for reinforcement. In the case of geotechnical engineering the idea of inserting fibrous materials in a soil mass in order to improve its mechanical behavior has become very popular. The concept of earth reinforcement is an ancient technique and demonstrated abundantly in nature by animals, birds and the action of tree roots. This reinforcement resists tensile stress developed within the soil mass thereby restricting shear failure. Reinforcement interacts with the soil through friction and adhesion. The practicing engineers are employing this technique for stabilization of thin soil layers, repairing failed slopes, soil strengthen around the footings and earth retaining structures. The inclusion of randomly distributed discrete fiber increases strength parameters of the soil as in case of reinforced concrete construction. One of the essential characteristics of reinforced soil is that it is made with two types of elements, soil grains and reinforcements. In this experimental investigation, the aim is to study the effect of lime polypropylene fiber reinforcement on the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of a clay sample obtained from an expansive clay deposit in Surat.



Alluvial soils: All type of soils carried and deposited by water are known as Alluvial soil. Soils particles that are carried and deposited by rivers are called Alluvial deposits Soil. Soils particles that are carried by rivers while entering a lake, deposited all the coarse particles because of sudden decrease in velocity. Such coarse soil deposits are called by Lake Deltas Soil. But the fine grained particles move to the centre of the lake and settle when the water becomes quiet. Such lake deposits are called Lacustrine deposit Soil. These deposits are weak and compressible, and pose problem for foundations. A large part of North India is covered with alluvial deposits the deposits are generally of low density and are liable to liquefaction in earthquake prone areas.

Marine soils: Marine soils are formed when the flowing water carries soil to ocean or sea. These deposits are found all along the coast in narrow tidal plains In the southwest coast of India, there are thick layers of sand above deep deposits of soft marine clays. The Marine clays are very soft and may contain organic matter.


They possess low shear strength and high compressibility and hence pose problems as a foundation material or as a construction material. The Marine clays are soft and highly plastic.

Colluvial soil: Soils transported and deposited by gravity are called Colluvial soil. Gravity can transport material for a short distance. As the movement is limited, there is no appreciable change in the materials moved. They are also termed as Talus. They include the material at the base of cliff and landslide deposits. Talus consists of irregular coarse particles. It is a good source of broken rock pieces and coarse grained soils for many engineering works.

Gravel: Gravel is a type of coarse-grained soil. The particle size ranges from 4.75mm to 80mm. They pass through 80mm sieve but retained on 4.75mm sieve This subdivision includes o Coarse: 80mm to 20mm sieve. o Fine: 20mm to 4.75mm sieve It is designated by symbol G. They are mostly rounded to angular in shape and are bulk, hard, rock particle. Cohesion less soil: The Cohesion less soil is composed of bulky grains is cohesion less regardless of the fineness of the particles. The rock flour is cohesion less even when it has the particle size smaller 2 micron size. Non plastic silts and coarse grained soils are cohesion less. Sand and Gravel are Cohesion less.


Black cotton soil: It is a residual soil containing high percentage of the clay mineral montmorillonite. These soils have been formed from basalt or trap rocks. It has very low bearing capacity. These soils are quite suitable for growing cotton. Black cotton soils are clays o high plasticity. The soils have high shrinkage and swelling characteristics. It is extremely difficult to work with such soils. Sand: It is a soil, having particle size between 0.075mm to 4.75mm. They pass through 4.75mm sieve but retained on 75micron sieve. This subdivision includes Coarse : 4.75mm to 2.0mm sieve. Medium: 2.0mm to 425 micron sieve. Fine : 425 micron to 75 micron sieve They are mostly rounded to angular bulky in shape and are bulk, hard, rock particle. Organic soils: Organic soils are formed by growth and subsequent decay of vegetable matter. The natural moisture content found in organic soils can vary significantly in response to changes in the atmosphere. This, combined with a dense, grainy texture, easily circulates water throughout a soil environment. These aspects of organic soils make for a poor construction material in terms of providing a sound foundation for a building structure. Inorganic soils: Inorganic soils are formed by the accumulation of fragments of the inorganic skeletons or shells of organisms. The inorganic materials found in soils account for about half of the total mass of most soil. These inorganic materials take the form of sand, silt, and clay, and are referred to commonly as dirt. They form as rocks are eroded by the forces of weather. 7|Page

1.2: BLACK COTTON SOIL: Black soil is also called regur soil or cotton soil. Cotton is the most important crop grown in these soils. After alluvial soils it occupies largest areas in the country. It covers 16% area of the country. A soil order formed in regolith high in clay; subject to marked shrinking and swelling with changes in water content; low in organic content and high in bases. It is a soil type formed by the breakdown of basaltic rock (volcanic rock or lava) and is highly fertile. These soils are rich in nutrient. It develops cracks when dry which helps in aeration. It has a self-ploughing quality. It is agriculturally important because it is rich in lime, iron and potash. Because of high clay content, these soils expand when wet and become difficult to plough. During the dry season, the black soils shrink and develop big cracks which help in air circulation. The moisture-retentiveness makes them suitable for dry farming. It contains Lime, iron, potash, aluminum, calcium and magnesium carbonate. It is deficient in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter.

SAMPLE OF Black Cotton Soil



Black-cotton soil, which is also called Regular, is found in the Deccan Lava Plateau, the Malwa Plateau, and interior of Gujarat.



Different types of soils Found in Gujarat region are shown in figure.

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1.4: SOIL STABILIZATION Basically to avoid excessive volumetric changes in black cotton soil there are various methods through which it can be overcome. 1. Replacing the black cotton soil with yellow soil. 2. By improving it strength i.e. Soil Stabilization. Soil Stabilization The soil stabilization means the improvement of engineering characteristics and performance of a soil or bearing power of the soil by the use of controlled compaction, proportioning and/or the addition of suitable admixture or stabilizers. Basic Principles of Soil Stabilization. Evaluating the properties of given soil Deciding the lacking property of soil and choose effective and economical method of soil stabilization Designing the Stabilized soil mix for intended stability and durability values Need For Soil Stabilization: The first and most obvious one is strength improvement With dust control, the dust that is generated by the consistent use of equipments and machinery can be eliminated, especially in dry and arid weather. The third purpose of soil stabilization, soil waterproofing, preserves the natural strength of a soil by obstructing the entry of surface water. It provides more erosion control.



Mechanical Method 1. Soil-Cement Stabilization 2. Soil-Lime Stabilization 3. Soil- Bitumen Stabilization 4. Lime Fly ash Stabilization 5. Lime Fly ash Bound Macadam 6. Fiber Reinforced soil Stabilization

II. Additive Method

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(1) MECHANICAL METHOD ECHANICAL METHOD Mechanical stabilization is accomplished by mixing or blending soils of two or more gradations to obtain a material meeting the required specification. This method involves the correctly proportioning of aggregates and soil, adequately compacted to get mechanically stable layer The blended materials then spread and compacted to required densities byconventional means. This method is suitable for low volume roads i.e. Village roads in low rainfall areas. (2) ADDITIVE METHOD Additive refers to a manufactured commercial product that, when added to the soil in the proper quantities, will improve the quality of the soil layer. This includes the use of Portland cement, lime, lime-cement-fly ash, and bitumen, etc. alone or in combination, as additives to stabilize soils. The selection and determination of the percentage of additives depend upon the soil classification and the degree of improvement in soil quality desired. Generally, smaller amounts of additives are required to alter soil properties, such as gradation, workability, and plasticity, than to improve the strength and durability sufficiently to permit a thickness reduction design. After the additive has been mixed with the soil, spreading &compacting are accomplished by conventional means

Different types of Additive method: 1. Soil Cement Stabilization 2. Soil Lime Stabilization 3. Soil Bitumen Stabilization 4. Lime Fly ash Stabilization 5. Lime Fly ash Bound Macadam.

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1. Soil Cement Stabilization Soil Cement is an intimate mix of soil, cement and water, compacted to form a strong base course The Engineering properties that can be improved are the following: 1. The soils Plasticity index can be reduced. 2. The soils C.B.R can be increased. 3. Material shearing strength can be increased. 4. Shrinkage or swelling characteristics for the soil can be decreased. 5. The amount of fine grained material particles can be reduced.

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2. Soil Lime Stabilization Soil- Lime has been widely used as a modifier or a binder Soil-Lime is used as modifier in high plasticity soils Soil Lime also imparts some binding action even in granular soils

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3. Soil- Bituminous Stabilization The Basic Principles of this stabilization are Water Proofing and Binding By Water Proofing inherent strength and other properties could be retained

4. Lime Fly Ash Stabilization Fly Ash treatment can effectively reduce the swell potential of fat clay soils and increase its strength

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Animal Natural Vegetable

Alpaca, Angora, Byssus, Camel hair, Cashmere, Catgut, Chiengora, Guanaco, Human hair, Llama, Mohair, Pashmina, Qiviut, Rabbit, Silk, Sinew, Spider Silk, Wool, Vicuna, Yak. Abaca, Biogases, Bamboo, Coir, Cotton, Flax, Linen, Hemp, Jute, Kapok, Kenaf, Pine, Raffia, Ramie, Sisal, Wood. Acetate, Triacetate, Art Silk, Bamboo, Lyocell Rayon, Modal, Rayon. Glass, Carbon, Tenax, Basalt, Metallic. Acrylic, Aramid, Twaron, Kevlar, Technora, Nomex, Microfiber, Modacrylic, Nylon, Olefin, Polyester, Polyethylene, Dyneema, Spectra, Spandex, Vinylon, Vinyon, Zylon.

Cellulose Synthetic Mineral Polymer

(1) NATURAL FIBER: All fibers which come from natural sources (animals, plants, etc.) and do not require fiber formation or reformation are classed as natural fibers. The natural fibers are vegetable, animal, or mineral in origin. Some of the natural fibers like vegetable fibers are obtained from the various parts of the plants. They are provided by nature in ready-made form. It includes the protein fibers such as wool and silk, the cellulose fibers such as cotton and linen and the mineral fiber asbestos.

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Stabilization Project in Progress

Live stake, coconut fiber roll and erosion control blanket

Coconut fiber roll and erosion control blanket

Gabions and filter fabric

Gabions and rock riprap

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Tree revetments

1.7: LIME FIBER REINFORCED SOIL STABILIZATION The lime-fiber stabilized soils, improves the compression and shear strength, swelling and shrinkage of soil In addition it is observed to transfer the failure characteristic of soil from brittle to ductile failure. There are different types of natural and synthetic fiber. We will use synthetic fiber in our project. Polyester, Polypropylene etc. are different type of synthetic fibre



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Applications: Some of the main applications of fibre reinforced soils are as follows: 1. Using it in evapotranspiration systems, placed on steep slopes, would not only increase the stability of these slopes, but would also prevent the soil from erosion or dehydration cracking. 2. By making the slopes steeper, material usage could be reduced. 3. Stronger foundations could be achieved because of the increase in bearing capacity. 4. When used as a backfill, the increased soil strength reduces the forces exerted on a retaining structure, as well as providing a more cost effective design.

There are certain advantages of using polypropylene fibers:

Low manufacturing costs; Low moisture absorption; Resistant to abrasion, degradation, acids and alkalis.

However, it has certain disadvantages:

Creeps under loading; Strength reduces when temperatures increase; Degrades under UV rays.

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To enhance geotechnical properties of soil. To compare different strength of Black Cotton Soil by using lime for different Quantity such as 0 to 2%. To compare different strength of Black Cotton Soil by using synthetic fiber for Different percentage of fiber and different types of Fiber. To asses effectiveness of stabilized black cotton soil using different material such as lime, fiber and lime + fiber. To investigate comparative influence of stabilization on different properties of soil like atterberg limits, Shrinkage limit, Tri axial test, Unconfined Compression Test, MDD, OMC, and CBR etc.

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1. Santhi Krishna K. &Sayida M.K. Behaviour of Black Cotton Soil Reinforced with Sisal Fibre This paper evaluated the effect of sisal fibre on the engineering properties of black cotton soil taken from the Chittur Talluk near Palaghat. The present study is aimed at determining the behavior of black cotton soil reinforced with sisal fibre in a random manner. The fibers are cut to different lengths (1.5cm, 2.0cm, 2.5cm and 3.0cm) and mixed randomly with soil in varying percentages (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%) by dry weight of soil and compacted to maximum dry density at optimum moisture content.. In the case of sisal fibre reinforced soil, as the fibre content and fibre length increases, the maximum dry density and the optimum moisture content decreases. And the CBR value of soil is found to increase with the addition of sisal fibres to the soil. The peak value of CBR is obtained at 0.50% fibre content for all cases of sisal fibre reinforced soils. 2. P. V. KoteswaraRao, K.Satish Kumar & T. Blessingstone Performance of Recron-3S fiber with Cement Kiln Dust in Expansive soil This study revealed that the fiber reinforcement improves the soil properties in terms of improved stress-strain patterns and progressive failure in place of quick post peak failure of plain samples. The unconfined compressive strength of Clay soil is increased by 7 times with admixture stabilization and 9 times for admixture with fiber modification with respect to plain samples. The shear strength parameters of clay soil are also significantly increased upon admixture stabilization and admixture with fiber treatment. The CBR value also increased significantly even for soaked CBR tests. 3. S. Twinkle & M.K. Sayida Effect of Polypropylene Fibre and Lime admixture on Engineering properties of Expansive soil The addition of lime increased the optimum water content, shrinkage limit and strength and reduced the swelling potential, liquid limit, plasticity index and maximum dry density of the soil. But the further additions can increase swelling in soils with high sulfate contents, decrease in plasticity of soils and excessive lime treatment contribute to brittle failure characteristics of soils that lead to rapid and great loss in strength when failure occurs.

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More importantly, fibre reinforced soil exhibits greater toughness and ductility and smaller loss of post peak strength, as compared to soil alone. One of the main advantages of randomly distributed fibres is the maintenance of strength isotropy and the absence of potential planes of weakness that can develop parallel to oriented reinforcement.

4. S. BanuIkizler, Mustafa Aytekin, EmelTrker&Halil Ibrahim Yavuz Effect of fibers on swelling characteristics of bentonite In this paper, polypropylene fibers including fibrillated polypropylene fiber (F) and multifilament fiber (M) were evaluated as potential stabilizers in enhancing volume changes behavior of betonies. Modified Consolidation Tests (Swelling Pressure Test) were conducted to assess the feasibility of using small particles of fibers as blended additive to mitigate the swelling potential of the betonies. These experiments show that the betonies can be successfully stabilized by two types of fibers. Test results were analyzed to establish optimum dosage levels for each of the fiber stabilizers. They concluded the following from the test results. (1) Decrement in swelling pressures due to fiber treatments or inclusions are observed in polypropylene treated soils when dosage levels are about 0.2%. (2) The treatment is more effective on reduction of swelling pressures of bentonite for multifilament fiber (M) when compared with fibrillated polypropylene fiber (F). (3) Dosage level between 0.2% and 0.3% would be best for the treatment of betonies on the reduction of swelling pressure. (4) Effect of fibrillated polypropylene fiber (F) on the swelling pressures is so small so that it should not be used for this purpose.

5. Pradip D. Jadhao & P.B. Nagarmaik Performance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Soil Flyash Mixtures In present study, the relative gain in strength and ductility was evaluated by conducting a series of unconfined compression strength tests (UCS). Specimens of soil fly ash mixtures were tested with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 per cent polypropylene fibers with various lengths of fibers. The results presented show that the inclusion of randomly distributed fibers significantly increased UCS, residual strength and absorbed energy of soil fly ash mixtures. The increase in UCS, residual strength and absorbed energy was function of fiber content and length. UCS, 22 | P a g e

residual strength and absorbed energy increased with increasing fiber content. With increasing fiber length, the contribution to UCS was reduced, and energy absorption (i.e., ductility) increased. 6. Shah Kinjal, A.K. Desai & C.H. Solanki Experimental Study on the Atterberg limits of Expansive Soil This paper reports the results of laboratory study performed on expansive soil reinforced with polyester fiber and demonstrates that randomly distributed fibers are useful in restraining the shrinkage tendency of expansive soils. Polyester fibers of 12 mm size having triangular cross section were used.

They concluded the following from the test results. (1) Reinforcing expansive clay specimens with polyester fibers reduce the shrinkage tendency. (2) Optimum percentage fiber found as 0.5%. 7. Mona Malekzadeh & Huriye Bilsel published Effect of Polypropylene Fiber on Mechanical Behaviour of Expansive SoilsEastern Mediterranean University, Department of Civil Engineering, Gazimagusa, Mersin 10, and Turkey. In this experimental investigation, the aim was to study the effect of polypropylene fiber reinforcement on the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of a clay sample obtained from an expansive clay deposit in Famagusta, North Cyprus. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% polypropylene fiber additives, and the results of one-dimensional swell and consolidation tests. The results indicate that primary swell and secondary swell percentages decreased considerably with increase in fiber addition. It can be concluded that there is a potential for use of polypropylene fiber to reinforce expansive soils. 1% fiber content is suitable for the soil in this study to have low amount of swell, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity.

8. Technical Note by R. Kumar, V.K. Kanauji and D. Chandra Engineering Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced posh and silty sand Geosynthetics International, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 509-518. This note presents the results of laboratory investigations conducted on silty sand and pond ash specimens reinforced with randomly distributed polyester fibres. 23 | P a g e

The test results reveal that the inclusion of fibres in soils increases the peak compressive strength, CBR value, peak friction angle, and ductility of the specimens. The compaction characteristics of fibre-reinforced silts sand and pond ash do not differ significantly from unreinforced specimens, but fibre reinforcement, particularly at 0.3 to 0.4%, does significantly increase compressive strength and failure strain. Similarly, in the range of 0.3 to 0.4%, fibre reinforcement significantly increases peak friction angle, cohesion, and CBR values.

9. Rupal Katare, M.M. Pande, S.K .Jain researched on Lime Stabilization Method for Black Cotton Soil of Gwalior region department of Civil Engg, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior. The Volume instability of black cotton soils lead to damages to structures supported on it. Quantity of lime is varied by 2 to 4% of soil and corresponding changes in properties are observed The value of M.D.D increases with the increased percentage of lime and the value of O.M.C and swelling pressure decreases with increase in lime content. Also the C.B.R value increases and the Liquid limit, Plastic limit and Plasticity index decreases with increase in the content of lime

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The Black Cotton Soil sample was collected from the Vesu region of Surat city in this semester and the literature required for the project was obtained. Experiments will be carried out in next semester which will consists of controlled condition soil and with different composition such as Soil + Lime , Soil + Fiber, Soil + Fiber + Lime. The following test will be will carried later. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Specific Gravity Sieve Analysis Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Shrinkage Limit Unconfined Compression Test C.B.R Free Swell Index

After obtaining results from the experiments different equations will be formed using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

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For improving the geotechnical properties of Black Cotton Soil, we will perform different experiments using additive lime & fiber in soil by varying its content. The following test will be performe to find different properties. (1) Determination of Specific Gravity. Procedure: Determine and record the weight of the empty clean and dry pycnometer, WP. Place 10g of a dry soil sample (passed through the sieve No. 10) in the pycnometer. Determine and record the weight of the pycnometer containing the dry soil, WPS. Add distilled water to fill about half to three-fourth of the pycnometer. Soak the sample for 10 minutes. Apply a partial vacuum to the contents for 10 minutes, to remove the entrapped air. Stop the vacuum and carefully remove the vacuum line from pycnometer. Fill the pycnometer with distilled (water to the mark), clean the exterior surface of the pycnometer with a clean, dry cloth. Determine the weight of the pycnometer and contents, WB. Empty the pycnometer and clean it. Then fill it with distilled water only (to the mark). Clean the exterior surface of the pycnometer with a clean, dry cloth. Determine the weight of the pycnometer and distilled water, WA. Empty the pycnometer and clean it. Data Analysis: Calculate the specific gravity of the soil solids using the following Formula: Specific Gravity, Gs = W0 / W0 + (WA-WB) Where: W0 = weight of sample of oven-dry soil, gms = WPS - WP WA = weight of pycnometer filled with water WB = weight of pycnometer filled with water and soil

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Sieve Analysis Test Test Procedure: Take a representative oven dried sample of soil that weighs about 500 gm If soil particles are lumped or conglomerated crush the lumped and not the particles using the pestle and mortar. Determine the mass of sample accurately. Prepare a stack of sieves. Sieves having larger opening sizes (i.e. lower numbers) are placed above the ones having smaller opening sizes (i.e. higher numbers). The very last sieve is #200 and a pan is placed under it to collect the portion of soil passing #200 sieve Make sure sieves are clean; if many soil particles are stuck in the openings try to poke them out using brush. Weigh all sieves and the pan separately. Pour the soil from step 3 into the stack of sieves from the top and place the cover, put the stack in the sieve shaker and fix the clamps, adjust the time on 10 to 15 minutes and get the shaker going. Stop the sieve shaker and measure the mass of each sieve + retained soil.

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(3) Determination of liquid limit Preparation of sample Air-dry the soil sample and break the clods, remove the organic matter like tree roots, pieces of bark, etc. About 100g of the specimen passing through 425 micron IS sieve is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish and left for 24 hrs.

Test Procedure
Place a portion of the paste in the cup of the liquid limit device. Level the mix so as to have a maximum depth of 1 cm. Draw the grooving tool through the sample along the symmetrical axis of the cup holding the tool perpendicular to the cup. For normal fine grained soil: The Casagrande tool is used to cut a groove 2mm wide at the bottom. 11mm wide at the top and 8mm deep. For sandy soil : The ASTM tool is used to cut a groove 2mm wide at the bottom,13.6mm wide at the top and 10mm deep. After the soil plate has been cut by a proper grooving tool, the handle is rotated at the rate of about 2 revolutions per second and the no. Of blows counted, till the two part of the soil sample come in to contact for about 10mm length. Take about 10g of soil near the closed groove and determine its water content. The soil of the cup is transferred to the dish containing the soil paste and mixed thoroughly after adding a little more water. Repeat the test. By altering the water content of the soil and repeating the foregoing operation, obtain at least 3 readings in the range of 15 to 35 blows. Dont mix dry soil to change its consistency.

Liquid limit determined by plotting a flow curve on a semi log graph, with no. Of blows as abscissa (log scale) and the water content as ordinate and drawing the best straight line through the plotted point.

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(4) Determination of plastic limit Preparation of sample Take about 30g air dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing through 425 micron IS sieves. Mix the soil with distilled water in an evaporating dish and leave the soil mass for maturing. This period may be up to 24 hrs. Test Procedure Take about 8g of the soil and roll it with fingers on a glass plate. The rate of rolling should between 80 to 90 strokes per minute to form a 3mm dia. If the dia. Of the threads can be reduced to less than 3mm without any cracks appearing, it means that the water content is more than its plastic limit. Knead the soil to reduce the water content and roll it in to a thread again. Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the thread crumbles. Collect and keep the pieces of crumbled soil thread in the container used to determine the moisture content.

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(5) Determination of Shrinkage limit: Procedure: Take about 100 gm of soil sample from a thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing through 425 micron I.S sieve. Place about 30 gm the above soil sample in the evaporating dish and thoroughly mixed with distilled water and make a creamy paste. Use water content some were around the liquid limit. Filling the shrinkage dish Coat the inside of the shrinkage dish with a thin layer of Vaseline to prevent the soil sticking to the dish. Fill the dish in three layer by placing approximately 1/3 rd of the amount of wet soil with the help of spatula. Tap the dish gently on a firm base until the soil flows over the edges and no apparent air bubble exist. Repeat this process for 2nd and 3rd layer also till the dish is completely filled with the wet soil. Strike off the excess soil and make the top of the dish smooth. Wipe off all soil adhering to the outside of the dish. Weigh immediately the dish with wet soil and record the weight. Air dries the wet soil cake for 6 to 8 hrs until the colour of the pat turns from dark to light then oven dry those to constant weight at 1050c to 1100 c say about 12 to 16 hrs. Remove the dried dish of the soil from oven. Cool it in a desiccators. Then obtain the weight of the dish with dry sample. Determine the weight of the empty dish and record. Determine the volume of shrinkage dish which is evidently equal to volume of the wet soil as follows. Place the shrinkage dish in an evaporating dish and fill the dish with mercury till it over flow slightly. Press it with plain glass plate firmly on its top to remove excess mercury. Pour the mercury from the shrinkage dish in to a measuring jar and find the volume of the shrinkage dish directly. Record this volume as the volume of the wet soil pat.

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(6) Determination of C.B.R. value Procedure: Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of soil and mix thoroughly with the required water. Fix the extension collar and the base plate to the mould. Insert the spacer disc over the base. Place the filter paper on the spacer disc. Compact the mix soil in the mould using either light compaction or heavy compaction. For light compaction, compact the soil in 3 equal layers, each layer being given 55 blows by the 2.6 kg rammer. For heavy compaction compact the soil in 5 layer 56 blow to each layer by the 4.89 kg rammer. Remove the collar and trim off soil. Turn the mould upside down and remove the base plate and the displacer disc. Weight the mould with compacted soil and determine the bulk density and dry density. Put filter paper on the top of the compacted soil and clamp the perforated base plate on to it.

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(7) Compaction test: Procedure: Take 8 kg sample passing 4.75 mm sieve. Divide well mixed sample in to 4 equal parts. Estimate OMC for type of soil from table and add 7% less water if sample is sandy or 10% less in case it is clayey. Allow adequate curing time Clean and lubricate the mould as well as base plate on machine and record mass of mould (m1) and volume of mould (v) without collar. Take sample of soil and divide in to 3 equal parts. Place mould with collar on base plate and keep one part of soil sample in the mould and give 25 blows of hammer. Repeat the process for other two parts after scratching surface of compacted mass. Remove the collar and chop off excess soil. Weight the mould with soil (m2) on balance. Also take soil in moisture dish for water content test. Select the needle of proctor penetro meter note the area (A) push penetro meter first 13 mm and then keep on pushing at rate of 12 mm/sec let it penetrate 62 mm record maximum resistance observed in pressure gauge. Repeat the test for 2rd, 3rd and 4rd sample with increasing water content by about 2% each time. Continue the test till the trend of reduction of observed in last two observation of mass of soil and mould (m2) compute density and water content. Plot the dry unit weight against the water content. Find out optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD). Also draw zero air void line 5% air void line and penetration resistance Vs water content on the same plot.

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(8) Determination Of Unconfined Compression Test Procedure: Take two frictional bearing plates of 75 mm dia. Place the specimen on the base plate of the load frame. Place a hardened steel ball on the bearing plate. Adujust the centre line of the specimen such that the proving ring and the steel ball are in the same line. Fix a dial gauge to measure the vertical compression of the specimen. Adujust the gear position on the load frame to give suitable vertical displacement. Start applying the load and record the readings of the proving ring dial and compression dial for every 5 mm compression. Continue loading till failure is complete. Draw the sketch of the failure pattern in the specimen.

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6.1: SAMPLE COLLECTION For practical performance locally available soil from Vesu area of Surat region was selected. Disturbed but representative soils were collected from trial pits at a depth of about 2.0 m from ground level. The soil collected from the site was pulverized with wooden mallet to break lumps and then airdried. The properties of the soil along with classification are presented in table 3.1 the soil falls under the CH category i.e clay of high compressibility as per I.S classification system (IS 1498-1970).


Characteristics Specific gravity Particle size distribution Gravel (%) Sand (%) Silt + clay (%) Liquid limit (%) Plastic limit (%) Plasticity index (%) Classification of soil Swelling Index (%) Shrinkage Limit (%) Colour

Value 2.50 - 2.58 0 1 98 73 23 49 CH 80 13 Black

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Lime that will be used for experimental work will be collected from the local market in form of fine powder. The chemical composition of lime and maximum limit of impurities in lime are presented in table3.2 and 3.3


Chemical configuration Minimum assay (%) Specific gravity

Ca(OH)2 90 0.48


Chloride (CL) (%) Sulphate (SO4) (%) Arsenic (AS) (%) Lead (PB) (%) Hydrochloric acid insoluble matter (%)

0.01 0.2 0.0004



6 mm and 12mm length of polypropylene fiber and polyester fiber will be used for the experimental work. Polypropylene fiber are hydrophobic, non corrosive and resistant to alkalis, chemicals and chlorides. Fiber was mixed with soil in different percentage (0.1%, 0.2% etc). Properties of fiber are shown in table 3.4


Properties Specific Gravity Tensile Strength Elastic Modulus Melt Point(c) Water Absorption

Polyester 1.34-1.39 33-160 2500 240 Nil

Polypropylene 0.90-0.91 20-100 500-700 160 Nil

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BOOKS: 1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, B.C.Punamia, Khanna publication, India 2. HIGHWAY ENGINNERING, Khanna S. K & Justo C.E.G,Nem Chand &Bros, Roorkee, U.K. &India

REFERENCE RESEARCH PAPER: 1. Mona Malekzadeh & Huriye Bilsel published Effect of Polypropylene Fiber on Mechanical Behaviour of Expansive Soils Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Civil Engineering, Gazimagusa, Mersin 10, Turkey. 2. Technical Note by R. Kumar, V.K. Kanauji and D. Chandra Engineering Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced posh and silty sand Geosynthetics International, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 509-518. 3. Rupal Katare, M.M. Pande, S.K .Jain researched on Lime Stabilization Method for Black Cotton Soil of Gwalior region department of Civil Engg, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior. 4. Bryan Gaw and Sofia Zamora Soil Reinforcement with Natural Fibers for Low-Income Housing Communities WORCESTER POLYTECHINIC INSTITUTE 5. Louisiana Transportation Research Centre Evaluation of the Effect of Synthetic Fibers and Non-woven Geotextile Reinforcement on the Stability of Heavy Clay Embankments 6. P. V. KoteswaraRao, K.Satish Kumar & T. Blessingstone Performance of Recron-3S fiber with Cement Kiln Dust in Expansive soil 7. Santhi Krishna K. &Sayida M.K. Behaviour of Black Cotton Soil Reinforced with Sisal Fibre 8. Prof.S.Ayyappan, Ms.K.Hemalatha&Prof.M.Sundaram Investigation of Engineering Behavoiur of Soil, Polypropylene fibers and Fly Ash Mixtures or Road Construction 9. Priya V.K. &Girish M.S Effect of Sisal Fibres on Lime treated Black cotton soil 10. H. N. Ramesh K.V. Manoj Krishna &Meena Perfomance of coated coir fibers on the compressive strength behavior of Reinorced soil 11. Technical Note by R. Kumar, V.K. Kanauji a and D. Chandra Engineering Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced posh and silty sand Geosynthetics International, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 509-518 36 | P a g e

12. Rupal Katare, M.M. Pande, S.K .Jain researched on Lime Stabilization Method for Black Cotton Soil of Gwalior region department of Civil Engg, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior. 13. Mona Malekzadeh & Huriye Bilsel published Effect of Polypropylene Fiber on Mechanical Behaviour of Expansive Soils Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Civil Engineering, Gazimagusa, Mersin 10, Turkey. 14. Shah Kinjal, A.K. Desai & C.H. Solanki Experimental Study on the Atterberg limits of Expansive Soil 15. Pradip D. Jadhao & P.B. Nagarmaik Performance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Soil Flyash Mixtures 16. S. Banu 6Ikizler, Mustafa Aytekin, Emel Trker & Halil Ibrahim Yavuz Effect of fibers on swelling characteristics of bentonite 17. S. Twinkle & M.K. Sayida Effect of Polypropylene Fibre and Lime admixture on Engineering properties of Expansive soil

WEBSITE: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Where_are_black_cotton_soils_found_in_India http://www.indianetzone.com http://www.automotive-eetimes.com http://www.bomag.com http://www.tva.gov http://www.google.co.in/search

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