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19 просмотров21 страницаQAnchor Manual

Nov 15, 2013

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QAnchor Manual

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

19 просмотров21 страницаQAnchor Manual

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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QUICK ANCHOR

Users Manual

Version 1.1.5

334 Eas t C ol fax Str eet , Un it E, Palat i ne, I L 6 0 067 Ma in Of fi ce: Ph: (8 47 ) 991 - 27 00 Fax : (8 47 ) 991 - 27 02 Wes t C oast Of fi ce ( Lag una N igu el, C A ): Ph: (9 49 ) 249 - 37 39 Fax : (9 49 ) 249 - 39 89

www.skghoshassociates.com

DISCLAIMER Every attempt has been made to ensure correctness in implementing code provisions as well as the accuracy of the calculations in Quick Anchor. In using the program, however, the user accepts and understands that no warranty is expressed or implied by SKGA as to the accuracy or the reliability of the program. The user must carefully read the Computational Background section of this manual and thoroughly understand the assumptions of the program and must independently verify the results. In addition, in no event shall SKGA, or its employees or affiliates be liable for any indirect, incidental, consequential, or punitive damages whatsoever relating to the use of Quick Anchor.

REVISION HISTORY

Version 1.1.5 1. Corrected an error where the program was calculating the value of h,v wrongly for concrete breakout in shear in Y-direction under certain conditions. Version 1.1.4 2. Fixed a bug so that the program now automatically revises the futa value of ASTM A 449 Grade 1 Steel based on anchor diameter when the anchor diameter is changed AFTER selecting the anchor material. 3. License information can now be seen from the About page of the program. Version 1.1.3 4. Both "Simple Output" and "Detailed Output" have been revised to clearly indicate the alternative options available to a designer when the ductile anchor failure requirement of ACI 318 Section D.3.3.4 cannot be met. 5. "Detailed Output" now indicates the directions of input shear forces in X- and Y-directions for easy reference. 6. Printer margins of the outputs are reduced to accommodate more text on a single page. 7. Interface to Open/Save input files is made more user-friendly. 8. Fixed a bug that was calculating incorrect value of the bearing area of the head ( Abrg) of 1 an 1 /4 inch diameter anchor with Heavy Hex head. Version 1.1.2 1. New feature added in order to enable a user to select the direction of the applied shear forces in X- and Y-directions. Version 1.1.1 1. Separate input for supplementary reinforcement for tension is added. 2. A calculator is added to facilitate the calculation of the effective area of anchor (Ase) as well as, for headed anchors, the bearing area of the head (Abrg). 3. The way the program was handling input and output files is revised completely. In the future, this will enable the users to directly import their old input files into the newer versions of Quick Anchor. **NOTE** Due to this change, users will not be able to use the input files that they have created using Version 1.1.0 once they install the updated version. 4. A check for minimum spacing and cover requirements of ACI 318 Section D.8 is added.

5. Output now includes a summery of all the strength calculations, where the governing design strengths in tension, shear in the X-direction, and shear in the Y-direction are listed. 6. A display problem is fixed, where users were unable to see some of the input boxes of the program when the DPI setting of their monitor was set at higher than 96 DPI.

INPUT INTERFACE

Data input in Quick Anchor is done on a single page. The input fields are mostly selfexplanatory. However, a short description of each input field is provided below for better clarity. Different input fields are marked by item numbers, as shown below in Figure 1.

10

5 13 11 18 15 19 20 14

17

12 21

16

22 24

23 25 29 26 27 28 30

Item 1: Total number of anchors, n. For a group of anchors (n > 1), anchors need to be arranged in a regular rectangular fashion in rows and/or columns. Anchors that are not

arranged in a regular rectangular pattern are not addressed by this program. Please read an additional important note on Page 10 regarding n. Item 2: Number of rows in which the anchors are arranged. This is automatically set as 1 when n = 1. Item 3: Number of columns in which the anchors are arranged. This is automatically set as 1 when n = 1. Item 4: Nominal strength of concrete in psi. Item 5: Click if concrete is uncracked under service load. By default, the program assumes concrete to be cracked under service load. Item 6: User can select a supplementary reinforcement configuration for tension as well as for shear. When supplemental reinforcement is provided for tension loading, it only increases the value of the strength reduction factor associated with concrete breakout in tension and concrete side-face blowout. When supplemental reinforcement is provided for shear loading, it increases the value of the strength reduction factor associated with concrete breakout in shear. Further, the shear supplemental reinforcement configuration selection has an effect on strength calculations when concrete is selected as cracked in Item 5. Three options are provided: I) ACI 318 D.6.2.7 Paragraph 3 This option is selected when there is no supplementary reinforcement present between the anchors and the edge of concrete, or when supplementary reinforcement comprises of bars smaller than No. 4. II) ACI 318 D.6.2.7 Paragraph 4 This option is selected when No. 4 or larger bars are present between the anchors and the concrete edge. III) ACI 318 D.6.2.7 Paragraph 5 This option is selected when No. 4 or larger bars are present between the anchors and the concrete edge AND the bars are enclosed within stirrups spaced not more than 4 in. Item 7: Specify whether grout pads are provided or not. This affects the calculation of steel strength of anchor in shear. Item 8: Select anchor type headed studs, headed bolts or hooked (J- or L-) bolts. Item 9: Select the grade of anchor steel from 9 built-in options or select Other to use a different material. When one of the 9 built-in options is selected, the steel tensile strength, futa, is automatically selected by the program, which appears in Item 10. All these 9 options are also considered to be ductile as per the definition of ductile steel element given in ACI 318 D.1. When Other option is selected, user needs to specify futa in Item 10. Additionally, when Other is selected, user is presented with two more input parameters (Figure 2) that need to be specified one to select if the user-defined anchor steel is ductile as per ACI 318 D.1, and the other to specify the yield strength of the anchor steel.

Figure 2. Additional input parameters for user-defined anchor material Not all grades of steel are available for all types of anchors. For example, ASTM A 307 Grade C is for hooked bolts only, and not for headed bolts or studs. User should be careful when selecting anchor material for a certain type of anchors. Item 10: Tensile strength of anchor steel in psi. Please read the description of Item 9 above for more details. Item 11: Spacing between anchor columns in inches. Columns are assumed to be uniformly spaced. When the number of columns is 1 (Item 3), spacing is automatically set to zero. Item 12: Spacing between anchor rows in inches. Rows are assumed to be uniformly spaced. When the number of rows is 1 (Item 2), spacing is automatically set to zero. Items 13 through 16: Edge distances, in inches, on all four sides of the anchor or the anchor group. Item 17: Specify concrete depth, ha, in inches. Item 18: Specify anchor diameter, do (da in ACI 318-08), in inches. User can also click on the Help button to choose a standard diameter from a drop-down menu (See Item 19 for more detail). Items 19 and 20: Specify the effective cross-sectional area of a single anchor, Ase, and bearing area of the head of a headed anchor, Abrg, in square inches. When hooked (J- or L-) bolts are used, the bearing length of the hook (eh) is specified, in inches, in Item 20. Effective cross-sectional area is calculated from the following formula: Ase = (do 0.9743/nt)2 / 4 where nt is the number of threads per inch of the anchor. A calculator has been provided to facilitate the computation of Ase. Click on the Help button to open the calculator, which appears in a separate window (Figure 3). In the calculator, user can type in a diameter (in inches) in the box provided or simply choose from a list of standard diameters from a drop-down menu. When a standard diameter is selected, the value of nt is obtained automatically based on the selected thread type (Coarse Thread or Fine Thread). However, when the user chooses to enter a custom diameter, the value of nt also needs to be specified.

Figure 3. Calculator for determining Ase and Abrg When headed studs or bolts are used, Abrg is calculated by simply subtracting the gross shank area of the anchor from the area of the head. The same calculator that is mentioned above can also be used to calculate Abrg. This option, however, does not appear when a hooked bolt is being used. To calculate Abrg of one of the listed anchor diameters, the user simply needs to choose the anchor head type (Hex, Heavy Hex or Square). When using a custom diameter, the user also needs to specify the dimension F of the head. Once Ase and Abrg have been calculated, click OK to import the values into the corresponding boxes (19 and 20, respectively) in the main window of the program. Item 21: Specify the effective embedment depth of the anchor(s) in inches. Item 22: Select if the strength calculation should be done in accordance with ACI 318-05 or ACI 318-08. Even though the anchorage provisions of the two editions of ACI 318 are mostly the same, some differences do exist. Item 23: Select which load combination equations were used to calculate the tension and shear demands on the anchor or anchor group. Strength reduction factors (factors) are calculated based on this selection.

Item 24: Click if the anchor(s) are part(s) of a structure that is assigned an SDC of C or above. Depending on which version of ACI 318 is being followed, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the strengths in all failure modes or only the concrete failure modes. Items 25 and 26: Specify the direction of applied shear forces in the X- and Y-Directions here. By default, both options are set to Automatic, so that the program assumes that the shear force is directed towards the smaller edge distance. This is appropriate when the applied shear is caused by seismic activities. However, for non-seismic applications, users can choose if the shear along the X-axis is directed towards the right edge or the left edge, and if the shear along the Y-axis is directed towards the top edge or the bottom edge. If there is no shear applied in any direction, leave it at automatic. Items 27: For a group of anchors, specify eccentricities (in inches) of applied tension along X- and Y-axes. Eccentricities are measured from the center of the anchor group and are always positive. Items 28: For a group of anchors, specify eccentricities (in inches) along X- and Y-axes of applied shear (Figure 4). Eccentricities are measured from the center of the anchor group and are always positive.

Item 29. Click on the Check for Splitting Failure button to check if the anchor spacings and the edge distances specified in the input conform to the requirements of ACI 318 Section D.8. This check is optional in Quick Anchor and does not need to be done for the purpose of strength calculation. However, it is strongly recommended that the user do this check in order to make sure that the requirements of ACI 318 Section D.8 are satisfied. The user needs to first specify the anchor diameter as well as all four edge distances and the anchor spacings (for a group of anchors) for the checking tool to run properly. The checking tool opens in a separate window (Figure 5). When Anchors will be torqued option is selected, the checking tool simply displays if the anchor spacings in X-

and Y-directions (for a group of anchors) as well as all the edge distances meet the minimum values specified in Section D.8 for the anchor diameter being used. The user has the option of either selecting a smaller diameter anchor or increase the distance (spacing and/or edge distance) that failed the check.

When the option Anchor will not be torqued is selected, the user also needs to select the type of place where the anchors will be used. If any of the anchor spacing or edge distance fails the check, depending on the place where the anchors will be used, the user may get an option of using a smaller diameter just for the purpose of calculation (ACI 318 Section D.8.4). When this option is available, it is shown at the bottom of the window and the smaller diameter that can be used in accordance with Section D.8.4 is also mentioned. The user can choose to use this smaller diameter for the purpose of the strength calculations by clicking on Revise Diameter button, or simply click on OK to close the checking tool without changing anything. If the user chooses to revise the diameter, the suggested smaller diameter will be displayed in the corresponding box in the main program window. The program also revises the value of Ase based on this revised diameter. The revised Ase is the gross cross-sectional area calculated from the revised diameter. However, if this value is greater than the original Ase, then the original value is retained. The value of Abrg is not changed.

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COMPUTATIONAL BACKGROUND

Important Note: In computing the strength of a group of anchors, this program assumes that all the anchors that have been included in the input are in tension when the group is subjected to a tensile load. However, when there is an applied moment on an anchor group, because of an eccentricity or an imposed bending moment, some anchors may develop net compression. User needs to determine if such a condition exists, and if it does, input only those anchors that are in net tension. Similarly, the program assumes that all the anchors that have been included in the input are subjected to shear force in the same direction. If this is not the case (due to a torque), user needs to input only those anchors that carry shear force in the same direction. Thus, it is possible that a user may need to use different subgroups out of the same group of anchors to compute the tensile and shear strengths of the group.

1. Steel strength of anchor in tension: Design tensile strength of a single anchor is calculated as Nsa = stAsefuta If the SDC of the structure involved is C or above and ACI 318-05 is being followed, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the above value. When ACI 318-08 is followed, this factor is not required to be applied in this mode of failure. For a group of anchors, this strength needs to be compared against the maximum tension demand that occurs on a single anchor in the group. Conversely, this strength of a single anchor can also be converted into the strength of the whole group by dividing the above strength by the fraction of the total tension demand that the most heavily loaded anchor resists. For example, if the maximum tension demand on a single anchor is 40% of the total tension demand Nu, then the above design strength can be divided by 0.4 to compute the maximum tension demand that the group can accommodate. However, if there is no eccentricity (along X-axis and along Y-axis) in the applied load, it can be assumed that all anchors accommodate the demand in equal proportions, and the above strength can simply be multiplied by the total number of anchors present in the group, n, to obtain the strength of the whole group.

2. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension: Design concrete breakout strength is calculated as:

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Ncb = ct

Anc ed ,N c ,N cp,N Nb , for a single anchor, and Anco Anc ec ,N ed ,N c ,N cp,N Nb , for a group of anchors. Anco

Ncbg = ct

Also, if the SDC of the structure involved is C or above, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the above value. In calculating ec,N to account for the eccentricity of load application with respect to the centroid of the bolts loaded in tension, eccentricities in X- and Y-directions (eNx and eNy, respectively) are considered separately and the product of the two factors is considered. Edge distances on the four sides of the anchor or anchor group are compared against 1.5hef and if three or more edge distances are less than 1.5hef then hef is reduced in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.5.2.3. The modification factor for concrete that is uncracked under service load is applied in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.5.2.6. Since, the program does not address the post-installed anchors at this time, factor cp,N is assumed to be 1.0. In addition, for a group of anchors, three cases are considered: Case 1. sx > 3hef and sy 3hef: In this case, anchor columns act in a group but each column act independent of others (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Column spacing more than 3hef In this case, concrete breakout strength of each column is calculated separately. The strengths of the intermediate columns would be the same, while the strengths of the right and left columns could be different if the modification factor for edge effect is less than 1.0. Because only one column is considered at a time, eccentricity in X-direction, eNx, is

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not considered in computing the eccentricity factor, and only eNy is used. The effect of eNx needs to be accounted for while calculating the tension demand on each column. The program presents the strengths of individual columns in the output. The user needs to divide the strength of each column by the fraction of the total tension demand that the column carries, to obtain the total tension demand that the whole anchor formation can accommodate. For example, if a certain column supports 40% of the total demand, its strength needs to divided by 0.4 to get the total strength of the whole formation based on the strength of that column. It should be noted that the column of anchors with the lowest strength may not produce the governing strength for the whole anchor formation if the demand on that column is also low. As a result, when the user is not certain which column would be the governing one, strength of the whole anchor formation needs to be computed based on each column separately and the minimum value should be considered as the governing design strength. However, if eNx = 0, then it can be assumed that the total tension demand is distributed uniformly to each column, and as a result, the strength of the weakest column can be simply multiplied by the total number of columns in order to calculate the strength of the whole anchor formation. Case 2. sy > 3hef and sx 3hef: Same approach as in Case 1. Strengths of individual rows are calculated and presented in the output. Strength of the whole formation needs to be calculated by dividing the strengths of the individual rows by the fraction of the total demand each of them is carrying. Case 3. sx > 3hef and sy > 3hef: In this case, all anchors act on their own without any group action in either direction. Thus, strength of each anchor needs to be calculated separately. The program does not do this automatically. Instead, it asks the user to input the critical anchors one by one and then divide their strengths by the fractions of total tension demand on the respective anchors to obtain the governing total strength. 3. Pullout strength of anchor in tension:

Design tensile strength of a single anchor is calculated as 1. For headed studs and bolts, Np = cpt8Abrgfc 2. For J- or L-hooks, Np = cpt0.9fcehdo If the SDC of the structure involved is C or above, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the above value. The modification factor for concrete that is uncracked under service load is applied in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.5.3.6. For hooked (J- or L-) bolts, if bearing length, eh, is less than 3do, pullout strength is not calculated due to insufficient bearing length. If eh is more than 4.5do, then the pullout strength is calculated assuming eh = 4.5do, neglecting the excess bearing length. For a group of anchors, this strength needs to be compared against the maximum tension demand that a single anchor in the group is subject to. Conversely, this strength

13

of a single anchor can also be converted into the strength of the group by dividing the above strength by the fraction of the total tension demand that the most heavily loaded anchor resists. For example, if the maximum tension demand on a single anchor is 40% of the total tension demand Nu, then the above design strength can be divided by 0.4 to compute the maximum tension demand that the group can accommodate. However, if there is no eccentricity (along x-axis and along y-axis) to the applied load, it can be assumed that the demand is distributed uniformly, and the above strength can simply be multiplied by the total number of anchors in the group, n, to obtain the strength of the whole group. 4. Concrete side-face blowout strength of a headed anchor in tension:

For a single headed bolt or stud, if the minimum edge distance, ca1 is less than 0.4hef, then strength is calculated as Nsb = ct(160ca1Abrg).fc (only normal-weight concrete is considered) Also, if ca2 < 3ca1, then an edge distance correction factor (1+ca2/ca1)/4 is applied to the above strength, where ca2 is the minimum edge distance orthogonal to ca1. If the SDC of the structure involved is C or above, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the above value. For a group of anchors, possible side-face blowout failure is investigated in both X- and Y-directions. For example, if in the X-direction, ca1 < 0.4hef, side-face blowout strength is calculated in that direction considering the anchors that are in the column nearest to an edge, where ca1 is the smallest edge distance along the X-axis. Similarly, for the Ydirection, if ca1 < 0.4hef, side-face blowout strength is calculated in that direction considering the anchors that are in the row nearest to an edge, where ca1 is the smallest edge distance along the Y-axis. In case side-face blowout is possible in both X- and Y-directions, the minimum value is taken as the governing strength. While computing strength in any direction, two scenarios are considered as described below. Even though the description below illustrates failure in the X-direction only, the same is applicable to a failure in the Y-direction as well. Case 1. sy 6ca1: The whole column acts as a group (Figure 7). Strength of this column is calculated as Nsbg = ct(160ca1Abrg).fc (1+s/6ca1) The design strength calculated above relates to the anchor column nearest to an edge (the right edge is the governing one in this case). This needs to be compared against the tension demand on that column only. Conversely, the above design strength can be scaled up by dividing by the fraction of the total demand that this column resists to calculate the strength of the whole anchor group based on the side-face blowout in Xdirection. For example, if the tension demand on a the column shown is 40% of the total

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tension demand Nu, then the above design strength can be divided by 0.4 to compute the maximum tension demand that the group can support. However, if there is no eccentricity in the applied load along X-axis, it can be assumed that the demand is distributed uniformly over all columns, and the above strength can simply be multiplied by the total number of columns present in the group to obtain the strength of the whole group.

ca1

Figure 7. Side-face blowout as a group

Case 1. sy > 6ca1: The whole column does not act as a group (Figure 8). Rather, individual anchors can undergo side-face blowout failure.

ca1

Figure 8. Side-face blowout of individual anchors

In this case, the strengths of individual anchors are calculated as Nsb = ct(160ca1Abrg).fc Also, for anchors at the top and bottom of the column (two corner anchors), if their respective ca2 < 3ca1, then an edge factor (1+ca2/ca1)/4 is applied, where ca2 is top and bottom edge distances for top and bottom anchors, respectively. The ratio ca2/ca1 is not taken less than 1.0.

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Once the strengths of individual anchors have been determined, they can be divided by the fraction of the total demand that each anchor resists to calculate the governing strength of the whole anchor formation. In case the load eccentricities in both X- and Ydirections are zero, then the minimum anchor strength can simply be multiplied by the total number of anchors to calculate the design strength of the whole formation. 5. Steel strength of anchor in shear: Design shear strength of a single cast-in headed stud is calculated as Nsa = svAsefuta Design shear strength of a single cast-in headed bolt or hooked bolt is calculated as Nsa = sv0.6Asefuta If the SDC of the structure involved is C or above and ACI 318-05 is being followed, a factor of 0.75 is also applied to the above values. When ACI 318-08 is followed, this factor is not required to be applied in this mode of failure. For a group of anchors, this strength needs to be compared against the maximum shear demand that occurs on a single anchor in the group. Conversely, this strength of a single anchor can also be converted into the strength of the whole group by dividing the above strength by the fraction of the total shear demand that the most heavily loaded anchor resists. For example, if the maximum shear demand on a single anchor is 40% of the total shear demand Vu, then the above design strength can be divided by 0.4 to compute the maximum shear demand that the group can support. However, if there is no eccentricity in the applied load (along Y-axis), it can be assumed that all anchors carry the same demand, and the above strength can simply be multiplied by the total number of anchors present in the group, n, to obtain the strength of the whole group. 6. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear:

Shear in X-direction Design shear strength of a single anchor or a group of anchors in X-direction is calculated as Vcbx = cv

Avc ed ,V c ,VVb , for a single anchor, and Avco

Avc ec ,V ed ,V c ,VVb , for a group of anchors. Avco

Vcbgx = cv

Also, if the SDC of the structure involved is C or above, a factor of 0.75 is applied to the above values.

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In calculating ec,V to account for the eccentricity of the load application with respect to the centroid of the bolts loaded in shear, load eccentricity along Y-axis (eVy) is considered. A modification factor for edge effects, ed,V = 0.7 + 0.3ca2/1.5ca1, is applied if ca2 < 1.5ca1, where ca1 is the edge distance in the direction of the applied shear (see Items 25 and 26 of the program input above), and ca2 is the minimum edge distance in the orthogonal direction. Modification factor for concrete that is cracked under service load is applied in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.6.2.7. Since, the program does not address the post-installed anchors at this time, factor cp,V is assumed to be 1.0. When design is done in accordance with ACI 318-08, modification factor h,V is also applied as per Section D.6.2.8. If there is ncol number of columns in a anchor group, ncol failure modes, as shown below in Figure 9, are considered separately, and the governing strength is taken as the minimum from all modes.

ca1

ca1

ca1

Vcbgx/3

2Vcbgx/3

Vcbgx

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

In all failure modes, two edge distances in Y-direction and concrete depth, ha, of the anchor or anchor group is compared against 1.5ca1. If, in a certain mode, all three are less than 1.5ca1 then ca1 is reduced in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.6.2.4, and the revised ca1 is used for all calculations in that mode. In all failure modes, it is also checked if the row spacing sy 3ca1, where ca1 is the governing edge distance for a particular mode, so that all anchors can act as a group.

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If for any mode sy > 3ca1, then each row is considered separately (Figure 10). Strengths of the intermediate rows would be the same, while the modification factor for edge effects may need to be applied to the top and the bottom rows based on their respective edge distances in Y-direction. Also, because only one row is considered at a time, eccentricity factor ec,V is not required to be applied. Instead, the effect of eVy needs to be accounted for while calculating the shear demand on each row.

sy > 3ca1

ca1

The program presents the strengths of individual rows in the output. The user needs to divide the strength of each row by the fraction of the total shear demand that the row carries, to obtain the total shear demand that the whole anchor formation can support. For example, if a certain row supports 40% of the total demand, its strength needs to divided by 0.4 to get the total strength of the whole formation based on the strength of that row. It should be noted that the row with the lowest strength may not produce the governing strength for the whole formation if the demand on that row is also low. As a result, when the user is not certain which row would be the governing one, strength of the whole anchor formation needs to be computed based on all rows separately and the minimum value should be considered as the governing design strength. However, if eVy = 0, then it can be assumed that the total shear demand is distributed uniformly over all rows, and as a result, the strength of the weakest row can be simply multiplied by the total number of rows present in order to calculate the strength of the whole anchor formation.

Shear in Y-direction Design shear strength of a single anchor or a group of anchors in Y-direction is calculated through the same approach as described above.

Concrete breakout strengths of a single anchor or a group of anchors are calculated in both X- and Y-directions separately. However, there are a few exceptions: Exception 1. ca1,y > 1.5ca1,x: This is applicable to a single anchor or a group of anchors. Notations ca1,x and ca1,y are the edge distances in the X- and Y-directions, respectively, in the direction of applied shear (see Items 25 and 26 of the program input above). In this

18

case, breakout strength is calculated only in X-direction, and the strength in Y-direction is assumed to be twice the strength in X-direction after taking ed,V = 1.0, as shown in Figure 11. This is in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.6.2.1(c).

Vcbgx

Vcbgy = 2Vcbgx

ca1,x

Exception 2. ca1,x > 1.5ca1,y: This is applicable to a single anchor or a group of anchors. In the same way as above, breakout strength is calculated only in Y-direction, and the strength in X-direction is assumed to be twice the strength in Y-direction after taking ed,V = 1.0, as shown in Figure 12. This is in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.6.2.1(c).

Exception 3. ca1,x 1.5ca1,y or ca1,y 1.5ca1,x: This is applicable to a single anchor only. A single anchor is considered to be at a corner when the governing edge distance in any direction is less than 1.5 times the governing edge distance in the orthogonal direction (Figure 13). In this case, shear strength of the anchor is calculated in both Xand Y-directions separately. Design strength in X-direction is taken as the minimum of

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the calculated strength in X-direction and twice the calculated strength in Y-direction. Design strength in Y-direction is obtained similarly. This is in accordance with ACI 318 Section D.6.2.1(d).

Design pryout strength of one anchor is calculated as Vcp = cpvkcpNcb Design pryout strength of a group of anchors is calculated as Vcpg = cpvkcpNcbg Ncb and Ncbg are the nominal strengths in concrete breakout in tension. kcp = 1 for hef < 2.5 in. and kcp = 2 for hef 2.5 in. In case of multiple anchors, when (a) the whole anchor formation does not behave as a single group in concrete breakout in tension, and (b) there is a eccentricity in tension load application, the program is not able to calculate Ncbg (it only provides the design strengths of individual rows/columns in those cases). Thus, Vcpg cannot be calculated either. This is stated in the output.

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