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Uploaded by George Mpantes mathematics teacher

Well, what is going on? May be the charge produces a change in the state of the surrounding aether, may be the charge extend into the region about it, or is something incapable of description in mechanical terms. But the important point is that if another charge is placed at any point of such space it will be acted on by a force and accelerated. The issue touches on philosophy. In operationalist view this important point is the only point.

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- The Maxwell Field is the Aristotle's potentiality of Electromagnetics
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- Aristotelian teleology and the principle of least action.doc
- Natural Motion in Physics (Aristotle, Newton, Einstein)
- Maxwell's Ether and Motion,Michelson, Lorentz, Einstein
- THE DETERMINISM IN PHYSICS (mechanics, quantum mechanics, chaos)
- the quantization of space and time
- Platonic, Aristotelian Forms and Mathematics
- The methodology of Science vs Metaphysics
- Electromagnetics: Propagated Potentials and Aether
- The Science of Breath & Philosophy of the Tattvas; Rama Prasad, Transl G R S Mead
- Physics, Metaphysics, Duhem and Aristotle
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- Electromagnetics and Relativity
- The Zeno's Paradoxes and the Pythagorean Zeitgeist , (by G Mpantes)
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- The Mathematical Models of Thermal Radiation

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Mpantes)

Maxwells field as an

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Introduction

Electricity is a very

deep

phenomenon

natural

philosophy

and

is

it.

Electric

described

with

theory

number

of

forces

of

Ampere,

Clausius , Lorentz

Grassman,

the

Biot-Savart,

Laplace,

Weber,

Gauss,

ability for description and understanding of nature.

In one it connects electricity with

other the electric interaction is by contact through a medium. The contact

should restore the ether, after replaced by the "field". We call them

particle and field electricity respectively.

Along the way, the view of action by contact, prevailed, but the

medium of the contact was abolished, ( the ether) , we talked about waves

without medium of propagation, it led to the notion of immaterial field

Aristotelian and conceivable without any operationalist verification.

Physics endeavored

undeniable reality, because the electric field theory that had dominated ,

had refused it from the beginning! The electric charge

was finally

particular material particle, and later when the ether proved nonexistent,

electron was a condensation of the ' field ' that was immaterial .

Wavered physics between mathematics symbols and physical

entities , in propagating potentials and

action , devised

equations whose

mathematical treatment created

Eventually the medium

the waves were not as water waves in the sea, they were as material

waves accompanying the electron, they accompanied the photon, they

were probability waves and the light was a swarm of particles, the

photons.

But I think that in effort to understand this edge area of nature, the

area of electricity and light, we put to a test the entire

philosophical

background of scientific inquiry: The main dipole that emerges in the study

of

the electric

Operationalism

must be defined only by their procedures or operations.

Operationalism is based on the intuition that we do not know the

meaning of a concept unless we have a method of measurement for it. It

is commonly considered a theory of meaning which states that we mean

by any concept nothing more than a set of operations; the concept is

synonymous with the corresponding set of operations (Bridgman

1927,).

Bridgmans

operational

analysis

explicitly

acknowledged

that

concepts were inevitably linked to human experience and that they were

corresponding terms.

The logic of modern physics1 .

.Hitherto many of the concepts of physics have been defined in

terms of their properties. An excellent example is afforded by Newton's

concept of absolute time. The following quotation from the Scholium in

Book I of the Principia is illuminating:

I do not define Time, Space, Place or Motion, as being well known

to all. Only I must observe that the vulgar conceive those quantities under

no other notions but from the relation they bear to sensible objects. And

thence arise certain prejudices, for the removing of which, it will be

convenient to distinguish them into Absolute and Relative, True and

Apparent, Mathematical and Common.

(1) Absolute, True, and Mathematical Time, of itself, and from its

own nature flows equably without regard to anything external, and by

another name is called Duration .

Now there is no assurance whatever that there exists in nature

anything with properties like those assumed in the definition, and physics,

when reduced to concepts of this character, becomes as purely an

abstract science and as far removed from reality as the abstract geometry

of the mathematicians, built on postulates. It is a task for experiment to

discover whether concepts so defined correspond to anything in nature,

and we must always be prepared to find that the concepts correspond to

nothing or only partially correspond. In particular, if we examine the

definition of absolute time in the light of experiment, we find nothing in

nature with such properties.

The new attitude toward a concept is entirely different. We may

illustrate by considering the concept of length: what do we mean by the

length of an object? We evidently know what we mean by length if we can

tell what the length of any and every object is, and for the physicist

nothing more is required. To find the length of an object, we have to

1

fixed when the operations by which length is measured are fixed: that is,

the concept of length involves as much as and nothing more than the set

of operations by which length is determined. In general, we mean by any

concept nothing more than a set of operations; the concept is

synonymous with a corresponding set of operations. If the concept

is physical, as of length, the operations are actual physical operations,

namely, those by which length is measured; or if the concept is mental, as

of mathematical continuity, the operations are mental operations, namely

those by which we determine whether a given aggregate of magnitudes is

continuous. It is not intended to imply that there is a hard and fast division

between physical and mental concepts, or that one kind of concept does

not always contain an element of the other; this classification of concept is

not important for our future considerations.

We must demand that the set of operations equivalent to any

concept be a unique set, for otherwise there are possibilities of ambiguity

in practical applications which we cannot admit.

It is evident that if we adopt this point of view toward concepts,

namely that the proper definition of a concept is not in terms of its

properties but in terms of actual operations, we need run no danger of

having to revise our attitude toward nature. For if experience is always

described in terms of experience, there must always be correspondence

between experience and our description of it, and we need never be

embarrassed, as we were in attempting to find in nature the prototype of

Newton's absolute time. Furthermore, if we remember that the operations

to which a physical concept are equivalent are actual physical operations,

the concepts can be defined only in the range of actual experiment, and

are undefined and meaningless in regions as yet untouched by

experiment. It follows that strictly speaking we cannot make statements

at all about regions as yet untouched, and that when we do make such

statements, as we inevitably shall, we are making a conventionalised

extrapolation, of the looseness of which we must be fully conscious, and

the justification of which is in the experiment of the future.... Also the

term "true" or "false" can be attributed to a sentence only "operationally"

verify whether or not the proposal is true ... 2

But what are operations? To take the simplest example, the

operation of counting is a mental operation, but it is an integral part of

many

physical

procedures.

He

called

such

crucial

non-physical

the most wide spread misconception with regard to the operational

technique to think that it demanded that all concepts in physics must find

their meaning only in terms of physical operations in the laboratory. Later

he gave a rough classification of operations into the instrumental,

mental/verbal, and paper-and-pencil varieties..

This view is tested exactly in the concept of field. Bridgman himself

denies its physical existence and states that we have not even found,

manipulations linked to the objective substantiation of the field, which to

convey it in

is an

operationalist reality, other realities are not in physics research. They are

studied in the class not in the lab, the class leads us straight to the

Platonic forms.

Conclusion .

It took a long time for the philosophers of science to accept that any

theoretical concept used in a physical theory was not required to have its

counterpart in our experience (logical positivism).

But we say that

philosophy,

if we reject operationalism

from natural

world are

mathematics, we have not anything else, and this was the case of

Maxwells field. If the experimental results agree with the math results,

then the concepts . follow. We create concepts ad hoc nor understood

nor measured, basically we dress up maths with

physical concepts,

throughout the course of the electric field in electricity. The course of the

mathematization of the world has started from there, even though

Bridgman rejects this development:

2

Bridgman, Percy Williams. 1927. The Logic of Modern Physics. New York:

Macmillan.

yield physical results, that if anything physical comes out of mathematics

it must have been put in in another form. Our problem

is to find out

The concept of the field before Maxwell .

Electrostatic starts from the electric force of Coulomb, who in 1785 ,

with the help of the torsion scales which devised himself, verified Priesley

's law that:

The repulsive force between two small balls charged with the

same kind of electricity, is inversely proportional to the square of the

distance

of

their

centers.

.... Whatever the cause of electricity, we can explain all phenomena on the

assumption that there are two electric fluids, portions of the same fluid is

repelled and attracted with the portions of other fluid ........ Coulomb

The Coulomb force then mentioned among the portions of the

fluid , ie between molecules of the electric fluid , called charges and is

known from high school:

the type of Newton's gravity,

electricity

an

old

gave in

mathematical

The two central mathematical concepts of electrostatics is the field and

the potential. These help us to solve practical problems of calculation of

electric power in the bodies , and ... there it stops. In each point of a

charge, we define a vector E ( force exerted at each point of the fluid

round the charges ) .Thus the force exerted between the loads q1 and q2

is F = Eq2 where E is the field of q1 and the force F, Coulombs force. But

beware , we measure the force and we define the field.

Next , the mathematical result of the electrostatic field, is a function

of the potential U associated with the intensity from the time of Lagrange

by

3

of calculating the electrostatic field with much simpler steps from the

calculation of E. This magnitude is numeric and its

physical '

is

potential , from which it is pumped

moves charges

of potential so the potential energy decreases in the amount of energy

produced. The opposite happens when we give the system energy outside.

The

field

then

before

Maxwell

is

simple

mathematical

status independent of its source, is not material and does not connects

evolutionary the events in space and time.

This mathematical approach of the field will not remain the same

today as the field has become the reality of the natural world. In

field

are basic physical entities and may be examined without reference to

material bodies . Today mathematical expressions Poisson and Gauss

( potential and field ) became realities without changing anything in the

formulas. The pulsed electric and magnetic fields can be moved in space

in the form of radio waves and other types of electromagnetic radiation.

The pre-history of Maxwells electric field

and the field as a physical entity . He managed to support the overthrow

of this on a careful experimental basis. Between 1864 and 1873 James

Clerk Maxwell achieved a similar breakthrough only with clear thinking 4.

The starting point of his theory, were

Coulomb, Ampere, and Faraday that until 1864 expressed the laws of

electromagnetism in integral form, according to the mathematics of their

time and the ending point were the electromagnetic waves.

With the formulation of Coulomb's law, which resembled Newton's

gravitational force that led to the mechanical triumphs from earthly to

4

I believe that with Maxwells work starts this "the now widely noticeable arrogance

George Galeczki

heavenly things , the ' electricians ' set themselves the target to build

the electric theory on the same philosophy of action at a distance, with no

assumption

about

intermediate

medium,

believing

in

similar

developments in electricity

These researchers described all phenomena , grounding a complete

electrical theory, considering the electricity consists of charged particles ,

rendered magnetism an electrical phenomenon exactly as we now

interpret it, interpreted the induction with their electrons , measured the

forces

between

currents,

between

moving

electrons,

between

Eventually the British school of physics dominated, giving a strong

and coordinated ideological struggle. Its central philosophy was the

Maxwell field which were implementing the program of electric philosophy

of Faraday, on the idea of action by contact through a medium.

But the reader should understand that the discoveries of the first

half of the 19th century, that began in France and spread to Germany,

centered Gauss and his students (Weber, Riemann..),

was not a

century, the central line of thinking.

We will begin recounting our story with the philosophy of the great

British experimenter Michael Faraday.

field .

These lines are used to explain the action of forces from a distance.

Faraday, the great experimenter philosopher, was the first to conceive the

concept of the electromagnetic field. He distinguished, a reality of another

class from that of matter ( electrotonic state), it was something real that

was taking place in electric and magnetic phenomena. It was capable of

carrying influences from place to place without being treated like a

mathematical structure as the gravitational field of its time. In his opinion,

the phenomena of electricity and magnetism should be accessed through

the field rather than through the charged bodies and currents . In other

the most important aspect of this phenomenon was not the electric

current , but the fields of electric and magnetic forces distributed to the

round from the area of the current.

In 1835 for wrote for intermediate particles that their contact

transfers electrical activity:

.... It seems probable and possible that the magnetic action can be

transmitted at a distance , through the action of intermediate particles in

a way that similarly the forces of static electricity are transferred in

distance. Interfering particles , we assume for the moment, that they are

in a special situation that I often express ( without much success ) the

term electrotonic situation.Faraday

This Faradys view became conviction for many generations of

physycists, after the domination of mechanical models in electricity.

How is manifested this reality for Faraday?

With lines of force which he imagined to fill all space .

Physicists were used to illustrate the magnetic forces, scattering

iron filings on a piece of paper and observing the lines formed by the

action of a magnet underneath the paper .. These lines submitted to

Faraday the idea of magnetic lines of force with which , he claimed, we

can get informations not only on the direction of the magnetic force but

also on its size. The intensity of the field, characterized by the density of

field

lines

per

unit

area

vertical

in

its

direction.

..... I do not perceive in any part of space whether (to use the common

phrase) vacant or filled with matter can help myself , anything but forces

and the lines in which they are exerted Faraday5

Later in the study of dielectric media he introduced electric field and

electric lines of force, wherein the reduction or the increase of the density

of these lines was describing the behavior of dielectric.

Faradays lines of force were the transport routes of action of the

intervening medium in electric and magnetic phenomena.

For example how work the lines of force in the law of Coulomb;

In Faradays view, the medium intervenes between the electrified

balls - whatever it is -

which are

presented in "squinting " or " contraction " of the lines of force, also in

5

10

when they end up in the other ball , these deformations are transmitted

to it and move it . When the field is more powerful the lines of force are

more and we have a

mechanical actions! The idea of this spreading action from point to point

through a medium with the effect of adjacent and contiguous particles

were applicable to every area of physics in Faradays theory.

He believed in possible and probable physical existence of lines of

force for gravitation, electrostatics magnetism

He indulged in the speculation that light and radiant heat were

tremors of the lines of force: a notion which, as far as it is admitted, will

dispense with the ether , which in another view is supposed to be the

medium in which these vibrations take place .Faraday

Thus, the lines of force become an independent reality, they are

the " nerves " of the medium, which moved charged and magnetized

bodies.

Instead

electrified bodies, the Faraday considered the entire space between the

bodies taut and full of mutual driven off loops ..... The concept of dynamic

lines are in my opinion one of the biggest services Faradayto science ...

J.J.Thomson

..... The view consolidated views of Faraday delivers a real existence

in the dynamic lines in the sense that they exist as an independent entity

....

Grimsehl-Tomaschek

properties of charged bodies as due to lines of force which spread out

from the bodies into the surrounding medium ... E.W. Barnes, Scientific

theory and religion )

It is better to imagine (to understand Faraday) that these ' energy

pathways ' did not appear there simultaneously with the iron filings, but

there were like landscape around the magnet, and now drifted filings in

their topography . This image, intuitively touch better in our imagination

than the idea that around the magnet there is nothing and that all

phenomenon is created by placing the iron filings. This is the reason why

the medium

physicists.

Instead of an intangible action at a distance

11

between two

electrified bodies , Faraday regarded the whole space, between the bodies

as full of stretched mutually repelent springs. The conception of lines of

force is in my opinion one of the greatest of Faradays many great

services to Science .J.J.Thomson

But what are these springs? How they can transfer energy? In

Faradays field , where mathematics are missing, physical processes

become Aristotelian qualitative descriptions :

.According to Ampere the existence of a magnetic field is

inseparably connected with the motion f charged bodies. But according to

Faraday the magnetic field is associate , not with the motion of charges,

but with the motion of the tubes (of lines of force) attached to them;and

since the tubes are flexible, there is every reason to suppose that the

tubes

might

move

without

the

charges.N.Campbell,

modern

They are qualitative descriptions as Albert ORahily says 7:

we obtain the expression of the force -vector at any point. We

then draw the tangent-lines of this vector as a useful graph.

To

strengthen our belief we call them tubes . Next we endow them with

flexibility and declare that they might move without the charges from

which we started. Then we pick out one prtion of the force on moving

charges and call it magnetic force and similarly attribute to it flexible

independently moving tubes. Finally we declare that this double system of

tubes is the only important theory which has ever been proposed to

explain electricity magnetism and lightAlfred O Rahily

Today we know that the lines of force

are not

so a service to

assumption

which

operationalism in definition of concepts in physics.

any

explanation

of

this

kind

which

attributes

mechanical

their existence. Nowadays physicists are becoming more and more

6

Today this seems to be becoming rather excessive for celebrating the philosophy of

the field rather than the Faraday. The greatest service Faraday's science is vast experimental

work in which we met the electrical phenomena, not their interpretations

7

12

interaction of electrically charged bodies is rapidly falling into disuse. It

still lingers in text-books, however, and it is important to recognise its

arbitrarinessPiley

could not perceive an electric field with the purely mathematical way. So

he

substance. .

Maxwell continued and described mathematically exactly the ideas

of Faraday's

electrical

absolute ( materials in genesis ) reality.

We are unable to conceive of propagation in time, except either

as the flight of a material substance through space or as the propagation

of a condition of motion or stress in a medium already existing in space

Maxwell9

In prevalence of theories of electric medium which began with the

intuitive interpretations of Faraday, the main protagonists apart from him,

was the whole "school of Cambridge " ( as Tait , W.Thomson, Heavyside,

etc himself Maxwell) which is founded on mathematics of Green, Stokes

and W. Thomson, in which (school) dominant belief was that any physical

action is based on dynamics.

.I am never satisfied

something. Then only I can understand. And this is why I could not capture

the electromagnetic theory ...... I had not a moment of peace or happiness

in relation to electromagnetic theory from

Thomson

Thomson, began to investigate the proportions of electrical

phenomena and flexibility. These surveys showed a picture of the spread

of electrical and magnetic activity. He made the suggestion that they

8

9

Treatisep.492

13

was unable to promote his instructions connecting the ideas of Faraday

to the mathematical proportions had invented. So towards the end of his

life in 1896 after the failure of login electromagnetism with mechanical

models

wrote:

past fifty years. I do not know anything more about the electric and

magnetic force , the relationship of the ether of electricity and matter than

I knew and I taught my students fifty years ago ....W Thomson..

Maxwell was the one who showed the " electrotonic Faraday's

situation can be represented by mathematical symbols borrowing ideas

from the researches of Thomson .

Maxwell received

whose

electrical

philosophy

presented

in

December

1864

at

the

presentation of his book ' A dynamic theory of the electromagnetic field . "

He then said:

It happens a tuple of phenomena in electricity and magnetism

lead to the same conclusion as that of Optics, namely that there is an

ethereal medium that permeates all bodies and is differentiated only by

their presence. That the parts of this medium are tucked in motion by

electric currents and magnets, that this movement can spread from one

part of the medium to another through forces generated from the

connections of these parts, that the influence of these forces generated

deformation dependent upon the elasticity of these connections , and

finally as a consequence of all this, it is possible to show the energy of this

medium in two forms , one as kinetic energy of the parts and the other as

dynamic energy of

Maxwell

So then we see that we are leading to the assumption of a

complex structure capable of a multitude of movements , but also having

such connections, that the movement of one region depends according to

specific relations with the movement of other parts, which moves

associated with forces that are born from the movement of the joined

elements thanks to their elasticity . Such a mechanism should be the

object of the general laws of dynamics.

14

expressing the laws Faraday (induction) Ampere and Gauss, which were

expressed in integral form, in a system of partial differential equations,

where the theorems of Stokes, Green and divergence were dressed with

physical metaphors and changed the world. But still believing that these

metaphors were real, as the

So there are two tendencies in Maxwells work: the first is the

attempt to explain electrical actions by the properties of the hypothetical

medium which is their carrier and the second is a purely mathematical

description by means of partial differential equations based on the

assumption of certain vectors specifying the electric and magnetic state of

a body. Electricity accordingly exists in two entirely different forms: the

electric substance within the conductor and the electric field in free space.

The electric field is the portion of space in the neighbourhood of

electric bodies, considered with reference to electrical phenomena

Maxwell

The space all around a magnet pervaded by the magnetic forces is

termed the field of that magnet..Livens

The space within which the ether is sensibly disturbed and within

which sensible ponderomotive forces are exercised ..is called the

electrostatic field.Drude

There is said to be an electric field in a region which is

traversed by lines of forceBragg

..In the near action theory the field strength is a reality which

exists even when the reacting bodies are removed Hertz

E is not the actual strength of the electric field at the point where

the charge e is situated, but rather the field-strength that would exist at

that point if the charge e were not present at allPlanck

We must suppose that it E exists at all points about q even when

our test charge is not present; but we can prove its existence only by

bringing the test charge toy QWhite

.... The idea of Faraday's force field -the field- has fundamentally

changed our picture of the world ... B. Bavik

Maxwell continued and described mathematically exactly the

ideas of Faradays lines of force, the field that intervenes in electrical

15

The essence of the above field approaches in Faraday's perception is the

assumption that when there is not

and move towards infinity . But without the second charge they are

nonexistent. The flow of Gauss in the Coulomb field is fantastic, it is a

mathematical trick to simplify the results. But in Faradays scope becomes

real, is the material factor that produces the phenomena. How believable

are they?

Any statement which is made about the electric field in the

neghbourhood of a charged body cannot strictly speaking be taken to

mean more than that a second charged body, if placed there , would

behave in a particular waythe physical reality of the magnetic pole

remains as questionable as that of the electric field ..J. Piley

Even more decisively Leech, carries us

period.

..... The electric field variables and E are not subject to direct

observation but their values can be derived from observations in material

systems. A clear understanding of this fact could prevent questions about

the nature of these variables. Their reality should be attributed as follows:

to be considered as mathematical entities whose importance lies in the

possibility to use them to describe and predict observable changes in the

behavior of exclusively material systems ..... Leech

Mathematical entitiesbut the mathematical entities became basic

concepts of real word.

.it follows that the (Maxwells) equations form a consistent

scheme, independently of the hypothesis from which they have been

derived,independently of any physical interpretations which may be

assigned to the various terms of the equations.we may if we please to

discard Maxwells interpretation. James Jean

Here Bridgman says:

there

would

seem

to

be

no

necessary

inherent

in

the

should correspond to recognizable processes in the physical system. Nor

is there any more any reason why all the symbols appearing in the

fundamental

mathematical

equations

should

have

their

physical

16

possibleBridgman

Well, what is going on? May be the charge produces a change in

the state of the surrounding aether, may be the charge extend into the

region about it, or is something incapable of description in mechanical

terms. But the important point is that if another charge is placed at any

point of such space it will be acted on by a force and accelerated. The

issue touches on philosophy. In operationalist view this important point is

the only point.

I believe that a critical examination will show that the ascription

of physical reality to the electric field is entirely

without justification. I

by which evidence of the existence of the field may be obtained

independently of the operations which entered into the definition .i do

not believe that the additional implication of physical reality has justified

itself by bringing to light a single positive result , or can offer more than

the pragmatic plea of having stimulated a large number of experiments ,

all with persistently negative results..the electromagnetic field is an

invention and is never subject to direct observation. What we observe are

material bodies with or without

charges-including eventually

in this

category electrons- their positions, motions and the forces to which they

are subject. Bridgman

Sources .

1. Electromagnetic Theory : Alfred O Rahily. Dover Publications Inc.

New York

2. A Treatise on Electricity and magnetism : James Clerk Maxwell,

Dover Publications Inc. New York

3. Electromagnetic Waves : F.W.G. White,

4. Lectures on Electromagnetic

theory:

L. Solymar ,

Oxford

University press

5. Foundations of electromagnetic theory John R. Reitz,

Wesley publishing company

Addison

17

New York

7. Electrodynamics: Arnold Sommerfield, Academic Press New York

and London

8. Electrodynamics and relativity, E.G. Cullwick,

Longmans, Green

and CO.

9. Electromagnetism: Hohn C. Slater and Nathaniel H. Frank, Dover

Publications Inc. New York

10.

www.mpantes.gr

George Mpantes mathematics teacher

18

induction, those of magnetic action I dont perceive in any part of space

whether (to use the common phrase) vacant of filled with matter in which

they are exertedFaraday10

The man who processed and refined with mathematical modeling of

the views of Faraday, Maxwell wrote:

We are unable to conceive of propagation in time, except either

as the flight of a material substance through space or as the propagation

of a condition of motion or stress in a medium already existing in space

Maxwell11

So there is a reality in the area round of charges and currents in

the work of Maxwell and Faraday

..in theories of action by contact, the intensity of the field is a reality that

exists even though the reactive charges are removed ...... P. Hertz

even

.... The theory of Maxwell continues to yields a shelf existent reality to

the vector E independent of the presence of the test (second) charge ......

Abraham-Becker

10

11

Treatisep.492

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