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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

A. The Nature of Writing 1. The Definition of Writing We know that writing is one of language skills. Writing is thinking of paper. It also means learning new things. Through writing, writers express their feeling and ideas. It is supported by Ghaith that states: Writing is a complex process that allows writers to explore thoughts and ideas, and make them visible and concrete. Writing encourages thinking and learning for it motivates communication and make thought available reflection. When thought is written down, ideas can be examined, reconsidered, added to rearrange and changed.1 It means that writing is not only to write on a piece of paper, but it is a complex process, it needs thinking and learning to express writers thoughts and ideas. Writers must put their ideas orderly, clearly and well arranged. They need to e aluate their writing before fixing it to get the best writing result. !ccording to "erner pointed out that writing is expressing idea into a

Ga$y Ghaith, %Teaching Writing&, '(airut: !merican )ni ersity of (airut, *++*,, p. -+.

isual form.* .oemarmo /arkam explains that writing is expressing language in drawing symbol.- Tarigan define writing as depicting grapic symbols of understandable language both by its author.0 The purpose of writing is to communicate, a thought, an idea, a sentiment and fact.1 In line with this 2argro e and poteet as 3uoted by /ulyono !bdurahman define writing as writing is isual depiction abouty thought, feel, and idea using language

system symbols for record and communication needs.4 /eanwhile, (rown states %writing is a craft that may in ol e the writing in focusing, organi$ing, reflecting, and re ising what is being written in order to produce a product that is suited to its purpose and audience&. It means the writers should always concern to the steps when they start to write until the writers finish their works. The steps must be taught, so the aims will be suited and understood by the reader. In short, writing is planned and structured process of expressing thought and ideas. It has a complex and gradual process to get the readers understands the writers purposes and ideas.
/ulyono !bdurahman, Pendidikan #888,, p.*00
*

agi !nak

erkesulitan

ela"ar , '5akarta: 6enika 7ipta,

#bid. Guntur Tarigan, $enulis, '(andung: !ngkasa, #89*,, p. *# 6eaders :iggest !ssociation, Write etter %peak etter, ';hilipine: "eefug, #8<4,, p. 0 !bdurahman, "oc 7it.

2. The te!" of Writing Pro#e"" Writing is a complex language skill with a process. It means whene er we make a writing form, surely we ha e to do se eral steps. we need to consider how we handle the arious steps in ol ed in the whole process of writing: from disco ering ideas for a topic, through successi e drafts, to a final re ision and proofreading.
#. Di"#o$ering 'also known as In ention,: finding a topic and coming up with something to say about it. ! few of the disco ery strategies that can help us to get started are freewriting, probing, and brainstorming. *. Drafting% putting ideas down in some rough form. ! first draft is generally messy and repetiti e and full of mistakes==and that>s ?ust fine. The purpose of a rough draft is to capture ideas and supporting details, not compose a perfect paragraph or essay on the first attempt. -. Re$i"ing% changing and rewriting a draft to make it better. In this step, we respond to the needs of our readers by rearranging ideas and reshaping sentences to make clearer connections. 0. E&iting an& Proofrea&ing% carefully examining a paper to see that it contains no errors of grammar, spelling, or punctuation.

The four stages o erlap, and at times we may ha e to back up and repeat a stage, but that doesn>t mean we ha e to focus on all four stages at the

same time. In fact, trying to do too much at one time is likely to create frustration, not make the writing go faster or easier.< In board terms, the writing process has three main parts: pre=writing, composing, and pos=writing. These three parts can be further di ided into fi e steps: '#, ;lanning@ '*, ;ro ofreading. Aach of these steps are outlined below, with links to more specific and complete information. #. ;lanning #. :etermine General ;urpose *. :etermine !ppropriate Bormat -. 7hoose a Topic 0. Write a .tatement of ;urpose *. GatheringCDrgini$ing #. ;ractice :i ergent Thinking *. ;ractice 7on ergent Thinking -. 7omposingC:rafting #. Write Dne .ection of the 6ough :raft at a time *. Write 7onnecting :e ices 0. 6e isingCAditing
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6icard Eord3uist, Writing Process, http:CCgrammar.about.comCodCyourwritingCaCwritingprocess.htm, Bebruary <th, *+#+

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#. (egin with 2igher=Drder 7oncerns *. Binish with "ower=Drder 7oncern 1. ;roofreading #. ;rint a %2ard& 7opy for 6e iew *. 6ead 2ard 7opy Dut="oud -. )se %7o er .heet& for "ine=by="ine 6e iew 0. Get Beedback from Dthers9 Then, there are fi e features of effecti e writing. The fi e features of effecti e Writing are focus, organi$ation, support and elaboration, style, and con entions. Fo#u" Bocus is the topicCsub?ect established by the writer in response to the writing task. The writer must clearly establish a focus as heCshe fulfills the assignment of the prompt. If the writer retreats from the sub?ect matter presented in the prompt or addresses it too broadly, the focus is weakened. The writer may effecti ely use an inducti e organi$ational plan which does not actually identify the sub?ect matter at the beginning and may not literally identify the sub?ect matter at all. The presence, therefore, of a focus must be determined in light of the method of de elopment chosen by the writer. If the

Fay Allen 6utledge, Writing Process, http:CCfaculty.washington.eduCe$entCimswp.htm, Bebruary

<, *+#+

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reader is confused about the sub?ect matter, the writer has not effecti ely established a focus. If the reader is engaged and not confused, the writer probably has been effecti e in establishing a focus. Organi'ation Drgani$ation is the progression, relatedness, and completeness of ideas. The writer establishes for the reader a well=organi$ed composition, which exhibits a constancy of purpose through the de elopment of elements forming an effecti e beginning, middle, and end. The response demonstrates a clear progression of related ideas andCor e ents and is unified and complete. u!!ort an& E(a)oration .upport and Alaboration is the extension and de elopment of the topicCsub?ect. The writer pro ides sufficient elaboration to present the ideas andCor e ents clearly. Two important concepts in determining whether details are supporti e are the concepts of relatedness and sufficiency. To be supporti e of the sub?ect matter, details must be related to the focus of the response. 6elatedness has to do with the directness of the relationship that the writer establishes between the information and the sub?ect matter. .upporting details should be rele ant and clear. The writer must present hisCher ideas with enough power and clarity to cause the support to be sufficient. Affecti e use of concrete, specific details strengthens the power of the response. Insufficiency is often characteri$ed by unde eloped details, redundancy, and

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the repetitious paraphrasing of the same point. .ufficiency has less to do with amount than with the weight or power of the information that is pro ided. t*(e .tyle is the control of language that is appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context of the writing task. The writers style is e ident through word choice and sentence fluency. .killful use of precise, purposeful ocabulary enhances the effecti eness of the composition through the use of appropriate words, phrases and descriptions that engage the audience. .entence fluency in ol es using a ariety of sentence styles to establish

effecti e relationships between and among ideas, causes, andCor statements appropriate to the task. Con$ention" 7on entions in ol e correctness in sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. The writer has control of grammatical con entions that are appropriate to the writing task. Arrors, if present, do not impede the readers understanding of the ideas con eyed.8 +. T*!e" of Writing Perfor,an#e There are four categories of writing performance, such as:

(ereiter, 7., G .cardamalia, /. '#89<,. The ps&cholog& of written composition . 2illsdale, E5: "awrence Arlbaum !ssociates.

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#. Imitati e Writing In this type, students=at the first time=learn to write. They are trying to master basic tasks of writing letters, words, punctuation, and ery brief sentence. They learn to write or combine a few appropriate words that conform to Anglish spelling system. *. Intensi e 'controlled, Writing In this type, students, learn to produce some sentence by using appropriate ocabularies, idiom and correct grammar.

-. 6esponsi e Writing In responsi e writing, students learn to con ey his or her idea into logical paragraph's,. They are trying to master some genres of writing includes brief narrati e and descriptions, short reports, summaries, brief responses, and interpretation of charts or graphs. 0. Axtensi e Writing

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Axtensi e writing is usually accomplished by ad anced writers, in this type@ they are trying to make a difficult writing form.#+ -. Kin&" of Writing Writing can be differentiated into some kinds of classification. It can be classified into scientific writing and non scientific, fiction and non=fiction, prose and poetry and still can be differentiated into other classification in accordance with re3uirement of its author. Boundation difference of each classification is causal factor on arious classification of writing.## We can differentiate the writing according to certain classification foundation in accordance with re3uirmwnt of our discussion. 2owe er, sould be kept in mind that we ha e to consistence and conse3uwncw to classification foundation that is selected. !ccording to Thomas.A. Fakonis and 5ohn .cally, writing can be di ided into four categories: writing that describes 'description,, writing that explain 'exposition,, writing that tells a story 'naration,, and writing that tries to influence some one elses opinion 'argumentationCpersuation,.#* #. :escription
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2. :ouglas (rown, Op. Cit, p. **+ :?oko Widagdho, (ahasa Indonesia, '5akarta: ;T. 6a?a Grafindo ;ersada, #88<,, p. #+1

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Thomas.A. Fakonis and 5ohn .cally, Writing in an age of Technology, 'Eew Hork: /ac /illan publishing 7o., Inc, #8<9,, p. #

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*. Axposition -. Earration 0. !rgumentationC;ersuasion

.. Nu,)ere& Hea&" Together 1. The Definition of Nu,)ere& Hea&" Together Eumbered 2eads Together is one structure of the 7ooperati e "earning techni3ue. It is a small group discussion where the students learn together and share their experience and ability to each other in the group. .tudents are conditioned in groups which re3uire them to cooperate and be dependent to another. It leads them from discussion and sharing acti ities on a sub?ect. It is supported by Fagan that Eumbered 2eads Together is an excellent structure for combining learning partnerships into groups or teams of four. It can be used early in the de elopment of the cooperati e classroom.#In the Eumbered 2eads Together all members of the group need to know and be ready to explain their groups answer, because the response gi en belongs to the whole group, not ?ust to the group member gi ing.

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.pencer Fagan, 'ooperative (earning, Op. Cit.

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!ccording to 2eather 7offey %numbered heads together is a cooperatri e strategy that offers an alternati e to the competiti e approach of whole=class 3uestion=answer, in which the teacher asks a 3uestion and then calls on one of the students with a raised hand. In the numbered heads together, the teacher has students number off 'e. g. #=0,, asks a 3uestion, and then tells the students to %put their heads together& to de elop a complete answer to the 3uestion. When the teacher calls out a number, the students with that number raise their hands to respond. This structure facilitates positi e interdependence, while promoting indi idual accountability. It also gi e con idence to lower achie ers because they know they will ha e the correct answer to gi e to the class.&#0 Eumbered heads together is a learning model that they put forward to the acti ities of students in seeking, processing, and report information from arious sources that e entually presented to the class. .pencer Fagan introduced this model in #88*. 'if you want to see more of the learning models of his in entions please isit.kaganonline.com. but in (ahasa friend, pa=pa gak lahIall of us to hone our 2ome.,#1 2. The te!" of Nu,)ere& Hea&" Together

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2eater 7offey, 'ooperative (earning, http:CCwww.learnnce.orgCIpC;agesC0<<*, Bebruary 4, *+#+ Together,

:epartment ;endidikan Easional, )umbere d*eads http:CCpelawiselatan.blogspot.comC*++8C+-Cnumber=head=together.html, Bebruary <, *+#+

#1

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2olt di ides Eumbered 2eads Together into four steps. %Birst, the teacher numbers the students, so that each student has a number: #, *, -, or 0. .econd, the teacher asks a 3uestion. Third, the teacher tells the students to %put& their heads together in their groups to make sure that e eryone on the team knows the answer. Bourth, the teacher calls a number '#, *, -, or 0,, and the students with that number can raise their hands to respond.&#4 !ccording to kagan, there are some steps of numbered heads together. They are: #. Eumber off the students in each group, up to four. If one group is smaller than the others ha e no. - answer for no. 0 as well. *. Teacher asks the students a 3uestion or sets a problems to sol e. It must be stressed that e eryone in the group must be able to participate and answer the 3uestion. -. Ansure enough Jwait time is gi en for the group to do the task. +. The .enefit" of Nu,)ere& Hea&" Together Fagan sees that numbered heads together has se eral benefits for students. Birst, students think by themsel es. .econd, students ha e opportunities to share their own ideas and to hear the ideas of others. Third,
:an :aniel 2olt, %'ooperative (earning is +esponse to (inguistic and 'ultural ,iversit& &, 'Eew Hork: :elta .ystem, Inc, #88-,, p. ##*.
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status issues are addressed, and responsibility is enhanced, because all students are e3ually likely to be asked to report. Bourth, this structure helps teacher a oid typical 3uestioning patterns that may be related to perception of ability issues of race and gender.#< !ccording to 6ebecca 6obbins@ there are a lot of ad antages and disad antages, ups and downs e erything in li e. In cruising with small luxury lines, there also two sides to it. .mall cruise lines are those cruise lines that are often not heard of. These smaller luxury lines howe er, are also competiti ely able to lure in the costumers they need. 7hoosing to cruise with smaller more intimate line might come short on your standard of 3uality ser ice if you are used to cruising with the top of the line cruise ships. If you are one of those people who en?oyed the crowd, small luxury cruise ships might not gi e you the number of heads you would consider a crowd. The amenities and different=on board classes and acti ities a ailable might also limited, considering the cruise line and crowd is smaller. (ut it is not all bad howe er. 7ruising in smaller ships can also do you wonders in terms of the pri acy you might want to ha e during the trip. !nother thing that you will not ha e to worry about is lining up for amenities, using the facilities, and e en in getting ser ed in a timely manner when it comes to food. There is also
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.pencer, Op. Cit.

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a higher chance of befriending be crew since there are only a number of them, but enough to gi e that personali$ed ser ice to each and e ery person on board. If you choose to sail on a smaller more pri ate ship or a big luxury line, whiche er you choose, you will surely en?oy. Weigh you options and priority and see whether it is the big or small ships that can best cater to your needs. 7ruising is definitely one experience you will undoubtedly rememberK#9

C. A!!(*ing Nu,)ere& Hea&" Together in Tea#hing Writing Writing is a spiraling process that takes us through a series of acti ities. Through writing we can communicate and express our ideas or apply our ideas into sentences. Therefore, in writing we ha e to master spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure. Teaching writing is not easy@ teachers should find ways to make writing class en?oyable. Dne of the strategies is through Eumbered 2eads Together. The steps applied to teach writing through Eumbered 2eads Together Techni3ue are: .tep one, the teacher di ides the students into groups of four.
6ebecca 6obbins, !dvantage of )umbered *eads Together, http:CCA$ine!rticles.comCL expertM6ebbecaN6obbins, Bebruary <, *+#+
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Then, the teacher numbers the students so that each student has a number: #, *, -, or 0. .tep two, the teacher gi es a ?umbled paragraph to the students and asks them to arrange it into good order. .tep three, the teacher tells the students to discuss 'put their heads together, to make sure that e eryone on the teams knows the paragraph arrangement. .tep four, after discussion, the teacher calls a number #, *, - or 0 and the students with that number can raise their hands to respond. Writing through Eumbered 2eads Together is expected making the students en?oy the learning process because they should work together to discuss the problem of the material and share their ability to each other. Burthermore, writing in groups will help students get the better achie ement in writing.