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A Study of The Utilisation of Various Measures Provided

By The State To Promote Equality of Educational


Opportunity In The Case of Other Backward
Classes In A District of Karnataka
Submltted by
U. p. Chandrashekhar
, ~ ~ .
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A Thesis Submitted To The University of Mysore
For The Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy In Education
Through The Institute For Social And Economic Change
Bangalore
1990
)
.. ~
.
CERTIFICATE
I certify that I have guided and supervised the
preparation and writing of the present thesis entited:
A STUDY OF THE UTILISATION OF VARIOUS MEASURES
PROVIDED BY THE STATE TO PROMOTE EQUALITY OF
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN THE CASE OF OTHER BACKWARD
CLASSES IN A DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA, by
Mr.U.P.Chandrashekhar, who worked on this topic in the
Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore,
from November 1981 to June 1990.
I also certify that the present thesis has not
previously formed the basis for the award of any
Degree, Diploma or Associate Fellowship of the
University of Mysore, the Institute for Social and
Economic Change or any other University.
Bangalore
July 1990
Signature of the Supervisor
c - S. f\;'-Gv}v",
<Dr C S Nagaraju)
Associate Professor
DECLARATION
I declare that the present thesis entitled:
A STUDY OF THE UTILISATION OF VARIOUS MEASURES
PROVIDED BY THE STATE TO PROMOTE EQUALITY OF
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN THE CASE OF OTHER BACKWARD
CLASSES IN A DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA, is the outcome of
the original research work carried out by me, under
the guidance of Dr.C.S.Nagaraju, Associate Professor,
Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.
Due acknowledgements are made wherever anything has
been borrowed from other sources.
I also declare that the material of the thesis
has not previously formed, in any way, the basis for
the award of any Degree, Diploma or Associate
Fellowship, of the University of Mysore, the Institute
for Social and Economic Change, or any other
University.
Bangalore
July 1990
U.P. CHANDRASHEKHAR
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This Thesis is an outcome of the work done at
the Institute for Social and Economic Change,
Bangalore, under the able supervision and guidance of
Dr.C.S.Nagaraju, Associate Professor in Education, in
the Institute. I am indebted to Dr.C.S.Nagaraju for
giving invaluable suggestions, academic inspiration
and constant encouragement in completing this work. I
am sincerely thankful to Dr.A.S.Seetharamu, Professor
and Head, Education Unit, ISEC, for his constant
encouragement.
I sincerely acknowledge the Institute for having
given me the opportunity to carry out my research
work, and the Univesity of Mysore for providing me the
registration facilities. The administrative and
library staff of the Institute were very helpful to me
and I am thankful to all of them.
At the Institute, I was much benefitted from the
discussions with several scholars. Prof.
P.M.Kulkarni, formerly with the Institute, now with
the Bharatiyar University, Coimbatore, helped me with
statistical analysis and I am grateful to him.
Since the inception of the study I have been
benefitted from several of my well wishers, friends
and colleagues. I can only venture to name a few of
them: Dr.Sivanna, Dr. H.S.G. Bhatta, Ms. Ushadevi, Ms.
Usha Ramkumar, Messrs Ratna Redday, DR. Parameshwar,
Parthasarathy, Vijay, Dr.Jaya, Vishwanath, Dr.
Deshpande, Ravi, Dr. Gopi, the Bala duo, Shylendra,
Jena, Selvaraj, Shekhar, Govindaru, Sabu, Vidya,
Madhu, Joseph, Rajendran and G.Nagaraju. I am thankful
to one and all for their kind encouragement and
constant help.
I sincerely acknowldge Ms. Malini Nagaraju who
has constantly encouraged me and also spared her
valuable time to go through the drafts and do the
needful editorial work.
My interactions and discussions with
Dr.C.A.Somashekharappa, Assistant Professor in
Sociology, Karnatak University, and Dr.P.Bore Gowda,
K.A.S., formerly with the Mysore University, now
Registrar, Gulbarga University, have greatly helped
me in gaining the much needed insights and
perspectives into the issues related to the welfare of
BCs. I am thankful to them and acknowledge their
help.
( i )
The Department of Backward Classes and
Minorities and the Social Welfare Secretariat,
Government of Karnataka enabled me to pursue my higher
studies and gave access to the required information
for my study. I acknowledge their help and
encouragement heartily. I was fortunate in having the
good wishes of various functionaries of the Department
of Backward Classes in Belgaum district during my
field study and I am thankful to all of them.
I place on recored my sincere gratitude to Ms.
Shanthakumari Devaraju,I.A.S., Sri Sudhir Kumar,
I.A.S., Sri Keshavaraju, I.A.S., Sri A.A.Shetty,
I.A.S., Sri C.H.Govinda Bhat, K.A.S., and Sri
L.Nagaraju, K.A.S. who are always a constant source of
and help.
My work would not have been smooth but for the
whole hearted cooperation of all the respondents in
furnishing the required information. My thanks to all
of them.
I am sincerely thankful to Mr.T.Srinivasa Murthy
for his patient, untiring and excellent word
processing of the Thesis. I am also thankful to
Mr.Krishna Chandran for his timely data and
computer assistance.
I would be failing in my duty if I am not
putting on record the affection and care shown to me
by my parents, brothers - Dr.Pandurangaiah, Shivaramu,
Nagaraju - and sisters who stood by me throughout my
academic career and I am grately obliged to them. I
am grateful to Dr.V.M.Krishnamurthy and his family for
their good wishes.
I am grately indebted to my wife and son who
firmly stood by me during my absence and provided me
much needed moral and emotional support at the time.
of stress and strain while completing this the.is.
U.P.CHANDRASHEKHAR
( i i )
CON TEN T S
Acknowledgements
Contents
Liat of Tabl and FiQur
CHAPTER I I
CHAPTER II :
CHAPTER III :
CHAPTER IV :
CHAPTER V :
Section I
Section II
Section III
CHAPTER VI
Section I
Section II
:






:


INTRODUCTION
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
THE BACKWARD CLASSES AND
THE RESERVATION POLICY:
HISTORY OF RESERVATION IN
KARNATAKA
METHODOLOGY
WELFARE MEASURES AND
UTILISATION
A Review of the Growth of
Services, Beneficiaries and
Expenditure: A State Level
Analysis
Utilisation of Scholarships:
A Comparison of Profiles of
Pre-Matric and Post-Matric
Scholarship Holders
Scholarship and Hostel
Beneficiaries: A Comparative
Analysis
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND
ASPIRATIONS OF HOSTELLERS
Educational Development
of Hostellers
Factors Influencing
Aspirations
(i i i)
Page
i to ii
iii to iv
v to )(
1 - 31
32 - 1 ~
106 - 159
160 - 192
193 - 247
193 - 212
213 - 233
234 - 247
248 - 299
248 - 273
274 - 299
CHAPTER VII :
CHAPTER VIII:
APPENDICES
APPENDIX - I
-

FOLLOW-UP OF PAST HOSTEL
BENEFICIARIES
SUMMARY, FINDINGS,
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
: GOVERNMENT ORDER: OTHER
BACKWARD CLASSES OF CITIZENS
UNDER ARTICLE 15 (4)
APPENDIX - II : WELFARE MEASURES - GROWTH
IN NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS,
EXPENDITURE AND
BENEFICIARIES (STATE L E V E ~
APPENDIX - III : CASTE COMPOSITION OF THE
POPULATION IN BELGAUM
DISTRICT AND KARNATAKA
STATE
APPENDIX - IV : INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
APPENDIX - V : QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX - VI : INFORMATION SCHEDULE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
********
( i v)
300 - 329
330 - 372
Table
No.
1.1
3.1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.2. 1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
LIST OF TABLES
Profile of Belgaum District and Karnataka
State
Grouping of Indicators
cum-Educational Survey
Socio-Economlc-
The size and level of education of the
scholarship awardees obtained in the
sample drawn
Measurement of variables: Rank order of
the observations on each scale in
descending order
Occupational categories with ranking and
score assigned
Sc at terg ram
distribution
ranks of
weight/value
showing the two way
of the occupation category
the two generations and
assigned to each of the cell
Percentage distribution of scholarship
beneficiaries according to sex
Percentage
pre-matric
recipients
background
distribution of the sample of
and post-matric scholarship
according to urban-rural
Percentage distribution of
beneficiaries according to
background of the father
scholarship
occupat ional
Percentage distribution of scholarship
beneficiaries according to family income
range
Percentage distribution of the sample
scholarship recipients according to
standards/courses studying
Percentage distribution of scholarship
beneficiaries according to performance ln
annual examinations
(v)
Page
18-
21
146-
148
163
181-
182
189
185
217
218
219
221
223
224
Table
No.
5.2.7
5.2.8
5.2.9
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.3.7
5.3.8
Percentage distribution of sample
according to aBC categories
Ratio/percentage fixed by the Government
and the ratio/percentage of scholarship
sanctioned under each category (1986-87)
Percentage distribution of scholarship
samples and the corresponding percentage
of population across castel communities/
groups in the district
Percentage distribution of scholarship
and hostel scheme beneficiaries according
to sex
Percentage distribution of scholarship
and hostel scheme beneficiaries according
to rural-urban baCkground .
Percentage distribution of scholarship
and hostel beneficiaries according to
occupational background of the father
Percentage distribution of scholarship
and hostel scheme beneficiaries according
to annual income range of the family
Percentage distribution of scholarship
and hostel beneficiaries according to
performance levels in annual examinations
Percentage
scholarship
sample across
oaes
distribution
and hostel
different
of the
beneficiaries
categories of
Ratio/percentage fixed by the Government
and the ratio/percentage to the sample of
scholarship and hostel beneficiaries
under each category
Percentage distribution of scholarship
recipients and hostellers according to
castes/communities/occupational groups
and categories of OBCs and the
corresponding percentage of population
across castes in the district
(vi)
Page
226
227
229-
230
235
236
237
239
240
241
243
245
Table
No.
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.1.6
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.1.9
6.1.10
Percentage distribution of sample
according to the family size (excluding
grandparents)
Distribution of the sample according to
birth order
Distance from the residence and nature of
the location of hostel at pre-matric
stage
Distribution of sample according to the
classes when admitted to the hostel
Percentage distribution of
according to the educational
parents
the sample
status of
Alternatives as to where they
(hostellers) would have resided if they
were not to get hostel accommodation"
Distribution of sample according
number of close friends they have in
hostel community
Distribution of sample according
participation levels in sports
to
the
to
Responses
mode of
vacation
to the question regarding the
spending time during annual
Percentage distribution of sample
according to scholastic performance in
subjects: Mathematics, General Science
and Social Studies and all subjects - A
comparison
6.1.11 Self appraisal in comparison with co-
residents in hostel regarding study and
school performance
6.1.12 Percentage distribution of sample
according to educational aspirations
(aspirations of secondary and higher
PaQe
250
251
253
254
255
257
258
259
260
262
263
secondary studying separately) 266
(vii)
Table
No.
6.1.13 Percentage distribution of aspirations in
free and in circumstantial situations
6.1.14 Percentage distribution according
occupational aspirations
to
6.1.15
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
Percentage
according
reslde
distribution of sample
to their options/desire to
Frequency distribution acording to
father's occupation by educational
aspirations of the respondents
Distribution
aspirations of
economic status
of
the
the educational
respondent. across
Frequency
educational
educa t ional
respondents
distribution
status of
aspirations
according
father
of
to
by
the
Frequency and percentafe distribution of
the respondents according to
classes/standard by educational
asplrations
Frequency and percentage distribution of
educational aspirations of rural hostel
resldents and urban hostel residents
Frequency distribution of educational
aspirations of the respondents across
four categories of backward classes
Performance
educational
respondents
in annual examination
aspirations of
by
the
Frequency distribution of father's
occupation by occupational aspiration of
the respondents
Frequency distribution acording to family
economic status by occupational
aspirations of the respondents
(viii>
268
269
273
275
277
278
280
282
283
285
287
288
Table
No.
6.2.10
6.2.11
Frequency
father's
occupational
respondents
distribution according to
by
the
educational status
Frequency and
according to
occupational
respondents
aspirations of
percentage distribution
classes/standards by
aspirations of the
6.2.12 Frequency and percentage distribution of
occupational aspirations of rural hostel
Page
290
291
residents and urban hostel residents 293
6.2.13 Frequency distribution of occupational
aspirations of the respondents across
four categories of backward classes 295
6.2.14 Frequency and
performance
occupational
respondents
percentage distribution
in examinations by
aspirations of the
6.2.15
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
Freqsuency
occupational
asplration
distribution of
aspiration by
respondent's
educational
Percentage distribution of sample
according to categories of backward
classes as compared to theratios fixed by
the Government for admission to
Government hostels
Percentage distribution of
according to place of birth and
place of residence
sample
present
Percentage
respondents
occupations
father
distribution of the
according to traditional
of family, grandfather and
Percentage distribution of sample
according to father's occupation and
respondent's present occupation
Percentage distribution of sample
according to ~ h education of the parents
(ix)
296
298
302
303
304
306
307
Table
No.
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7. 11
7.12
7.13
7.14
FIG.NO
1.1
1.2
1
<
.w
1.4
4. 1
5. 1 . 1
5.1.2
Percentage distribution of sample
according to the family economic status
Educational aspirations of the hostellers
Percentage distribution of thesample
according to occupational aspirations
Zero Order Correlation Matrix
Percentage distribution of occupations of
three generations under respective
ranking categories of occupations
Correlation Matrix of occupational
structure of the three generations
Occupational mobility from grandfather
generation (6 ) to father generation (6 )
1 2
Occupational mobility from grandfather
generation (6 ) to grandson/granddaughter
1
(respondent's) generation (6 )
3
Occupational mobility from father's
generation to son's/daughter's
(respondent's) generation (G )
3
LIST OF FIGURES
Location of Karnataka in the Indian Union
Location of Belgaum district
General occupational attainment model
Occupational attainment model
hostel intervention
through
Path model for occupational attainment
Growth of Pre-Matric Hostels (All)
Growth of Pre-Matric Hostels
Girls separately)
(x)
<Boys and
Page
308
309
311
312
317
319
324
326
327
Page
15
16
23
25
177
197
197
FIG.NO
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1. 7
5.1.8
5.1.9
Gro ... ,th of
(Hostels)
Pre-Matric Beneficiaries
Growth of Pre-Matric Hostel Expenditure
(Allocation and Actual Expenditure)
Growth of Grant-in-Aid Hostels
Growth of Grant-in-Aid
(Hostel)
Beneficiaries
Growth of Post-Matric Hostels (All)
Growth of Post-Matric Beneficiaries
(Hostels)
Growth: Post-Matric Hostel Expenditure
(Allocation and Actual Expendi.ture)
5.1.10 Growth of Post-Matric Hostels (Boys and
Girls separately)
5.1.11 Growth of Post-Matric Beneficiaries
Page
200
200
202
202
204
204
206
207
(Hostels: Boys and Girls separately) 207
5.1.12 Growth of Scholarship Beneficiaries
(including fee concessions) 209
5.1.13 Growth of Scholarship Expenditure
(including fee concessions) 209
7.1 Path Analysis of Occupational Attainment 315
*********
( xi)
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Equality of educational opportunity gained
currency owing to the liberal philosophy of the West.
In the beginning the philosophy of equality of
opportunity was confined to the state craft and
assumed that the disadvantaged sections in the society
is the result of lack of opportunities at the
individual level to make use of societal avenues to
carve oneself a suitable niche in the economic and
social structure. It was also assumed that the niche
carved will be according to one's abilities. Post-war
recons t rLlC t ion, Kennedian era and Civil rights
refocussed the movement in United States of America
attention of that society on the equality of
educational opportunity (Aaron, 1978). The State took
upon itself the role of and chalked
cut many programmes and provided legal support to
'protective
process 1"as
discrimination' policy. The
also visible in countries
historical
like India,
where the freedom struggle stood on the platform of
democracy and social justice. In the meanwhile, the
awareness of the individual's rights among the leaders
gave rise to many social reform movements. This
awareness, among leaders in India, particularly in
South, also gave rise to many movements questioning
the hegemony of the upper strata in the economic and
bureaucratic fields.
In the beginning, before such movements in
South, a few individuals exposed to western thoughts
through education, attempted reforms in the religious
and ritualistic aspects of Hindu religion. Their
efforts resulted in founding religious institutions
like Bramho Samaj in Bengal, Arya Samaj in Bombay and
other parts including Lahore and Sathya Shodhak Sangh
in Maharashtra etc. Individuals like Raja Ram Mohan
Roy tried to organise public opinion among elites and
rulers thereby bringing legal pressures colonial
against then existed atrocities against women in the
form of Sati and child marriage and also advocated for
widow remarriage. Such efforts had initiated radical
change in the social of Hindu society.
Similarly, there were' developments in the
field as a result of the freedom' movement.
The main platform of the freedom movement was self-
rule through democracy. This broad idea included the
dignity of the individual and equality in political
and legal spheres. Gandhiji's efforts in focussing the
attention of the people on the plight of the
untouchables and his efforts to change the attitude of
caste Hindus towards untouchable castes brought
awareness among both caste Hindus as well as the
2
untouchable castes about the injustice built into the
social structure in the form of caste system. Such
awareness gradually percolated into the political
thinking.
Simultaneously Ambedkar espoused the cause of
the depressed classes and organised them around the
demand for political and legal rights. His leadership
helped depressed classes to compel the political
leadership in recognising the injustices and providing
constitutional remedies for the ill-effects of the
caste system.
In South India especially in Madras province and
in the State of Mysore there were movements against
the hegemony of the Brahmins in administration and
bureaucracy under the colonial rule. These movements
were confined to obtain the legitimate share, in
proportion to their administrative power
by the rural castes and the untouchable castes. Such
movements were in the form of persuation of the
colonial power through petitions and agitations to
reserve a proportion of bureaucratic positions for
non-Brahmins. In the State of Karnataka rulers
yielded to their pursuation and Government orders were
passed to recruit non-Brahmins to 1ill up certain
proportions of administrative positions. Gradually
both the rulers and the leaders of the anti-Brahmin
movement realised the importance of education to
fulfil the demands of reservations. Hence efforts
were made to expand education and facilitate the
participation of rural castes and depressed castes in
education.
After the formation of the Indian Republic and
the adoption of the Indian Constitution which provided
the legal foundation for the action of the State in
taking up appropriate measures in equalising the
opportunities for the weaker sections in political,
economic and educational spheres, the Government took
more positive and direct role in fulfilling the
constitutional expectations.
In addition to the political dimensions of the
issues related to the equality of educational
opportunity, the urgency of improving the economy
through adoption of modern science and technology
compelled the State to give a greater importance to
the spread of education among the population. Indian
Constitution made special reference to the spread of
primary education through its directives to the State
to make education compulsory upto a certain age.
The Indian Constitution in the first instance
various concentrated on ex-untouchables under
constitutional provisions (a discussion of which will
fo 110,",' later).
realised that
However, within short
the Country's development
time it
needed
was
the
participation of the larger proportion of the poorer
4
section of the society. New economic development and
political awakening created a demand for a fair share
in the development by the masses. Hence the
constitution was suitably amended to include socially
and educationally weaker sections under the provisions
of protective discrimination and the State
to take necessary steps in identifying the needy.
Such sections are collectively called as Backward
Classes (BCs).
One of the early set-backs to evolve suitable
policy for backward classes other than SCs and STs was
the difficulty in defining 'Other Backward Classes'
(OBCs).
Union,
Karnataka, a south Indian State of the Indian
was one of the early State Governments which
initiated action in evolving criteria for identifying
OBCs. In the initial stages the opposition came for
the policy of reservation. The ensued legal battle
gave rise to the constitution of several commissions
to redefine the backward class categories. Apart from
the reservations in education and occupations, there
was no open opposition to the welfare policy and
implementation of various schemes (programmes) under
the policy. In the early decades most of the
programmes directed resources towards educational
development of backward classes. But in recent years
attention has been given to economic development in
addition to education.
5
Genesis of the Problem:
There has been a consensus regarding the
importance of education to bring about c h ~ n 9 s in the
living conditions of weaker sections including
Scheduled Castes and Tribes and Backward Classes.
Successive
importance
educational
from the
five year plans have given greater
in evolving new strategies to
participation of the younger
weaker sections. Most of
expand the
generations
the policy
initiatives and the developmental programmes have come
from sources other than educational research or social
sciences. The vast expansion of education in general
during 60's or early 70's proved ineffective in
retaining and educating children belonging to poorer
sections. The focus during this time of the welfare
policies was on facilitating the entry of the children
of weaker sections into the education system. Even
though vast sums of money were spent during these
expansion stages for such schemes, the outcome from
those schemes were limited. Some such earlier schemes
were expansion of schooling in rural areas at the
primary
colleges
stage, increasing the number of schools and
and locating them in semi-urban and rural
localities,
compulsory,
legal measures to make primary education
providing scholarships and other
incentives to the families for sending their children
to school etc. These measures were based on a naive
6
assumption that poverty prevents people from attending
school. It was assumed that once the child enters the
school, the education system would take care of such
students.
However, such expectations did not become a
reality.
colonial
The education system developed under the
era with its built-in bias in favour of
middle class values and English language favoured the
children from urban middle class backgrounds. The
process of education aligned itself with the middle
class families and was built upon the inputs the child
brought from better family environment and educated
parental backgrounds. The equality of educational
opportunity through facilitating access to education
was found to be inadequate and a need was felt for the
intervention of the State in providing appropriate
living environment outside the school and additional
strategies for supporting students belonging to weaker
sections in their educational development. This
realisation resulted in extending the concept of
residential school and hostel facilities for the
weaker sections. The State of Karnataka created
separate departments to manage various schemes evolved
over a period of time separately for Scheduled Castes
(SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Backward
Classes (OBCs) and Minorities. The Department of
Backward Classes came into existence in 1977 and it
7
has been responsible for implementing schemes for both
educational development and economic development of'
the Backward Classes and Minorities. During the past
decade considerable portion of the public fund under
both non-plan and plan budgets have been spent on the
above developmental activities.
Apart from the physical target achieved and
money spent on various schemes no information on the
short term and long term outcomes of such schemes were
available. The cost-benefit analysis and evaluation
of schemes in terms of their contribution to the
educational developoment in the short
long run,
run and
very occupational changes in the are
important to reallocate funds for future plan of
act ion.
Need for the Study:
The interest of social scientists and
educational researchers about the contribution of
various educational
manifest only recently.
development schemes became
Till the middle of 70s a few
studies have focussed their attention on certain
issues related to educational development of weaker
sections. The broad area of equality of educational
opportunity became an issue for educational researches
manifesting in the form of studies on the educational
problems of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
8
Several trend reports, in this area, show that, almost
all researches in this area were on SCs and STs and a'
few on
However,
the educational development of Muslims.
studies on the policy implementation and
outcome with respect to Other Backward Classes were
lacking. Chitnis (1974) while reviewing the studies
related to the educational development of weaker
sections states:
"utilisation and non-utilisation of
educational facilities is a related issue
with considerable research potential.
Educational institutions established in a
community may either flourish or wither away.
What are the factors that determine the
and acceptance and non-acceptance,
utilisation or non-utilisation of educational
facilities in a community? Are any of the
factors in their establishment, from among
with the
educational
listed, correlated
with which the
the factors
effectiveness
institutions
educational
function?
institutions
A variety
have
of
been
established and facilities instituted since
independence. They consist of
educational institutions like ,
special types of institutions like
general
. . . . . . ,
Ashram
Schools, Polytechnics, or institutions of
9
education of the handicapped and facilities
like hostels, scholarships, freeships, book-
banks, provision for apprentice training etc.
It is therefore necessary to ascertain the
social factors that affect the utilisation
and non-utilisation of these institutions and
facilities.
utilisation
What
of
is
these
the pattern of
institutions or
facilities? Are they utilised in accordance
with the expectations held at the time of
their creation? In what way does the
utilisation of the facilities differ from the
kind of utilisation that is planned? Is non-
utilisation related to defective functioning
of the administration of these facilities?
Is it related to a situation in which they do
not cater to the felt needs? Do people
hesitate to make use of them due to any
prejudice or to a feeling that there is loss
of dignity in using facilities provided for
"poor" or "backward groups" (Chitnis,
pp.203-4).
1974:
Another area identified and proposed for
research, by Chitnis, is the analysis of the kind of
impact that formal education has on segments of Indian
society. A city, town, village, neighbourhood, caste
group or any other definitely identifiable community
10
or
for
group are proposed as units that can be taken
the study. Among other areas, researches
up
to
analyse the role of education as an agent of change in
occupational structure and in social and occupational
mobility are also suggested by Chitnis.
Even after such remarks were m d ~ and specific
areas were identified, the status of researches in
this area remained the same. More studies in this
area have appeared on the educational development of
SCs and STs and most of them have taken descriptive
survey approach. They have tried to document the
sociographic profiles of those who utilise education
and have tried to document the problems they face in
education. There has been no effort to link the
interventions with their 'educational process and
outcomes'. The status of affairs with respect to
other weaker sections have been neglected. The
questions like,- who uses what kind of schemes with
what results among the Oaes? how to assess the
educational impact of various schemes? and what is the
efficacy of the alternative schemes to achieve the
same stated objectives? - have not been posed and
answered by the educational researchers. Attempts to
analyse and evaluate the role of such schemes and
strategies on the long term objective of bringing
about the changes in the living conditions of the
weaker sections still remain unaccompllshed. Before
1 1
attempting such studies it is necessary to
conceptualise the problems in educational terms.
Basically, issues related to the access, impinge upon
the educational system from outside and hence
perspectives of sociology and economics are required.
Once the student from weaker section enters the
educational process the issue needs the perspectives
of indlvidual and social psychology to understand the
educational development. Keeping in view the above
needs and perspectives the following problem has been
proposed.
Statement of the Problem:
"A Study of the Utilisation of Various Measur"es
Provided by the State to Promote Equality of
Educational Opportunity in the case of Other Backward
Classes in a District of Karnataka".
of the Key Terms:
Other Backward Classes: Unlike the caste or race
based classifications, the classification of
population on the basis of socio-economic criteria is
fraught with controversy. A historical account of
such efforts in the State of Karnataka in Indian union
1111 1 1 be discussed later. At the time of taking up
this study the Government had accepted and notified a
list (Appendix-I) of backward classes on the basis of
socio-economic and caste considerations. Results of
12
any such efforts are likely to undergo changes
depending on the changes in socio-economic and
political systems. For the purposes of this study,
the other backward classes represent the population
segment having the characteristics of socio-economic
and caste attributes as prescribed by the Government
orders between 18th May 1977 to 12th October 1986
(1986-87).
Measures for Equalising Educational Opportunity:
Government armed with powers based upon the
Constitutional Articles 15(4) and 46 had taken several
steps to facilitate the participation of otner
backward classes in formal education.
Some of the important schemes addressed towards
the backward classes in the State of Karnataka are:
1 Maintenance of hostels for boys and girls
matric and post-matric.
pre-
2. Award of scholarships
matric scholarships.
pre-matric and post-
3. Maintenance of Ashram Schools.
4. Fee concessions
5. Maintenance of orphanage
6. Supply of books and equipments to post-matric
students etc.
Among the above schemes, highest priority in
terms of financial allocations went to hostel schemes
13
followed by scholarship schemes. Other schemes
covered small number of beneficiaries or confined to
one or two geographical pockets. Hence the present
study focussed upon the hostels and scholarships.
Utilisation:
levels:
Utilisation is conceptualised at three
1) Growth of supply of resources at the macro level
(state level) over a period of time. The time span
chosen was from 1977 <when a separate Department for
oacs and Minorities under Ministry of Social Welfare
was established) to 1988-89.
2) Demand for places under <admission into) hostel
and scholarship schemes by different backward classes
categories and the socio-economic background
variations among the beneficiaries in one district of
Karnataka State.
3) Outcomes in the form of occupational
in the case of past beneficiaries of
facilities.
The Study Area:
attainments
the hostel
The Belgaum district in Karnataka constitutes
the study area. The State of Karnataka with its
territorial content as it exists now was formed on 1st
November 1956 under the States' Reoorganisation Act
<See Fig. 1.1), but continued to be known as Mysore
14
INDIA I
LOCATION OF THE KARNATAKA!
Bel-GAUNt ~
STATe 80UNO..AJi!Y ___ ._
..oi.6TI\ICT &OUNOAay __
~ STATE IN THE INDIAN UNION \
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
.ARABIAN SEA
Fi'16.ft
KARNATAKAI
;'/Y
:>r B IDA 'R '
. ~
GU'SA"f
ANDHRAPRALESH
rv"')
'J
~
I
V
--'
'--J
TAMiL NADtT
~
L,.
KOLAR J
\ ~
I
I
I
,
! I
40ft.
-
.......
A-..
.........
c_
-
..... ,.,
"-
-.-
--C

LOCATION OF THE BELGAUM
M"P OF
BELGAUM DISTRICT
t._.
.....
"I .
I ......
.....

--
1,1'1:1 ..
....
.""11"'''''''
-
k,a" ie-I ......... t ....
4' '''*_'
.""' ..... - I
..eo . ..,
..
Fie: J.2
16
DISTRICT
T
._T .... la.rn
n
..


....... ....--...........
.....
_ .... -
0-
", ... ,
State until 1st November 1973. It is located in the
western part of Deccan peninsular region of India and
lies bet",,!?en 11
0
35 , to 18 30' N latitudes and 74 5'
to 7SO 35' E longitudes. It is the eighth largest
State both in terms of area and popUlation among the
States and Union Territories of the Indian Union. The
district is located in the north-western part of the
State. It lies between 15" 23' to 16
0
58' north
latitude and 74- 28' east longitude. The district is
surrounded by Maharashtra State in the north, Bijapur
district in the east, Dharwad and Uttara Kannada
districts in the south, and Goa State and Maharashtra
State in the west. The location of the Belgaum
district in the State of Karnataka can be seen from
Figs: 1.1 and 1.2.
Selected demographic and socio-economic profile
of Karnataka State along with the Belgaum district
which is chosen for the study are presented in Table
1.1. As per the 1981 census the population of the
district was 29,80,440 constituting 8.03 per cent of
the State population. Though the district is generally
considered as backward it is agriculturally developed.
Table 1.1 gives the demographic and socio-economic
profile of the Belgaum district in comparision
Karnataka State.
17
with
Table LJ..L Profile of Belgaum District and Karnataka
State
Socio-Economic
Profile
Total population
Percentage of rural
population
Population Density
(per sq.km)
No.of inhabited villages
Se}: (in ~ c e n t :
Total Male
Female
Rural Male
Female
Urban Male
Female
Se:< Ratio
(Number of Females
per 1000 Males>
Workers
population (in Per cent)
i) Cultivators
i i) Agricul tural Labourers
iii) Household industry
iv) Others
Per capita income
(in Rs. for 1985-86)
18
Belgaum
District
29,80,440
77.47
222
1142
51.11
48.89
50.89
49.11
51.86
48.14
957
45.11
26.04
4.55
24.30
2037
Karnataka
State
3,71,35,714
71.11
194
27024
50.95
49.04
50.57
49.43
51.91
48.09
963
38.25
26.78
4.10
30.87
2263
con td .
Table 1.1 (contd )
Socio-Economic
Prof i 1 e
P.C. of irrigated area
to gross cultivable
area (1985-86)
Literacy
(in per cent)
Total
Male
Female
No.of schools
anQ.. colleges
(1986-87)
Lovler Primary
Higher Primary
High schools
Junior colleges
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Schools for professional
and special education
including teaher training
Polytechnic and Engineering
Schools
Colleges
19
Belgaum
District
26.8
30.86
56.51
36.64
43.29
66.74
48.65
17.98
45.50
24.08
1170
1199
347
8
35
10
43
Karnataka
State
18.10
31.05
56.71
38.46
42.06
64.98
48.81"
19.77
47.78
27.71
24,181
14,796
4,864
189
715
170
656
contd
Table 1.1 (contd )
Soclo-Economic
Profile
Educational Attainment
Levels of literate
population (in Per cent)
1) Without education level
2) Primary
3) Middle
4) Matriculation/
Secondary
5) Higher secondary/
Intermediate/
Pre-University
6) Dlploma
7) Graduate and above
No. 0 f Has tel s (BCM ) ( 1988-89 )
1) Pre-matric:
(i) Government
No.of hostellers
(i i> Aided
No.of hostellers
2) Post-matric:
Government
No.of hostellers
20
Belgaum
District
28.01
32.14
20.51
12.77
2.57
0.75
3.25
53
2361
25
1157
3
200
Karnataka
State
26.75
31.87
20.68
12.62
3.57
0.94
3.58
655
30,000
242
9,500
67
4,585
contd .
Table 1.1 (contd )
------------------------------------------------------
Socio-Economic
Profile
Number of scholarships
sanctioned (1988-89)
Pre-matric
Post-matric
Fee Concessions
(No.of Beneficiaries)
Source:
Belgaum
District
17,631
4,165
14,527
Karnataka
State
2,84,674
59,148
2,56,765
1) Census of India 1981, District Census Handbook,
Belgaum District Series-9. Karnataka Parts XIII.A
& B.
2)
3)
Census of India 1981, Series-9,
IV.
Karnataka,Part-
Census of India 1981,
9,Karnataka,Part XII.
Census Atlas, Series-
4) Government of Karnataka: Karnataka at a glance
1986-87, Directorate of Economics and Statistics,
Bangalore, 1987.
5) Government of Karnataka, Karnataka: Perspective
Plan 2001, Vol.l, Report of the Expert Group,
October 1989.
6) Figures for 1988-89, obtained from the Department
of Backward Classes and Minorities, Government of
Karnataka, Belgaum and Bangalore.
7)
Note:
Gazetteer of
district,1987.
India,Karnataka State, Belgaum
Wherever the reference year is not mentioned,
the data refer to 1981 census.
21
,
Conceptual Framework:
Study of the educational implications of the
amelioration schemes has to take
into consideration
the factors involved in the educational and
occupational attainment processes. Such studies on
general population, of which weaker sections form a
part, are available. A general conceptual model that
emrged from such studies is given in Fig.1.3. In the
western context, especially in USA, the model has been
used at the college level (Eckland, 1965; Duncan et
al.,1972; Sewell and Hauser, 1975). In the Indian
context, the compulsory education ends at IV or V
standard of primary education. Hence the continuation
of education beyond the lower primary stage is subject
to several socio-economic factors emanating from the
family and neighbourhood contexts. These factors can
be termed as access factors. Once an individual
enters the educational process, the performance in the
form of either achievement or number of years of
schooling completed is influenced by the
of school factors and the socio-cultural
interaction
environment
of home. This aspect of the model has to deal with
factors associated with educational outcomes. The
eventual occupational
educational outcomes,
parental status.
22
attainments are decided
the state of economy and
by
the
II.)
w
PARENTRL
SCHOOL
BRCKGROUND
'\
FRCTORS
FRrlILY
ENUT
,
l'
'-
/
EON

DEU
-7
I
i'-. /
"
SOCIO -
INDIVIDURL
ECONOrlIC DIFFERENCES
CONTEXT
EON
RTT
)
OCC
RTT
/

ECONOr'1Y
OCCN
--7l'lDBILITY
FIG 1.3:A GENERAL ATTAINMENT
MODj.
Thus, the general occupational attainment model
predicts low access, negative performance and low
occupational attainments in the case of weaker
sections in a laissez-faire situation. However, the
welfare objectives of the State after recognising the
fact of unfavourable conditions under which weaker
sections are placed, envisage intervention in the
attainment process. In such cases a special model of
attainment can be proposed. The model proposed in the
present study is given in Fig- 1.4 where the
interventions capable of altering access factors and
augmenting the socia-cultural environmentdl factors of
the individual results in positive gains in
educational
occupational
attainment and improve the chances of
attainment of higher order leading to
u p w ~ d social mobility are presented.
An analysis of the welfare objectives stated or
in the policy for educational development of
the weaker sections in general and other backward
classes (OBes) in particular indicate that the most of
the strategies aim
education. But the size
at facilitating access to
of the population qualified to
receive the special considerations meant for backward
classess being very large and the resources available
being very limited, most of the schemes turn out to be
",eak interventions. For example, scholarship scheme
for OBes cover large numbers as compared to other
24
N
Ut
PRRENTRL

rRMILY
ENUIRONP1ENT
50[10 -
ECDNOMIC
[ONTEXT
H 0 5 TEL ....... --1
ENUIRCNMENT ENUIRONMENT
... ,,,,
\11
EON I EON OC[ OCCN
ENROLLl"lENT DE 1,1 --7 RTT --7 RTT -7 MOBILITY
/r... 11\
,
INDIUIOURL
DIFFERENCE5
ECONOMY
FIG: 1.Lt OCCUPATIONAL' ATTAINMENT MODEL
THROUGH HOSTEL INTERVENTION
schemes. Under this scheme,any child belonging to
OBCs enrolled in upper ~ r i m r y onwards is
to receive a scholarship. But the amount
qualified
of the
scholarship is meagre ranging from Rs.75 to Rs.300 per
year depending upon the level of education. This money
cannot compensate for the earnings foregone, living
e:<penses and educational e:<penses. It has no
qualitative component resulting in enrichment of
family
process.
environment compatihle with
This drawback in the form
educational
of weak
intervention characterises all
t,..,
"- hemes except
hostel
scheme.
scheme and Ashram School <residential school)
These two schemes are mainly intended to
facilitate the education of aBC children from
localities not having adequate schooling facilities.
But the unintended positive results of the schemes due
to change of residence have not been focussed in the
evaluation of the policy towards educational
development of weaker sections.
The model depicted in Fig.l.4 is more applicable
to the educational development of OBCs benefitted by
hostel or residential school schemes. The
intervention is strong enough to compensate both
socio-economic and cultural deprivations of the OBC
families. The living and educational costs of a child
are taken care and the change of socia-cultural
environment due to the shift in the place of residence
26
from remote rural areas to urban and semi-urban
centres and better environmental stimulations in the
hostel contribute as educational inputs.
In the present study the model i. applied to
measure the occupational outcomes of hostel residents.
The result can be generalised to the residential
school becau.e of the identical nature of intervention
in both the scheme.. The findinQ. of such a study can
be compared with the available knowledge -about
occupational attainments based on the studies drawing
sample from general population (Singh, S.N., 1972;
Singh, J., 1978; Singh, 5.6., 1978; Modi, 1981)
Weaker sections in such studies become one category
Invariably such studies have shown positive relation
of home/neighbourhood inputs with educational and
occupational attainment. The findings clearly
indicate the nexus between impoverished backgrounds
and low performance. Keeping this in the View, the
study of the occupational attainments of hostellers or
hostellites* may indicate whether the strong
interventions improve the performance and attainments.
Scope of the Study. The study proposed above covers
the following aspects:
* Hostellers/Hostellites are used interchangeably
to denote residents of the hostel.
27
1) Contemporary historical developments leading to
aBC policy.
2) Growth trends of expenditure towards main schemes
3)
implemented in the area of educational
development of OBC's during eighties.
Study of background characteristics of the
beneficiaries of scholarship scheme and hostel
scheme in Belgaum district of Karnataka.
4) Follow up study of the past hostel beneficiaries
to study the occupational attainment process and
consequent occupational/social mobility in
relation to the parental generations of the
beneficiaries.
Expected Outcomes:
implementation of
The study intends to examine the
the policy of educational
development of OBCs in Karnataka and identify the
factors amenable to change through State intervention.
The policy implications of such a study may contribute
towards the review and modification of aBC policy.
Limitations:
The study of the hostel scheme is limited to the
residents of Government run hostel
in one l r ~ e
district of Karnataka. Even though survey covers the
two major schemes,viz., hostels and scholarships, an
in-depth analysis is attempted only for hostel scheme
28
to understand the educational development of the
beneficiaries
(hostel residents). The rationale for
such a decision is that, the scholarship scheme has
marginal educational input values and enough evidence
is available from the the findings of the studies on
educational and occupational attaiments of students
from general population including weaker sections who
pursue education while staying with their parents
(i.e., non-hosteller or day-scholars).
Overview:
The present Chapter has dealt with the genesis
of the problem, need for the study and conceptual
framework. It also focussed on the scope, expected
outcomes and limitations of the present study. The
second Chapter presents a review of specific studies
related to the present study in order to elucidate
their major findings and also to identify the existing
knowledge and research gaps and arrive at the possible
contribution of the present study in filling-up some
of them.
The Third Chapter aims at providing a
of the emergence of 'protective descrimination' policy
in general
and backward class welfare policies and
measures in particular, in a historical
covering pre and post-independence ppriods. Thp
Fourth Chapter describes in detail the methodology
29
follol&led in studying utilisation of measures
as well as the occupational attainment process. The
same Chapter also spells out the objectives and
describes the sample scheme adopted to fulfil the
objectives stated already as well as tools and method
of analysis used in the present study. A of
the growth of services, beneficiaries and expenditure
from 1977-78 to 1988-89 is attempted
section in the Fifth Chapter. In
in a
that
separate
section
presentation and interpretation of data is attempted
through graphs.
A descriptive but comparative analysis of the
utilisation and background profiles of pre-matric and
post-matric scholarship beneficiaries as well as a
comparative analysis of the scholarship and hostel
scheme beneficiaries in terms of background
characteristics and utilisation is presented in Fifth
Chapter under separate sections viz., II and III
respectively. In Sixth Chapter a descriptive analysis
of the educational development indicators in relation
to background characteristics, social interaction and
aspirations of the hostel beneficiaries is attempted.
Factors influencing the educational and occupational
aspirations of the hostel residents studying in
secondary level are identified by formulating
hypotheses and testing them, in a separate section
under the Sixth Chapter. Analysis and results of the
30
posta-facto
attainment
study of the present
in relation to educational
occupational
aspiration,
occupational aspiration and educational attainment of
past beneficiaries of the hostel scheme,
analysis are presented in Seventh Chapter.
using path
Results of the mobility analysis, measuring and
comparing the mobility achieved by the past hostel
beneficiaries as compared to their father and grand
father generations are also presented in Seventh
Chapter. The Eighth Chapter presents the findings of
different analyses and their policy implications along
with suggestions for future research.
31
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
In the previous chapter an effort was made to
discuss the contemporary position of amelioration of
the backward classes within the context of broad
theoretical framework of equality of opportunity and
social justice built into the Indian Constitution.
The focus was on other backward classes i.e., ",eaker
sections other than Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes. This Chapter concentrates on the academic
issues and review of researches related to the topic.
The role of education in bringing
social and economic change at the macro
about
level
the
has
attracted the attention of social scientists in recent
years.
area.
1974,
There exists considerable literature
Extensive reviews of such studies
1985; Buch (ed.) 1974, 1979, 1986;
in this
[Chitnis,
Karlekar,
1984; Simmons and Alexander, 1983; Karabel and Halsey,
1977; Psacharopoulos (ed. ) , 1987] are already
available. It is quite natural that much of the
earlier studies in the Indian context have addressed
themselves to the surveys of educational participation
in terms of class, caste, urban-rural, male-female,
regional dimensions etc.
Much of the inspiration to study education as a
conscious intervention in bringing about social and
economic developmental change has come from the
studies conducted in USA during late 60's and early
70's. The impact of such studies on the Indian scene
has been felt in late 70's and early 80's. Education
as a tool to bring about changes in the society has
received wider acceptance and higher priority in the
planned socio-economic development in India. In this
context education is not only viewed as an instrument
of change in the entire society but as a
ingredient
In addition
of reducing intra-societal disparities.
schemes and
implemented
to the expansion of education, various
programmes are being proposed and
to make education accessible to all
sections of population. Social scientists have
recognised these developments and have tried to
provide the research inputs to the formulation,
implementation and evaluation of schemes related to
the accessibility to schooling. Generally attention
has been directed towards the issues of education of
deprived sections of the society. This area has
attracted attention because of the policies pursued by
the state to facilitate the development of weaker
sections through education. The studies conducted in
this field can be classified as follows:
33
a) The inter-relationship of education and socio-
economic development;
b) Studies related to access to and utilisation of
educational facilities by different sections
especially focussing on the Backward Castes and
marginal groups;
c) Studies focussing on the interaction of socio-
economic background and educational outcomes;
d) Studies that have tried to identify the
intervening educational variables at the
individual level facilitating or hindering
attainments of education and occupation.
Even though the categorisation of the area are
not exhaustive and many a times they are mutually
overlapping, they serve as a meaningful framework to
review and identify the research gaps. An attempt is
made here to review the significant studies in this
area and sythesise their findings. This exercise will
help in formulating and defining the nature and scope
of the study undertaken by the researcher.
a) Inter-relationship of Education and Socia-Economic
Development:
A few philosophical analyses are available
regarding the issue of equality of educational
opportunity in the specific context as well as in
general human perspective. Seshadri (1980) has
34
analysed the equality issue in a philosophical
perspective and critically examined the concept of
equality of educational opportunity against the Indian
socio-philosophico-cultural perspective and the issues
relating to the policies and practices of equality of
educational opportunity.
The philosophical method, both critical and
analytical was employed to analyse the concepts of
equality, equality of opportunity and equality of
educational opportunity. The descriptive and
comparative method was employed to analyse the other
related concepts.
The major conclusions of the above study are:
(i) the idea of equality lays down the rule of
impartial consideration that no distinction should be
made in the distribution of the good. But partial
consideration or differentiation is justifiable, if
there were relevant grounds for discrimination. A
thorough understanding of the logical relationship
between the ground of diferentiation and the nature of
the good underdistribution should form the basis for
all such discrimination and protective discrimination
policies; (ii) some of the problems inherent in the
logic of Equality of Educational Opportunity (EEO)
were the growth of a meritocratic and an egalitarian
social order (iii) the EEO implied provision of
35
'\ ... ", ... 1
1/
free, compulsory and universal primary education as a
minimum condition and also implied making special
educational provisions for those with special merits
and special needs; (iv) the EEO in its weak sense
implied equalising the access to education by the
manipulation of the educational inputs so as to help
the disadvantaged to overcome their starting handicaps
and compete fairly with others; in its strong sense,
it implied equality, not merely of access but also of
results; (v) great caution needed to be exercised in
application of the merit criterion for the
distribution of opportunities for higher education in
view of the unsolved controversies relating to the
definition, identification, measurement and
development of merit and its relation
inheritance and environment.
The World Bank's working paper on
to genetic
education
(1974:34-36) points out that efforts to equalise
access to education is far from sufficient to ensure
equal opportunity. Equalising access is of course, a
necessary first step. The appropriate location of
educational
facilities is a simple but
effective
instrument particularly for lower levels of education.
At higher levels scholarship schemes and the provision
of living accommodation can be used to reduce the
barriers for the underprivileged.
It suggests to
extend subsidies to increase
the participation of
36
underprivileged groups, and not, as they are now, to
support children from middle and upper income
families.
fees can
An income-related system of subisidies and
thus be instrumental in equalising
educational opportunities.
The paper concludes that equalisation of
educational opportunities does not automatlcally
generate significant changes in income distribution
and social mobility. The impact of education on
mobility appears to be determined essentially by
pattern of stratification and the social and economic
system of rewards in each society. The sector policy
paper also cautions that in the absence of other
supportive social and economic action, isolated
efforts in education would have only a limited effect
on mobility.
Empirical studies conducted by Coleman et.al.,
(1966) and Jencks et.al., (1973) in the context of
U.S.A. throw light on the various issues relating to
the role of school and home in the education of the
individual. The team headed by James S.Coleman
undertook a survey of educational opportunity so as to
ascertain the lack of availability of equal
educational opportunities for individuals by reason of
race, colour, religion or national origin in public
educational institutions at all levels in U.S.A.
In one of the reviews (Patel, S.P. 1983: 58-62) of
37
this report (Coleman et al., 1966) on "Equality of
Educational Opportunity",it is noticed that the survey
addressed itself to the following issues:
1. How well do the schools reduce the inequality of
by providing children an equitable
foundation of mental skills and knowledge?
2. To what extent do children from disadvantaged
groups benefit from schooling?
3. What resources go into schools attended by
children of poor people in comparison to those
that go into schools attended by other children?
4. What is it about schools that has most effect
upon the results that they produce? or, why and
how schools are
The study used a series of achievement tests and
questionnaires on a sample of more than 6,00,000
students of grades I, III, VI, IX, XII and XIII in
4,000 elementary and secondary schools.
Some of the findings <of Coleman's study) are:
1. Minority group students scored less than whites
in Grade I. Their scores went on decreasing as
they reached higher standards. This meant that
the initial deficiency of minority group
children increased progressively with the rise
in the educational level.
38
2. Socio-economic status of children bore a strong
relationship to their achievement. Within each
racial group, the strong relationship of family
and economic and social status to achievement
actually increased over the elementary stage.
3. Differences between schools accounted for only a
small fraction of differences in pupil
achievement.
4. That school facilities and curriculum were much
less related to achievement than the attributes
of a child's fellow students in the school.
5. Academic achievement, especi.lly in case of
minority students, was strongly related to the
educational backgrounds and aspirations of other
students in the school.
In the light of the above findings the study
concluded the following:
1. The School has little influence on children's
achievement and inequalities imposed on
children by home, neighbourhood and poor
environment are generally carried along to
become the inequalities in their adult life as
well.
2. Equality of educational opportunity through the
schools must imply a strong effect of schools
which is independent of the child's social
39
3.
environment. But such a strong
effect is not present in schools.
independent
Altogether,
educational
the sources of inequality of
opportunity appear to lie in the
home,
home,
and its cultural environment around the
which the schools fail to counteract but
only perpetuates the social influences of the
home and its environments.
The
review finally concludes that
the said
report is not only stimulating and thought provoklng
but also reveals need for research efforts to uncover
the largely unknown and complex relationships among
family, school, community inputs and educational
outcome.
Jencks et al.,(1973) examined the ineffective-
ness or of educational opportunity as a
means of equalising income. They have made use of
secondary data collected earlier for a number of
previous studies like the Coleman study of EEO, the
project talent, Veterans study of 1964, and Duncan's
study of occupational change and socio-economic
structure etc. They attempted to examine the
assumptions behind the basic strategy of eliminating
poverty in U.S.A. The strategy was to give comparable
cognitive skills through schools to everyone entering
the job market.
40
The basic assumptions behind the strategy were
that poverty can be eliminated by helping poor
children, who lack cognitive skills like reading,
writing, computation, articulation and communication;
acquire such skills through school reform comprising
common schools for all, compensatory programmes for
disadvantaged, and involvement of the parents and
community or by some combination of all three
approaches.
The following issues were critically studied:
1. Inequality in the schools i . e. , expenditure
differences between schools and individuals, the
resources and social of schools, whites
versus blacks etc.
2. Inequality in cognitive skills, genetic and
environmental factors, school factors that influence
scores on standardized tests, the effects of family
background etc.
Non-cognitive outcomes of schooling, ac ademic
aptitude and academic credentials.
4. The effects of school quality on educational
attainment.
5. Determinants of occupational status and income
including inheritance, family background, educational
credentials, cognitive skills, and school quality.
41
The policies for increasing mobility and equality are
also examined.
6. The issues of extent of income inequality and
inequality in job satisfaction are enquired in detail.
In Appendix-B, Jencks and his associates
analyse the determinants of educational attainments,
occupational status and income. They have used the
analytical model of Otis Dudley Duncan, but have made
a number of extensions and alterations of Duncan's
model.
Their critical analysis revealed the following
findings:
1. Diffeerent individuals and groups get
unequal shares of the national educational resources.
2. Access to low cost educational services is
equal than high cost services.
3. Educational opportunities are far from equal.
That some people have more chances than others to
attend school with the kind of school-mates they
prefer and some people are denied access to the
curriculum of their choice.
4. Equalising the quality of high schools would
reduce cognitive inequality by 1 per cent or less.
Additional
school expenditures are
unlikely to
42
increase achievement, and redistributing resources
will not reduce test score inequality.
5. Both genetic and environmental inequality played
a major role in producing cognitive inequality. Those
who started life with genetic advantages tended also
to get environmental advantages. No evidence was found
that difference between schools
significantly to cognitive inequality, nor could
specific genetic or environmental determinants of test
performance be identified.
6.
I.Q.
Family background had much more influence than
genotype on an individual's educational
attainment which depended partly on socio-economic
status and partly on social and cultural
characteristics. The effect of cognitive skills on
educational attainment was significant. Qualitative
differences between schools played a very minor role
in determining how much schooling people eventually
get.
7. Occupational status was to be quite closely
related to educational attainment although there was
much variation between the status of persons with
equal educational attainment. Both family background
and cognitive skills influenced occupational status.
43
8. Neither family background, cognitive. skill,
educational
attainment
nor
occupational
status
explains much of the variations in men's income.
9. Job satisfation was found to be less explicable
than other things. It was only marginally related to
educational
earnings.
attainment, occupational
status and
The above findings lead to some interesting
conclusions which have far reaching effects and
implications for both educators and social reformers.
Sharma K.D (1975) studied equalisation and
utilisation of educational opportunity with reference
to Muslim community in India and finds them far behind
in comparison with others.
The purpose of the study was to make an
objective assessment as to whether inequality of
educational opportunity as felt by the Muslim
community in India really existed. For the purpose of
this study, educational opportunity was defined as
provision of schools for all, provision of necessary
wherewithal to all the schools and equally attractive
curricular offerings in terms of cultural heritage
without any bias against any religious or cultural
groups. The study was conducted in the City of Delhi.
It covered only the Urdu-medium primary and higher
secondary schools where most Muslim children study.
44
Some Hindi-medium schools were also taken for the
purpose of comparison.
A sample of 1989 children in Classes VI, VIII
and XI was taken, of whom 1344 were Muslims and 645
non-Muslims; 1126 boys and 863 girls. Also included in
the study were all the principals, headmasters and
teachers in these schools, 50 parents of Muslim
children and 45 prominent politicians, social workers
and educationists.
The data were collected on the following
variables: (i) neighbourhood - its general background,
<i i ) educational, occupational, economic, social,
cultural and ecological background of each family;
(iii) curricular and co-curricular programmes and
practices and attitudes of teachers towards them; <iv)
social distance and hurdles in their social
interaction; and (y) typical problems faced by Muslims
as minority community in India. The tools used were:
(U Questionnaire,
(i i) Interyiew and
(i i i) The
Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test.
Findings of the study are:
1. The Muslim community was much behind other
communities in the utilisation of educational
opportunities as shown by the 'co-efficient of
equality' which came to 74.0 and 23.6 respectively at
the primary and higher secondary levels of education.
45
2. The Urdu-medium schools had poorer buildings,
equipments and facilities. Most of them were
located
in highly congested parts of the city in dilapidated
and over-crowded buildings. The study concludes that
equality of educational opportunity could not be
achieved by law alone; for this to happen, it was
necessary to change the
structure, character,
practices and attitudes of society.
There are other stUdies related to inter-
relationships of education and socio-economic
development and equality of educational opportunity in
India [Shah, 1960; Desai, 1962; Ahamed, 1968; Hooda,
1968; Madan and Halbar, 1972; Gore et.al., 1970;
Premi, 1977; Chitnis, 1981; Chitra, 1982]. These
studies as reviewed in "A Survey of Research in
Eucation" (1972) have revealed that opportunity is
mostly open to the better strata of the society.
Educational atmosphere is more congenial in urban
families where either one of the parents or both are
educated. Chitra, 1969, 1982; Halbar and Madan, 1967
have found that caste plays a dominant role in the
provision and utilisation of educational opportunity.
Gore et.al., ( 1970) in their study have
attempted to examine whether education is governed by
the goals and values of equality, democracy and
secularism and also how far it inculcates those values
and attitudes.
46
data
The objective of the study was to provide
the attitudes of students and teachers on the on area
of education, the occupational aspirations of students
and the occupational satisfactions and adjustment of
the teachers. The study utilised the method of a
survey based on the use of precoded questionnaires
covering a sample of students,
institutions and parents.
teachers, heads of
The student sample of the study consisted of
11,631 students selected from eight states. Data
pertaining to students were analysed for the following
socio-economic factors like age, caste, religion,
language,
father's education, father's occupation,
rural-urban background etc. Details regarding work
habits of students, their attendance at coaching
clases, help from family members, opinion as to goal
of education were also analysed critically. The study
also examined (i) the future plans of students
regarding further studies or a job, (ii) ability of
parents to support future education etc.
Data were
also collected on educational and
occupational
students.
aspirations of high school and college
It was found that the students studied in the
sample belonged to 16-22 year age group. The average
age of the student was successively higher at each
47
stage of education. The students in the higher classes
of secondary schools and colleges were children of
educated parents.
illiterate parents.
Only 25 per cent
Generally children
students had
in higher
classes had parents with a higher level of education.
Parents of a large percentage of students were in
urban occupations. The percentage of students whose
parents were manual workers is very small. Researchers
after analysing the factors that handicap students
from Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes emphasised
the need for further researches regarding education
among Scheduled Castes and other Backward Classes. The
study also revealed that: (i) over-whelmingly, the
students saw themselves as future white-collar
workers; (ii) a large number of them at every level of
education expected to or wished to continue their
status as students for some time to come. The
scholastic aspirations was attributed as indicatlons
of indecision or a decision to drift until a choice
had been forced on them. Comparing the data on
occupational choice and occupational background the
researchers inferred that the major direction of
desired mobility waS from the rural agricultural and
urban clerical groups to urban-executive and
professional occupations. Education was very obviously
viewed as a channel for securing a place in the upper
half of the white collar occupations. This trend
48
characterised both boys and girls, and students at all
levels of education.
A
study by Chitra (1982) on
the social
background of some under-grauate women students (1963-
68)in Mysore city revealed the important role of caste
in utilising educational opportunities. It was found
that among backward classes the upper strata have been
beneficiaries of scholarships and freeships and
students from higher income strata enjoyed the highest
representation.
Premi (1977) attempted to measure the extent of
equality for the Scheduled Castes vis-a-vis non-
Scheduled
Castes in respect of equality
within
educational system and to study the trend with regard
to equality.
Primary data were collected for assessing the
role of privileges from the Scheduled Caste students
who were studying in colleges, professional
institutions and university teaching departments in
the Union Terriotory of Chandigarh. Secondary data
were also made use of in the study.
A critical examination of assumptions underlying
the scheme of educational facilities as well as
structure of facilities revealed that
(i) education
among the Scheduled Castes might not filter down as
advocated by Ambedkar, (ii) equal access to unequal
49
groups is not true equality; (iii) free tuition did
not mean free education to the majority of the
Scheduled Castes who were extremely ill-fed; besides,
the opportunity cost was much higher for them. The
findings of the study pointed out that EEO for
Scheduled Castes as compared to non-Scheduled Castes
was still a distant goal.
The study conducted by Chitnis (1981) had a
di ffer-ent perspective al together.. The study was
conducted on Scheduled Caste students studying at high
school and college levels of fifteen states covering
all regions of the country. The study indicates that
Scheduled Caste students ~ r not completely free from
caste discrimination and also they are not advanced to
a point at which they will feel confident to move
ahead without special protection. The study also
observes that girls are relatively more backward and
have much more restricted access to education than
boys. There are inter-caste disparities as the castes
that form a large percentage of Scheduled Caste
population
educational
in a state have better access to
facilities. The study also examines that
urban residence, changes in
occupation, soc i al
position in village community are also positively
related to the access to education among the Scheduled
Castes.
50
P anchamukh i (1981)
in the study entitled
"Inequalities in Educ:ation" has examined the e:<tent to
whic:h the poliC:ies of expansion had ac:hieved the aim
of equitable distribution of educ:ation.
A sample survey was c:onduc:ted with nearly one
thousand and fifty students from selec:ted primary and
secondary schools of an educationally advanced city,
viz., Dharwar. The scope of the enquiry was restricted
to pre-college educ:ation only covering 12 per cent
students from high sc:hools and about 7 per cent
students from primary sc:hools in a single town. The
investigation aimed at c:ollec:ting detailed information
on the dual aspec:ts of the problem, namely,
distribution of sc:hooling fac:ilities and participation
in these educ:ational fac:ilities. Details with respect
to students' c:harac:teristic:s, their soc:io-economic
bac:kground, their neighbourhood c:harac:teristics, and
school c:haracteristic:s were obtained. Bivariant
analysis based on perc:entages and averages was done to
know general trends and to draw broad inferences.
Multi-variant analysis c:onsisting mainly of regression
analysis, was undertaken to quantify the degree of
association between various students' c:haracteristics.
The main c:onc:lusions of the study were: (i)
partiC:ipation in educ:ation waS severely by
soc:io-economic: environment to whic:h students belonged;
(it> parents' inc:ome, but not sc:holarship, had a
51
significant positive influence on the performance
students; (iii) even the performance of friends had
positive influence. Another important conclusion
the study was that "home study rather than study
of
a
of
in
the hostel
performance".
contributed positively to students'
The study further adds, when there were
extreme socio-economic inequalities, policies for only
equalization of education were destined to be least
successful, because the access to and participation in
education was a function of several socio-economic
factors, and many of them could not be controlled by
an educational policy. The study reinforced the
argument that extension of educational facilities did
not necessarily ensure distributive justice in respect
of use of the educational facilities.
It is evident from the above studies that the
status quo maintained within the social system affect
the access to educational opportunity.
The studies reviewed so far especially in the
Indian context addressed the issues of educational
opportunities
in terms of access and outcomes at the
secondary and college levels. The equalisation of
educational oppportunity with respect to backward
classes has more relevance at the primary levels of
education. This area has been neglected both by
researchers and policy makers. However, the studies on
52
wastage and stagnation at the primary level do reveal
the interaction of educational system with other
social system. The feedback from such studies have
greater relevance to policy as well as the theory and
practice of education.
Studies on Access to Primary Education and Utilisation
The problem of wastage, stagnation and drop-out
occupies the bulk of research studies under this area.
In a number of studies on wastage and stagnation
conducted in India, poverty or low
status has been found to be a prominent cause of
school drop-outs and failures [Gadgil and Dandekar,
1955; SIE, 1969; Pratap, 1971; CARE, 1977; Pi llai
et.al. , 1980; Kasinath,1980; Srivastava and Gupta,
1980; and Vathsala, 1981]. Studies have also been
conducted to look into the problem of attendance, and
dropout among girls (Borsoda, 1955; Bhat C.L. 1955;
Saksena, 1960; Singh,
1961). The main causes of
irregular attendance and dropouts among girls were
poverty, illiteracy of parent,
unsympathetic attitude of
early
parents,
marriage,
domestic
duties,religious observances and festivals, etc.
In India, the incidence of wastage and
stagnation is so high that out of 100 children who
enter Class I , only 40 are able to pass Class V and
only 25 Class VIII. While the rate of wastage and
53
stagnation at the primary stage for India as a whole
is 60 per cent, a number of States have much higher
rates than this (Ministry of Education and Youth
Services, 1965). The above observations are
applicable even today and the rate of wastage remain
more or less the same, though the practice of
repeating standards that is detaining students in the
same class as failures have been abandoned in the
recent past. In Gadgil and Dandekar's study and in the
study conducted by the NCERT, more school dropouts
than stay-ins were found to be children of low
education and low income labourers and artisans from
lower castes and backward classes whose families
needed a helping hand in running the home,
after younger children or earning a living
S.P. 1983: 74).
looking
(Patel,
Valecha and Abraham (in Buch ed., 1986: 861-2)
in their
highlights
trend analysiS report the following
quoting from several studies on wastage,
stagnation and drop-out.
(i) Poverty, caste, poor educational backround of
parents, poor quality of teaching, faculty, admission
policy, death of parents, under-nourishment,mental
retardation were some of the reasons for wastage and
stagnation. Grade I had the highest percentage of
wastage i.e., 31.8 per cent (SIE, 1969).
54
(ii) The highest absenteeism was observed in January,
February, April and October. This is related to the
cycle
of agricultural operations, festivals
and
marriage seasons (Pratap, et al., 1971).
( iii) Moreover,
it was found that the
largest
percentage of drop-outs due to household duties was
noticp.d in Standard V while that due to financial
difficulties in Standard I.
The drop-outs
were
numerous
in the lower income group
(Bureau of
Economics and StatistiCS, 1970).
(iv) The drop-out incidence was higher in the primary
stage and more among boys. Students belonging to
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe and other backward
communities constitute majority of the drop-outs.
Large size of the family was found to exert influence
on the drop-out rates (quoted from Pillai, Benjamin
and Nair, 1980).
CARE - India, Karnataka (1977) has conducted an
evaluation of mid-day meal scheme. It was found that
the mean percentage of attendance increased.
Absenteeism not only decreased but the mid-day meal
programme produced stability in attendance and
increased the enrolment rate by 4 per cent.
I<asinath (1980) has made an attempt to assess
the extent of wastage and stagnation at primary level
in Bellary district of Karnataka. Wastage and
55
stagnation
indices were developed by the researcher.
The investigator compared the wastage and stagnation
indices for relevant sub-groups based on sex,
school
type
location and educational level. The tools used
in the study were a school information sheet,
pupi 1
information sheet, interview schedule for parents and
teachers. The data were analysed employing analysis of
variance, chi-square and rank correlation
techniques.
Among the major findings, the study revealed that
there was a relationship between availabi.lity of
instructional facilities in the school and rate of
wastage and stagnation. The rate of wastage and
stagnation was negatively associated with co-
curricular activities provided in the schools. The
rate of wastage and stagnation are positively related
to the pupil-teacher relation. There were more wastage
than stagnation cases among small sized families,
families of lower income and educational level,
families engaged in occupations like agriculture,
labour or artisanship,families which had suffered the
loss of one or both parents, or where child was first
born or the only child.
Study conducted by Nayanatara (1981) attempted
to investigate into the extent of non-enumeration,
non-enrolment, non-attendance and drop-outs at the
elementary stage of education. The study was confined
to Tumkur district in Karnataka State.
56
The main findings were: (i) the percentage of
irregular attendance was 63.12 in households where
the family size was 5 to 8; (ii)
the reasons for
irregular attendance were reluctance of the students,
work at home, peer group
influence and I ack of
clothes; <i i i )
ninety per cent of the
irregular
attenders came from an income bracket of Rs.5,OOO per
annum. Drop-out rate was significantly high among
other castes, communities; (iv) drop-out rate in
illiterate families was thrice that of literate
families belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes and other caste communities; (v) majority 'of
the drop-outs belonged to low income families and
agriculture families.
Apart from the above mentioned studies there are
quite a few studies available in the field of
educational research pointing out directly or
indirectly to the similar causes of wastage and
stagnation at other levels (Kamat and Deshmukh,
Patel, Divan, 1981; and Mohan, 1981).
1963;
Most of these studies are unidirectional in
nature. They tend to attribute the causes of non-
enrolment, detention and dropout phenomena to the
factors arising out of the socio-economic background
of the families, socio-psychological attributes of the
parents and the cultural differences in perceiving the
importance of education. Such studies have given rise
57
to policy formulation for educational development of
weaker sections, which covers the issue of access to
education
by providing increased facilities
and
incentives to attract children to the schools. But the
persistence of the magnitude of wastage especially in
the form of school dropout indicates that the answer
can only be found partially through the
above
mentioned policies.
In the light of the above, it becomes necessary
to look into the educational processes and ~ p out the
factors contributing to the educational performance of
weaker sections.
Studies Focussing on the Interaction of Socio-Economic
Background and Education&l Outcome5:
The relationship between socio-economic
background, family background and educational
achievement is well established through a vast number
of researches. The fact that children from rich
family background achieve high educational attainment
as compared to children coming from poorer background
has remained undisputable. Further, family background
plays a decisive role than school factor in
determining the educational achievement. This is
substantiated by a number 01 researches [Fraser, 1959;
Chopra, 1964; Das,et.al.,
1966; Chandrashekaraiah,
1969; Rath,et al.,1979; Kamalesh, 1981; Patel,
1983;
Ameerjan, 1984].
58
As already discussed studies on the relationship
between socio-economic status of children and their
academic performance were unable to say why some
children with the same socio-economic status
(f am 11 Y
background) and intelligence achieved better than
others (Patel, S.P. 1983). For this, studies of the
socio-psychological processes that go on in the home
environment i.e., what happens to the child at home,
how he is treated by his parents, what positive
actions are taken by the parents in preparing him for
the school etc., are important.
Fraser's
(1959) study investigating into the
functional aspects of the home environment was one of
the earlier studies addressing this issue. In this
study an attempt was made to relate the total effect
of home on educational achievement. The results showed
that both material conditions and socio-psychologlcal
variables were equally important.
Chopra's (1964) study on "Relationship between
socio-economic factors and academic achievement of
high school students" pointed out that comparatively
higher proportions of the students from the lower
socio-economic group failed in the high school
examination and that socio-economic background was
one of the important determinants for continuation in
school. The investigator further observed that when
classified on the basis of father's occupation, family
59
income,
type of lodging, father's education
and
cultural
level of the home, students from higher
qualitative categories showed significantly higher
mean achievement scores than those belonging to lower
categories. However, when intelligence was held
constant the differences in the academic achievement
of the students from the different castes,
though
significant at 0.05 level, were not high enough to be
significant at 0.01 level, and when students from
different castes were matched for father's occupation
the mean academic achievement did not show any
significant differences. The findings do not support
the traditional prejudice against the lower castes and
suggest that given adequate facilities lower caste
students can also show satisfactory
performance.
Rath et.al., (1979) have studied
abilities and school achievement of
academic
cognitive
socially
disadvantaged children. This was a comparative study
consisting of three groups, namely, Brahmlns,
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The total Slze
of the sample was 330 students of V standard, which
included 110 students from each of the above groups.
Rotter's levels of aspiration test board,
Raven's progressive matrices, auditory vigilance test
and a verbal concept formation test were the tools
used to collect the data on cognitive factors.
60 '
To assess the achievement of the students the
total marks secured by children in all the subjects
were considered. Structural interview schedule
used to assess the attitude and the interests of
was
the
child. The family and parental educational background
were assessed by finding the educational attainment of
all the members of the family. The data were analysed
using percentages, analysis of variance, chi-squares,
correlation and t-test.
The main findings of the
study
significant difference between the three
revealed
group?;
Brahmin children were found to have better scores on
comprehension and aspiration, higher academic
achievement, higher parental educational backgrounds
and higher aspiration level as compared to Scheduled
Caste and Scheduled Tribe children.
Patel (1983) made ~ attempt to find out the
nature and extent of educational opportunity for
children of urban slums in Delhi. The investigator
found that children of slum schools had less
favourable conditions and facilities for studies at
home, less parental support, lower self-concept and
motivation for achievement. In academic achievement
the slum children lagged behind the non-slum children
and so also in personality development.
61
Study conducted by Ameerjan (1984) compares the
Scheduled Caste students with the students of backward
castes, tribes and and forward caste with
respect to certain selected background variables. In
the study, the first year students of different degree
courses in the University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore, were the subjects. The relevant findings
of study were: the Scheduled Caste and Tribe
students were relatively older and had disadvantaged
family background. The previous academic achievement
of students was of lower level. There were significant
differences amongst the three caste groups in
achievement. Backward caste group occupied the
position between forward caste group and Scheduled
Caste/Tribe group.
Kamalesh (1981) made an attempt to compare the
self-concept, adjustment, interests and motivation
among the Scheduled Caste and non-Scheduled Caste
students. The sample for the study consisted of two
hundred rural and two hundred urban undergraduate
students randomly selected from the degree colleges of
Kanpur and the surrounding area. Data were collected
with the help of the self-concept scale devised by
Rastogi, the adjustment inventory deviced by Saxena,
the interest priority scale by Chattarjee and SES
scale by Kulshrestha. The study revealed that non-
SCheduled Caste students from the urban area belonging
62
to higher socio-economic status had brighter self-
concept than the Scheduled Caste students belonging to
lower socio-economic status. The interests of the
students were related to their socia-economic status.
The level of adjustment among the urban Scheduled
Caste students belonging to lower socio-economic
status was below normal. The non-Scheduled Caste
students, both in the urban and the rural areas did
not have adjustment problems.
Two studies conducted in Karnataka, focussed on
the achievement of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
students (Aruna, 1981; and Shashidhar, 1981). Aruna's
study used primary school students as sample. It
revealed that there was a significant correlation
between the socio-economic status and the academic
achievement of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe
students. Shashidhar's study (1981) using secondary
school students revealed that the socio-metric status
was not significantly related to the achievement of
the Scheduled Caste girls but it was positively and
significantly related to the achievement of the
Scheduled Caste o y ~ of standard IX.
Das,J.P. et.al., (1966) reports the results of a
study involving cognitive competence of four caste
class sample. The
psychological survey.
investigation
The cultural
was a
milieu
socio-
under
reference in the study was the caste to which the
63
child belonged. Comparisons were made
on some
cognitive functions such as short term recall and
cross model coding. The study in the main revealed
that in addition to economic status, caste was an
important factor in cultural deprivation. Harijans,
rich and poor were found to be backward in word
reading speed.
Bramhin children,even
when of
comparable economic level did better than Harijans in
short term recall.
A study conducted by the Indian Institute of
Psychometry (1982) compared the performance of the
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates in
aptitude and knowledge tests with that of general
candidates. The study revealed that there was a
difference between Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe and
non-Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe candidates and the
observed difference between them was mainly due to
difference in their academic background. Further, the
researchers observed that the economic level of the
family favourably helped even the Scheduled
Caste/Scheduled Tribe candidates.
The above studies clearly reveal the nexus
between the socio-economic background variables in
general, particularly the family background and
educational outcomes. Since aBC students are also
found to come from poorer home background, it may be
64
assumed that their educational achievement also may be
much on the lower side.
Aspirations (Educational and Occupational):
It is a well established fact that individuals
coming from rich family background aspire for higher
status in
counterparts
education and occupation
hailing from poorer family
than their
background.
Some of the studies have developed composite socio-
economic status and seen the aspiration in the
background of family status and as social class
phenomenon. Few studies also indicate differences in
the vocational aspirations of students belonging to
different religious groups (Khan, 1985). The studies
reviewed here under SUbstantiate the above theory.
Singh, Pandey et al., (1976) have analysed the
educational aspiration of the Scheduled Caste students
in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The sample consisted of
students of standards IX and X. The sample consisted
of Scheduled Castes only and no control group of non-
Scheduled Castes have been studied. It was found that
largest number of respondents aspired for
intermediate, graduate and master level of education.
Over 55 per cent of the sample students wished to
achieve a bachelor's or master's degree in arts,
science or commerce. The researchers consider this
aspiration as high compared to the socio-economic
65
background of the Scheduled Caste students. Further,
it was found that there was a relationship between
strata, time devoted for studies, economic status and
educational aspiration. The relation between economic
status and aspired educational status, was of inverse
type. There was no relationship between the father's
education and educational aspiration.
Prince (1981) has made a study of the aspiration
for education in pupils from the deprived community in
the schools of Tamil Nadu. A representative sample was
chosen from all the fifteen districts in Tamil Nadu.
One hundred fifty two high school students and 102
higher secondary students were involved in the study.
Socio-Economic Status Scale, Cattell's Culture Fair
Intelligence Test, Differential Aptitude Test and
Comprehensive Value Scale were the tools used. Data
were analysed using techniques such as t-test, chi-
square test, F-test and multiple regression analysis.
Apart from other, the relevant findings were that
backward community pupils had highest level of
aspiration which was significant as compared to
forward and deprived community pupil. Of the three
communities (backward, deprived and forward) standard
IX pupils belonging to the backward community were
having highest level of aspirations and there was a
highly significant relationship between the level of
66
scholastic achievement and socio-economic status and
the level of aspiration for education.
Rao (1985) has looked into the factors
influencing the choices at the higher secondary level.
The factors included in the study were socio-economic
status, parental guidance to the
achievement of the student,
students, academic
educa t ional and
occupational aspirations of the s t ~ d e n t The sample
consisted of the students of class XI drawn from the
four streams of courses available in Delhi schools.
The study concluded that the variables such as SES,
parental guidance, academic achievement, educational
aspiration, occupational aspiration were found
significantly associated with educational choices, in
addition to the above, occupational values were found
to be significantly associated with
choices.
occupational
Lal (1976) studied the occupational aspirations
of Scheduled Caste students studying in under-graduate
classes in Rajasthan. This study dealt with the
impact of some selected variables on occupational
aspirations. The economic status which was considered
as one of the variables in the study was determined on
the basis of perception of students themselves.
The study concludes that increasingly the
Scheduled Caste students are drifting away from
67
traditional occupations. That a higher proportion of
Scheduled Caste students aspire for government
positions followed by professional occupations etc.,
and then the skilled occupations like nurses
, typist,
teachers,
etc. Variables like father's education,
source of
encouragement,
economic
status,
participation in extra-curricular activities and
exposure to mass media do not seem to create
significant difference in the occupational aspirations
of the Scheduled Caste stUdents.
Study conducted by Pendharkar (1977)
investigated the occupational aspirations of the
students at under graduate level. The sample consisted
of 300 Hindu students. Stratified random sampling
method was used. Data were collected using a
questionnaire, and an observation schedule. The case
study method was also used. The data were analysed by
computing mean, standard deviation, correlation etc.
The main findings of the study were:
(i) The
occupational aspirations, as compared to occupational
expectations were on the higher side and in general,
students aspired for mostly professional/technical
occupations; (ii) The level of occupational aspiration
was substantially associated with the level of the
extent of
financial
knowledge of occupation and
rewards; (iii) The higher the
the idea of
occupational
status of father, the higher the level of parental
68
education,
the higher the level of parental
income,
the higher also was the level of the occupational
aspiration of the student; (iv) The Brahmin students
and Vaishyas were associated more
with higher
educational aspirations
and Kshatriyas and Shudras
were associated
more
with lower educational
aspirations; (v) The caste traditional and the family
traditional occupations were aspired for by the
students only when those were high and non-manual.
Pathak (1981)
analyses the educational
achievement, aspiration and attitudinal orientation of
the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The. study
was conducted in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh.
The study was conducted with a survey design on
a sample of 225 SCheduled Caste and 175 Scheduled
Tribe students, studying in high school and
colleges. The data was analysed by
calculating percentages for the comparison of
different groups.
The main findings of the study were: (i) out of
students studying in high schools only 12.09 per cent
had first division in their junior high school
examinations and out of those in intermediate classes
only 2.16 per cent had first division; (ii) education
was regarded as a means of livelihood by 33.25 per
cent and as a means of social status and prestige by
69
26.50 per cent; (iii) educationally, 43.25 per cent,
23.25 per cent, 5.75 per cent,2 per cent and 2.5 per
cent of the students, aspired to achieve bachelor's,
master's, law,
engineering and
medical degrees
respectively. Another 23.25 per cent of them wanted
to have teacher training. Two-thirds of the students
hoped that they would achieve the aspired level; (iv)
vocationally, 28.85, 23.75, 15.75, 10.75, 9, _7.25 and
4.75 per cent students aspired for agriculture,
teaching, medical, engineering, government service,
law and commercial professions; (v)
a majority of
55.75 per cent students never took part in games and
sport and only about 3.5 per cent had participated in
debates; (vi) about 81 per cent of the students in the
sample had the facility of Scheduled Caste and
Scheduled Tribe scholarships.
Bedi's (1982) study on aspiration of adolescents
as related to SES,intelligence and sex was conducted
on 750 male and female adolescents of Chandigarh,
chosen at random from six schools of different
categories. The tools used for collection of data were
Dev Mohan Socio-Economic Scale (Revised), Aspiration
Scale for Education, Personal and Social Aspirations
Scale developed by the investigator, and occupational
aspiration blank developed by the investigator. The
statistical techniques used for analysing the data
were correlations, chi-square and factor analysis.
70
The major findings of the study were: (i)
educdtional
adolescents
intelligence;
and occupational
were significantoly
aspirations of
correlated with
(i i)
Socio-economic
status had
significant relationship with adolescent's educational
and occupational aspirations; (iii)
the factor of
awareness affected educational and occupational
aspirations. The factor of prestige was not affecting
aspirations.
Chopra S.L. (1984) studied the occupational
aspirations of adolescents from different socio-
economic levels in India, apart from analysing how far
the students aspired for upward mobility by using a
relative standard. The ~ m p l e for the study consisted
of 598 boys, age range 15 to 16 years, randomly
selected from 12 boys schools in Lucknow district. The
statistical method used for analysis were percentages
and chi-square test.
The study revealed that the differences in the
number of students from the different occupational
groups aspiring for professional, administrative and
executive occupations were statistically significant
and significantly larger number of students from the
higher occupational groups aspired for higher type of
jobs.
71
Study also indicated that when an absolute
standard was used,
the students from the higher
occupational groups aspired for comparatively higher
occupations. However, when a relative standard was
used it was observed that students from the lower
occupational group. also showed a desire for upward
occupational mobility and aspired for occupations
higher than those in which the fathers were engaged.
A comparison of the educational and
aspirations of Hindu and Muslim school students was
attempted
theoretical
h'ypothesis' ,
by Khan (1985)
The study
formulations like 'life
'achievement syndrome' and
discusses
chance
'lateral
transmission of values'. The sample for the study
consisted of 55 Hindu boys, 59 Hindu girls, 66 Muslim
boys and 53 Muslim girls studying in Class X of the"
session 1982-83. Data were collected by using the
same questionnaire as was used by Gupta (1977) in his
study of the educational aspirations of the Asian
immigrants in U.K.
Apart from the other findings, the study
revealed that
(i)
while none of the Hindu boys and
girls wished to leave school before
16 years, 5.7 per
cent of the Musl im girls and 4.5 per cent of the
Muslim boys wished to leave school before 16 years;
(i i)
as for vocational aspirations,
a higher
percentage of Muslims than Hindu boys expressed their
72
deSIre for jobs like high professional, big business,
and medium professional.
In both the communities,
a
higher percentage of boys than girls aspired for
higher level jobs; (iii) a higher percentage of Muslim
than Hindu boys reported financial
difficulties and
lack of influence in reaching the desired
level of
education and occupation, respectively.
Uplankar (1988) studied the influence of social
background on the educational and occupational
aspirations of college students.
The relevant objectives of the study were (i) to
e:<amine the part played by religion/caste/sex in
influencing the educational and occupational
aspirations after controlling the effect of social
backg round;
(i i)
to analyse the influence of the
social background in terms of caste, or social class
on the two aspirations of the respondents after
controlling the effect of other variables at a time or
simultaneously. The sample consisted of pre-university
second year students studying in colleges of Gulbarga
city (Karnataka). Semi-structured questionnaire was
used to collect the data.
Study considered the two independent variables:
( a )
the traditional group, viz., religion, caste
and
se:< and (b) the social class background. The
educational and
occupational
aspirations were
dependent variables.
For measuring the significance of difference the
study employed chi-square and t-test. For measuring
the association between independent and dependent
variables, the statistics Gamma was used. Further, to
test the hypothesis rigorously statistical measures
such as Karl Pearson's product moment
partial correlation) and multiple
regression were used.
(simple and
(step-wi.se)
upper
The main findings of the study
(mean age 18.16) and middle
were: (i)
(18.42)
the
caste
students were younger than the lower caste (20.21)
students. The upper and middle caste families were
more concerned about the education of their children
than the lower caste families and were likely to send
them (ch i ldren) earl i er to school; (i i ) the caste
status by itself or as an independent variable (when
the effect of social class background was controlled)
was not found to influence the educational and
occupational
researcher
respondents
aspirations
infers that
of the
ritual
respondents.
status of
has ceased to act as a source
The
the
of
motivation for higher or lower aspirations. The study
attributed this to the increased facilities provided
by the government to the low and backward castes.
However, caste appeared crucial in influencing the
74
.,
.
aspirations of the respondents when viewed in relation
to class status. This means, within caste groups there
were differences in the aspirations of the respondents
according to class divisions.
Nevertheless,
the
influence of caste on the educational and occupational
aspirations of the respondents was important as there
was congruence between caste and class status in
Indian society; (iii) the influence of social class
background
on the educational
and occupational
aspirations of the respondents was significant after
controlling the effects of religion, caste and sex;
( i v )
attempts were made to explore rigorously to
know,
which of the social background variables
religion, caste,
sex and social class background
(CICB)
had a decisive and significant influence on
the educational and occupational aspirations of the
respondents. For this purpose, the study used
statistical tools, viz., partial correlation and step-
wise regression. By this rigorous analysis, the study
concluded that it was the status of the social class
(background) rather than the traditional group status,
which was beginning to influence the educational and
occupational aspirations of college students.
Mohanty (1972) conducted an investigation on a
group of male and female college students to verify
the influence of sex, SES and class performance on the
level of aspiration. The study shows no influence of
75
SES on aspiration and
infers that the level of
aspiration behaviour seemed to be related to academic
success.
Saxena
(1981) has conducted a study of need
achievement
in relation to level of aspiration.
The
study was conducted on a sample of 300 male and 300
female students of classes IX and X selected from
different schools of Agra city from science and arts
faculties only. Apart from others, the tools used were
the
achievement motivation test (Prayag Mehta)
and
level of aspiration test (Shah and Bhargava).
The main findings were:
there was a
relationship between need-achievement and the level of
aspiration.
Sex differences were significant as far
as the level of aspirations were concerned; (ii)
boys
and girls having high level of aspiration differed
significantly regarding need-achievement scores.
Muthayya (1960) attempted a study on level of
aspiration and its relation to modes of reaction to
frustration among adolescents. The study covered 252
boys and girls in the age range 13 to 17 from two
schools, one in Madras and the other in Coorg. The
level of aspiration was measured through six tasks,
viz., card sorting, Rotter's level of aspiration
board, finger dexterity, digit computation and letter
cancellation.
76
The main findings of the study were:
aspiration was set above the past performance in all
cases;
( i i )
the educational level had no influence
over
one s aspiration
level; (i i i)
there was
negligible correlation between aspiration and school
achievement; (iv) the past performance had significant
with the future aspiration; (v) subsequent
performances significantly correlated with aspiration.
The study by (1979) aimed at determining
the amount of inter-correlation between adjustment,
the level of aspiration and achievement. The sample
consisted of 500 students studying in Class XI. An
inventory and the test of the level of aspiration were
used to collect data. Marks secured by the students at
the high school examination were used as achievement
scores. The study indicated that significant
relationship existed between adjustment, the level of
aspiration and achievement.
The investigation by Tara
(1980) aimed at
studying the influence of SES on self concept, the
level of
aspiration and interest at pre-adolescent
stage. The study revealed that a significant positive
relationship was noticed between parental occupation,
parent's education, monthly income of father and level
of aspiration and SES affected
the vocational
interests of children.
77
Apart
from the above, there are quite a few
other studies conducted with regard to vocational
preferences (Grewal, 1971), and vocational aspirations
(Gaur, 1973, Pillai, 1977; Uchat, 1981>.
These studies
in general point out to the
factors influencing the educational and occupational
aspirations of students in different levels and in
different context.
One theme that is of relevance to
the present study is the role of social class, home
with
background
aspirations.
The
educational
intervening
attainments.
and educational performance
above studies focussed upon mostly
and occupational aspirations as an
leading to educational variable
However, the next link in the status
attainment process, namely, occupational attainments
have not been included in the models. Inclusion of
occupational attainment in the above models assume
importance when education is viewed as a means to
bring about changes over generations in the direction
of equality of outcomes. Therefore, studies on social
mobility as a consequence of educational
assume importance.
79
attainment
Studies on Occupational Attainment,
Mobility and Social Change
Occupational
Studies relating to occupational mobility and
social change dominated the field of
sociology.
FLlt'the r,
the research models indicating the role of
education
in occupational attainment leading
to
occupational mobility and social change have gained
importance (Kuppuswamy B.
and Singh B. , 1967;
Mehrotra, 1973; Jayaram, 1976; Mani, 1977; Singh J.
1978; Narayan, 1979; Singh M. 1980; Singh. R. 1982).
Kuppuswamy and Singh (1967) assumed a cumulative
causal interlinkage among the variables of their SES
scale. They conceptualised that "education has been
considered to be a deciding factor of one's
occupation, occupation an important intervening
variable in income advantage and the income a positive
factor in deciding one's social prestige which in turn
influences the educational level of the succeeding
generation and possibly of the same also (Singh
Y , 1974: 327).
Jayaram's (1976) study revealed a strong
tendency for maintaining social status defined in
terms of education and occupation, between grand-
father's and father's generations. This tendency
towards status inheritance or status constancy or
status retention was all the more pronounced in the
80
case of upward mobility between the father's and
student generation.
Further, the study revealed a
tendency for occupational inbreeding
profession and this seemed to have
implications for the social structure.
in medical
significant
In addition,
regarding
education
the admission to higher and professional
the study revealed that even though the
admission was based on mnerit, in actuality it seemed
to be determined by a set of non-academic and socio-
cultural factors like caste, economic background,
ability to afford, status of parents, medium of
instruction at school, etc. Facilities for higher
education were available mainly to the higher stratum
of society or the higher SES group. Besides the
above, the study also revealed that the programme of
rural education had failed in the village under study.
The factors that seemed to adversely influence
education in villages were poverty, low socio-economic
background, impoverished verbal environment, the
inability of the villagers to attract or retian the
highest quality teachers etc.
Mani (1977) attempted to trace the
socio-
economic background of teachers, their origin and also
the generational social and occupational mobility of
teachers. The study revealed that the social origin
of persons as teachers was heterogeneous and they
emerged from different classes, castes and strata of
81
society. Most of the teachers had emerged from the
agricultural background and middle class families.
Singh J.
(1978) has studied the impact of
education on vertical social mobility as measured by
income, occupation and social status. The sample
consisted of 450 fathers in the age range 46-65, and
1300 sons in the age range of 26-45 years, selected
from 450 families, in the Union Territory of
Chand igarh. The tools used were the SES scales (urban
and rural) developed by Kulshreshtha, the occupati9nal
prestige scale by D'Souza, as well as job satisfaction
scale and the parental aspiration scale developed by
the investigator. Among other statistical techniques,
skewness, kurtosis, critical ratio, percentages, rank
of order correlations, t-ratios, coefficient
correlations were used for analysis of data. The main
findings of the study were (i) about 79 per cent of
the population had upward inter-generational social
mobility and 10 per cent downward mobility and 11 per
cent had no inter-generational mobility;
strata of society had lower parental
(iii) the vertical social mobility
(i 1)
lower
aspirations;
conSistently
decreased with the increase in the educational level.
Sharma, S.L. (1979) in his study on "Modernizing
Effects of University Education" made an attempt to
analyse the effect of hostel exposure and duration of
stay on modernity of stUdents. In this study, hostel
82
system lAlaS conceptual ised as one of the "integral
component of the non-academic facet of educational
environment".
believed that
On theoretical grounds,the researcher
hostel experiences may conduce
attitudinal modernity. The researcher also expected,
on theoretical grounds, that a significantly larger
percentage of hostellers would be modern compared with
day scholars. Also that the duration of hostel
exposure was expected to be positively related to the
level of modernity. The study found no significant
relationship between hostel exposure and the modernity
of hostellers. However, a positively significant,
though weak, relationship WaS found between years of
hostel exposure and modernity scores.
Another study by Singh M (1980) attempted to
analyse "social origins, educational attainments and
occupational mobility among Scheduled Castes in
Delhi". The study attempted to answer the following
questions: (i) To what extent waS sons' occupational
status associated with that of father? What was the
role of demographic and socio-graphic factors and
educational attainments in inter-generational
occupational mobility? (ii) What kind of organisation
did he get work in? What WaS the mode of entry to the
job? (i i i) What waS the correlation of father's
occupational status
(social origins) and son's
occupational status? To what extent WaS the influence
83
of father's occupational status reflected
in the
association between father's occupational status and
son's education? How did SCheduled Castes evaluate
their mobility relative to others who had achieved
upward mobility? etc.
Data for the study were based on interviews with
209 persons with a minimum qualification of high
school who belonged to four Scheduled Castes of Delhi.
The respondents were selected on the- basis
of
purposive sampling. The final sample consisted of
seventy five Chamars, sixty five Balmikis, thirty four
Khatiks and thirty five lulahas. Data pertaining to
variables under study were collected using interview
schedule specially prepared. The data were analysed
with the help of path analysis.
The main findings were: (i) the majority (59 per
cent) of the respondents had fathers who had no
schooling and around 30 per cent were educated below
high school; (ii> there was a fairly high degree of
occupational mobility. The proportion of the
population who belonged to occupational strata higher
than that of the fathers, varied between 25 per cent
for those whose fathers were clerks and 88 per cent
for those whose fathers were marginal workers. There
was a growing mobility from skilled/semi-skilled
manual jobs to low status clerical services; (iii)
84
those who move upward from manual to white-collar jobs
were more likely to be persons with higher educational
status and were those who had an elder brother with
higher level of education; (iv) large families did not
adversely influence the educational attainments of the
responden ts; (v) younge r sons had higher edud at i onal
attainments than the eldest son; (vi) father's
occupation had the largest influence on son's level of
educational attainment; (vii) there was a high
correlation between the educational attainment of the
respondents and their current occupational status
(path coefficient 0.37); (viii) there was a strong
relationship between the career eaxpectations and the
level of educational attainments; (ix) the respondents
of high school origins had high career expectations
while higher proportion of respondents with low social
orig ins had
coefficient
variables on
low career expectations; (x)
the path
showed the effect of
pre-determined
various dependent variables. The
influence of father's occupation was quite evident. On
the other hand, the influence of type of family on
educational
attainment was insignificant.
With the
exception of the family variable, all other variables
fathers occupational status, respondents age and
respondents level of educational attainment were
positively related to son's first occupation.
85
. The study selected the persons of Scheduled
Castes of considerable educational attainments. It is
understood that the parental generation normally will
have very low variation in terms of educational and
occupational status.
In other words, the parental
generation will be homogeneous in nature.
It is also
a common knowledge that the state intervenes in the
case of Scheduled Castes to bring about the
educational development. The path model should have
some place for the influence of these measures of
intervention either in the form of a variable or
having separate path models for those who utilise
different schemes of intervention like scholarship,
hostel facilities, residential school etc.
Singh, R. (1982) has studied the impact of
education on social change among tribals of Ranchi.
The study revealed a significant difference in the
areas like occupation, housing, family income, health
habit, economic planning, etc., apart from other
areas. The study concludes that education has created
a significant difference among educated tribals who
had gained consciousness towards modernisation.
The study by Prajapathi (1982) aimed at
assessing the impact of education on social, economic
and political changes among Scheduled Castes. An
interview schedule was prepared to collect data, which
86

included various aspects of socio-political and
economic life of Scheduled Castes. The study revealed
that Scheduled Caste respondents preferred high salary
jobs irrespective of power, status and respectability.
Thus, they regarded economic advantages as more
important than others. Further, the study observed
professional mobility among educated Scheduled Caste
youths. However, despite the various measures taken by
the government, they had not been able to gain in
social status in the rural areas.
Apart from the above, there are other studies
which have attempted to understand the process of
social mobility in relation to influence of other
factors including the impact of education (Singh,
S.G., 1978; Pandey,P.N., 1979; Islam, 1983). Some of
the studies examine education in relation to
stratification and mobility among students. Sarkar
(1980) and Sarkar and Mukhopadya (1980) have dealt
with education and mobility.
Singh S.G
(1978) reveals that there was a
positive change in the structure of expectation with
reference to the ethnic endogamy among the educated
people, occupational and social mobility, social
structure etc., which has been attributed to the
impact of modern education.
87
Pandey (1979) has tried to analyse the influence
the Scheduled
their
their
status
living
of education on social mobility among
Castes in terms of vertical changes in
ranking along with mobility in
arrangement etc. A sample of 350
respondents Were
quota sampling.
drawn according to
stratified
Education was the main independent
and rural-urban background were
variable, income
also treated as
independent variables. Observations, including
participant observations were utilised besides the
interview schedule.
Statistical devices used were
mean, chi-square test, correlation and percentage.
The main findings of the study among others are:
(i) the growth of modern education and the changing
socio-economic status among Scheduled Castes were
closely related to each other; ( i i ) among the
educated there was a strong aversion to traditional
social status and occupational structure; (iii) they
were more achievement oriented than ascriptive
oriented.
The above studies indicate that educational
attainment will lead to occupational attainment and
consequently social status. The studies also show the
greater role played by the education in the case of
weaker sections in the above process.
88
Apart from the academic studies reviewed above,
there are several studies mainly to evaluate the
various
measures for the development of
weaker
sections
implied under protective
discrimination
policy. Such policy related studies contribute to the
understanding
of the management aspects of
the
measures.
Awareness regarding the Facilities provided under
'Protective Discrimination' Policy:
There are studies about the awareness of
educational facilities like special institutions and
incentives. Awareness has been studied in relation to
students, parents and awareness within the Scheduled
Castes (Dubey, 1974; Gangrade, 1974; and Sachidananda
and Sinha, 1989) These studies on educational
problems of Scheduled Castes both at school and
college levels found that most students are aware of
the scholarship facilities and reservations in
educational institutions. On the other hand, several
other studies found that some of the school and
college students are still not aware of the special
reservations in education and scholarship schemes
etc., meant for Scheduled Castes (Lakshmanna, 1975;
Sharma, 1989).
89
Y ad a v, S . K ,
(1984) in a research review has
attempted to catalogue the studies conducted regarding
the awareness about educational schemes amongst
Scheduled Castes. The paper states that the awareness
of Scheduled Castes about educational schemes has
generally been considered the most important factor
for the educational progress of Scheduled Castes. In
this context, it may be mentioned that Chitnis (1977b)
compared awareness of hostellers and non-hostellers,
and the study revealed that hostellers have distinctly
higher level of awareness than non-hostellers.
Studies on Policy Measures and their Management Issues
As already discussed, Chitnis (1974: 203-4) has
emphasised the need for studying the impact and role
of educational facilities and special institutions
meant for weaker sections of the society to promote
equality of educational opportunity. Though a few of
the studies reviewed above under different
classifications interalia dealt the issues relating to
educational facilities, there have been studies which
have examined and evaluated various dimensions with an
emphasis on educational facilities as the main theme
(Pratap, D.R. et.al., 1971; Dubey S.N. and Usha
Mathur, 1972; Lakshmanna, 1975; Solanki and Shah,1977;
Shah,V.P. and Patel T. 1977; Desai B. and Patel A.
1981; Khobragade and Patil, B.R. 1981; Pramila Bai,
1984; Thiagarajan, 1986; Sharma R.C. 1989). Barring a
90
few,
majority of the studies are descriptive and
narrative in nature.
Pratap et.al., (1971) have made an attempt to
study the Ashram schools in tribal areas of Andhra
Pradesh.
selected
The sample conssited of six Ashram schools
from four districts of Andhra
Pradesh.
Twenty parents of the inmates Qf each school were
selected at random, and all teachers of the sample
schools were interviewed. School records like
attendance registers, admission registers, inspection
notes, inspection reports were also referred to for
the collection of data. The study revealed that most
of the Ashram schools were having non-tribal teachers.
A number of schools were not inspected even once in
two years. The study materials, dress, and beddings
were not supplied on time. The average percentage of
absenteeism was 31.60 while the stagnation index was
38.1 for the Ashram schools.
Lakshmanna (1975) has attempted to find out the
extent to which the facilities provided by Government
had benefitted the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes. The study consisted of 462 Scheduled
Caste/Scheduled Tribe respondents studying in high
schools in Andhra Pradesh. The study revealed that
only 179 out of 462 students received scholarships
regularly and a large proportion of the scholarship
91
beneficiaries faced some problem or the other. Only
about 181 out of 462 were in hostels; the majority
were ignorant of the hostel facilities provided by the
government. Majority of the respondents were not
aware of the provision of job reservation for them.
They observed further that a boosted figure of inmates
was provided for the purposes of accounting; there was
no link between the hostels and schools.
An evaluation study of post-matric
scheme by Solanki and Shah (1977) in Gujarat has been
reported. The sample consisted of 901 scholarship
recipients selected out of 6353 recipients randomly.
The study revealed that major source of information
about the scholarship was the college office. The
resposndents sought increase of scholarship amount.
There was a considerable delay in disbursement of
scholarship amount at the college level.
Another study conducted by Shah V.P. and
Patel,T. (1977) analysed the information available
from fresh/renewal application forms filled in by the
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe students who were
awarded post-matric scholarship in the years 1967-68
and 1971-72. The main findings of the study were: (i)
there was a downward trend in the proportion of
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe post-matric scholars
enrolled for diploma courses; (ii) among the Scheduled
Caste/Scheduled Tribe post-matric scholars enrolled
92
for degree courses about 1/2 of the males and 3/4 of
the females were enrolled in arts colleges; (iii) out
of the total of sixty eight Scheduled Castes in
Gujarat, there was not a single post-matric scholar
from as many as twenty eight Scheduled Castes.
Khobragade and Patil P.R (1981) have conducted a
study to review the admission and performance of
backward class students in Government in
Dhule, enrolled under statutory reservation. The
study has considered data on admission and
performance,
for a period of 12 years based on
institution records. The study revealed that two
hundred and sixty nine aBC students took admission
3gainst a quota of 120 during 1966-74 and 120 against
60 during 1975-77, the over rate of admission was due
to the fact that a large number of aBC students stood
in general merit list along with other candidates.
Rastogi's study (1976) on the impact of constitutional
provisions upon the uplift of Scheduled Castes found
that the respondents of different age groups were
aware of the different constitutional provisions for
protecting the interest of their communities.
Premila Bai (1984) has attempted (i) to examine
the extent to which the special educational facilities
offered by the Government of Karnataka have been
utilised by Scheduled Castes, at primary school stage;
93
(ii) to diagnose the problems they might face in
utilising the facilities. The findings of the study
are: ii) utilisation of pre-matric scholarship among
Scheduled Caste boys was better than Scheduled Caste
girls; (ii) there existed disparity among districts in
utilisation of scholarship; (iii) the utilisation of
hostel facilities by the Scheduled Caste as well as
the non-Scheduled Caste pupils in Karnataka state was
very low during 1961-62 and 1977-78; (iv) percentage
of the Scheduled Caste as well as the non-Scheduled
Caste girls who resided in hostel were lower than the
percentage of respective groups; ~ ) utilisation of
hostel facilities by the non-Scheduled Castes was
poorer than that of Scheduled Castes; ~ i ) there was a
conslderable delay in using/obtaining the Scheduled
Caste certificate and parents face hardship in getting
Scheduled Caste Certificate. The study concludes that
efforts in the education of the Scheduled Castes in
Karnataka State are not wanting, rather they need to
be intensified.
Thiagarajan (1986) has attempted to look into
certain educational and sociological aspects of the
Scheduled Caste college students in the Madurai
Kamaraj University in Tamil Nadu.
All first degree Scheduled Caste students of the
six general and two professional colleges formed the
sample for the study.
94
The main findings of the study are: (i) the most
preferred occupation of the respondents,
of sex and course of study are: (a)
irrespective
Executive and
Administrative Service, (b) Clerical and related
service; (ii) the two least profeSSional occupations
are (a) self-employment and (b) skilled job; (iii) the
residents of the government hostel reported that
they
did not receive any coaching in their hostels; (iv) a
section of the respondents experienced difficulties
such
as delay in sanctioning the scholarship
(37.29
per cent),
delay in getting certificate
from the
revenue
authority (62 per cent) etc.; (v) as regards
the extent of utilisation of reserved seats
(18 per
cent)
in general colleges, optimum utilisation was
found in arts courses (14.86 per cent) as compared to
science courses (11 per cent).
Girls had better
utilisation of reserved seats in comparison to boys.
Sharma R.C (1989) reports a critical review of
the programmes for educational uplift of Scheduled
Castes in Rajasthan like scholarship, hostels,
freeships, reservations in ITI's, uniforms, text books
etc. He also provides the mode of administration and
implemenation of the schemes. The author discusses
the factors which hindered the implementation of
various schemes. The major factors identified are: (i)
lack of funds, and delay in providing concessions and
incentives; (ii) inadequate coordination among various
95
departments;
(iii) shortage of
Scheduled Caste
hostels; <iv) lack of awareness among SCheduled Caste
students
about the concessions
and incentives.
Further,
the author states that on account of the
above factors the educational development of Scheduled
Castes is far behind the other communities.
Apart from the above studies there are other
studies which have attempted to examine the. facilities
namely, scholarship and hostel as one
of- the
intervening/independent
variables (Youndi, 1971;
Beebout, 1972; Thias-Carnoy, 1973; Carnoy-Thias, 1974;
Nagaraju, 1977; Chandrashekharan,
1979; Deb, 1980;
Panchamukhi, 1981; Barkar and Kurulkar, 1982;
Sachidananda and Sinha R., 1989).
One policy variable which also intensifies the
exposure to learning environment is the provision of
boarding facilities* (Simmons and Alexander in
Simmons (ed. ) , 1983: 88) In the above study
boarding refers to equivalent like hostel, at the
secondary school. Studies of Carnoy-Thias (1974) for
Kenya and Tunisia and Youndi's (1971) for Kenya, show
that "boarding", independent of home background, has a
greater influence than any other policy controlled
*
In the above
considered as
96
mentioned study 'boarding'
equivalent to hostel.
is
variable.
the other
The Beebout (1972) study for Malaysia,
hand, found that boarding is
on
not
statistically significant.
It is clear that the
findings about the boarding as policy variable are not
conclusive, which has also been emphasised by the
remarks "that no general recommendations on boarding
can be made to developing countries without further
study" (Simmons and Alexander, in Simmons fed.), 1983:
89)
The above remarks show the need for empirical
studies on the impact of boarding
(hostel) on the
educational development and outcomes of the
individuals as well as segments of the society.
Nagaraju (1977) conducted a study of a few
social factors affecting scholastic achievement of
Scheduled Caste students in secondary schools of
Karnataka. The study has also tried to find out the
difference in the achievement levels of the hostellers
and day scholars besides attempting to find out the
level of educational achievement of Scheduled Castes
as compared to the population in general.
The sample consisted of 534 Scheduled Caste
students compriSing 212 from Standard VIII, 227 from
Standard IX and 95 from Standard X studying in 22
schools. The data were analysed using mean, standard
deviation, product moment correlation
correlation. Among other findings, the
97
and partial
study found
that there was no significant difference between the
achievements of hostelities and day scholars at all
standards.
The significance of mean differences
were
tested with the help of critical ratio, computing
separately
for different standards.
The
concludes that the hostelites do not perform
than the day scholars rather both the groups
study
better
perform
at the same level. The study emphasises the need to
pay closer attention to the qualitative improvement of
hostels.
Deb (1980) conducted a pilot survey of socio-
psychological problems of rural students migrating to
urban areas for studies. The researcher has developed
a fifty item self reporting inventory (Rural Urban
Hostellers' Adjustment Inventory) to indicate the
social climate of the hostel as well as the problems
of rural students. The study revealed that there was
a lack of cultural taste on the part of the rural
hostellers. The rural sample faced difficulty in
adjusting themselves to the fast life of the urban
centre.
Barkar and Kurulkar (1982) have analysed the
post-graduate employment experience of the weaker
caste students graduating from Marathwada University.
The major objective of the study was to make an
assessment of the employment experiences of the
students belonging to Scheduled Castes and denotified
98
nomadic tribes, graduating from the University during
the academic year 1977, 1978 and 1979. Students from
16 colleges numbering
3800 were selected.
Questionnaires were mailed to 1406 students and 916
questioinnaires were received back.
In addition to
mailed questionnaires 150 students were interviewed.
The main findings of the study are: (i) there existed
a close relationship between low caste and low status,
low paid jobs; (ii) there was a relationship between
high caste and high status, high paid jobs; (iii) low
caste graduates required on an average a longer job
search period (16 months) than their high caste (14.3
months) counterparts; (iv) there was a difference in
the general rate of unemplolyment between the low
caste (73 per cent) and high caste (59 per cent)
graduates. The educational performance of the low
caste graduates was unsatisfactory as more than 66 per
cent passed graduation examination in third division;
(v) about 91 per cent of the low caste students
received government scholarship which proved to be
quite helpful to encourage them. The proportion of
the low caste students securing merit scholarships was
meagre as against the high caste students.
A study of Sharma J.P. (1982) has attempted to
identify social, economic, educational and political
problems of the Scheduled Caste students in Patna
University.
One of the main findings of the study
99
revealed that there was disparity between Scheduled
Caste/Scheduled Tribe and other castes in respect of
facilities and climate in the hostel.
Chandrashekharan
(1978) made an attempt
to
evaluate the effectiveness of the incentive scheme for
pupils in the field of primary The study
pointed out the following main findings: (i) The
scholastic achievement reflected
in the rate of
promotion was not related to the presence of the
incentive scheme, and (ii) about 88 per cent of the
head masters confirmed that the attendance scholarship
schemes for girls though limited to a few, had led to
the improvement of attendance among girls in schools.
Sachidananda and Sinha (1989) have made a study
of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the state
of Bihar. The data for this study was collected in
70's as part of a nation wide survey of the problems
of education among Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes under the auspices of ICSSR.
The sample consisted of 174 and 223 Scheduled
Caste and Scheduled Tribe school students respectively
selected from about 36 schools and 225 Scheduled Caste
and 243 Scheduled Tribe college students selected from
36 colleges. The study also covered 288 teachers. Data
were collected through a questionnaire designed by the
ICSSR.
100
Main findings of the study are:
(i) Most of the school and college students had
offered arts subjects;
(ii) The majority of school and college students were
living with their parents.
of college students are
hostels;
A substantial number
also boarders of
(iii) The bulk of school students did not participate
in extra-curricular activities whereas the
college students participated in debate and
library activities i.e., the school students
were non-participants while college students
were low participants.
(iv) Most of the Scheduled Caste students studying in
high school had high academic aspirations and so
were the Schedusled Caste students in colleges;
(v) The bulk of Scheduled Caste students at school
and college levels, had their three best friends
from their own or other Scheduled Castes.
(vi) The majority of Scheduled
Tribe students
studying in school as well as college, had shown
preference for government jobs. Semi-
government, private jobs and self-employment
received preference only next to government
jobs.
101
A separate analysis and comparison has been
attempted for the hostel students with non-hostellers
in this study.
analysis are:
The main findings of this comparative
(i) About 17 per cent of the school students
resided in hostels, whereas about 54 per cent of the
college going sample resided in hostels;
( i i )
There was no marked difference in age of hostel
and non-hostel school students;
(i i i) All
school hostellers shared rooms
with
students of their own or some other tribes;
(iv)
The bulk among school hostellers were females
whereas the college hostellers were males;
(v)
With regard to school going students and the
levels of education of their father, it was noticed
that those who were living in school hostels had high
educated fathers in comparison to those who were
living with their parents. In other words, at the
school levels, fathers of the hostel students were
better educated than the fathers of the non-hostel
students. In the case of college students no
significant trend was noticed. The non-hostellers had
better educated fathers than the hostel students.
102
(v i>
Majority of school hostel students
(56.4 per
cent) devoted four or more hours to their studies
whereas the non-hostel school students <41.4 per cent)
devoted three hours and more. College hostellers were
more devoted to their studies as compared to non-
hostellers.
(v i i)
In case of college respondents, the
level of
aspiration of hostellers was much higher than that of
the non-hostellers.
Summing Up:
To sum up, the review of the researches indicate
the following tentative conclusions:
(i) Performance in education is influenced by family
related socio-cultural and economic factors. The
( i i>
middle and upper class values and living style
are highly associated with higher performance in
education.
Mediating between background influencing factors
and performance are a set of interacting socio-
psychological
variables like aspirations,
concept,
factors
interest, etc. By and 1 arge
are motivational in nature
self
these
in
translating family inputs and educational inputs
into performance.
103
(iii) Educational
occupational
performance
attainment.
do contribute to
However, such
influence
is more pronounced in the case of
lAleaker
sections,
thereby
justifying the
emphasis on
education
in the protective
discrimination policy.
In addition to the above three generalisations,
it can also be said that the studies conducted so far
do not include the nature of intervention by the State
for educational development. The educational policy
for weaker sections include various schemes to achieve
the same objectives. However, the effectiveness of
these schemes in relation to objectives are not
studied.
Secondly, many of the stUdies on
development of weaker sections have
ignored
the
these
intervention schemes. Instead, the attention has been
focussed upon the socia-economic background of the
different sub-class and castes, categorised under
broad segments called weaker sections <backward
groups) . Very few studies have focussed upon the
process of educational development of weaker
Fourth, even though there are quite a number of
stUdies comparing various antecedent factors to the
educational and occupational developments taking
sample from general population, in-depth stUdies on
the educational and occupational development of weaker
sections are not sufficient enough to substantiate the
104
soundness of the schemes under protective
discrimination policy.
Backward Classes' who
Finally, studies on
do not find place
Constitutional Scheduled Caste list are absent.
In the
light of the above knowledge
'Other
in th@
base
v i l ~ b l e and the gaps identified, the present study
would contribute to the understanding of utilisation
Of educational opportunities in general and the
hostel facilities in particular by the other backward
classes. The study emphasises the educational
consequence of hostel residence during the pre-matric
stage on the current educational attainment and future
occupational attainment.
In the next chapter an attempt
provide a synopsis of the emergence of
is made to
'protective
discrimination' policy in general and backward class
welfare policies and measures in particular,
historical perspective.
105
in a
CHAPTER III
THE BACKWARD CLASSES AND THE RESERVATION POLICY:
HISTORY OF RESERVATION IN KARNATAKA
CHAPTER III
THE BACKWARD CLASSES AND THE RESERVATION POLICY:
HISTORY OF RESERVATION IN KARNATAKA
Introduction:
The State of Mysore (called as Karnataka since
1st November 1973) was under the British direct
rule
for half a century between 1851 to 1881. It ll/as
restored to the Wodeyars, ruling family of ~ y s o r in
1881. The British direct rule in Mysore State
"Cjf:'I-lerated certain changes that shook the politlcal
and administrative system. But in their social policy
they IlJere rather hesitant and did not attempt
change tearing adverse reactions. Hall/ever,
any
the
British rule in Mysore radically changed the economic
structure besides the political structure. The
Commissioners established a centralised State and
introduced modern education, means of education and
other institutions" (Chandrashekhar,S. 1985: 2)
During this period British Commissioners had also
in t r'oduc ed some reservation policies. The State of
Mysore
native
after its restoration to
rulers, developed the
Wodeyars who were
State system by
strengthening the policies and the structural network,
including the reservation policies, left behind by the
British adapting it to the native rule. The
reservation policy was continued till 1921 with minor
modifications. However, it was revived and
significantly changed in 1921 by fixing varying quotas
for different backward communities based on the
recommendations
submitted its
of the Miller Committee, which
report in 1919. This policy
had
was
continued upto 1959, though India
independent Nation in August 1947, the
became an
Constitution
was adopted in January 1950 and the new .State of
Mysore came into existence in 1956 under the States
Reorganisation Act. The addition of large areas of
erstwhile Hyderabad and Bombay provinces and the Coorg
territory to then existing Mysore State necessitated
the State to have a fresh look at reservation policy
and quota for backward classes. This had to be done
in the light of the various prOVisions of the Indian
Constitution keeping legal guidelines issued in this
behalf. There have been several attempts by the State
to identify Other Backward Classes, through various
committees and commissions, within the framework of
the Indian Constitution. The committees and
commissions have made attempts to identify the OBes
for the 'protective discrimination' in educational
development and employment. They have also recommended
several measures for the educational development of
OBes. But all these efforts were met with legal and
socio-political obstacles. Thus, in the following
107
paragraphs an attempt is made to trace the history of
the
involvement of the State in the welfare of
the
'Other Backward Classes' in Karnataka, along with a
brief discussion
of provisions in the Ind i an
Constitution that are relevant in the context of the
I"elfare of OBCs.
History of Reservation in Karnataka:
Involvement of the State in the
perJ.od:
The history of reservation in Mysore State goes
back to 1850. "During the days of British
Commission's rule in Mysore State between 1851 to 1881
reservations were made for non-brahmins, as the
brahmins had monopolised the services and the
professions" (Venkataswamy Commission, 1986: p.12).
In the British province of Madras and in the princely
State of Mysore there was preponderance of Brahmins in
public services. The Mysore Government following the
Madras pattern, made reservation in favour of backward
classes as far back as 1874, during the days of the
British Commission (Havanur Commission, 1975: 100)
According to the above order,8 out of 10 posts should
be given to the people other than Brahmins. In 1895,
appointments in the Police departments were made by
giving proportionate representation to Brahmins, non-
Brahmin castes and Musalmans. Despite the scheme of
communal reservation from 1874, the representation of
108
other communities in the Government departments was
far from being satisfactory and the Brahmin domination
continued.
Government
in favour
Therefore,
in January 1895 the Mysore
issued a further circular reserving posts
of the Backward Classes <Government of
Mysore, 1895)
In 1914 a system of recruitment by
nomination was introduced, by which the post of
Assistant Commissioners were filled appointing members
. of
the backward classes. Inspite of such
encouragement given to backward classes their position
did not improve. In 1918 the Mysore Government
noticed that there was a large preponderance of
Brahmins in the State services and desired that other
underrepresented communities should be adequately
represented in services. Finally, on 23rd August 1918,
the Mysore Government appointed a committee under the
chairmanship of Sir Leslie C.Miller, the then Chief
Justice of Mysore with six other members. "Mysore was
the first State to appoint a committee to go into the
demands of the backward classes" <Chandrashekar S.
1985: 58).
Miller Committee:
The Commission under the Chairmanship of Miller
IAlaS asked to examine the following issues and give
appropriate recommendations.
109
(i) Changes needed, if any, in the existing rules of
recruitment to the public service.
(i i)
Special facilities to encourage higher and
professional
communities.
education among members of the backward
( iii)
Any other special measures which may be
taken,
to increase the representation of
the backward
'communities
in public service for diffusion of
education among backward communities.
The Miller Committee proceeded on the assumption
that
and
the e:<pression Classes"
communities including Muslims
meant castes
(Mohammadan
commuAity) who not adequately represented. The
Miller Committee defined the term Classes'
to include
Europe-Olns
communities,
all
and
the communities except
Anglo-Indians: "By
Brahmins,
backward
we understand generally those castes or
communities coming under a general head of caste or
community as enumerated in the census report of 1911,
Illh i c h con t a i n less than 5 per cent of literates in
English. The Indian Christian, Mudaliar and Pillai
communities are also included for certain purposes in
the backward communities It will thus be seen
that the term backward classes is recognised to
include all the communities in the State other than
the Brahmin" <Miller Committee, 1919: para 3, p.1.).
110
The Committee obtained data and information to
e:: amine the
issue and made several recommendations
regarding backward communities as per the questions
referred to it.
The recommendations broadly related
to the following areas:
1) PubllC Ser .... ice
2 ) Ed uc at ion
a) Primary Education
i) Primary education (among depress.d classes)
ii) Primary education (among other backward'
classes)
b) Secondary education
c) Scholarships
4) Hostels
5) Muslim Education
6) Recruitment to public service
It may be noted that the Committee classified
the backward communities into two classes in its
recommendatory part. One was the 'depressed classes'
which meant Panchamas who were untouchable <who are
now classified under SCs) and the other one is the
'other backward c l s s e s ~ which referred to non-
panchama non-brahmin backward communities.
The following were some of the relevant main
recommendations:
111
i ) Within
a period of not more than seven years,
around half of the higher, and two-thirds of the lower
appointments in each office, are to be held by members
of communities other than the Brahmin community,
preference being given to duly qualified candidates of
the depressed classes when they are available.
( i i ) For the other backward classes, it recommended a
wider of primary education by establishing
more schools with competent and better paid teachers
and supervising staff.
(iii) For the panchamas, a system of special panchama
schools with teachers drawn from the panchamas, a
large extension of the system of small scholarships to
overcome the reluctance of the parents to spare their
children to attend schools, establishment in each
district an institution like the Central Panchama
Institute in Mysore, with boarding and special
facilities for general and industrial education were
recommended.
( i v ) An early increase in the number of lower
secondary schools of the Anglo-Vernacular type.
Schools of the purely vernacular type were suggested
to be converted to make English a compulsory subject
in order to give equal opportunities to the rural as
well as the urban population.
112
v) To have a fair proportion of
teachers recruited
from the backward classes and to extend special or
extra allowance to teachers of the backward classes
who lAJork
in Malnad Service, also to have a fair
proportion of the
backward classes.
inspectors of schools from the
vi) The special scholarships in addition to general
scholarships and the appointment of representative
sub-committees consisting of one or two educational
officers, and three non-officials representing
important communities for the better distribution" of
both general and special scholarships.
vii) Two-thirds of the number of existing Indian and
foreign scholarship was recommended to be reserved for
backward classes for about 5 years.
In addition to the above,
specifically recommended several
the committee had
aspects regarding
hostels as important measures. They read as follows:
(a) Hostels should be constructed in all
headquarter towns and there should be at least
taluk
three
separate kitchens in all hostels, two for vegetarians
and one for non-vegetarian (para 17).
(b) In Government hostels, a certain proportion
(not
less than 50 per cent) of seats should be reserved for
pupils of backward classes (para 17).
113
(c) Private and communal hostels should be given the
same grants as the government hostels (para 17).
(d)
The claims of backward classes should
be
satisfied
first upto one-half the number of seats
available in each class or section in all schools and
colleges (para 17).
The committee submitted its report on 18th July
1919. Kantharaj Urs was the Dewan of Mysore at
that
time. lOUrs had to face much opposition to the
implementation of the report. The report could not. be
implemented because of opposition from the top
bureaucrats (Chandrashekhar S. 1985: p.57). The
report was opposed even in the assembly by all, e x ~ p t
V.T. Bhashyam a liberal representative. The Committee
report saw the light when a strong
delegation pressed for its acceptance.
after a lapse of nearly 2 years the
non-Brahmin
On demand,
report was
accepted and an order giving effect to majority of the
recommendations of the committee was passed on 16th
May 1921, giving details of the policies and
modalities for implementation. However, regarding
Government recommendations on education, the
sanctioned all except the increase of scholarship
which was held under consideration and the reservation
of seats in educational institutions which was
deferred. In the subsequent years, Government also
114
agreed
and passed orders for the increase
and
systematising scholarship and the reservation of seats
in schools and colleges.
In the Appendix - I to the Government Order
No. 1827-80
E AG 308 dated 16th May 1921,
the
Government directed that Central Recruitment Board be
constituted for the purpose of recruitment, and
charged this Board with an additional responsiblity
of obtaining statistics of recruitment for
each
financial year and to r>view the progress made in
increasing the representation of the different
communities in public service and desired to increase
the representation of backward communities in all the
departments gradually to 50 per cent of the total
strength (excluding those in inferior service) within
seven years.
Thereafter during the Dewanship of
Kantharaj Urs, the Government directed the authorities
to throw open all public and aided schools to
panchama's (the depressed) admission. The collection
of school fees waS abolished upto middle schools for
non-panchamas and upto high school level for panchamas
(Chandrashekhar S. 1985: 58-59). The rates of fees
collected
in Mysore were the 'lowest' as compared to
any other state .
The
scholarship
amount
sanctioned
annually was Rs.4,47,828, which included
Rs.l
lakh earmarked for backward classes scholarship
(P M R A, 1921: 7).
Besides other facilities, 50 per
115
cent of the seats
in professional
courses
were
reserved for backward classes students <P M L
C., June
1937, pp.148-149).
The percentage of reservation of jobs and seats
in professional courses were further revised enhancing
in favour of Backward Classes fluctuating between 50
per cent
to 75 per cent during 1921 to 1950.
The
above developments got a new turn after independence
of the Nation particularly after the merger of Mysore
State
Indian Union and the adoption of Indian
Constitution in 1950.
Before
taking
up the
developments during post 1950 period,
it may be
worthwhile to take an overview of the Constitutional
provisions in relation to Backward Classes.
Bach.,ard Class Policy During Post-Indepdnence Period:
In the following paragraph, a brief discussion
and an overview of the constitutional provisions which
are of some significance in the context of welfare of
backward classes will be presented.
Classes Constitutional
Provisions:
A sytematic and concerted efforts to tackle
inequalities among the various sections of society
could be seen in the debates of Indian Constituent
Assembly. Various facets,the origin, historical
emergence, the courses for reduction of inequality,
116
strategy for tackling inequalities have been very well
documented in the resolutions and proceedings of the
Constituent Assembly. As a result of dialogue and
discussions, the principle of 'protective
discrimination' has found a place in the provisions of
the Indian Constitution. One could find the theme
throughout in
level
the Indian Constitution
but at the pragmatic
not only
level by
utopian
explicit
provisions both at mandatory as well
at
its
as
directive policy level in various provisions making
them complimentary to each other.
That is how the
constitutional policy of protective discrimination has
been given an effect, mainly at two levels.
One in
the area of education and the other in the area of
public appointments.
Also, there are provisions for
the economic upliftment of the weaker sections.
An
important
thing to be noted in the provisions of the
Indian Constitution is its determination to establish
an egalitarian society which could be well understood
while going through the Preamble.
It pledges to
establish a socialistic . society and to secure to
all citizens the equality of status and opportunity
and justice - social, economic and political. In the
process, the framers of the Indian Constitution also
visualised a socio-economic transformation of Indian
society. To bring about all the transformations and
to realise the objectives of establishing an
egalitarian society and to secure them,the framers of
117
the Constitution had also recognised the role of
education. To ensure that primary education is
accessible to all, it made it compulsory upto the age
of 14. This objective which was to be realised within
ten years from the date of ushering the Constitution
under Article 45,
is still not realised. What is
important
is the importance given to education to
accomplish the goals. Further, the role of education
is also emphasised in the other parts of
the
Constitution, namely, the aspects under fundamental
rights,
the directive principle, the State list and
Concurrent
list. The recent recognition of education
could be seen in the provisions to develop scientific
temperament and other aspects of fundamental duties
through an amendment.
It is very obvious that the
whole bunch of fundamental duties could only be
inculcated
education.
effectively through the process of
Unless it is mentioned otherwise the
education always refers to formal education,which is
explicitly specified in Article 45 and also confirmed
by enormous budget allocation for various levels of
formal education. Encouragement for other forms of
education
negligible
education.
is of recent trend which amounts to
proportions when compared
to formal
Education has been considered as an instrument
of social and economic change.
Its role in the growth
118
and development of national economy has been very much
visualised and recognised. The role of education at
the individual level, in the personality development,
character building, socialisation, process of mobility
social, economic, occupational, and educational
inculcation
cit i z ensh i p.
e:<pected
education.
of
of
values,
better
participation,
training;
all these
are
positively
the education
specifically
formal
It is recognised and believed by many that
education could be a panacea for all evils. That way,
better political participation, school
achievement,
demographic
performance, development of
skills,
behaviours have been attributed to formal education.
Similarly, in
line with the trend of educational
thinking
avai 1 ab 1 e
and
the experience or evidences readily
till the adoption of Indian Constitution,
the framers of Indian Constitution also recognised the
role of education and importance was given accordingly
to promote formal education on priority basis. There
are ample evidences to believe that even today the
Government of India believe in the process of formal
education as an instrument of human resource
development by renaming the Education Ministry as
Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry. Hence, it
is evident that the Indian policy makers
still
recognise the incrementalist or human capital approach
119
to education,
through which it is aimed to reduce
inequality to establish an egalitarian social system
and new social order.
To accomplish this ideal of egalitarianism the
Constitution has several prOVisions,
and
Indian
Article
15 (1), 15 (2) and 29 (2) are considered to be
ot paramount importance in this rgard, which deals
with equality and equal opportunity.
"But this ideal
of egalitarianism did not come about suddenly but is a
culmination of a long process of change in the
traditional pattern of our caste-ridden
society"
(Singh,P.
1982: 8). The reformist movements, the
religious movements and intellectual influence and the
influence of western liberal ideas of political and
social
thoughts have been identified as the reasons
for such values.
It is interesting to note that in the same
Constitution protective clauses for reservation have
also been incorporated namely, Article 15(4)
and
16(4). The provision of Article 15(4)
was not there
\l/h en the Constitution was adapted, which was later
incorporated by an amendement. Thus, "in today's India
both the 'principle of hierarchy' and 'principle of
secularism and egalitarianism' are operating side by
side" (Singh,P.1982: 10). Similarly, the 'principle
120
of
equality'
discrimination'
by side.
and
'the principle
of
protective
are also operating and enforced side
Though
it is not the concern of this study to
discuss and highlight the various ideological and
legal contradictions and incompatability of various
provisions of the Indian Constitution, a brief mention
of some of the important provisions which pertain
specifically to other backward classes (socially and
educationally backward classes) has been attempted
facilitate easy understanding of the concepts in the
succeding chapters. Such of the Articles are
reproduced as below:
Art. 15(1):
"The State shall not discriminate against
any ciatizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste,
se:{, place of birth or any of them."
Art. 16(2): "No citizen shall on grounds of religion,
race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth,
residence,
or any of them shall be ineligible for or
discriminated against, in respect of any employment or
office under the State".
Art. 29(2): "No citizen shall be denied admission
into any
State or
educational institution maintained by
receiving aid out of State funds on
the
the
grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any
of them."
121
Art. 15(4): "Nothing in this Article or in Clause (2)
of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making any
special provisions for the advancement of any SOCially
and educationally backward classes of citizens or for
the Sc:heduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes."
Art.
16(4) :
"Nothing in this Article shall prevent
the State from making any provisions for reservation
of appointments or posts in favour of any backward
class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State,
is not adequately represented in the services under
the State".
Art. 46.
"The State shall promote with special care
the educational and economic interests of the weaker
sections of the people, and in particular of the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and shall
protect them from social injustice and all forms of
e !<p 10 ita t ion"
Art. 340 (1): "The President may by order, appoint a
Commission to investigate the conditions of
socially and educationally backward classes and
the difficulties under which they labour and to make
recommendations
by the Union
as to the steps that should be
or any State to remove
taken
such
difficulties..... and the order appointing such
Commission shall define the procedure to be followed
by the Commission". The stress given to the welfare
122
of other backward classes and the importance of
protective
discrimination could be seen in
the
constitutional
amendments.
It
is of
paramount
importance to note that 15(4) was incorporated by an
amendment popularly called First Constitutional
Amendment in 1951. This incorporated provision is
claimed to form the bedrock and spring board for
backward classes.
Similarly, Article 16 which provides. to all
citizens 'equality of opportunities'
in "matters
relating to employment or appointment to any office
under the State" (Article 16(UJ and forbids
discrimination against any citizen on grounds of
religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or
residence or any of them [Article 16(2)] is
by Article 16(4) which permits the State
qualified
to make:
"any provisions for the reservation of appointments or
posts in favour of any backward classes of citizens
~ h ich in the opinion of the State is not adequately
represented in the services under the State".
The above mentioned Articles (15(4), 16(4), 46
and 340J in the Constitution have been considered, as
the
look
sources through which the backward classes
for a better future and as means to
inherited inequalities. It is from
could
offset
these
Constitutional provisions that the policy of
123
reservation and protective discrimination for backward
classes emerged in the post-independence period.
It may be recalled that beore the merger of
Mysore State with Indian Union and the adoption of the
Indian Constitution, the Mysore State was following a
reservation policy as per the recommendations of the
Miller Committee.
employment under
The quantum of
State services
reservation
and seats
in
in
professional courses, between 1921 to 1950 was ranging
betllleen 50 per cent to 75 per cent. "The re-servation
policy of 75 per cent of jobs and seats in old Mysqre
continued from 1927 to 1959 even after the decision of
Suspreme Court in 1951 in Champakam Dorairajan case in
Madras over the famous Madras Communal Government
Or'der" (Duskin, 1982). Even though there had been a
pollcy, as indicated by Duskin L., the question of its
implementation and its beneficial effect on OBCs
remain unanswered. However, the need for revising the
list of backward classes and a fresh look at the
reservation policy arose in 1956 in view of the
reorganisation of States. After 1956, the question of
identification and implementation of measures was
taken up by the State within the framework of the
Indian Constitution.
124
Involvement
Period:
of the State irr the Post-Reorganisation
As a result of the reorganisation of the States
in
1956,
large areas of erstwhile Hyderabad State
(Bidar,
Gulbarga and Raichur districts)
erst ... ,h i Ie
Bombay State (Belgaum, Bijapur,
Dharwar and North
Kanara districts),
erstwhile Madras State
(South
Kanara district
and Kollegal taluka) and the Coorg
(of part C State) were added to Mysore terrltory
State so as to form an integrated Karnataka State. It
may be noted at this point that the Belgaum district
which is chosen for the present study,
is from
erstwhile Bombay State. Consequent to the formation of
the new State,the old list of Backward classes in the
parent (erstwhile States) States were accepted.
Ho ... ,ev e r, certain castes treated as backward in one
State were treated as scheduled castes in another and
in a few cases as non-backward. Hence, a new order was
issued in July 1958 stating that all castes and
communities, except the Brahmins, were backward as was
done earlier in 1921 by the Miller Committee. To avoid
anomaly of the various lists from the integrated areas
and to have a uniform list, a committee of officers
was appointed
in 1959 and on
its recommendations,
Government issued
an order in May 1959. In
continuation of the above order, it issued a further
order on
18th July 1959 directing
the
reservation of appointments in service for
125
other backward classes on the basis of groups of such
classes and fixing percentage of reservation in
respect of each group (Gowda Committee, 1961: p.62).
The order directed for reservation of "75 per cent of
jobs in government, and seats in medical and
engineering colleges to the backward classes (57 per
cent) and scheduled castes and tribes (18 per cent)"
(Srinivas, 1980: 109). Only 25 per cent of the jobs
were open to general competition. On challenge, the
Mysore High Court declared in 1960 that this policy
violated article 15(4) of the Indian Constitution and
quashed the order in the case of Ramakrishna Singh Vs
State of Mysore (AIR,1960, Mys. 338). Thereafter, the
Mysore Government appointed the "Mysore Backward
Classes
Committee" in January 1960 under the
Chairmanship of Dr.Nagana Gowda.
Nagar.a Gowda Committee:
The terms of reference to the Nagana Gowda
Committee were:
to suggest the criteria to be adopted
in
determining which sections of the people in the State
should be treated as socially and educationally
backward [Article 15(4)].
ii) to suggest the exact manner in which the
criteria thus indicated should be followed to enable
the State Government to determine the persons, who
126
should secure such preferences, as may be determined
by Government
in respect of admission
to technial
institutions and appointments to Government services
(Gowda Committee, 1961: 5-6).
Here,it may be pointed out that the terms of
reference
to the committees and commissions were by
and large to determine the criteria for identification
of OBCs for extending protective policy of reservation
in education and employment under Article
15(4)
and
16(4),
read with other relevant provisions of the
Indian Constitution. They were also entrusted with the
task of evolving and reviewing the measures for the
development of OBCs besides suggesting appropriate new
measures for the educational development of OBCs and
improving their representation in public employment,
within the framework of Indian Constitution.
The Committee submitted its 'Interim Report' in
February 1960, pending detailed investigation and
collection of data. The Government, accepting the
interim recommendations, issued an order treating very
few castes and communities as backward classes. It had
reserved 22 per cent of the seats in educational
institutions for BCs. Even this order was challenged
in the Mysore High Court in another famous case of
S.H.Partha Vs. State of Mysore (AIR, 1961, 220).
127
The final report of the Committee was submitted
in May 1961, in which some 214 castes under Article
15(4)
and 185 castes under Article 16(4)
were
recommended as could be seen from statements 9 and 10
in the report. The communities were divided as
backward and more backward.
The Committee estimated that approximately 57
per cent of the population of the State to be treated
soc 1 ally
and educationally backward
communities,
excluding scheduled castes and scheduled tribes who
"Je re abou t
14 per cent of the State's populatipn.
Further, the Committee had
estimated that
approximately 45 per cent of the backward communities
were not adequately represented in Government services
excluding SCs/STs.
Excluding the quota of reservations to SCs/STs,
the reservations recommended for OBCs by the Committee
"Jere as be low:
Admission to
technical insti-
tutions under
Article 15(4)
Appointment to
Government
service under
Article 16(4)
Group A
<Backward)
28%
21%
Group B
(More Back-
ward)
22%
24%
Total
50%
45%
Source: Mysore Backward Classes Committee, 1961,pp.24-
25.
128
The
classify
criteria adopted by the Committee
the communities as backward
were
to
(a)
representation of castes/communities in the Government
servlce, and (b) educational level.
The educational backwardness was determined by
taking number of students studying in the last three
grades of all the high schools in the State into
account. Thus, the percentage of total number of
students in the three high school grades (during 1959-
60) to the total population of the State was first
worked out. The State average of educational standard
worked out as stated above was 0.693 per cent or 6.9
per thousand. Then the percentage of students of each
community in the high school classes (grades) to the
total population of that community in the State was
worked out. If the enrolment rate of a community was
found to be below the State enrolment rate at high
school
level, such community was considered
as
educationally backward. The Committee had also worked
out the State percentage as well as the percentage for
each community, to the extent population figures were
available. For the purpose of convenience, the
composition of the student population of each
community in the last three classes of high school was
calculated per thousand of population of that
community.
129
The Committee had also decided that those of the
communities whose standard of education is less than
50 per cent of the State average (6.9 per thousand)
should be grouped under 'More Backward Classes', and
those whose standard of education is above this limit
and the State average should be grouped under
'Backward Classes' for the purposes of Article
15(4).
The
same list has been adopted for the purpose of
Article
16(4) of the
Constitution also with the
modification that communities which are adequately
represented in Government service were eliminated.
The question of adequate or inadequate representation
of a community was determined by working out the
proportion of representation of its population in
Go .... ernment service. A community which did not have
representation in Government service,in proportion to
the percentage of its population was considered as
inadequately represented in Government service. In
addition, the Committee recommended some of the
measures as stated below:
i) To extend the facility of free education even upto
college level
to children of parents whose annual
income did not exceed Rs.1200 per annum.
.L 1 ) To take prompt steps to ameliorate
and economic conditions of
the soc i al,
the backlolard
educational
classes of
The aim was to bring up
the
general
standard of those backward classes to the
130
level of forward communities withlon th t 15
' e nex to 20
years. The Committee was of unanimous opinion that the
only practicable method of raising the economic and
social position of the backward communities is by
educating
the children of these communities in
large
numbers.
(i i 1)
To start hostels allover the State for
students of backward classes and emphasised that
Government should give free hostel facilities, besides
recommending for introducing grants on a liberal scale
to private
individuals or associations that come
forward to start such hostels.
( i v )
To increase the allotment of funds for the grant
of scholarships to the backward classes keeping in
view the growing population of backward communities.
( v)
To improve
the economnic condition of the
backward classes by way of special facilities and
financial aid for industires, agriculture etc.
The report was accepted by the Government and
the Government order based on this report was issued
in 1962. Even this Government Order was challenged and
the Supreme Court struck down the order in the famous
Balaji's case in 1963 (AIR, 1963, SC 649), on the
ground that 'castes' and 'communities' have been
treated as the only test for determining backwardness.
131
level of forward communities, within the next 15 to 20
years. The Committee was of unanimous opinion that the
only practicable method of raising the economic and
social position of the backward communities is by
educating
the children of these communities in large
numbers.
( iii)
To start hostels allover the State for
students of
backward classes and emphasised that
Government should give free hostel facilities, besides
recommending for introducing grants on a liberal scale
to private
individuals or associations that come
forward to start such hostels.
<i v)
To increase the allotment of funds for the grant
of scholarships to the backward classes keeping in
view the growing population of backward communities.
( v )
To improve
the economnic condition of
the
backward classes by way of special facilities and
financial aid for industires, agriculture etc.
The report was accepted by the Government and
the Government order based on this report was issued
in 1962. Even this Government Order was challenged and
the Supreme Court struck down the order in the famous
Balaji's case in 1963 (AIR, 1963, SC 649), on the
ground that 'castes' and
'communities' have been
treated as the only test for determining backwardness.
131
communities particularly the Lingayats and Vokkaligas"
(Hebsur, 1980).
The
reservation policy based on
income-cum-
occupation test of 1963 was challenged by L.G.Havanur
in the Mysore High Court in Vishwanath Case
(Mysore
L all' J ou rn a l, 1963 (2) ,p .302; A I R 1964, Mys.
132)
In
the above case the High Court observed that caste
was
a relevant aspect and held that the State Government
should soon make a proper classification of BCs. Many
people in Karnataka began to feel that the new order
served "another tool at the hands of some dominant
castes like Brahmins,
Lingayat and Vokkaligas to
advance themselves of inarticulate backward classes"
(Singh, P. 1982: 157).
Time and again there have been
number of representations from the backward classes to
appoint a new BC commission to take up a survey and to
consider the issue of reservation on the basis of
social and educational backwardness.
Havanur Commission:
social
In 1970, a team consisting of prominant persons,
workers and politicians which also included
L.G.Havanur, presented a joint memorandum to V.V.Giri,
the then President of
India,
requesting him to
"derecognise caste or to implement the
Kalelkar
Commission's
recommendations or direct the
State
Governmnent
to appoint a commission on
backward
classes"
(Havanur Commission,1975: 9).
There have
been
several
agitations,
representations
and
resolutions by various BC organisations and
associations, including political parties to appoint a
new BC commission. In 1969 D.Devaraj Urs became the
Chief Minister of Mysore. He was the first non-
Lingayat
and non-Vokkaliga legislator to become the
Chief Minister. In view of all these and also due to
political changes in Mysore State, the Government of
Mysore, under the Chief Ministership of Devaraj Urs
constituted the First Backward Classes Commission
under the Chairmanship of L.G.Havanur,in response to
the persistent demand of the people. The Commission
collected data through survey as well as
from
different government and non-government sources on
socio-economic and educational aspects of the
population. The survey conducted was a very extensive
one and also made intensive probing regarding the
socio-economic conditions of the people. Besides,
specifically, the Commission collected information on
the community/caste-wise pass number of students who
passed SSLC examination of April 1972 from State
Secondary Education Board. It also obtained data
regarding
Wise, in
the number of employed,
the Government service
caste/community
to determine
adequacy/inadequacy of representation in Government
services. In the report, the Chairman propounded the
134
doctrine of equality of castes and believed that
the
aim of the constitution was to achieve caste-equality
as the backwardness of the caste was a stigma in
national life.
our
In the report, the backward classes were divided
into three categories on the basis of educational
level.
The State average of students paSSing SSLC
examination
in April 1972 was 1.69 per thousand of
state population. The Commission decided that a caste
or community whose SSLC pass average per thousand
population in April 1972 SSLC examination is below the
State average should be treated as educationally
backward. The Commission drew the list applying
multiple tests and multiple criteria of
caste,
economic backwardness and educational backwardness.
The three categories are:
(1) Backward Communities - whose students average per
thousand population is below State average, but above
50 per cent of the State average - 15 groups under
Article 15(4) and 9 groups under Article 16(4).
(2) Backward Castes - whose students average per
thousand population is below 50 per cent of the State
average 128 castes under Article 15(4) and 115
castes under Article 16(4).
135
(3 )
Backward Tribes - whose students .
average IS below
50
per cent of the State and who are nomadic and
denotified tribes
62 castes/tribes under Article
15(4) and 61 tribes under Article 16(4).
By applying the educational test as discussed
above, the commission found that the population of the
backward communities, backward castes and backward
tribes together came to about 45 per cent
(excluding
14 per cent forming the SCs/STs) of the
State
population.
To determine,
to what extent the
backward
classes are represented in the services under the
State and to recommend what reservations of posts in
such services may be made for OBCs, the commission
gathered detailed data and has published them as
volume III of the report. The Commission also
developed a formula to determine whether the
representation in the services of each caste/community
is adequate or not on the basis of the difference
between percentage in service and percentage in
population. The criterion adopted to determine
inadequate representation for the purpose of Article
16(4) was that, "if a class of citizens is socially
and educationally backward under 15(4) (i.e., applying
educational test as stated earlier) and does not have
representation adequate to its population,it could be
specified as a socially and educationally backward
136
class not
adequately represented " t
In he services"
(p.316)
It was on the basis of the abo"e "t "
v crl erla,
the
list for the purposes of Article 16(4) was
drav/n
up.
Thus,using the above discussed criteria the
Commission recommended the reservation and fixed the
quota in the following proportions (p.317).
------------------------------------------------------
Percentage of
population
Quota of
allotment
(percentage)
------------------------------------------------------
I. The reservation under
Article 15(4)
(Educational Purposes)
i) BackvJard
Communities
i i )
BackvJard Castes
iii)
Backward Tribes
22.03
16
14.49
10
8.00
6
--------------------------
44.52
32
--------------------------
II. The reservation
under Article 16(4)
(Employment purposes) 19.20
14.47
8.00
41.67
16
10
6
32
The Commission recommended several measures for
the educational and economic development of the OBes
based
on the findings. Some of the major
recommendations for educational development, leading
137
to occupational and economic welfare of OBCs
follows:
are
as
1.
(a)
Sufficient number of free hostels should
be
started
in every village where there is
a panchayat
and in every town having a college.
(b)
boarding
specified
of the
to the
free
Students should be admitted
and lodging hostels in the
proportion
the income of the parents
above, provided
students of the 'Backward Classs'
is below
Rs.6000 per annum.
(c) Those who do not get admission into free
hostels should be given adequate scholarship which
would be periodically determined.
(d) Students whose parents' income is I ess than
Rs.6000 per annum should be exempted from payment of
tution and examination fees at all levels of education
(pp. 318-319).
2
(a)
Tutorial institutions should be started or
coaching facilities should be provided in the
universities to prepare the candidates belonging to
backward classes to compete successfully with the
advanced classes (p.213).
(b) Reservation should also be made in post-
graduate courses and research institutions.
Scholarships to 100 students per year should be given
138
in the proportion specified above
categories of 'Backward Classes' to
to
go
the three
abroad for
higher and
specialised
studies
in
medicine,engineering, agriculture and other technical
courses.
(c) Either for admission to the educational
courses or for selection to appointments, the marks
for viva-voce should be the same as the marks for
l>,ritten tests.
3
(a)
Finance corporation similar to the one
incorporated for the economic upliftment of the
scheduled castes and scheduled tribes be incorporated
for the economic upliftment of the BCs.
(b)
Backward classes, scheduled castes
and
scheduled tribes, should develop a spirit of self-help
and those who get the benefit on the ground of their
caste should make free contribution of 10 per cent of
their income to the proposed Finance Corporation, so
that the money so realised could be utilised for
payment of scholarships, free studentship etc., to
students belonging to those classes. The funds so
realised could be utilised also for economic
improvement of those classes as well.
4 (a) A separate Directorate for Backward Classes
should be established to implement these measures.
139
(b) A Minister
of
Cabinet
rank
should
lndependently hold the portf 1
o 10 relating to the
backward classes.
5)
Government should establish a research
studying the problems of scheduled
institute
for
castes,
scheduled
tribes and backward classes
and for
suggesting measures for the upliftment of
those
classes (p.319).
The Commission presented its scholarly report to
the Government in 1975, listing the backward classes
under three categories
backward
communities,
backward castes and backward tribes and recommended
compartmental reservations for each of these groups.
The Government of Karnataka
accepted the
recommendations of the Havanur Commission
after
considerable deliberations and an order was passed on
22nd February 1977 making certain modifications.
Another order was also issued on 4th March 1977
raising maximum limit of Rs.8000/- to Rs.I0,OOO per
annum, for availing reservation or special treatment
as OBCs under BCM and BCT categories. Making further
variations in the recommendations of Havanur
Commission, the Government of Karnataka raised the
quantum of reservation for the backward community from
16 to 20 per cent and in addition introduced a new
category of backward classes called 'Backward Special
140
Group' <BSG) <which was not there l"n the
Commission's
recommendations) and
reserved 5 per cent of
the
appointments and seats in educational institutions for
BSG. The reservation percentage for BSG was later
raised to 15 per cent by subsequent order, thus taking
reservations (both OBC and SCs/STs combined) to 68 per
cent.
The Government Orders on Havanur's report dated
22nd February 1977 and 4th March 1977 were challenged
before the High Court of Karnataka on many grounds by
not less than 252 persons in 1978 and judgement on the
issue was delivered on 9th April
1979 which was
considered to be historic. The court upheld the
Government orders of 1977. The Court was satisfied
with the multiple tests and methodology used by the
Commission but had made some observations. In
accordance with the observations made by the Court,
the Government had passed an order, dated 1st May
1979, reducing the quota of reservation for the
backward communities from 20 to 18 per cent and 13
castes were also deleted from the list.
However,
the issue of the Havanur Commission
report and the Government Orders were later challenged
before the Supreme Court in Writ Petitions during
1979, 1980 and 1981. The specific Writ Petitions in
which the Government Orders were challenged were 1297-
98/79, 1407/79, 4995-97 of 1980 and 402 of 1981
(No
141
author, 1985: 22). During the pendency of the case
of
of
K.C.Vasanthakumar
and
others Vs The
State
.<arnataka, the
Supreme
Court
issued
directions
to
e:<amine the problem
afresh
and
the
Government
undertook to appoint
the
Second
Backward
Classes
Commission ( I I BCC)
Venkataswamy Commission:
Accordingly, the
Government
of
Karnataka
appointed
Second BCC under the Chairmanship
of
T.Venkataswamy on April 18, 1983. The main terms of
reference for the Commission were:
(i) To review the then existing list of
backward classes in the
light of the provisions
contained in Article 15(4) and 16(4) and other
relevant provisions in the light of the various
decisions of the Supreme Court bearing on the subject.
(i i)
To make a scientific and
investigation of the conditions of the
factual
backward
classes in the State and recommend specific measures
for their advancement.
(i i i) To review the measures so far taken by
the State for the welfare of the backward classes and
the betterment of their conditions and assess the
effectiveness of such measures in improving the
conditions of backward classes and in particular in
142
matters relating to education and
public services under the State.
representation
in
(iv) To make recommendations as to the further
steps that should be taken by the State Government to
improve the conditions of the "backward classes" in
respect of (a) education, including reservation of
seats in professional colleges and institutions of
higher learning; (b) representation in public services
etc.
(v) To make recommendations in respect of
short-term and long-term measures to be taken by the
State Government
classes.
for raising the level of backward
The Commission took up a Socio-Economic-Cum-
Educational Survey (SEE) of the households from April
1984 to July 1984. The Commission also collected data
from schools, colleges, concerned educational and
e :.: ami nat ion boards, besides various government
departments and agencies.
The survey conducted by the Commission covered
about 90.49 per cent of the projected population of
1984 in State, which was projected based on the
population of Karnataka as per the 1981 census. The
coverage of the survey for rural population was 94.42
per cent and for the urban population 80.81 per cent.
143
To determine
the educational backwardness for the
purposes
of benefits under Article
15(4),
the
particulars of students who appeared and passed in
April 1985 SSLC examinations were collected and made
use of. The percentage of passes for each
caste/community, and
for the State as a whole
were
worked out. The State average of passes was 0.334
per
cent or 3.34 per thousand of the population. This was
taken as the cut-off point and the castes/communities
having pass percentage above or same as the State
average were considered educationally forward ~ n only
those with percentages below the State average were
considered as educationally backward. Keeping SSLC as
the basic indicator,
especially for
educational
backt.t.Jardness, the Commission used
socio-economic,
educational and employment indicators computed from
the data collected for a survey conducted by the
Commission for the year 1984, as corroborative
evidences to finally identify the castes/communities
as backward for the purpose of benefits available
under Article 15(4) of the Constitution. Seventeen
indicators were used as corroborative evidences to
determine the social backwardness of
castes/communities.
The 17 indicators derived from the SEE Survey of
1984 to determine the social backwardness were grouped
under the categories of social, economic,
educational
144
and employment. Some of these indicators were taken as
negative pointing
towards
backwardness
of
a
caste/community and the others were taken as "t"
POSl lve,
indicating
the forwardness of a caste/community in
that
field. The
list of such grouping of the
17
indicators
for identifying the
backwardness
or
otherwise of
the caste/community, as given
in the
commission is shown at Table 3.1.
All those
17 indicators
wer-e
taken
as
corroborative to assess the
or
forwardness of the
castes/communities.
If a
caste/community had taken more than 50 per cent of
these indicators, viz., 9 and above, it was considered
as backward and less than 9 indicators was taken as
indicative of
their forward status
among the
caste/communities.
After taking the State average of
students who have passed SSLC in 1985, along with the
corroborative evidence derived from the 17 indicators
from the socio-educational and economic survey 1984,
the Commission arrived at the list of socially and
educationally backward classes. On computing the SSLC
data and
the indicators derived from SEE Survey of
1984, the Commission observed that most of
the
castes/communities which were forward/backward as per
SSLC students pass test,
were also found to be
forward/backward,
as per SEE survey of 1984.
In the
case of 13 castes/communities, the SSLC pass average
145
lablt 3.1: Grouping of Indlcators - Suvey 1984
Grouping at the Seventeen Indicators used for Asesse.ent of Sociil a.nd Educational Backwardness in Karnahka
51.
Indicators
t1O.
1. 5QCIO-ECQNOI'IIC-EDUCATI()4
4.
a) SOCIAL
Hcuselessl
slteless
Residing 1n
Kutchi House
b)
Landless
Income less
than Rs.5000
c) EMPLOYMENT
). Agricultural
labour
mo loyaent in
Cias; IV State
Govt. Services
Detiils of Indicators
A. NEGATIVE ASPECTS
Not-owning house or
house sites
No.of households
residing in Kutcha

No.of households
holding la.nd of
standard acres less
than one icre
No.of households hiving
total a.nnuil incOie
frotl ill the
sources less than
Rs.5000
Agricultural labourers
Paraaeter
Percentage of No.of
faailles to the total
no.of faailies of the
couunity
-do-
-do-
-00-
Percentige of No.of
persons engaged as
agricultural labourers
to the total no.of
State Indlcation of
Average Backwardness
13.11 Percentage above the
state average
30.52 -do-
40.49
-00-
71.21
-do-
13.02
-do-
persons of the cOllUOity
-do-
0.30
-do-
146
Table 3.1 (Contd .. 1
-
~
indicators
Details of Indicators Par.eter State Indication of
toO.
Averille Backwardness
:L
EOUCATI1J4
7.
Illi terate
No.of illiterate
persons
-do- 40.97
B.
Dropouts below
No.of persons dropoutl -do- 11.34 -do-
7th standard
discontinued education
below 7th standard
B. POSITIVE ASPECTS
SOCIAL
Residing in
No.of households
Percentage of No.of 27.82
Percentage below
pakKa house
residing in puka
faailies to the
the state average
house
total no.of faailies
of the cDllUnity
II). Urban population
Urban population
Percentage of No.of
25.80
-(10-
persons to the total
no.of population
of the coemunity
EC(N)I1IC
11. IncOIIe lore than
No.of households
Percentage of no.of
2.77
-do-
Rs.20,OOO
having total annual
faai lies to the
incOie frOG all the
total no.of faailies
sources lOre than
of the cOllOnlty
Rs.20,OOO
12. Land hold ing
No.of households
Percentage of no.of
0.88
-do-
lore than 20
holding land of
persons to the
acres
standard acres
total no.of
lOre than 20 acres
fa.i1ies of the
cOllU/li ty
147
Table 3.1 (contd l
-----------------------------------------------------------------
51.
No.
13.
14.
!S.
:6.
: 7.
Indicators
EMPLOYMENT
EaploYlent
in Class-I
Class-II
Class-Ill
Se 1 f-Etup loyaent
EDUCATION
Students studying
Details of Indicators
ttl.of persons
elployed as Class-I
in State Governlent
Service
ttl.of perSons elployed
as Class-II in
State 60vernlent
Service
ttl.of persons
elployed as Class-Ill
in State Govern.ent
Service
Self-Etlploy.ent
ttl.of students
studying in SSLC
Paraaeter State Indication of
Average Backwardness
Percentige of ~ o f 0.00
-do-
persons to the
total no.of persons
of the cOIIUOity
-do- 0.21
-do-
-do-
0.83
-do-
-do-
1b.39
-do-
-do-
1.68
-do-
Source:
Report of the Second Backward Classes CoIIission, Vol.III, Governlent of KarnataKa
Bangalore, 1986, pp.179-180
148
was
below the State average and thus were
considered
as educationally backward. However, the 17 social
indicators of SEE Survey of 1984 for
these 13
castes/communities showed a score less than 9 and thus
they were to be considered as forward. This situation
was resolved by taking SSLC pass test indicators and
computing the communities which have secured 10 or
more
backward indicators out of t ~ 18 indicators
as
backward.
In case of another seven castes/communities
exactly opposite situation existed i.e., those castes
had scored more than the State average in SSLC pass
test and thus were considered educationally forward.
But they had scored more than 9 indicators in social
backwardness test based on 17 indicators and hence
were considered as SOCially backward. Such a situation
was resolved by clubbing the SSLC pass test indicator
along with the 17 indicators and treating
the
castes/communities with 10 or more indicators as
backward (pp. 196, 204-229).
Recommendations ~ reservation for purposes under
Article 15(4) of the Constitution:
Based on the above stated tests, the Commission
identified 35 castes/communities, along with their
synonyms, sub-castes and related occuapational groups,
as socially and educationally backward classes for the
d A t
' Ie 15(4) of the
purposes of benefits un er r lC
Constitution. These 35
castes/communities
were
149
further categorised into Group 'A'
applying percentage of pass in SSLC.
and Group 'B'
Groupinq, of Back".ard Classes:
The Commission classified the castes/communities
which were below the State average in SSLC pass test
i.e., 3.34 per thousand but above 1.67 per thousand,
under Group 'A'.
Thus, about 15 castes/communities
were grouped under Group 'A'.
All
the
other
castes/communities along with their synonyms, sub-
castes and related occupational groups, which have
secured below 50 per cent of the State average in the
SSLC pass t e ~ t
i . e. ,
1.67 per thousand
were
classified under Group .. B"
Thus,
about 20
castes/communities were categorised under Group 'B'.
The SEE Survey of 1984, conducted by the
CommiSSion,
revealed that about 33 per cent of the
castes/communities in the population as
backward
classes. The percentage of population under Group 'A'
and '9' as identified and determined by the Commission
were as follows:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Group
'A'
'B'
No.of caste or
community
15
Percentage of
population
17.77
15.21
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - -
Total 35
32.98
------------------------------------------------------
<* including SC converts to Christianity>
150
For determining the adequacy or inadequacy of
representation of a caste/community in the State
Government Services, the Commission collected
information from all the Heads of Departments of the
State Government.
The percentage
of representation
of the
castes/communities in Government Services in Groups
'A', 'B' and 'C' was compared with' their population
percentages as against the total populatian of the
State, as determined by SEE Survey 1984. The
castes/communities having percentages same as or more
than their percentage to total population,
were
identified as having adequate representation in the
state services. And those having percentages less than
their percentages to total population were identified
as inadequately represented.
Based on the criteria mentioned above and taking
other guidelines in this regard, the Commission
decided that the percentage of reservation to be fixed
should be based on their relative percentage of
population to the population of the State and decided
on 27 per cent reservation for educational purposes
under Article 15(4). The reservation recommended
groupwise, by the Commission under Article 15(4) and
16(4) ara as follows:
151
----------------------------------
Group Percentage of

------------------------
'A'
'S' 13
13
----------------------------------
--------------------
Total percentage of
reservation 27
27
-----------------------------------------
-------------
An income
ceiling of Rs.15,OOO per
annum was
recommended to be applied to all backward classes
who would get the benefit under Article 15(4) and
16(4) of the Constitution.
The Commission reviewed various measures taken
by the Government for the upliftment of the backward
classes departmental schemes and has
offered
suggestions for improvement.
Recommendations:
The main recommendations of the
Commission
relevant in the context of educational development and
occupational attainment of backward classes are:
1. Fifty pre-matric hostels for backward classes to
be sanctioned every year with the minimum sanctioned
strength of 50 students each, totally for boys and
girls.
2. Fifty post-matric hostels for backward classes to
be sanctioned every year with 50 minimum sanctioned
strength of students, totally for boys and girls.
152
"'!'
To establ ish
hostel.
for
b.ckw.rd
,.,I.
classes
.t least
one in each division
for
immediate
purposes
and
later
one
in each
district,
on
the
model
of the
backward
classes hostel
run in HUbll" Cl"ty, h "
were merlt
is
given priority.
4. The Superintendents of Government hostels and
private grant-in-aid
(GIA) hostels be exposed to
adequate training programmes in hostel management.
5. Ashram schools be abolished by upgrading these
into pre-matric hostels in a phased manner.
6. Women welfare centres be upgraded with other
support programmes
like pre-primary education for
children, health
and nutritious food coverage for
children and mothers,
vocational training,
adult
education and economic programmes for women, and more
number of such centres to be opened.
7. A scheme for granting Rs.15 per month to parents
of poorer income groups among backward classes as
compensatory educational allowance be sanctioned to
serve as an incentive to parents to send their
children to school regularly.
8. Pre-matric
scholarship be sanctioned to cover
annually an additional number of 50,000 new students
belonging to backward classes.
153
9. Post-matric scholarship be sanctioned
annually an additional number of 5,000 new
belonging to backward classes.
to cover
students
10. Fee concession scheme run by the backward classes
department to be continued only for backward classes
students.
11. Occupational Institute for women on the pattern
existing in Gowribidanur be extended to all the
district in a phased manner.
12. A Technical Training Institute be opened in every
district for running appropriate courses for
traditional occupation.
13. Starting of primary schools at the rate of 1,000
and secondary schools at the rate of 500 every year
for children of all castes and creeds in the State by
the government,so that universal primary education is
attained within a period of next 20 years.
14. Vocational education at higher secondary and pre-
university levels to be fostered to help the drop-outs
in rural areas.
15. Children be provided with text books, note books,
writing material and uniforms free of cost.
16. Women and children welfare schemes be extended to
cover the entire rural area.
154
17. The Backward Special Group as it exists today
(then) with 15 per cent reservation,be abolished.
18. Two foreign scholarships for each of the five
universities in Karnataka be awarded to
competent
backward classes students every year.
The Commission submitted its report to the State
Government on March 31,1986.
The Report of this Commission strong
protests
from the major communities of the State
as
well as from others who were left out from the OBCs
list. There were comments,articles, editorials, and
criticisms, which were both for and against the
commission's recommendations.
In the meanwhil, the
Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court delivered
the judgement in May 1985 and laid down guidelines to
act upon in determining backwardness. By the time the
guidelines were laid down by the Supreme Court the
Commission had completed most of its work. Government
examined the Commission's recommendations and took the
decision that the report cannot be accepted as a
reliable guide to act upon in determining
backwardness.
155
Reasons for Rejection:
The Government put forward the following reasons
for rejecting the Committee Report (Government of
1986: 7):
(i) Inability of the Commission to proceed according
to the guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court
as
the decision was received in May 1985 by which
time
the Commission had completed most of its work.
(i i>
Lacunae in the methodology, data collection, and
indicators and
conclusions arrived at
by the
Commission.
The Government, while noting reasons in the
Government Order for not accepting the said report,
also decided to appoint a new backward
classes
commission and to provide it with guidelines for
evolving objective criteria for determination of the
backward classes. It also came to a decision that the
Government Order dated 1st May 1979 based on Havanur
Commission also cannot be continued.
Interim Policy of
Pending the appointment and the receipt of the
report of the new Commission Government issued an
interim order on 13;h October 1986. This order was
intended
years.
to be ef"ective for lot more than three
In this new order,the classes have
156
been classified
into 5 groups and quotas have
been
fixed as follows:
------------------------------------
Backward Classes Under Artl"c-l-e----------------
Under Article
15(4) 16(4)

2.
Group B
15%
13%
3.
Group C
16%
t6%
4.
Group D
9%
11 %
5.
GroLlp E
Backward Special Group
5%
5%
------------------------------------------------------
Total
50%
50%
------------------------------------------------------
Source: Government Order No.SWL 66 BeA 86, dated 13th
October 1986.
Thus,
from February 1977 to 13th October 1986
(till
the end of March 1987) the backward classes
programmes/measures were impleted as per the orders
issued on the basis of Report of the
Havanur
Commission. As on today and from academic/financial
year 1987-88, the schemes for backward classes are
being implemented as per Government Order of 13th
October 1986. It is to be noted that there is no
significant changes in the for OBC in
view of the new order, but there is a change in the
quotas (percentages) prescribed for various groups as
already discussed above. On expiry of the three years
term, the Government has further extended the term of
the Government Order of 13th October 1986 for a
further period till the report of the third Backward
Classes Commission is presented to the Government.
Justice Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The Karnataka Third Backward Classes Commission
headed by O.Chinnappa Reddy J., was appointed in March
1988. This is a one man Commission. The main Terms of
~ f e r e n c e of the Commission were:
(i) To make a scientific and factual investigation of
the conditions of the backward classes in the State
and recommend specific measures for their advancement.
( i i )
To examine and assess with reference
to
concessions, privileges and benefits given to the
backward classes by the State Government, for the
improvement of the most backward classes in education
and other matters.
( iii )
To review the list of backward classes approved
in Government Order dated 22nd February 1977 and
13th October, 1986 (existing) etc.
The said Commission (Third BCC) has now
submitted its report to the State Government on 7.4.90
(Times of India, 8th April 1990) and the same is being
processed for consideration by the Government. It has
also been reported that some of the caste
organisations, backward classes federations etc., are
pressing for the immediate consideration of
the
158
Commission report by the Government. Further, it has
been reported by the communication media and the
Press, the Government of Karnataka has taken a
decision, to refer it to the Cabinet Sub-Committee and
to Table the Report in the Legislature for discussion.
As reported widely in the Press (Deccan Herald, 3rd
June 1990),the Commission has recommended the deletion
of about 32 castes.
Based upon the discussion on the
Chinnappa Reddy's Commission in the Legislature, the
Government of Karnataka is yet to take a"decision in
the matter.
In the foregoing, a discussion of the history of
the 'protective discrimination' policy for OBCs was
presented. In the next Chapter the methodology of the
study,
tools and procedure used for analysis will be
discussed.
159
CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGV
The previous chapter dealt with the evolution of
the State policy on Backward Class development and
reviewed the policy with. historical perspective.
The present Chapter deals with the objectives, data
base and methodology of the empirical study stated as
follows:
"A Study of the Utilisation of Various Measures
Provided
by the State to Promote
Equality
of
Educational Opportunity in the Case of Other Backward
Classes in a District of Karnataka".
Objectives of the Study:
1) Analysis of the trends of growth in terms of
2)
expenditure, beneficiaries and
institutions
under the Backward Class developmental schemes
during 1977-78 to 1988-89 in Karnataka State.
Descriptive study of the background
characteristics of the beneficiaries under two
major schemes of educational development of
OBCs, namely, hostel schemes and scholarship
schemes.
3) Comparative study of the background profiles of
pre-matric and post-matric scholarship
beneficiaries.
4) A comparat ive
study
of
the
background
characteristics of beneficiaries
under
scholarships and hostel schemes.
5) Descriptive study of the educational development
indicators in
relation
to
background
characteristics.
6) A descriptive study of social interactions and
aspirations of hostel beneficiaries.
7) Study of factors influencing educational and
occupational aspirations of hostel beneficiaries
studying at secondary level.
8) A posto-facto study of the present occupational
attainment of past beneficiaries of the hostel
9)
scheme in relation to educational aspiration,
occupational aspiration and educational
attainment using path analysis.
Develop a mobility index to
measure the
intergenerational occupational mobility. Also,
to carry out an analysis of the mobility
achieved by the past hostel beneficiaries using
the above inde:<.
161
z
Research Design:
The
first objective mentl"oned
above required
data at the State level. Available
secondary data
from published and unpublished sources connected
with
Government, viz., annual reports, action plans, budget
documents, etc., were used for
the purposes of
analysis.
To aChieve the remaining
objectives,
attempts were made to collect both primary and
secondary data pertaining to the schemes from Belgaum
district of Karnataka State.
The research design
adopted was on the lines of sample survey method. The
study required samples from scholarship beneficiaries,
hostel beneficiaries residing in the hostel presently
and past beneficiaries of the hostel scheme.
Sample Scheme;
(a) Sample Scholarship Beneficiaries:
The background data of the scholarship
beneficiaries were obtained from the Department of
Backward Classes and Minorities. The data covered the
scholarship beneficiaries who were awarded
scholarships during the year 1986-87.
There were
13,358 scholarship awardees at the pre-matric level
and 3084 at the post-matric level which excludes 129
post-matric scholarship
awardees for whom the
information was either incomplete or not traceable.
It was decided to draw samples for analysiS based on a
162
sy.tematic random
.amp Ie
procedure.
It
was
also
decided to draw
a sample
of
2.5
per cent
from
pre-
matric scholarship
awardees
and
a :5 per
cent
samp Ie
from post-matric
schol arship
awardees.
For
this
purpose, first the applications submitted by the
awardees (during/of 1986-87) to the Department of
Backward Classes for obtaining scholarships
were
serially numbered, separately under pre-matric and
post-matric levels. Starting from the first, eyery
40th application from the pre-matric level and eyery
20th application from the post-matric leyel, was
identified and drawn. The following table 4.1 giyes
the details of the sample drawn for the scholarship
scheme, with sex-wise break-up.
Table The Size and the Leyel of Education of the
in the-Sample
drawnc
------------------------------------------------------
1. Pre-matric
awardees Boys Girls Total
------------------------------------------------------
a) Studying in
V to VII Std. 134 49 183
b) Studying in
VIII to X std. 124 40 164

II. Post-matric
Awardees
(Studying in
yarious post
secondary courses)
133 21 154

-----------------------------------------------------
163
(b) Sample for the Hostel SCheme:
The survey of hostel beneficiaries was intended
both to collect the background characteristics for
comparison purpose with scholarship holders and to
study the educational development variables which
could be attributed to the hostel. Since the
interview schedule was deSigned to elicit the relevant
information from the stUdents themselves, the
information like educational and occupational
aspirations required certain level of maturity and
experience of hostel life for a significant period.
Therefore, it was decided to Cover only those who were
studying in 8th standard and above and who had put in
a minimum stay of one academic year in the hostel at
the time of survey i.e., 1987-88. This deCision, in
addition
upon the
to the requirements stated above was based
requirement of reliable responses on
aspirations and other socio-economic
factors
pertaining to families.
There were 2365 Bakward
Classes' students staying in various Government
Backward Classes hostels in the district during 1987-
88. Out of 2365 hostel residents, there were only 550
hostel residents (around 23 per cent) who satisfied
the above criteria and were interviewed for the study.
164
(c) Sample f2..!::..
Characteristics
Hostels the
Comparing the Backaround
Beneficiaries QL
Scholarship SChemes:
One of the objectives of the study is to compare
the current beneficiaries (of 1987-88) of hostel
scheme and the beneficiaries of scholarship scheme by
their background characteristics. For this purpose
a
comparable sub-sample of 164 pre-matric scholarship
awardees studying in secondary level only (VIII to X
std.) was identified and separated"out from the larger
sample of 347 pre-matraic scholarship awardees (see
Table 4.1). This sub-sample of 164 secondary level
scholarship awardees was separated out for the purpose
of comparison.
The above sub-sample along with 154
post-matric scholarship awardees (See Table 4.1) put
together amounting to 318 awardees
formed the
comparable sample for the purpose of comparison with
the 550 current beneficiaries of hostel scheme. For
the purpose of comparison hostel beneficiaries (550)
as one category will be compared with scholarship
beneficiaries
(318) as another catgory irrespectivae
of whether they were studying in secondary or post-
secondary courses.
The sample scheme for the 550
beneficiaries of the hostel scheme is already
discussed at (b) above.
165
(d> Sample for Studying Occupational Attainment
Follow-up of Past Hostel Residents:
In order to fulfil the 8th and 9th objectives
stated earlier, a posto-facto survey of hostel scheme
beneficiaries of the years 1981-82 and 1982-83 was
conducted during 1988-89. In the case of such past
beneficiaries only those who were studying in the X
standard, II PUC and in any other post-matric
courses
during the identified year were included in the
sample. An examination of the records maintained in
the hostel revealed that there were 375 hostellers
during those years satisfying the sample criterion and
for whom detailed addresses were available. All of
them were included in the sample for mailing the
questionnaire. About 233 past hostellers responded to
the mailed questionnaire by returning the filled-in
questionnaire. Out of this, three questionnaires were
incomplete and hence they were not considered for the
study. Thus, the remaining 230, forming 61.33 per cent
response rate, were considered for analysis.
Tools
The present
investigator
constructed an
interview schedule, (Appendix - IV) for the current
beneficiaries and a mailed questionnaire (Appendix-V)
for the
past beneficiaries.
In
addition, an
information schedule (Appendix - VI) was prepared to
166
collect the background data from the scholarship
application forms.
The
procedure adopted for
developing
the
interview schedule was as fallows:
(i) The content of the interview questions were
derived on the basis of past studies and
discussing with the few experts in the field.
(ii) Items were drafted and edited for a try-out.
(iii) The draft interview schedule was tried out by
the investigator on a sample of 30 hostel
residents including both post-matric and pre-
matric hostels selected from six institutions
located in different places. The objective of
the try-out was to find out the communicability
of the language, the adequacy of the response
alternatives wherever the structured items were
used.
(iv) Based upon the responses and the experience the
items were modified wherever required.
(v) The pilot study also helped in estimating the
time required to interview one respondent. This
facilitated the scheduling of the field work.
167
(vi) Since the investigator himself interviewed all
the respondents during the pilot study and the
subsequent final study, the reliability of the
information is assumed to be high.
Procedure adopted for developing the mailed
questionnaire was similar to the interview schedule.
The pilot study consisted of obtaining the responses
through the post from ten respondents and interviewing
five of them to ,obtain clarification for the ambiguous
responses and non-responses from them. Bas.ed upon the
results of the pilot study, the style,
sequencing of the items were finalised.
1 anguage and
Definitions of the Variabl.s.
Some of the important variables used in the
study are defined as below:
1) Educational Aspirations:
"Educational Aspiration is defined as a position
of the educational hierarchy which a person views as a
goal to reach" (Nagaraju, 1977: 64).
2) Occupational Aspirations:
"Occupational
Aspiration is defined
as the
position of the occupational hierarchy which
an
individual views as a goal to reach" (Nagaraju,
1977:
64)
168
3) Educational Attainments,
of
Educational attainment is defined as the
position
the educational hierarchy which an individual has
attained or reached. The educational positions/levels
attained by the respondents at the time of survey are
considered as educational attainments in the study.
4) Occupational Attainments:
Occupational attainment is defined as the position
of the occupational hierarchy which an individual has
attained or reached.
The occupational
positions
(jobs/ occupations/ professions) attained
by the
respondents at the time of this survey are considered
as occupational attainments in the study.
Field Study:
The field work was conducted during 1987-88 and
1988-89. The investigator visited all the hostels and
interviewed the hostellers fulfilling the sample
characteristics, decided and discussed earlier during
1987-88. During the visit to those institutions, the
investigator identified the individuals who satisfied
the conditions to be included for the follow-up study
and obtained the permanent home addresses of the
identified past beneficiaries to whom the
questionnaire was to be mailed.
The follow-up
169
questionnaires were
during May 1988
and
periodic
reminders were sent to those who
failed
to
respond to the questionnaire. Fl'll d .
e -In qUestionnaires
received till
February 1989 were included
in the
study.
Measurement of the of data
Measurement of Variables:
first
The study had three levels' of analysis. The
level consisted of comparing the background
information organised on nominal scale and obtaining
the frequency and percentage of observation on the
background attributes.
The main
characteristic
variables studied category of backward class
arranged on four nominal categories, the place of
birth of the respondents arranged on two nominal
categories, occupation of fathers arranged on 8 to 9
categories, income of the family and the performance
of the respondents in the final examination of the
previous year organised into three nominal categories.
The responses were used for descriptive purposes and
the percentages were used for drawing inferences. The
second level consisted of identifying the existence of
the association between aspirations and background
variables of the respondents. The third level of
analysis consisted of path analysis and occupational
mobility analysis.
170
As a part of second level analysis stated above,
the following specific hypotheses were formulated.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference
in
the educational aspirations of the hostellers having
different occupational background of the father.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference in
the
between
hostellers
belonging to high and low economic status.
Hypothe.is 3: There is no significant difference in
the educational aspirations across two categories of
father's educational status.
Hypothesis 4: There is no significant difference in
the educational aspirations of hostellers studying in
different standards.
Hypothesis 5: There is no significant difference in
the educational aspirations of hostellers staying in
hostels located in urban and rural areas.
Hypothesis 6: There is no significant difference in
the educational aspirations among hostellers belonging
to four backward class categories.
Hypothesi. 7: There is no significant difference in
the educational aspiration. among three categories of
educational performance of the hostellers.
171
in
Hypothesis 8: There is no significant difference
the occupational aspirations of the hostellers
having
different occupational background of the father.
Hypothesis 9: There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations between hostellers
belonging to high and low family economic status.
Hypothesis 10: There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations across two categories of
father's educational status.
Hypothesis 11: There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations of hostellers studying in
different standards.
Hypothesis 12:
There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations of the hostellers staying
in hostels located in urban and rural areas.
Hypothesis 13: There is no significant difference in
the
occupational
aspirations among hostellers
belonging to four backward class categories.
HypothesiS 14: There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations among hostellers of three
categories of educational performance.
Hypothesis 15:
There is no significant degree of
association
between occupational
aspiration
and
educational aspiration among hostellers.
172
The
above hypotheses were tested by using chi-
square technique and wherever required the Pearson's
contingency co-efficient derived from Chl'
-square were
used.
Percentage distribution of the responses
were
used for drawing inferences. The third level of
analysis was devoted to the follow-up study. At
level, the response categories were organised
this
on
ordinal scale and the approach of path analYSis was
used to derive a causal model to link the background
variables with
educational
and
occupational
attainments, using standardised SCores and running
multiple regression model on computer.
Path Analysis Model:
Path
analysis is basically concerned
with
estimating the magnitude of the linkages between
variables and using these estimates to
provide
information about the causal processes (Asher,
1976: 29). Path analysis is described as a "powerful
and meaningful approach for analysing causal relations
and correlations " (Heise, 1969: 69), The approach,
employing these techniques, enables the investigator
to shift from verbal statements of a complex set of
interrelationships between variables to more precise
mathematical ones and to estimate the magnitude of the
causal links involved. A detailed discussion on the
principles, uses,
use of ordinal data as interval
173
data, limitations etc
., are available in various
literature (See Borgatta (ed.) 1969; H.M.Blalock
Jr. ,
1971; Asher, 1976; Keeves 1985].
Studies
which have used the techniques of
path
analysis are also available (Jencks, 1973; Sharada,
1977) .
More recently two studies conducted in Indian
context have used this technique <Radha Devi, 1978 and
and Kulkarni, 1984).
In
path analysis, one starts with a
pre-
determined causal ordering among the variables under
consideration.
The first step in causal ordering is
to separate out the 'inputs' or exogenous variables
(variables that assumed to be not causally related to
one another even though they may be correlated) which
have causal priority over all other variables (Heise,
1969: 51).
The next step
is to order the
dependant
variables or endogenous variables
which are
dependant in causal chain in an apriori fashion based
upon the theoretical consideration. This chain may be
of recursive or non-recursive type. It should be noted
that apart from inputs all other variables will be
dependent variables in one relationship or the other.
Also, a dependent variable in one relationship may be
an independent variable in another relationship.
174
Once the causal ordering is over, the next
is to draw the path diagram (model) incorporating
the assumed and hypothesised paths.
In
step
all
were
considered
the present study, six variables
at the initial stages for a causal
model.
It was decided to use only those variables which were
significantly correlated with one another,
after
obtaining an
inter-correlation matrix.
Based upon
such
an
examination, the causal model
was proposed
retaining only significantly
related
variables.
Accordingly,
a correlation matrix was obtained using
the following variables:
(i) Caste status
(ii) Economic status
(iii) Educational Aspirations
(iv) Occupational Aspirations
(v) Educational Attainment
(vi) Occupational Attainment
The correlation matrix showed that both economic
status and caste status were not significantly
correlated with other variables. The significance was
tested usinQ Table 25 in Garrett'. book (Garrett,
1981: 201). Hence, these two variables were dropped
and the remaining four variables were used to develop
a causal model and path analysis was performed.
175
Path
----
Model
Occupational
Attainment:
Figure 4.1 gives the path model for occupational
attainment with hypothesised co-efficients.
conventions Employed in the Path Diagram:
The following conventions are employed in the
path diagram:
a) A
causal
relationship is indicated
by a
unidirectional arrow
from
the
.determining
variable to the variable dependent on it.
b) A non-causal correlation between variables that
are not dependent on other variables in the
system is indicated by a bi-directional curved
arrow.
The magnitude of a non-causal correlation
is indicated by the Zero-order
correlation
coefficient between the two variables.
(c) Causal relationships which involve disturbance or
residual variable. and represent forces outside
the system, not correlated with variables
immediately determining the dependent variables,
are indicated by unidirectional arrows from the
residual variables under consideration (P U
3 1
and P U ).
4 2
176
Ul
U2
~ . U l
----------
'. .. '-. ~
~ . 1 ............. \, J ------_
':::1 ' ~
EON RTT B,] ><
OCC OTT
~ 7\ 1 I ----"?'
~ . ~ ;r ~ ~ ~
/ ~ ~ . /
---
.-
EDN ASP
=
Educational Aspirations
OCC ASP
=
Occupational Aspirations
EDN ATT
=
Educational Atto.inment
OCC ATT
=
Occupational Attainment
Ul
=
Residual on EDN ATT
U2
=
Residual on acc ATT
FIG Lt.1: PATH t-tODEL FOR OCCUPAT10tH1L
AT T A I U t-1 [ tl T
177
(d) In path analY&i&, to di&tingui&h residual or
disturbance varl"able f
s rom the causal variables
literal subscripts are attached to
residual
variable.
residual
attainment
In the Fig. 4.1, U and
1
variables operating on
and
occupat ional
U indicate
2
educational
attainment
respectively.
In path analYSis the mean value of
the residual variable is assumed to be zero.
(e) The magnitude of the relationship aSSOCiated with
an arrow,
indicating one-way causation in the
path diagram is given by a path coeffiCient
<P ), whe re i denotes the resu 1 t ant (dependent)
i j
variable and j denotes the determining variable.
It is an accepted notation in path analYSiS, for
the first subscript to refer to the resultant
(dependent)
variable and for the second one to
independent variable. The path coefficient may
be of either sign.
E:<ogenous, Endogenous Resultant Variables:
In the above model, two aspirational variables
were treated as exogenous variables. The educational
attainment was treated as endogenous and the
occupational attainment was the resultant (effect)
variable. It was decided to have a non-recursive
linear model as depicted above and thus the causal
t
" 1 Path co-efficients were
chain was unidirec 10na
178
derived
through stepWise multiple regression
of
standardised scores of the exogenous and endogenous
variables on standardised occupational
attainment
scores.
The standard coeffiCients were obtained by
running multiple regression programme twice, which was
available in computer package.
In the first instance
(step),
the educational attainment was used
as
dependent variable and two aspirational variables were
used as independent or determining variables.
In the
second
instance all the above three variables were
treated as independent variables and occupational
attainment
was treated as resultant
(dependent)
variable.
The dependent and independent variables
used in the first and second steps (instances), to run
the two regressions and the path coefficients obtained
can be represented as below:
------------------------------------------------------
Step
Dependent
Variable
Independent
Variables
CoeffiCients
derived
------------------------------------------------------
I
EDN ATT EON ASP, P , P
31 32
acc ASP
I I Dec ATT EON ASP P ,P , P
41 42 43
acc ASP
EON ATT
Since the regressions were run on using
standardized variable scores (i.e., the mean being
zero and variance being one) , the standard
coefficients obtained represent the path values.
The
179
values
of the two residuals
were obtained
by
subtracting the R-square from 1
and obtaining the
square root of the value thus obtained Th
e formula
used for obtaining residual value is:
Measurement of variables for analysis.
The
variables used were not amenable
for
measuring the values on a pure interval scale in the
present study because the sample studied
formed
relatively a homogeneous band on
socia-economic
structure.
Any scale developed on general population
was not sensitive enough to capture the occupational
and economic differences etc., within this section of
the population. Hence, the study developed its own
scale of ordinal measure treating them as approximate
interval measures.
It may be worthwhile to note that
many scholars have recommended the use of ordinal
measures in path analysis wherever interval scales
were not available in social sciences (Boyle,
1970;
labovitz, 1970). Several empirical studies have been
reported using ordinal measures for path analysis.
The present study has also followed the suit.
However, care has been taken to introduce the maximum
possible variation while ranking both occupational and
educational levels under aspirations and attainments.
The following table gives the rank order of the
180
Observations on each scale in descending order and the
rank scores that were used for regression purposes.
Lab 1 e 4.2:
Measurement of Variables: Rank
the observations ~ each
descending order
order
scale
~
Values assigned and categories
Variable
-----------------------------------------------------
duc at ional
Aspiration
occupat ional
Aspiration
181
9. Ph.D
8. Professional
7. Post-graduate
6. B.Ed
5. General University Under
graduate degree
4. Diploma/Board Technical
Diploma
3. TCH
2. PUC
1.
SSlC
O.
Undecided/D.K/N.R
18. Professional
17.
16.
15.
14.
13.
12.
11.
Administrative/Managerial
lecturer
police Sub-Inspector
High School Teacher
Primary school teacher
Hostel Superintendent/Gobargas
Supervisor, Social
Welfare Inspectors etc.
Clerk/Typist
Occupa tiona 1
Attainment
Educational
Attainment
Note: D.K
N.R
10. Police Constable
9. Army/Soldier
8. Conductor/Driver
7. Foreman/mechanic
6. Group '0' salaried job
5. Small scale trade (rural)
4. Semi-skilled
3.
cultivator
2. Rural artisans/rural
service .Occupations
1. labourer
O. Unemployed/N.R/Student
The same scale
classification
occupational
ment ioned above.
9.
Professional
8.
Post-graduate
7. B.Ed
values and
as that of
aspirations
6. General University
Undergraduate
degree
5. Board Technical Diploma
4. TCH
3. PUC
2. SSlC
1- SSlC failed.
denotes 'do not
Not responded
182
Data for Path Analysis:
----
The
data set for came
from the
survey of past beneficiaries of the hostel scheme. The
survey
included 230 past benefiCiaries out
of
which
113 were employed at the time of the survey and 43
were
still studying and the remaining 74
were
unemployed.
Since students could not be
considered
for attainments and the Positions of the
educational
unemployed were not determinable
on the
occupational scale,
it was decided to
use
as
observations only those who were employed at' the time
of the survey.
occupational Mobility:
Another purpose of the present study was to
determine the occupational mobility attained by the
employed respondents at the time of the
survey as
. compared to their own previous two
generations.
Basically, mobility refers to movement
of an
individual in socio-economic space from predetermined
positions. Occupational mobility refers to movement
of an individual from one occupation to other
occupation arranged in an hierarchical fashion on an
occupational structure scale.
183
Intergenerational OCcupational Mobility;
The
intergenerational
oCcupational
mobil i ty
refers
to
the change.
in
oCcupations
across
generations. It
is defined as the
change
in
the
occupational status of the generation under study as
compared to their father and grandfather generations.
For
this purpo.e,an occupational mObl'll'ty
index was
developed. This
index gave a measure of changes in
occupations
across generations obtained
at
the
individual level.
It is defined as the value of the
difference between the SCOres on ordinal measures of
the occupations of the two successive generations. For
the purposes of measuring the occupational status, a
common procedure was adopted with respect to all the
generations considered in this study.
Occupational Status:
This is measured by assigning ranks to the
clusters of occupations observed in the sample. Since
the sample drawn represents a narrow band on the total
population, it is not possible to obtain variety of
occupat ions. Hence, aSSigning ranks based upon a
general occupational status scale results in
\
clustering around one or two values. Therefore, the
present study has arranged the obtained occupations
into six broad categories. The following table gives
the ranking of six occupational categories along with
their respective occupational scores.
184
Table 4.3: Occupational Categories with
score asslgned ~
rank inQ.
------------------------------------
Occupational categories ------------------
Ranking Scores
________________________________ aSSigned
---------
Professionals 1 ~
Primary school teacher
Modern-salaried-Government
jobs
Agriculturist
(owner cultivators)
Rural traditional artisans and
service occupations
Agricultural labourer and
casual labourer
2
3
4
5
6
5
4
3
2
1
~
It may be seen from the above table that some of
the
categories like
primary
school
teacher,
agriculturist represent single occupation.
Other
categories represent more than
one
occupation.
However, in the following paragraphs,
a brief
description of the observed occupations which are
included in each of the occupational categories shown
in Table 4.3 are presented.
The occupations such as high school teacher,
lecturer, doctor, lawyer etc., were cla.sified as
professionals.
The primary school teacher category represents
single occupation. However, few Anganwad i
Teachers/Nursery Teachers with a Certificate Course in
185
Teaching
(TCH)
qualification were also
inclUded
in
this category.
The
jobs such as Peon
in Government ft
o lce,
Clerk,
Lab Attender, Police Constable, Jawan, Gobar
Gas ASSistant, Telephone Operator Bus C d t
, on uc or etc.,
were classified and included under 'modern-salaried-
government jobs'category.
The
owner-cultivators
represent
single
occupation
and were classified as
agriculturist
category.
Occupations comparable to traditional 'Jajmani'
pattern occupations, such as blacksmith, potters,
barber,
dhabi <washer man), basket maker etc., were
classified and included under rural
traditional
artisans and rural service occupations.
These categories were ranked to represent their
relative status within our observed
occupational
titles. Such ranking is purely based upon the inSights
obtained during the field observations.
The rank
assigned to primary school teacher is higher than
other salaried occupations. This is justified by the
fact that the position of primary school teacher in a
rural community context is well recognised because of
his ability to act as a link or communicator with
outside world. Other salaried employees like driver,
clerk etc., do not enter into the day-today social
186
interactions and hence are remote from the
.
\I ill age
social organisations.
Highest rank is assigned to
professional category which consists of
doctors,
engineers, high school teachers etc. This is
done
in conformity
with
the
general
status
distribution in the context of larger SOCiety and also
it represents the limits of oCcupational disribution
at the micro social context.
Thus, while aSSigning the ranks to the obtained
occupations, we have taken into consideration the
generally accepted social ranking of occupations in
the context of wider structure, and more
specifically at the level of village community.
of Occupational Mobility:
The following procedure was adopted for the
measurement of the magnitude and direction of the
occupational mobility:
(a) Cross tabulation of the occupation scores of the
subjects on X axis and occupational scores of the
parents/grandparents on Y axis in the form of
"scatter diagram" or Rows a .. well
as columns in both the generations represent the
same occupational category status on X and Y
axis.
187
(b)
or
Each cell in the scattergram carries a weight
value assigned to it. This weight depends
upon
how many steps the cell is falling away either to
the left or to the right of the Left to Right
diagonal. The Left to Right diagonal represents
cases
(observations) where the subject obtains
same occupational score as that of
his/her
parent/grandparent, indicating 'no change'
observations. Hence the diagonal cells carry zero
~ e i g h t and mobility score is zero. In the
scattergram cells to the right of th, diagonal
represents
positive or upward mobility
and
towards the left represents negative or downward
mobility. The scattergram with the cell weights
assigned to each of the cell is given in Table
4.4. These weights represent the mobility index.
(c) After obtaining the frequency distribution of the
observations in the scattergram the obtained cell
frequencies were multiplied by the respective
weights. The values thus obtained for cells of
each row when summed up (row wise) gave the
aggregate/net mobility attained by the respective
occupational categories. The sum of all the row
total gave the aggregate/net mobility of the
entire sample.
188
,
,
Table 4.4:
:Parent '51
Scattergram show1ng the t.o way distributlon of the occupat1onal
Category of t\tIQ generations on the X and Y aXiS and the
Welght/Value asslgned to each of the cell 1n the scattergraa
'---------------
,-------- ,
: Grandparent's
:generatlOn
: occupat 100al
:category status
6 5 4
3
2
,------------
,
, Welghts asslgned to each cell
: 00::0 m:ooo::om;m:;oooo \ :
I ::,,:
I I 1 ________ : _____ I ______________ I I
I I I t II
I II' I It
, , , -1 '+1 +2 +3 +4::
5 I: : I I II
I :, I I I ..
+2 +3::
I t I I \1
:: I I I I II
It _______ : _____ : : ;\ _____ : :
; --------------- I I I I I I I I
:: I I I I II
: : -3 -2 -1 '+1 +2::
I I I II
: : I I I II
1 ___________ : : --------! - -: :
I I I , II
: : -4 -3 -2 I -1 0 : +1 ; ;
2 I I I I II
t I I I II
II
.,------------- " ---------: ----:
, .
"
. ,
"
-5
-4
: :-;;J'::
t II
-3 -2
I -1
II I II
II II
___________________ ===:::::===========================::==================:: -==. I
189
(d)
Aggregate of the deviations (multiplied
values)
of
the row divided by the total number of
c:ases
in the given row gave the and
':I direc:tion
of the average
mobi li ty
at
the
oc:c:upational
c:ategory level
and
the
aggregate
of
all row
totals divided
by
the
sample
size
the
gave
average mobility
of
the
entire
sample.
The
positive or negative sign of the average mobility
thus obtained indic:ated the upward or downward
direc:tion of mobility respec:tively.
Using the above proc:edure the mobility attained
by father generation as c:ompared to
grandfather
generation and mobility attained by the respondents'
generation as c:ompared to father and grandfather
generation
were
attempted and results of whic:h
are
presented separately under analysis c:hapter.
Mobility Index:
Data for this purpose was c:ollec:ted from the
past benefic:iaries. As mentioned earlier, only 113
were employed in sample.
Further, many
respondents had not given the oc:cupation of the
grandfather pleading ignoranc:e. Henc:e, the mobility
index between the grandfather and the grandson was
developed using only those C:Ases where pairs of
observations were available on the above two
190
variables.
The same decision was adopted in the
case
01 measuring the in the
occupational
status
beween grandfather
father and
father and
son.
HOl.AJever, it may
be
noted
that
in
the
case
of
developing mobility
index
between
father
(6 )
and
son/daughter
(6 )

2
3
in
about
16
observations the
mother's
OCcupations
have
been
substituted for father's occupation in the absence
of
l
'nformation regarding father. H th
ence, e number of
observations varied
in three and
they
\lJe re :
1>
Bett.lJeen 6 and 6
= 181
1
2
2) Between 6 and 6
= 93
1 3
3) Between 6 and 6
= 112
2 3
where 6 ,6 and 6 stand
respectively
for the
1 2 3
occupat ional status of
grandfather,
father
and
son/daughter generations.
Lim ita t ion s : The present study is confined to only
four schemes of equalising educational opportunities
categorised under two broad meas4res, scholarships and
hostels. There are other schemes under different
measures. They were not considered because the extent
of coverage in numbers and the proportion of
expenditure were found to be very meagre to have
significant impact on the development of backward
classes in general. Even among the schemes considered
191
under study, the educational impact of the scholarship
schemes were not considered because:
(i) even though coverage was extensive the nature
intervention was only financial and was too meagre
have any impact on changing the family
environmental context of the individual.
of
to
and
(i 1>
Many studies are available on the educational
and occupational t t i n m e n t ~ of general populations of
which the backward classes were represented as a part.
( iii)
The human and financial resources available
were nat sufficient enough to pursue the effect of
scholarship an reCipients who were scattered among the
population in different places.
an the other hand,it was found worthwhile to
explore the
strength of
impact of hostel scheme
considering
intervention
in the form of
higher
financial and educational inputs altering the living
environment of the individuals.
Further, such
studies were rarely attempted in the past.
In the next chapter, an attempt is made to
analyse the growth of institutions, beneficiaries and
expenditure, and utilisation of hostel and scholarship
schemes by OBCs.
192
CHAPTER V
WELFARE MEASURES AND UTILISATION
CHAPTER V
WELFARE MEASURES AND UTILISATION
The previous Chapter dealt with the methodology
adopted
in the present empirical study. The present
Chapter aims at analysing the utilisation of
hostel
and
scholarship
schemes by OBCs, for both
pre
and
post-matric students. The intention is to indicate
the future course by which the hostel and scholarshlp
schemes can be fruitfully implemented for the welfare
of
the GBCs.
In order to
yield
a
better
understanding,
the present Chapter is organised into
three sections, as follows:
Sectlon-I:
A Review of the Growth of
Ser'Vlces,
Beneficiaries and
Expenditure;
Section-II:
A
Comparison of Profiles of Pre
and
Post-Matric
Scholarship Holders with emphasis on Utilisation; and
Section-III: A Comparative Analysis of the Scholarship
and Hostel Scheme Beneficiaries.
SECTION - I
A Review of the Growth of SerVices, Beneficiaries and
Expenditure: A State Level Analysis
The implementation of measures and programmes
for the development of weaker sections is the
responsibility of the Ministry of Social Welfare. In
the early years, after Independence, as discussed
in
the
earlier Chapters,the
focus mainly
on the
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. B
ut gradually
different socio-economic segments were identified
for
protective
measures.
Such
sections were backward
classes, women, children of the pre-school
age, etc.
Hence separate administrative structures were
evolved
to look after defined segments of weaker sections . In
this process,
a separate of Backward
Classes was created in 1977-78 and the responsibility
of implementing various welfare with respect
to OBCs was given to this Broad schemes
of both educational and economic development were
chalked
out by this department soon after
its
establishment. The thrust of the department mainly
centres around the educational schemes. In addition
to this, it has schemes for vocational training and
self-employment.
Since the present study focusses on
the educational development of the OBCs, an attempt is
made
here,
to review the growth of services,
beneficiaries and expenditure covering a duration of
one decade of the existence of the Department of
Backward Classes i.e., from 1977-78 to 1988-89. The
Department
implements a number of schemes for the
educational development of OBCs with special emphasls
on pre-matric and post-matric hostels for boys and
girls and also grant-in-aid hostels. These programmes
194
are
broad based and cover all
backward
categories in Karnataka. In addition, resldential
schools under the name of 'Ashram Schools' serve the
educational needs in tribal pockets. A
separate
scheme
is meant specially for orphans and destitute
children.
TI.&JO
schemes with a larger chunk
of bUdgetary
allocat ion
are the scholarship scheme for
pre-matric
and post-matric backward class students and fee
concessions to the students of backward
classes
studying
in recognised private aided ahd unaided
institutions.
The present analysis is designed to
cover only broad based educational schemes. As already
stated
in the methodology, available secondary data
from published and unpublished sources connected wlth
the Government were collected for the purposes of
review and analysis and the same being presented in
this section. The details of the growth in number of
institutions,
expenditure and beneficiaries during
1977-78 to 1988-89 is given in Appendix-II.
Hostels:
(a) Pre-Matric;
In the
educat ion was
early years, when the expansion of
limited to some urban and semi-urban
centres, hostels were the only means through WhlCh
rural population could utilise educational facilities.
195
This arrangement was made by many caste
organ i sa t lons
of
the
dominant and powerful caste
groups or some
philanthropists.
The importance of
hostel
was
realised
even during pre-independence period and
the
Miller Committee had recommended opening of hostels
managed by Government in all taluk headquarters*.
Soon after Independence, the demand for
hostels
from weaker sections increased and th
e Government
started
running hostels in many districts
and
important taluk headquarters. By the time a sepatrate
department for OBes
was
created
there
were
considerable number of hostels, both run by the
Government as well as aided by the Government.
Hostels are mainly meant for facilitatlng the
pursuit of education beyond the compulsory stage (5th
standard onwards). At present there are pre-matrlc
hostels run by the Government
and voluntary
organisations and post-matric hostels mostly run by
the Government. Out of the total budgetary allocation
to the Department of Backward Classes around 35 to 40
percent goes towards the establishing and maintaining
the hostels. Figure- 5.1.1 reflects the growth of
pre-matric hostels run by Government in the State of
Karnataka between 1977-78 to 1988-89. This period
* Taluk is the next smaller administrative unit of a
district. Taluk is also called as Tahsil.
196
l
C
FIG: 5.1.1
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC HOSTELS (ALL)
1977-78 TO 1988-89

roO
400
:.)0

1977.781978.791979.80 1980.81 1981.821982.83 1983.841984.85 1985.861986.871987.88 1988.89
FIG: 5.1.2
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC HOSTELS
(Boy.s and Oi rle Separately)

roo
fOO
400
of !\)O
200
!B--of'!
100

... Oir!!.
FIG: 5.1.1
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC HOSTELS (ALL)
1 977 -78 TO 1 988-89
~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
JOO
jjO
400
.300
r o o ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - r - - - - r - - - . - - - - - - - - . - - - - . - - ~
1977.78 1978.79 1979.8) 198).81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.851985.861986.871987.88 1988.89
FIG: 5.1.2
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC HOSTELS
(Boys ond Girle Separately)
~ , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
roo
500
400
XlO
200
100
o ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - . - - - - r - - - - r - - - . - - - - - - - - - -
+ Girl.
1 a'7
covers two years of the Fifth Five Year Plan and
more
or
less
the entire period of the Sixth
and Seventh
F1"ve Year Plans**. To b "
egln Wl"th, th
ere were 200
hostels in 1977-78 which increased to 655 in
1988-89.
The
graph shows uneven growth of hoetels
during
thiS
period
Most of the growth " th
1n e pre-matraic
hostels has taken place in the last three
years of the
Sixth Plan period,i.e., between 1982-83 and 1984-85.
This growth has stagnated during the entire Seventh
Plan period.
Figure 5.1.2 depicts the growth of pre-matric
hostels meant for boy_ girls separately, under the
management of the Department. It may be noted that
the expansion of during 1977-78 to 1988-89 had
served mainly the male backward class population as
against females.
There were 16 hostels for girls
as compared to 184 for boys in 1977-78.
In 1988-89
there were 45 hostels for girls as compared to 610 for
boys. In other words, the ratio between boys and
girls hostels was 11.5:1 in 1977-78 and became 13.5:1
in 1988-89. This disparity between boys and girls
indicats the need for defining girls as special
categories within the Backward Class. So long as the
female population among the Backward Class do not get
**
5th Five Year Plan Period is from 1974-75 to
78 <78-79 and 79-80 annual plans); 6th Five
Plan Period is from 1980-81 to 1984-85; 7th
Year Plan Period is from 1985-86 to 1989-90.
198
1977-
Year
Five
recognised
as a distinct category th t t f
, e s a us 0 many
population
segments within the backward class would
remain unaltered because of the backwardness
women segment.
of the
The
above observation is well reflected in
the
growth of the number of beneficiaries belonging to
both sexes
(Figure 5.1.3).
As one may
expect,
increase
in the growth of hostels coincides with the
number of beneficiaries. Much increase has taken
place between 1982-83 and 1984-85. The gap between
male
and
female beneficiaries has increased over
a
period of time with an average annual growth rate of
9.3 per cent in the case of male beneficiaries and 7.5
per cent in the case of female beneficiaries.
Figure 5.1.4 reflects the trends in the growth
of expenditure for the corresponding period. The graph
gives two separate curves for allocation and actual
expenditure. At the outset the graph shows a constant
annual
increase both in allocation
and actual
expenditure.
But
it is interesting to note that in
almost all years the budget allotment is being under-
utilised,
i . e ,
the actual expenditure for all the
years studied,
is always lower than the
budget
allocat ion.
199
FIG: 5.1.3
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC BENEFICIARIES
(Hostels)
30
Z8
-'
"
21S
/
24
22
20
18
Hi
14
12
10
8
6
..
2
0
.. I
19n.781978.791979.8Q 198).81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.841984.85 1985861986.871987 Be 1
Girls
FIG: 5.1.4
GROWTH OF PRE-MATRIC HOSTEL EXPENDITURE
""Ioootions ond Actual Expenditure

BOO
700
eoo
500
200
100
--

19n.781978.791979.8O 1980.61 1961.821962.6.3 198.3.84 1984.85 1985.861966.871987.88 198A.!!9
o Allocotiore Actual ElCfW'nditur'fl
Compared to the growth rate of beneficiaries
at
12.3 per cent per annum on an
average, the growth rate
of expenditure
was found to be 31.3 per cent
on an
in
average per year. This trend indicates an increase
the per beneficiary expenditure, at the current
price
level. The
per pupil rate fixed for the
purpose
of
budget allocation was revised twice during the period
under
consideration. To benin with it h'as
" ... Rs.50 per
pupil
which was increased to Rs.75 in 1982 and to
Rs.l00 in 1984.
(b) Grant-in-li.Q.:
Figure 5.1.5 gives the growth rate of hostels
that are run with a grant-in-aid
(GIA).lt may be
observed that the number of GIA hostels during 1979-80
was 246 and nearly at the end of a decade
(i.e. ,
in
1988-89)
the number of GIA hostels were only 242,
indicating a total stagnation or a marginal decline in
the number of GIA hostels run by voluntary agencies.
This may partly be due to the fact that the State had
taken over the greater responsibility of running the
hostels for QBCs especially after the creation of a
separate department for backward classes. The
stagnation may also be due to the fact that the
quality of services provided in the privately run
hostels was poor and the strict supervision by the
Department regarding quality might have forced them to
close down such hostels.
FIG: 5.1.5
GROWTH OF GRANT-IN-AID HOSTELS
1978-79 TO 1988-89

290
280
270
260
250

1980.81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.85 1985.86 1986.87 198788 198889
FIG: 5.1.6
GROWTH OF GRANT-IN-AID BENEFICIARIES
(Hostels) 1978-79 to 1968-89
11.6 -,-----_____________________________________ --,
11.4
11.2
11
10.8
10.6
10.4
10.2
10
9.8
92

1979.8:) 1980.81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.85 1985.86 1986.87 198788 1988 8;
202
With the near stagnation or a marginal decline
in
the number of GIA hostels,
the
number
Of
beneficiaries had also came down during the
decade from 10,667 to 9,500, registering an average
negative growth rate of around one per cent (Figure
5.1.6).
On
the expenditure side of grants to GIA
institutions, the trend showed an annual increase of
5.5 per cent throughout the decade fluctuating between
40.53 lakhs in 1979-80 and 52.64 in 1988-89.
The
decline of the beneficiaries can be accounted by this
low rate of growth in expenditure as compared to the
high growth rate of expenditure in government run
hostels.
(c) Post-Matric:
Post-matric hostels serve the educatlonal needs
of Backward Classes beyond secondary level.
Considering the expansion of education among backward
classes during 1977-78 to 1988-89 one may exopct
sign i f icant
increase in hostel facilities.
expectation has not come true. Figure 5.1.7 gives thp
graphic representation of increase in numbr of post-
matric hostels and figure 5.1.8 gives the
representation of the increase in the post-matrlc
beneficiaries during the past 12 years.
It may be
observed that, both the institutions as well as the
-'
beneficiaries have increased during 1978-79 to
and showed a stagnation for the period 1982-87,
then
Both thp
2c)3
FIG: 5.1.7
GROWTH OF POST-MATRIC HOSTELS (ALL}
1977-78 TO 1998-89
68

,"
66
64
62
60
58
56

52
50
48
46
44
42
40
19n.781978.791979.8O 1980,81 1981.821982.8.3 198.3.84 1984.851985.86 1986.87 1987.ee 1988 89
PIG: 5.1.8
GROWTH OF POST-MATRIC BENEFICIARIES
(Hostels) 19n-78 TO 1988-89

4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4
3.9
3.6
35
33
32 "i---y----,r-----r---,---.----,-----,----r---,----,---
19n.781978.791979.8) 198).81 1981.82 1982.8.3 1983.84 1984.85 R9
204
number of institutions and beneficiaries registered an
average annual
growth of 5.2 and 3.4 per cent,
respectively, during the period under consideration.
But much of the growth took place only during the
early years.
On the other hand, the expenditure
incurred for the hostels registered a steady growth
(Figure 5.1.9) at the rate of 13.4 per cent per annum.
This indicates that the cost per pupil has increased
over the period of time keeping in view the rising
prices.
The increasing cost of living has resulted in
revision of boarding charges from Rs.125 to Rs.150 per
month and a couple of pay revisions during the period
under consideration. When the post-matric facilities
with respect to boys and girls are compared, there
appears to be no significant difference both in
institutions and number of beneficiaries. Figurps
5.1.10 and 5.1.11 show the disparity between boys
girls both in number of institutions as well as
beneficiaries widened in the beginning years, and with
the growth of hostels for boys during 1981-82,
disparity has remained more or less constant. Thp
growth rates of hostels were 6.2 and 3.5 respectively
for hostels meant for boys and girls;and the growth
rates of 3.6 and 2.7 with respect to male and
beneficiaries were observed respectively during 1977-
78 to 1988-89.


(t)
.I:
.:;;
0
C
N
0
(t)
a\
IY
'-.;7,....?OWTH: POST--=MATt<'c He>"::::> TE::...L EXPEND'T(JRE:--
140
Allocation and Actual Expenditure
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50 m n
40 I r
1 9 7 7.78 1 9 78.7 9 1 9 79 .80 1 9 80.8 1 1 . 8 2 1 9 8 2 .83 1 9 83. 84 1 984.85 1:' ,,,o. 1 9 8 6. 8 7 1 '? 9 7 . 88 1 988.89
o
+
Actual E>penditure
tid
1-4
(j)
..
U'I



\Q
N
o
0\
It)
.r:
.::L
o
c
.
It)
Il::
GROWTH; POST-MATRIC HOSTEL EXPEND\TURE.
140
Allocation and Actual Expenditure
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50 ED EI
40 I r
1977.78 1978.79 1979.801 980.81 1.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.85 1986.87 1 'J.g 7.88 1988.89
o ,6..11 oc a tion
+
.Actual

1-4
en
..
Ut



\D

" 11
c
0

J
0

v
PIG: 5.1.10
GROWTH OF POST -MATRIC HOSTELS
(Boys and Girl. aeperate.,y)

42
38
34
32
30
ze
26
rU.---.J
24
22
20
18
16

1977.7619'78.791979.eo 19eo.e1 1ge1.e219e2.e319e3.841964.e5 19e5.ee 19ee.e7 1ge7.ee 19ee.e9
o Boys + Girls
PIG: 5.1.11
GROWTH OF POST-MATRIC BENEFICIARIES
(Hostels: Boys one! Girls Separately)
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
3
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.7
0.8
____ __ -, ____ __ -, ____ ,-__ -. __ --.-__ -. ____
1981.821982.831983.841984.851985.66 1966.871987.88
+ Girl"
207
Scholarship and Fee Concessions:
Among the schemes for the educational
development of Backward Classes, scholarships for pre-
matric and post-matric students have been accorded
second place as compared to the hostel scheme. The
third
important schame is in the form of
fee
concession covering both scholarship holders and
hostellers. The growth of beneficiaries of the
scholarship scheme applicable for pre-matric level has
increased from 56.5 thousand in 1978-79 to
thousand in 1988-89,registering an annual growth rate
of 18.6 per cent (Figure 5.1.12). The same graph
shows that the post-matric beneficiaries increased at
an higher rate of 22.8 per cent annually;
from 9.8 thousand to 59.1 thousand during the same
period.
Under the fee concession scheme, Government
reimburses the fees due from the Backward Class
students studying in private aided and unaided
instltutions. Thl. scheme was handed over to the
pre.ent department in 1979-80 and the number of
beneficiaries i.e., the number of students whose fees
were paid by the Government to the institutions in
which they were studying. were 169 thousands during
the initial year. This has increased at an annual
growth pate of 8.8 per cent (Figure 5.1.12). As
compared to this, the expenditure shows a negative
growth of -0.6 per cent annually. This was due to
the
208
I'

t1
C
0
,
0

v
FIGI 5.1.12
GROWTH OF SCHOLARSHIP BENEFICIARIES
(1nc:ludi"9 F_ Ca .........
an
.)
____
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

1978.79 1979.80 1980.81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.85 1985.86 1986.87 1987.88 1988.89
o Pre-Watric
+ Pa8t-Motrie
<> Fee oancession
I
FIG: 5.1.13
GROWTH OF SCHOLARSHIP EXPENDITURE
(Includirq Fee Concessions)

340
320
300

260
240
220
200
180
[ ISO
140
120
100
80
60
40

1978.79 1979.80 1980.81 1981.82 1982.83 1983.84 1984.86 1985.86 1986.87 1987.88 1988.89
(j Pre-Wotne
+ Peat-Watrie
<> Fee oanceslSlon
..
209
fact that in the initial years the reimbursement of
the fee concession was made at double the $tandard
rate of fees per student to those institutions not
aided by the Government. This practice was given up
around 1982-83 and hence the e:<penditure came dOl>'n
during that year (Figure 5.1.13).
The same gr.'lph
shows the growth of expenditure against pre-matric and
post-matric scholarships, indicating a steady
registering about 22.6 and 22.9 per cent respectively
per annum.
An Assessment of the Educational Schemes:
The analysis of the major educational schemes
conducted so far reveals the following:
1. In terms of budget allocation, priority is
accorded to hostel schemes.
2. The number of beneficiaries under the hostel
scheme is low as compared to the number of
beneficiaries under scholarship schemes.
3. The sexwise distribution of scholarship scheme at
the State level is not available on the offlC1;
records. However, the sexwise distribution of hostel
facility was available and was found that female
beneficiaries are very few as compared to
benefiCiaries; the ratio being around 1:11 for
and male respectively.
4.
Hostel schemes showed high growth rates between
1978-79 to 1984-85 and much of the increase took place
between 1979-80 and 1982-83 in term. of the number
of
beneficiaries and institutions. The beneficiaries
of
the scholarship scheme have shown a steady increase
throughout, starting from 1978-79 to 1988-89.
5. The trend of stagnation in hostel scheme and a
steady growth of scholarship scheme indicate the
policy preference to the coverage in terms of quantity
as compared to the quality in educational development
schemes. So far no effort has been made to assess the
benefits in terms of outcomes of the above schemes.
6. The scheme of fee concession helps only the flow
of resources from the Government to the institutions,
when it is reimbursed without reference to quality of
education in such institution
In the light of the above observations it may be
stated
that the planning has not considered the role
of educational objectives, instead it appears to be
guided by short-term
fiscal and pol itical
considerations.
Especially the hostel scheme has
received low priority during Seventh plan period.
in Even though the hostel scheme appears to be costly
terms of per capita expenditure on the student, it may
not be
costly when one considers the output as the
unit of analysis.
211
I:
,-<
.
" .,' .
,-

, '
,:',:
)
: .
I
\
\
!
\
\

i
" ,
- "
" \ 'll
., .',t'
The main
objective
of the educational
development of Backward Classes is to facilitate the
participation of the talented children from these
classes in modern sectors and thereby improve the
living conditions of the families through increased
earnings.
In other words, the objective is to bring
about mobility in ocacupational and social spheres.
Considerable number of stUdies have 5hown that the
educational attainments
depend upon
the home
environment and parental support. Both these factors
are almost absent in many of the Backward Class
families. No amount of scholarship can make good
these deficiencies. On the other hand, the boarding
facility and the the educational environment provided
in the hostel to a greater extent compensate the above
deficiencies. Thus the need exists to study hostel
scheme as an educational scheme rather than a welfare
measure. The
educational
present study attempts to
developments leading to
analyse the
educational
attainments and eventual occupational attainments of
those who pursue the study staying in hostels.
To begin with, to study the utilisation aspects
of scholarship, an attempt is made in the next
section, to analyse and compare the
characteristics' profiles of scholarship
background
holders of
1986-87 from both pre-matric and post-matric levels.
212
SECTION II
Utilisation of Scholarships: a Comparison of Profiles
of Pre-Matric ~ Post-Matric Scholarshic Holders
Introduction
The present study was taken up to explore the
bacKground characteristics of broad based educational
schemes for Backward Classes. Among several schemes
large amount of finance goes towards scholarships for
pre-matric and post-matric students (in the present
study matriculation refers to SSlC or X standard, pre-
matric refers to classes from V to X and post-matric
r f r ~ to courses beyond ~ standard) and maintaining
hostels for students studying in those levels. These
two schemes are mutually exclusive i.e., those who
stay in the hostels are not eligible for scholarships.
To begin with an attempt is made to analyse the
background characteristics of scholarship holders of
1986-87 from both pre-matric and post-matric courses.
A similar analysis was done with respect to hostel
residents of 1987-88. This will be followed by an
analysis of the educational development leading to
educational and occupational attainments of those who
utilised hostel facilities.
utilization of Scholarship Schem
Among the several programmes taken up for the
large
educational development of Backward Classes,
proportion of expenditure QO to scholarship at
pre-
matric and post-matric level and hostel facilities for
OBCs at pre-matric and post-matric levels. Ashram
schools primarily serve the limited number of
denotified and Backward Tribes. Number of students
studying
hardly
in such schools in the study district
around three hundred and twentyfive. In
is
the
case of scholarship programme even though the coverage
is large, the educational component in this scheme is
very marginal. It is purely a financial incentive
scheme. Backward Class scholarship holders stay in
their own homes and attend schools. Home environment
of the poor families provide limited educational
stimulation and hence their performance in schools
generally will be low. Many stUdies on the educatlonal
achievement have shown that the parental background
and the home environment plays an important role in
determining the educational achievement. Children
from illiterate and impoverished home backgrounds were
found to be low achievers. The findings of these
stUdies can be applied to Backward Classes studying
under scholarship scheme.
214
The scholarship amount at the pre-matric level
is Rs.75 for those in 5th to 7th standards and Rs.100
for those
in 8th to 10th standards per
annum
*
(Approximately, in the current exchange rates, Rs.75 =
4.28 U.S dollars = 2.62 pound sterling, Rs.l00 = 5.71
U.S dollars = 3.50 pound sterling). The grant of this
scholarship requires
certain
formalities
like
producing an income/caste certificate or a declaration.
on oath and applying in prescribed forms. The poor
illiterate parents most often incur
considerable
expenditure to obtain such certificates and may have
to forego one or two day's wages.
This cost,
as
compared to the return in the form of scholarship of
Rs.75 or 100 per annum may not be a sufficient
incentive for many backward class parents.
However,
considerable number do utilise this scheme.
An
analysis of the backgrounds of the
scholarship
recipients may be of some use from the policy point of
view. But studying the scheme from the point of view
of its contribution to educational development may be
unproductive. Hence the present study has attempted
to provide profiles of scholarship holders at pre-
matric and post-matric levels.
*
1 pound sterling = 28.60 Indian Rupees;
dollar = 17.50 Indian Rupees.
215
1 U.S
Sample:
It may be rcalled that the Belgaum district
selected for the study. To realise one of
was
the
objectives i.e., to compare the background profiles of
pre-matric and post-matric scholarship beneficiaries
and
the utilisation aspect 1 f 3 7
s, a samp e 0 4 pre-
matric and 154 post-matric scholarship recipients was
drawn using systematic random sample procedure, the
details of which are already discussed under
methodology.
The background data available in the
applications of the scholarship recipients were
utilised for the purposes of the present analysis.
Background Characteristics of the Scholarship Holders:
SeXWlse Distribution:
The data
on the sex distribution
of the
scholarship beneficiaries are given in Table 5.2.1.
It is seen that nearly 3/4 of the recipients were
males at pre-matric level and this increases to almost
86 per cent at the post-matric level. Thus, the
female beneficiaries decrease as one goes up in their
educational levels. It may be recalled that the
definitions of various categories of other backward
classes largely depend upon the socio-economic
conditions of population in general. However,the data
given in Table 5.2.1 indicate that the benefits of
216
Tclble 5.2.1:
Percentage Distribution of Scholarshlp
Beneficiaries accordinQ to Sex
--------------------------------------------------------
Sex Pre-matric
Post-matric
Both pre-matric
and post-matric
--------------------------------------------------------
Male
Female
74.35
86.36
78.04
25.65
13.64
21.96
--------------------------------------------
100.00
(N=347)
100.00
(N=154)
100.00
(N=5.o1)
--------------------------------------------------------
backward class measures accrue to the male segment of
Classes.
It was found that almost
all
scholarship
recipients belonging to most
backward
category namely, the 'Backward Tribes' were males.
Urban - Rural Distribution:
The classification of the recipients across rural
and urban background
is presented in Table 5.2.2.
Almost 3/5 of pre-matric scholarship recipients came
from rural background. This proportion increases to 77
per cent at the post-matric level. Since the bulk of
Backward Classes population reside in rural areas the
urban-rural ratio appears to be a fair representation at
pre-matric level and has favoured more of rural at the
post-matric stage.
217
Table Percentage
Pre-matric
recipients
background
Distribution of
post-matric
according to
sample ot
scholarship
Urban-Rurdl
--------------------------------------------------------
Levels of Education
Background
and post-matric
--------------------------------------------------------
Rural
62.54 76.62 66.87
Urban
37.46 23.38 33.13
--------------------------------------------
100.00
(N=347)
100.00
(N=154)

(N=501)
-------------------------------------------------------_.
Parental Socio-Economic Background:
The
prescribed
applications require the
candidate to furnish information on father's/guardian's
occupation and income.
Based upon this information, the
socio-economic background of the recipient .can be
ascertained.
The applicants declared their
fami I Y
income through an oath of declaration or submitted an
income certificate issued by a competent authority. In
either case the
income considered was total family
income.
Occupational Distribution:
Table 5.2.3 provides distribution of father's
occupation acroSS broad categories.
Categories like
agricultural labourers, owner-cultivator_, rural service
occupat ions,
and artisans represent purely rural based
218
Table 5.2.3:
Percentage distribution of
beneficiaries according to
background Q.f. father
scholarship
occupational
--------------------------------------------------------
Percentages of scholarship
beneficiaries
Father's
occupation
---------------------------------
Pre-Matric Post-Matric Total
----------------------------------------
Agricultural ----------------
22.77
7.14
17.96
Non-agricultural
labourers
24.78
25.33
24.95
Rural
traditional
ser .... ice
occupations
1.73
0.65
1.40
Art isans 2.02
1.95
2.00
Petty

5.76
9.10
6.79
Agriculture
(owner
cultivators)
31.12
44.16
35.13
Others 9.80
7.77
9.18
O.K*/Not reported 2.02
3.90 2.59
--------------------------------
Total 100.00
100.00 100.00
(N=347)
(N=154) (N=501 )
--------------------------------------------------------
* O.K denotes 'Do not know'.
occupations. The remaining categories represent urban
occupations. Table 5.2.3 re .... eals that around 60 per
cent have rural occupational background at the pre-
matric level, a large proportion of them are
agricul turists (31.12 per cent) followed by
agricultural labourers (about 22.77 per cent).
Among
the urban based occupations non-agricultural labour
class dominates (24.78 per cent). At the post-matric
level a similar trend is observed.
Howe .... er, the
219
proport lon
of agriculturist categories
increases
further
(from 31.12 per cent to 44.16 per cent)
and
the agricultural labourer proportion has come down
(from 22.77 to 7.14 per cent).
Numerically minor
occupational categories are represented with a lower
proportion.
The table reveals that the rural based
labourers utilise post-matric scholarship at a lower
proportion as compared to the pre-matric scholarshlp
benefits. But
in the case
of
non-agricultural
labourers the proportion of utilising post-matrlc
benefit remains more or less unchanged. This may be
due
to the fact that most of the
post-matric
institutions are located in urban and semi-urban
locality and the proximity favours non-agricultural
labourers. Further,
there is a tendency of higher
occupations within the range represented by OBCs
utilising post-matric scholarship more as compared to
pre-matric scholarships.
Family Income:
Table 5.2.4 gives the distribution
of the
scholarship holders across the income categories.
Even though the income may most often get
underreported the information may be reliable with
respect to compa.rison between pre-matric and post-
matric scholarship holders. The table shows that
around 91 per cent of the pre-matric scholarshlp
holders come from families having an annual income of
220
Table 5.2.4: Percentage distribution
iGcording
rclnge
scholarshig
f.mi ly income
------------------------------
Income (in R )
_--------------______ Po.t-M.trlc
-----------------------------------
0 -
500
12.10
1.30
501 -
1000
62.83
18.83
1001
2000
16.14
41.56
2001
3000
2.88
23.37
3001
4000
2.59
12.99
4001
5000
0.00
1.30
5001
7000
0.86
0.00
7001 and above
0.56
0.00
Not
reported/
Not
app 1 ic ab 1 e 2.02
0.65
----------------------------------
100.00
100.00
(N=347)
(N=154)
--------------------------------------------------------
less than Rs.2000. The correspondin9 proportion in the
post-matric group is only 62 per cent. This shows that
even among the OBes, stUdents from families having
relatively higher income continue their education beyond
secondary <post-matric) stage. In other words, the
financial incentive in the form of post-matric
scholarship may not compensate for the opportunity cost
incurred in continuing the education for many low income
families.
221
Educational Levels Qi the Scholarship Recipients:
The
distribution of the scholarship
recipients
across standards/courses is presented in Table 5.2.5.
In the case of pre-matric scholarship holders the
number of recipients were more or less equal when the
level of education is considered. 52.7 per cent were
studying
studying
in middle school and 47.3 per cent
were
in
secondary
school.
Taking
into
consideration the transition rate of students from
middle to secondary, the number of recipients at the
secondary level may be considered as disproportionate.
This over representation may reflect the
hidden
preference to sanction scholarships for applications
belonging to secondary stage.
At the post-matric
level almost 3/4th of the scholarship holders were
studying at PUC level.
were studying for B.A.
This was followed by those who
(8.4 per cent). The third
position goes to those studying in technical courses
in polytechnics (5.8 per cent). The distribution of
scholarship holders at this level shows that majority
of them discontinue their studies at PUC level itself
and further, those who continue prefer univerSity
degree particularly the arts course. Even though,
Belgaum district has facility for technical and
professional degree courses, almost
negligible
proportion utilise scholarship to pursue such courses.
222
Table 5.2.5:
Percentage distribution
recipients sample
standards/courses studying
of the
according

studying Percentage

Higher Pr'imary
(V to VII Std.)
Secondary School
(VIII to X)
52.72
47.26

Total
100.00
(N=347)
--------------------------------------
II Post-Matric ----------------
PUC
TCH
C.P.Ed.
Board Diploma
Courses
B.A.
B.Sc.
B.Com.
B.P.Ed.
B.Ed.
M.A.
M.Sc.
M.Com.
B.E.
LL.B.
MBBS/BAMS
Total
73.36
1.95
0.65
5.85
8.44
1.30
3.90
0.00
3.25
0.00
0.00
0.65
0.00
0.65
0.00
100.00
(N=154)
Educ.tlonal Performance of the Recipients:
The applicants for scholarship have to produce
eVldence for having successfully completed the
previous level of education by providing marks cards
from the educational institutions or the examination
223
boards. Based upon this information it is possible to
classify the scholarship holders across three levels
of achievement. This classification is based upon
commonly adopted 'classes' awarded i.e., first class,
second class and third class with equivalent aggregate
marks expressed in terms of percentage of 60 and above
for the 'first class', between 50 to 59
f.or the
'second class' and less than 50 for the 'third c l a s s ~
Table 5.2.6 shows the distribution of educational
performance of post-matric and pre-matric scholars.
It is heartening to note that nearly 50 per cent of
the scholarship recipients are classified as second
class .;Lnd above.
Table 5.2.6: Percentage distribution of scholarshlp
beneficiaries according to performance ~
annual examinations
--------------------------------------------------------
Educa tiona 1
performance
level
Pre-Matric
Percentage
Post-Matric
--------------------------------------------------------
Thi rd Cl ass
50.43
48.05
Second Class
26.23
35.71
First Class
23.34
16.23
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - -
(N=347) (N=154)
--------------------------------------------------------
224
Utilisation Categories Qi DBes:
As
discussed earlier, backward classes
were
categorised
into four categories of different levels
of backwardness during 1986-87. Except the category
of 'Backward Tribe' the other categories had fixed
quota of
scholarships. Table 5.2.7
gives the
distribution of
scholarship
reCipients
across
the four
categories. The
proportion
of
the
scholarship
recipients under
each
category
was
inversely
distributed across four
backward
class
categories
having different levels of backwardness. At the pre-
matric
levels, 'Backward Tribes' were represented by
5.48 per cent as compared to BSG represented by 44 per
cent.
BCT had 14.4 per cent and Backward Communities
(BCM)
obtained 35.7 per cent of the scholarships.
A
similar trend is observable
in post-matric
scholarships. However, there was an improvement in
the case of Backward Tribe and a decline in the case
of BCM. The improvement in Backward Tribe may be
attributed to the fact that the successful completlon
was not insisted in the courses where the students
were allowed to go to the higher classes without
passing the lower classes. This facility was not
given to other categories. The students had to pass
all the subjects before applying for the scholarship
in the next higher class. The decline in the case of
SCM may be due to the fact that this category
225
comprises of Musl im
community. The
members of this
community take up self-employment
at an early age.
Table 5.2.7: Percentage distribution o_f
sample
to OBC categories
according
--------------------------------------------------------
OBC Categorles Percentages
; ~ ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =
and post-
~ : : ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ :
B T 5.48 12.34 7.59
B C T
14.41
15.58
14.77
B C M
35.73 28.57
33.53
B 5 G
44.38 43.51
44.11
--------------------------------------
Total
100.00 100.00 100.00
(N=347) (N=154) (N=501)
--------------------------------------------------------
Table 5.2.8 gives a comparative picture of the
distribution of scholarship holders against the quota
fixed for each
category. It may be observed in both
pre-matric and post-matric levels that the 'Backward
Special Group' utilise a greater proportion as compared
to the quota fixed by the Government (about 47 and 50
per cent respectively as compared to fixed quota of 33.0
per cent). This obviously i ~ at J the cost of other two
categories.
Further, the
excess
utilisation
of
scholarship to the ratio fixed by the Government is
higher at post-matric level as compared to pre-matric
le .... el.
The reason for such a phenomenon
may be
attrlbuted to the decline in continuity rate among the
226
more
backward catenor"
les as compared to the BSG,the
least backward category among OBCs.
Table
5.2.8: Ratio/percentage fixed ~ ~
and the ratio/percentage of
sanctioned under ~ categ;;y
Government
scholarsh1p
( 1986-87)
--------------------------------------------------------
OBC Categories
Ratio fixed
by the
Government* Pre-
Matric
Ratio sanctioned
Post-
Matric
Both pre
~ n post
matric
combineQ
--------------------------------------------------------
BCT
22% 15.24 17.78 "15.98
BCM
45% 37.81 32.59 36.29
BSG
33% 46.95 49.63 47.73
---------------------------------------
Total
100 100.00 100.00 100.00
(N=328) (N=135) (N=463)
--------------------------------------------------------
*
Note:
Ratios were
G.O.No.SWL
fixed by the Government
114 BPS 79, Bangalore,
December 1979.
1n
19th
BT category applicants are not considered
as no ratio is fixed for this category and
hence in the total BTs are excluded from
the above data.
Caste Distribution:
The categorisation of OBCs is closely linked with
the caste system and in most cases caste becomes an
important criteria.
Hence it may be useful to examine
the distribution of scholarship across caste categories
and compare such d1stribution with the proportion of
those castes with the population of the district.
227
Table
scholarship
5.2.9 gives the distribution
of
and
the
corresponding
percentage
population across caste in the district.
the
of
Before proceeding further it may be appropriate to
note that under each of the Backward Class category
numerically larger castes are given separately and all
other numerically smaller castes are clubbed as 'other
castes'. It
may be further noted that in the
case of
'Backward Tribe' category, caste is the only criteria
for classifying them as backward.
In the case of BCM
and BCT categories, in addition to caste, a prescribed
income
level becomes the
second
condition
for
classifying the household as backward.
In the case of
SSG category,
irrespective of caste, certain specified
occupation and an income limit is used for classifying
households as backward. Hence comparing the percentage
of beneficiaries with the percentage of the population
of the respective caste may not give an appropriate
plcture. A realistic comparison can only be done wlth
percentage of Backward Class population in each of these
caste categories. This estimate is not available. In
the absence of such criterian (proportion of populatIon)
the data on the total caste population based on a SEE
survey (Appendix-III) conducted by Second Backward
Classes Commission
is used in Table 5.2.9 with the
assumption that the backward class households
are
228
Table 5.2.9: Percentage distribution
sample and the
population
of scholarshlp
correspond ing ge rc en t d . j t ~ ~
across castes / communItIes L
9 rOLlps
the district -
---------------------------------------------------------
Category Castes
Percentage to the
total sample
Percentage
to the total
district -----------------
Pre-
Matric
Post-
Matric
popu 1 at i On-lHHt
(el<cludlng
SC/ST)
--------------------------------------------
------------
B T Beda** 4.32
12.33
5.20
Other castes
under BT
1.15
0.00
N.A
B C T Kuruba 7.49
6.49
10.58
Other castes
under BCT 6.92
9.10
N.A
B C M
Musl im 24.50
16.88
10.77
Other castes
under BCM 11.24
11.69
N.A
B 5 G
Lingayat 15.85
26.62
32.05#
Maratha 20.17 11.69
20.68#
Others under
BSG 8.36 5.20 N.A
20.72*
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 100.00
(N=347)
100.00
(N=154)
100.00
(N=501)
--------------------------------------------------------
Note: N.A. denotes - separate figures not available.
* 20.72 includes the N.A categories as
indicated above and all other castes not
classified here (excluding SCs/STs)
** All synonyms of this caste are included as
done in the survey of 1984.
Notes (contd .. )
229
*** Worked out based on the data available In
tables of Socio-Economic -cum- Educatloncll
Survey (SEE) ,1984. For details See report
of the Second Backward Classes
1986, Vol.III,PP.52-57. Percentanes wor"ed
out f d' .'" 1<.
or lstrict populatlon
SC/ST. '"
Printing errors in the source in respect of
these .two castes have been corrected
by appropriately and
also ln consultatlon with resource persons
and administrators working
ln the dlstrict and at State
proportionately
distributed.
The backward
class
proportion within a caste may not vary across castes.
Keeping this assumption in mind, if one examines Table
5.2.9 the representation of Muslim community in the
scholarship scheme,both pre-matric post-matric, lS
higher than the proportion of the population of
Muslims in the district.
In the case of
Beda
community, utilisation of post-matric scholarship is
proportionately higher as comp_red to its population
percentage. Within the SSG category the proportion of
post-matric scholarship holders belonging to lingayat
caste is far higher than the proportion of pre-matric
scholarship holders from the same community.
However, the percentage does not exceed the percentage
of population. By and large, the proportional
distribution of scholarships conform with the
distribution of population of the respective caste
groups in the district.
230
Findings:
The
above comparatl"ve 1
ana ysis reveals
the
following:
2)
3)
Nearly 3/4
(74 per cent) of the scholarship
recipients were males at pre-matric level
this increased to almost 86 per cent at
and
the
post-matric level.
Almost 3/5
(62.5 per cent) of the pre-matric
scholarship recipients came from rural
background. This proportion increased to 77.6
per cent at the post-matric level.
Around 60 per cent 01 the scholarshIp
beneficiaries have rural occupational
background. It was found that there was a
tendency among higher occupations within the
range represented by GBCs, to utilise post-matrlc
scholarship more, as compared to pre-matrlc
scholarship.
4) Even among the GBCs, those having relatively
higher
income continued their education beyond
secondary stage.
5)
An analysis of the educational
performance
indicated that nearly 50 per cent of the
scholarship recipients were classified as second
class and above.
231
6) Both in pre-matric and post-matric levels it was
found that a greater proportion of 'Backward
Special Group' utilised the scholarship as
compared to the quota fixed for that category by
the Government.
7> The representation of Muslim community belonging
to BCM category in the scholarship, both in p r ~
matric and post-matric, was far higher than the
proportion of the population of Muslims in
Belgaum district.
The utilisation of post-
matric scholarship by Beda caste under backward
tribe category was proportionately higher as
compared to population percentage. Within the
BSG category the proportion of post-matric
scholarship holders belonging to Lingayath caste
was far higher than the proportion of pre-matric
scholarship holders from the same communlty.
However,
the proportion did not exceed the
proportlon of Lingayath caste in the populatlon
of the district.
8) By and large, the distribution of scholarshlp
conform to the distribution of popUlation of the
respective
caste/community
groups in the
district.
Another matter of importance in the context of
educational development is the utilisation of hostel
scheme, which is more, both in qualitative and
financial
inputs per student as compared to the
scholarship scheme. A similar comparative analysis of
the scholarship and hostel benefici.ries was attempted
which is presented in the next section.
SECTION III
Scholarshig and Hostel Beneficiaries:
A Comgarative Analysis
In
the previous section, a comparative
picture
of
the background characteristics of the
scholarship
holders belonging to pre-matric and post mat t
- rlC sages
was given. In this Chapter, an attempt is made to
compare the background characteristics of
beneficiaries utilising scholarship scheme and hostel
scheme. Since both the hostel and scholarship schemes
are the major components of OBC. welfare
measures a
comparative analysis would throw light on
their
relative
importance in promoting the cause of OBCs.
It may be recalled that beneficiaries of both t h ~
schemes are mutually exclusive and this not only
allows for comparative analysis but also helps ln
understanding various aspects of utilisation of these
schemes.
Since the hostel sample selected for the study
belong to those enrolled in secondary and above
courses a corresponding sub-sample was selected from
the scholarship beneficiaries included under the
study. The hostel sample consisted of 498 and 52
students, respectively, studying in secondary and
post-secondary courses. The scholaship sample
comparable to the above consisted of 164 secondary and
154 post-secondary students. For the purpose of
comparison hostel beneficiaries as one category wIll
be compared with scholarship beneficiaries as another
category irrespective of whether they were studying in
secondary or post-secOndary Courses.
Se:< Difference:
Table 5.3.1 gives the percentage of
beneficiaries by male and female for the two schemes."
It may be observed that the sex distribution in the
hostel
scheme is highly skewed in favour of males
as
compared to the scholarship schemes. Nearly 1/5th of
the scholarship beneficiaries are females as compared
to only 4 per cent among hostel beneficiaries. Since
gender is not used in the definition of backward
classes by and large both the schemes favour male
population and this discrimination is more pronounced
in the hostel scheme which has more qualitative
significance in the educational development.
T bl 5 < 1 distribution of scholarshIP a e
and hostel scheme beneficiaries
BeneficiarIes
Sex
Scholarship Hostel
Male 80.82 96.00
Female 19.18 4.00
----------------------------------------------------
Total 100.00
(N=318)
100.00
(N=550)
----------------------------------------------------
Rural - Urban Differences:
Table 5.3.2 shows that hostel scheme is
serving
the
policy objective of f
acilitating educational
opportunities for those c
ommunities not having access
to
educational institutions within the localities.
The
representation of urban population is very small
under
hostel scheme while the scholarship scheme
more urban representation (about 30 per cent).
has
Table 5.3.2: Percentage distribution of scholarshlp
and hostel scheme beneflcl;;ies acCOrdlnQ
to rural-urban background
------------------------------------------------------
Beneficiaries
Background
Scholarship Hostel
------------------------------------------------------
Rural
70.44
97.64
Urban
29.56
2.36
---------------------------------------------------
Total
100.00
(N=31B)
100.00
(N=550)
------------------------------------------------------
Occupatlonal Background:
Table 5.3.3 indicates that by and large both the
schemes consist of students from families with rural
occupat lons.
However, within each of the schemes the
beneflciaries differ considerably by their family
occupation.It may be noted that agriculture category
dominates the hostel scheme. Almost 2/3 of the hostel
beneficiaries belong to this category as compared to
around 2/5 of the scholarship beneficiaries. This has
resulted in the reduction of children from other rural
236
Table 5.3.3:
Percentage distribution of
d h scholarsh1p
ostel beneflciarles--accordlng to
occupatlonal background of father

Beneficiaries
occupational ---
Background
------------------------------------------------------
Agricultural
Labourers
Non-ay r icul tural
labourers
Rural traditional
and rural service
occupatlons
Artisans
Petty business
Agriculture
(Owner-cultivator)
Others:
Do not Know/
Not
18.24
12.00
15.72
4 . 18
0.32
3.27
3.14
3.64
5.35
3.27
43.08
66.18
11.01
4.91
3.14
2.55
------------------------------------------------------
Total 100.00
(N=318)
100.00
(N=550)
------------------------------------------------------
occupations in the hostels as compared to scholarship
distribution. The Agricudltural labourers and non-
ay ric u 1 t u r a 1 labourers together account for 34 per
cent in the scholarship scheme. The corresponding
occupation category account only 16 per cent under
hostel scheme. It may be noted that even though the
benefits derived from hostel in terms of quality 1S
far superlor as compared to scholaship scheme, the
costs of hostel utilisation to the famll1es
considerably higher: Hence families who
237
relatively
better placed within the backward
classes
can afford to send a member to the hostel located away
from the residence. In the case of hostel beneficiary
a student can still contribute to the
during holidays and vacations but
fami ly income
the absence of
qualitative
inputs under the scheme
reduces the
educational benefits also. Another form of
discrimination is also built into the hostel scheme.
Administratively hostel is seen more as a measure to
facilitate the continuation of education of those who
do not have easy access to educational
institut10n
I>lithin a walkable distance (nearby their locality).
Interestingly, the educational Significance of th1s
scheme do not stop at this level. Hostels substitute
the family environment with enriched environment and
provide better nutrition as compared to the family. A
comparable backward class family which has a given
educ at iona 1
institution within walkable distance 1S
deprived of the educational benefits provided through
hostels.
Thus the conscious policy discrimination
1S
likely to create inequalities within backward classes.
These internal disparities can be examined by
comparing
schemes.
Income:
Table
the incomes of the families under the two
5.3.4 shows that the income distribut10n
of the
families under the
two
schemes
differ
238
considerably.
Nearly 75 per cent of the scholarshlp
holders come from the families having income of
less
than Rs.2000 per year. The corresponding
under hostel is 54 per cent. All the backward class
categories,
except BTs, are defined using income as
one of the important criteria for inclusion under
Backward Classes. Therefore, all the families can be
treated as poor. However, the proportion of families
having higher income within the backward class inmates
are represented more under hostel scheme.
This
phenomenon strengthens the argument that the equality
of outcome gets distorted when different schemes of
different educational input values are adopted to
achieve the same educational objectives.
5.3.4: Percentage distribution of scholarshlp
----- and hostel scheme beneficiaries accordlng
to annual income range of the family
------------------------------------------------------
Annual income
range of fami ly
(in Rs.)
Beneficiaries
Scholarship Hostel
------------------------------------------------------
Below
Rs.2000
75.47 54.00
2001 to 5000
22.96 43.64
5001 and above
0.63
1.81
Not reported/
bl
0 94 0.55
Not applica e _______ _
-----------
Total
-----------------------------------
100.00
(N=318)
100.00
(N=550)
---------------------------------------------------
239
Previous Educational Attainments:
Table 5.3.5 shows that the two samples do not
differ much
with respect
to the educational
attainments during the previous academic year of the
survey.
Around 81-82 per cent of both hostel and
scholarship beneficiaries scored less than 59 per cent
during the previous year. There was a difference of 2
per cent at the higher category of performance
(first
class) with hostel residents having higher percentage
of around 19 per cent. Since the sample consists of
students studying in different courses
and at
different levels within such courses the educational
performance categorised into three levels can only
give a crude estimate of the outcomes.
Table 5.3.5: Percentage
and hostel
performance
distribution of scholarshlp
beneficiaries accordlng to
levels ill annual e:<aminations
--------------------------------------------------
Educational
Performance
level*
Beneficiaries
Scholarship Hostel
-----------
-------------------------------------------
Third class
49.69 47.82
Second class
32.39
33.27
First Class
17.92
18.91

Tatal (N=550)
(N=318)

ranges between 30-35 to 49; 50 to 59
and 60 and above respectively.
240
Representation QL OBC Categories:
Table 5.3.6 gives the distribution of different
backward under the two schemes. It
may be noted that even though the four categories of
OBCs can be treated as having same level of economlC
backwardness, they do exhibit differences in terms of
socia-cultural backwardness. The Backward
Classes
Commissions have treated 'Backward Tribes' as the most
backward followed by backward
castes, back,,,,,ard
communities and the BSG as least backward
in that
order.
Therefore, the
cultural
deprivations
obstructing the educational development are
likely
to be different with respect to these categorles.
Based upon Commission's the Government
policy has restricted,
Tab le
Percentage
scholarshlp
sample across
OBCs
distribution of the
and hostel beneficiarles
different categories of
----------
-------------------------------------------
Beneficiaries
OBC Categories
Scholarship Hostel

6.61
B T
B C T
B C M
B S G
-----------------
Total
17.61
31.13
44.65
--------------------------
100.00
(N=318)
-------------------------------------------
241
24.55
13.45
46.18
-----------
100.00
(N=550)
----------
through the of
WIth respect to 'Backward h t" t"
a a C res rIc Ion in
the scholarship scheme is not practiced.
Table 5.3.7 gives the representation of
the 4
categories
quota for
that under
under two schemes against the
each of the categories. It may
the scholarship scheme, both
prescribed
be noted
backward
castes and backward community categories utilise less
than the quota prescribed for them and the BSGs exceed
their quota by
14 per cent. Since there is no
restriction
for BTs they are not included
in this
comparison.
Under the hostel scheme all categories,
e:<cepting BCM,
are represented higher than their
quota.
It is surprising to note that under both
the
schemes larger proportions are earmarked for backward
communIties and
in actual utilisation they are the
least.
Even in the observed under-utilisation their
representation is slightly better in
scholarshlp
scheme as compared to hostel scheme. The category of
Backward Communities (BCM) consists of mainly the
religious minority in the fOrm of Muslims. The other
communities like Devanga, Simpi, Darji etc., belonging
to this category are numerically small. Language of
the numerically dominant Muslims being Urdu and
facilities to study through Urdu medium of instructlon
at the lower levels being limited and completely
absent at the higher levels,
the participation of
242
Table 5.3.7:
Ratio/percentage fixed bv the G t
and th t overnmen
--- __ e_ ra la/percentage to the sample 01
scholarship hostel
each categorx:
---------------------------
----------------------------------
Beneficiaries
OBC
Category
scholarships
admission
(worked out
only with
respect to
OBCs)
-------------------------------------------------------------
B T
B C T
B C M
B 5 G
Not fixed*
22
45
33
Excluded
from
computation*
18.86
33.33
47.81
10 15.82
20 24.55
40 13.45
30 46.18
-------------------------------------------------------------
Total
100.0
100.00
(N=297)
100 100.00

-------------------------------------------------------------
* No ratio has been fixed for scholarships to BTs.
However, a separate allotment is given for award of
scholarships to BT category. Hence the BT category
has not been considered for computation for
scholarship ratios.
** These quotas were worked out only with respect to
Backward Classes from the fixed quotas prescribed
by the government for Backward Classes, SCs and
STs, in the hostels run by the Government for
Backward Classes.
243
in
education, appears to have b t .
een res rlcted.
is
reflected in the above table. The
representation of other categories is taking place
the cost of the resources earmarked for BCM.
Caste Representation:
ThlS
over
at
Excepting the Backward Special Group, other
categories are based upon caste in addition to other
socio-economic
indicators used for classification.
Even
though
Muslims not being a caste
group, are
categorlsed under Backward communities.
Table 5.3.8
gives
the
percentage distribution of
one or tl>IO
numerically dominant castes/ communities/groups under
each
of the backward
class
category.
This
representation is compared with
the
percentage
distribution of these castes/communities to the total
population of the district, excluding SCs and STs. It
may be observed from the table that the numerically
dominant castes or groups belonging to respective
backward class categories are over represented, for
both the schemes, when compared to their proportion in
the population, excepting Muslims and Marathas under
hostel scheme;
and Kurubas and Marathas under
scholarship scheme. The proportion of Musl im
population is 10.8 per cent whereas, thelr
representation under hostel scheme is 8 per cent and
Marathas having population of around 21 per cent are
244
Table 5.3.8: Percentage distribution of scholarshlp
and hostellers accordlng to
castesl communitiesl occupational groups
categorles of OBCs and the
correspondlng populatlon
across castes the dlstrl;t
-------------------------
------------------------------------
aBC
category
Castes/
Communities/
occup at iona.l
groups
Beneficia.ries

Scholar-
ship
Hostel
Percentage to
the dIstrict
population1!-1!-1!-
(excludlng
__ ----------------------_______________ SC/ST population)
----------------------
B T
BCT
BCM
BSG
Note:
Beda** 6.60 14.72 5 .,-
.::.0
Other castes
under 8T
Kuruba
Other castes
under BCT
Musl im
Other castes
under BCM
Linga.yath
Maratha
Others under
BSG
Total
8.80
8.80
19.50
11.64
21.70
15.10
7.86
100.00
(N=318)
1.10
15.45
9.10
8.00
5.45
30.00
10.00
6.18
100.00
(N=550)
N.A
10.58
N.A
10.77
N.A
32.05

20.68
N.A
20.721!-
100.00
N.A: denotes separate figures not available.
* 20.72 includes the N.A. category as
**
indicated aboye and all other castes not
classified here (excluding SCs/STs)
All synonyms of this caste are included and
shown as . Beda' as done in the be 10(11
mentioned survey of 1984.
Notes contd ..
245
***
Worked out based on the data available In
Tables of Socio-Economic-cum-Educational
Survey (SEE) 1984. For details, see Report
of the Second Backward Classes Commission
1986, pp.52-57. Percentages
out to.dIstrIct population excluding SC/ST
populatIon In the district.
Printing errors in the source in respect at
two castes.have been corrected appropriately
by tallYIng appropriately and also In
consultation with resource persons and
functionariesl administrators working in the
district and at state levels.
represented
at 10 per cent in the hostel sample. Even
under
the scholarship scheme Marathas form 15 per
cent.
In the case of Kurubas even though they
over
represented under the hostel scheme they are
slightly under represented when compared to population
size,
under the scheme. A surprising
observation
indicated in the above table is the over
representation of Lingayat under both the schemes as
compared to their proportion in population.
Around
per cent scholarship and 30 per cent of the hostel
places
(admissions) have gone to them as compared to
their population
proportion of 32 per cent.
As
pointed out earlier, only income and occupation form
the
criteria
of BSG. All the
castes \&.h ich
are not
included
under BT,
BCT, BCM, SC and ST form
the
population
from
which
backward
special
groups
are
identified.
In spite of this the
representation
of
Lingayat under BSG appears to be far higher.
246
Summing up:
The above
analysis reveals that
both the
per student are
qualitative
hlgher under
and financial inputs
the hostel scheme as
scholarship scheme.
compared to the
The .n.lysis further reveals that
the hostel scheme was more favourable to families
in
the rural areas, male segments of backward classes and
relatively better off socio-economic categories in
terms of
scholarship
occupation and income as compared
scheme. By and large utilisation of
to
both
the schemes is low with respect to female members of
the backward classes. The category of BCM utilise at a
lower
level as compared to the other categories.
Muslims form a major segment of the category of BCM in
BelQaum district.
The policy implications of the
differential
utilisation by different backward class
categories and the gender gap within each of these
categories will be discussed later.
The next Chapter focusses on the remaining
background characteristics and educationally relevant
aspects of the current hostellers followed by an
attempt to analyse the factors influencing educational
and occupational aspirations of the hostellers.
247
EDUCATIONAL
CHAPTER VI
DEVELOPMENT AND ASPIRATIONS OF
HOSTELLERS
THE
EDUCATIONAL
CHAPTER VI
DEVELOPMENT AND ASPIRATIONS
HOSTELLERS
SECTION I
OF
THE
Educational Development of Hostellers
The focus of the p t C
resen hapter is on the
educationally relevant aspects of the hostellers. In
the previous Chapter an effort was made to compare the
background characteristics of scholarship recipients
and the beneficiaries of the hostel scheme. The data
on the hostel residents were collected during 1987-88
through
structured and semi-structured

schedule.
Sample of 550 residents, out of
which 498 were studying in pre-matric level and 52
studying in different post-matric
courses.
Another survey was
conducted
through
mailed
questionnalre covering a sample of hostel residents
who were beneficiaries during 1981-82 and 1982-83 to
know their current educational and occupational status
and obtalned their aspirations they had while they
were studying along with the background
characteristics. This Sample consisted of 230 students
from pre-matric and post-matric hostels who were
studying ir. the final years of various courses during
the reference years.
In the fOllowing Chapters an attempt has been
made to analyse the process and the outcome variables
of occupational
attainment
process
beneficiaries of the hostel scheme.
of
the
Some of the SOCia-economic background varlables
have
already been discussed in the previous Chapter
like urban-rural origins, sex-wise
distribution of
hostel resldents,
representation of backward class
categories and individual castes, father's occupation
and family income.
To begin with,
the
remaining
descript i ve
information on the background characteristics of the
sample who were in the hostels during the time of
survey are discussed.
Households:
Information was collected about the size of the
fami 1 y,.. ":II numb
or of siblinns and birth order,
educational status of both father and mother
Table 6.1.1 shows the family size of the
respondents. Families were claSSified into three
categories based on the size. It may be observed from
the table that around 17 per cent of the respondents
came from small families with less than four members.
t
" belonged to medium sized families A large propor lon
249
Table 6.1.1: Percentage d' t
_ lS ribution of sample
accordin9... 1Q. the famlly size* (e:<cludlny
srand parents)
(N=55i)
-----------------------------
Size -------------------------
_------------------------- Percentage
Below 4 ----------------------------
17.1
Between 5 and 8
62.4
Nine and above
20.5
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
------------------------------------------------------
*
conslsting Family size refers to biological faml'ly ,
of father, mother and their offsprings.
with 5-8 members (62.4 per cent). The rest of the
respondents belonged to large families with 9 and
above members.
It was mentioned earlier in the
previous Chapter that a large proportion of backward
class beneficiaries belonged to families in which the
heads of the households were either agriculturists or
agricul tural
labourers and the family incomes were
less than Rs.2000/- per annum in most of the cases.
Children from such a background most often have to
partiCipate
in work at an early age.
Hence those
families with less number of children could not afford
to spare them for education. The cost of
lost
opportunity in earnings at the family levels would be
too high.
Only the large families with many children
could afford to spare some of their children tor
education. The family size information showed that the
250
hostel
residents came from medium sized families.
To
some
extent, hostel unlike
scholarship
scheme,
compensated for the cost of lost opportunity through
free boarding and a part of living expenses.
A further indication of the same process could
be inferred through the information on the birth order
of the respondents. Table 6.1.2 shows that around 20
per cent of the respondents were first born and around
59 per cent were middle born. This
observation
indirectly suggests the economic aspect of educating
the children.
Tab 1 e 6. 1 2 :
Distribution of the sample according to
birth order
(N = 550)
------------------------------------------------------
Birth order
Percentage
------------------------------------------------------
Eldest
20.0
Middle order 58.7
Youngest 18.4
Only son/daughter 2.9
---------
-------
--------------------------------------
All orders 100.0
--------------- ---------------------------------- -----
When the
respondents were asked to state the
help
from their sibling nearly 39 per cent
indicated
fin anc i a 1
help and 30 per cent indicated
educational
guidance.
251
Social Environment
Hostel schemes mainly served those
where adequate
communitles
were not
available.
Children from such communities had
to
migrate to other places for educational purposes and
thus had to change the social environment. The
magnitude of change depended upon the location of the
hostel and the distance they had to migrate. It was
indicated earlier that almost the entire sample
mentioned village environment as their birth place.
Keeping this in mind if the information given in Table
6.1.3
is examined, nearly 40 per cent of them had
undergone a change of social environment from rural to
urban because of the hostel location. In the case of
25 per cent of the sample the hostel location was more
than 26 kms. from their home locality. The above
information was analysed only with respect to pre-
matric hostel residents. At post-matric level almost
all
of
them would have undergone a change
of
environment because of the location of the post-matrlc
institution, which were (most often) in urban and
semi-urban locality.
The
above
factor is likely to have a higher
the educational development of the
significance
adolescents.
will have
in
Those in urban or semi-urban settings
more variations of occupational
roles as
compared
to rural
occupational
structure.
The
252
incidence of informal communications with the outslde
world is far greater in the urban context.
Table 6.1.3: Distance from the .
__ resldence nature
of the location of hostel _at
stage gre-matrlc
------------------------------------------------------
Distance (in Kms>
Location of
the hO'.ite I

above

294
(59. <)
Towns
6
63 28 66 163
(32.7)
City
4
27 3 7 41
8.3)
---------------------------------------------------
252
(50.5)
62
(12.4)
127
(25.5)
498
Total
57
(11.4)
(100 )
------------------------------------------------------
Figures in indicate percentage.
w
te
:
The above influences are likely to be felt more
in the case of those stay longer in the . haste 1 s.
Tab le
6.1 .4
showS
the
information
on the
class/standard
in which the respondents entered the
hostel.
It may be noted that 46 per cent of the
respondents entered the hostel when they were in the
VIII standard. Around 18 per cent entered when they
were in the V standard, 15 per cent in VI standard and
around
12 per cent in VII standard. For the entire
sample on an average a student stayed in the hostel
for tlllO years.
253
Table 6.1.4: Distribution of
sample accordlng to the
when admlttad
hostel to the
----------------------------------
--------------------
standard when admitted
to the hostel
Percentages
------------------------------
------------------------
v
18.5
VI
15.5
VII
11.8
VIII 46.0
IX 8.2

------------------------------------------------------
Parental Education:
Backward classes at the macro level
are defined
by
taking
into
consideration the educational
attainments of different population segments and
considering the population segments when they fall
short of
the criteria. Since the respondents were
utilising facilities for BCs one should expect low
educational status of the parents. Table 6.1.5
the
educational
status of the
father and
mother of the
respondents.
At the
outset,
the table
indicates
that
slightly
more
than
46 per cent of the
fathers
,.,ere
literates
and
about
33 per cent of the
mothers ",e re
literates.
The
1981
censuS
showed
an
illiteracy
rate
of 57 per cent for rural male and around 82 per cent
for rural female in Belgaum district. These rates are
probably higher for rural adult population from which
254
Table 6.1.5: Percentage
according
parents
distribution of the sample
to the status of

Percentages (N=550)
categories
Father Mother
------------------------------------------------------
Higher secondary and
beyond
Seconcary school education
Primary school education
Illiterates
0.91 0.19
2.73 0.83
42.90 21.45
52.00 76.73
Do not know 1.46 9. 91
-----------------------------------------------------
All categories
100.00 100.00
----------------------------------------------------"-
majority of the respondents originated. Taking the
above
into consideration it may be stated that a
larger proportion of the hostel beneficiaries came
from
families with literate parents. Among
the
literates,
majority of them were educated only upto
primary level. Since the sample consisted of students
studying at the secondary level one could not expect
direct
educational
inputs from
the
parental
generations.
One
could only
guess
that
the
educational backgrounds of the parents had resulted 1n
seeking
the hostel facilities and thus indirectly
contributed
to the educational development of thelr
children.
255
pinions and Activities of the Hostel Residents:
The survey
included
some questions on
educationally relevant issues on which the respondents
gave their opinions and reported their behaviour.
This information hints at the potentiality of hostel
experiences in the formation of personality.
Importance of Hostel:
The respondents were asked to state what they
would have done if they would not have got- hostel
accommodation. Table 6.1.6 gives their responses to
the above question. For majority of the respondents
there were only two alternatives either they would
have to travel from their home place or they would
have discontinued. Very few had any other
alternative. At least for about 44 per cent of the
respondents hostel provided opportunity for continuing
their education. Even though hostel was important for
a
slzeable section of the respondents nearly 83
per
cent
their
of the respondents obtained accommodation in
first attempt. This indicated the low demand
for education among the Be households beyond
primary
level.
Tab 1 e 6. 1 . 6 :
Alternatives to
(h t II "'Ihere
os ellers) would have resided if
were not to

Percentages
--------------------------
(N=55Q)
1.
Would Not have continued
-------------------------
.....
"-.
4.
5.
Would have stayed in private
hostels
Would have stayed with relatives
Would have rented rooms
Would commute from villages
44.4
7.6
4.4
40.3
-------------------------------------------

All options
100.0

Social Interaction:
The respondents were asked to give the number of
their close friends among their co-hostellers. The
size of the friendship category at the corresponding
percentages of responses are given in Table 6.1.7.
Most of the pre-matric and post-matric hostels
had a small strength of less than 50 members.
Since
they had to spend all their out of school time in the
company of such a small student community one should
expect greater number of close friends for each of the
hostel residents. The information tabulated shows
about 37 per cent of the respondents had 4-6 close
friends, about 42 per cent had less than 3 friends and
about 7 per cent had frlends more than 11.
257
Table 6.1.7: Distr'b t'
1 U 10n of sample according
number QL close friends they had in
hostel community --- --
~ ~ ~ ~
Percenta.ge
(N=550)
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Only one friend
6.5
2 3 friends
36.0
4 6 friends
37.1
7 10 friends
12.5
11 and above
7.5
------------------------------------------------------
All sizes 100.0
------------------------------------------------------
This pattern of close social interaction may be
representative of the complex social structure of the
hostel.
Most of the hostels have a mix of castes
including the Scheduled caste. The small friendshlp
circle may reflect the caste system in the hostel.
Extra-curricular Activities:
The respondents were asked to state whether they
read newspapers and took part in sports and cultural
activlties either in schools or hostels.
It was revealed that almost 97 per cent of the
hostel
residents read newspapers available in the
hostel.
The responses to the item related
to
participation in the sports were classified into 4
levels and the responses falling into such level were
258
t abul ated. Table 6.1.8 gives such distribution. It
may
be noted that
around 60 per cent of the
respondents participated in medium or high level. Non-
participants being small in 5ize accounted for 14
per
cent.
Table 6.1.8: Distribution of sample according to
garticipation levels in sports.
------------------------------------------------------
Participation Level
Percentage
------------------------------------------------------
16.6
Medium
43.6
Low
25.6
Non-participants
14.2
------------------------------------------------------
All levels
(N=550)
100.0

The respondents were asked to state one major
activity they did during their annual vacation. Table
6.1.9 shows the percentage responses across different
activities.
About 54 per cent of the respondents
spent their vacation in helping their families in
economic activities. Around 5 per cent among them did
work for wages.
Around 21 per cent spent their time
for educational related activities, the remaining took
real vacat ion.
259
Table 6.1.9: Responses
~ !ll.
vacat ion
to the question regarding the
spending ~ during annual
______________________ (N=550)
Activities/Work --------------------------------
Percentage
------------------------------------------------------
Playing
Attending to studies/reading
Helping in agricultural operations
Assisting in household activities/
animal husbandry
Assisting in other family traditional
activities
Working as wage labourers
15.3
20.5
25.3
28.9
5.1
4.9
~
All activities
100.0
------------------------------------------------------
Performance in Education ~ Self-Appraisal:
The respondents were asked to give the marks
obtained in the annual examination completed by them
in the previous year. These responses were converted
into percentages in aggregate and into percentages in
social studies, science and mathematics separately.
The analysis of this percentage was done only with
respect to pre-matric hostel residents because of the
commonness of the course attended by them i.e.,
secondary classes.
In this analysis, the marks are
used to obtain ordinal categories and the categories
conformed to norms used in judging the performance at
students by
education
system,
administration,
neighbourhood etc.
Table 6.1.10 gives
the
260
percentage distribution of
the respondents across
three categories
in ind1vidu.l core
aggregate of all subjects studied in the school. It
may be noted that no one in the sample had scored
than 30 i.e., nobody could be classified as failures
in the examinations. The reason being that only those
who passed in their annual examinations were allowed
to continue in the hostels. The pattern of percentage
distribut10n of the respondents in three
levels of
performance indicate that the Be students scored lOI-/
in mathematics followed by general science and social
studies.
Even the overall performance indicates a
skewness towards 30-49 category since the norms used
in the present study excepting the categories of
failures
is based with reference to classification
appl icable
to all population, backward class hostel
students in general, based upon the
information given
in
the
table occupying the left hand side of the
normal distribution.
But the appraisal by the individual themselves
using
one's own yardstick and
comparing
the U'
th thelr own peer are more relevant for
performance Wl
the
personality adjustment and positive self-regard.
The respondents were asked to rate themselves
whether
. better or equal or worse than the
thelr performance 1S
performance of the others wlth whom they stayed in the
Table 6.1.10: Percentage
accordinq"
subjects:
~ Soclal
comparison
School)
distribut ion of salnp 1 e
to scholastIc performance ~
Mathematlcs, General SClence
Studies and all subjects - t!.
~ pre-matric students (Hlgh
(N=49B)
----------------------
------------------------------
Performance
level
(Range)
Social
Studies
General
SCience
Mathematics All
SubJects
-----------------------------------------------------
30
49Y. 36.3
44.6
54.0 49.6
50
59Y. 25.3
25.3
23.1 33.7
Above
60Y.
38.4
30.1
22.9 16.7
All
levels
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
~
hostel
(co-residents) and with their other school
mates.
Table 6.1.11 shows that 70 per cent felt they
were equal in performance to their hostel mates and
around 25 per cent rated their performance as better
than their hostel mates. But their ratings wIth
reference
to their classmates indicated that 86 per
cent
felt
equal
and only B per cent felt thelr
performance
as better. The closeness of the hostel
mates made
at
least a quarter of the respondents
confident enough to state that their performance i ~
better which was not so when they compared themselves
with their school mates. What is important in theIr
above responses
is that majority of the
hostel
reSIdent felt equal to their peer group In matters
relatIng to educatIon.
But when they were asked to
262
Table 6.1.11: Self appraisal in comparison
resldents hostel regarding study
school Qerformance
------------------------------------------------------
Level of Appraisal Percentage
(N:550)
------------------------------------------------------
Better
24.55
Equal
70.55
Not better (worse) 4.54
cannot appraise (say) 0.36
---------------------------------------------------
All levels
100.00
------------------------------------------------------
state

they were satisfied with their
performance
67 per cent expressed 1 r'
dissatisfaction.
When they were asked to state the
reasons for their unsatisfactory performance, about 31
per cent attributed the reasons to the school relateo
factors, 21 per cent to the lack of learning aids and
facilities like text book etc., around 18 per cent to
thel
r
family and personal problems. Nearly 28 per
cent could not
locate the cause for their
101A1
performance and only around 3 per cent identified the
reasons
in hastel related factors.
These responses
relating
to self appraisal and appraisal in relation
to their peer group show a posltive self regard and
cntical
self
awareness with reference to
their
educational development.
263
Educational and Occupational Aspirations:
Among the host of socio-psychological
variables
like personality adjustment, self-concept, aspiratlons
etc., educational researches often have focussed
on
educational and occupational aspirations as
an
important motivating developmental variable leading to
specific educational outcomes. Educational and
occupational
aspirations and educational
attainments
interact with each other at successive stages of
educational
influenced
environment
development.
Aspirations
also get
by the socialisation
in the
in which the parents play an
important
role,
by the exposure to multiple occupational roles
and also through structured educational experiences.
In the case of Backward Class students majorlty
have
10\'1 parental support because of poverty and
illiteracy.
The environment in which they normally
grol.>l provide
limited role models and many of
suer,
roles do not require formal education. In the case at
hostel residents the intervention scheme in the form
of hostel life is likely to provide a different SOClO-
cultural environment affecting the educatlonal
development
of hostellers.
In the case of
these
atypical backward class segment living in hostels,
family socia-economIC background and parental
educat ional
levels may not have any association
\'11 til
their educatlonal
and voc at iona 1
aspirations.
The
264
hostel life
and environment are
likely tu
influence their educational aspirations.
In order to
test these hypotheses data was collected, through the
interview schedule on the educational and occupational
aspirations of the hostellers and the responses were
converted
into an ordinal scale and were
cross
tabulated with the background and other antecedent
variables mentioned above, arranged either in the form
of nominal or ordinal categories. The association was
tested using chi-square and contingency co-efficient.
Before
taking up the testing of hypotheSIS

felt useful to examine the nature of educatlonal
and occupational aspirations. The respondents
asked upto what level they wanted to continue thelr
studies
and the responses were obtained on a
structured scale.
Regarding educational aspirations
Table 6.1.12 gives the percentage distribution of the
responses and also it depicts the responses separately
for the pre-matric and post-matric residents.
A
striking
pattern of pre-matric
students
observed "Jas
that a large proportion aspired for
courses
leading to teaching
occupations and
general
university degree.
A further analysiS of the data
revealed
that
h spl
red to complete
among those W 0 a
university college general degree, a proportion
asplred
for
t
general
degree in arts.
universl y
265
The
Table 6.1.12: PercentaQe dO
- IstrIbut ion of samp 1 e_
to educational
(asp t -
Ira lons of secondary and hIgher
studying separately)
------------------------------
------------------------
Educational Aspirations
Response in percentage
------------------------
Of those
studYIng at
secondary
level
(N=498)
Of those
studying at
higher
secondary
level
(N=52)
------------------------------
------------------------
upto Secondary/SSLC
upto PUC
T C H
Diploma
College general degree
Bachelors degree in
education
Professional degree
(Engineering, Medicine
and Law)
post-graduate degree
Doctoral Degree
Others
All
21.3
12.0
23.4
13.5
7.2
5.7
19.5
21.2
4.4
38.5
7.0
5.7
5.0
13.5
1.9
0.2
100.0 100.0
------------------------------------------------------
proportion of the B.C hostellera who aspired for
technIcal diploma and professional university degree
was very low as compared to university general degree
and courses leadlng to teaching occpations.
266
It is generally felt that technical, diploma and
professional courses might have a larger scope for
career prospects and upward mobility including status
attalnments.
The reasons for this disparity of not
aspiring for such courses can be attributed to lack ot
gUldance and counselling at rural schools. As already
mentioned,
lack of awareness of the courses that
are
available other than which are widely offered in rural
or neighbouring educational centres could be one of
the
reasons,
besides the school education
they
received in rural areas where science and mathematlcs
teaching is weak.
A similar trend was observed in case of post-
matric students also. About 38 per cent aspired for
bachelors degree in education and about 21 per cent
asp ired
to obtain a general degree. As compared to
pre-matric students (5 per cent) a larger proportlon
of post-matric hostellers <13.5 per cent> aspired to
complte post-graduate degree. More or less equal
proport ion (6-7 pe r cent) asp i red for
diploma or professional degree among both
and post-matric hosteller
technlcal,
pre-matrlc
When
education
responses
asp ira t ion.
the
respondents were asked "how much of
the
thelr
they were capable of acquiring?",
indicated a scaling down of
Many of the respondents who had
asplred
267
for
college education thought that they were
capab 1 e
of completing only the
secondary level. The
are indicated in Table 6 1
. 13.
Table 6.1.13: distribution of aspiratlon-
and circumstantial sltuatlon:
-----------------------------------
-------------------
Educational Aspirations
Percentages (N=550)
------------------------
In a free
situation
C i rcums t an-
tial
-------------------------------
-----------------------
upto SSLC 19.3
31.6
TCH/PUC 33.3
30 .. 0
Diploma
7.1
8.0
General University Degree 19.6
14.8
B.Ed
7.6
6.9
post-graduate degree
5.8 4.5
Professlona1 degree
6.9 4.0
Others/Do not know
0.4 o ?
. -
--------------------------------------------------
100.0 100.0
------------------------------------------------------
When
the respondents were asked whether thelr
family could support in fulfilling their educational
aspirations 47 per cent responded negatively and among
those 47 per cent, 79 per cent indicated that they
looked forward to the support of the Government
schemes.
A slmilar questlon was asked regarding the
occup at i on a 1
aSplratlons.
Table 6.1.14 gives
the
percentage dlstrlbutlon of responses across dlfferent
occupatlonal categories.
Table 6.1.14: Percentage distribution
occupational aspirations
according
(N=550)
-----------------------
Occupational
Percentage
-------------------------
-----------------------------
Agriculturist/Cultivator
2.19
Petty business
0.55
Mechanic/foreman/technician
5.46
So I die mil ita ry
12.37
Conductor/driver/clerk/police
12.00
Primary school teacher
29.09
High school (secondary) teacher
12.37
Lecturer
2.55
Engineer
5.40
Doctor
3.28
Advocate
0.55
Officer (in banks)
1.46
Officer (Government/other)
5.09
Undecided/do not know 7.64
------------------------------------------------------
All categorles 100.00
------------------------------------------------------
A large majority have aspired for white collared
and salaried jobs.
It is interesting to note that about 42 per cent
in the sample aspired for occupation of teacher and
among them
larger proportion have
aspired
for
specifically primary school teacher.
One posslble
explanatlon could be that the level of exposure to
occupational
variety itself appeared to be less.
On
the other hand, it may be said that the respondents
269
have
their teachers as reference model whom they see
most of the time.
Though
explore and
no
to
attempt was made in this study to
look into, as to why they asplre
specifically for particular occupations, like school
teacher, the fact that the prevailing prestige, the
influence and the socio-cultural status assigned to
the school teacher in rural context, along with
security of job and possibility to be nearer to the
rural/home villages which enable them to m i n t ~ i n link
with their villages could be the driving force to
aspire for school teachers' occupation.
About
12 per cent of the hostel residents have
aspired to join military.
they aspired for
Our analysis confirms
lower ranks
soldier/jawan/driver/mechanic in the armed
that
ot
forces
which
j.ndicates a low level of aspirations of Be
whatever the organisation they choose. It needs to be
pointed out that, it is likely to be the phenomenon of
Belgaum district
that some aspire to join army,
because of the locatlon of a recruitment centre and an
infantry centre at Belgaum, and considerable number of
individuals from t ~ e rural parts of the District work
in armed forces. The traditional associatlon '>Iltn
mllitary occupations and the issues discussed above
could be some of the reasons for a sizeable proportlon
of respondents aspiring to work in the army.
270
The proportion of the hostel residents
aspiring
for professional
and administrative
post
relatively low. Such roles are too distant
rural youths to emulate and they are likely
socialised to take up subordinate work roles.
for
to
t ~
be
It
can be inferred that the
occupational
aspirations of the BCs in general and hostel residents
in particular appears to be relatively moderate though
not low, when we view the issue from a socia-cultural
and economic background of the hostellers.
It is likely that occupational aspirations lead
to educational aspirations, but such occupational
aspiration may be greatly affected when we see the
constraints and uncertainty of continuing education
VJh i ch
depend on the facilities for educational
attainmants.
But in the case of hostel residents lt
appears
that the educat ional aspirations arE=
constrained by the ability of the family to extend
help to their wards or the Government assistance
(particularly hostel facility) which is scanty at
post-matric
levels.
Thereby this limitation
or
ability to bear the cost of education and limited and
selective method of hostel admissions at post-matric
level,
added with low level of performance
mathematics and science subjects limit
(Cools dOl'In)
the educat ional
aspirations of the
BC
hostel
271
residents.
The constraints in educational aspiratlons
to a greater extent limit the occupatlonal
of the hostel residents.
If the occupational aspirations are considered
proxy for occupational attainments, it can be inferred
that occupational
attainments will also be
low and
moderate. Thereby the scope for occupational mobillty
of BCs becomes marginal, which may reproduce the same
social
structure without
significant
gain in
occupational status except the shift from traditional
and
agricultural occupations to modern
secondary
occupations.
Further, when viewed in the context of already
existing large scale unemployment and the competitlon
they have to face, the prospect of higher degree of
occupational attainment and status improvement poses a
gloomy picture.
An attempt was made to know the intentions of
the respondents to move out of rural society and
reside in urban and semi-urban milieu and reside among
social
milieu.
The responses are given in Table
6.1.15.
It
is evident that as many as 57 per cent
wanted
to move out and settle in urban environment.
It may be recalled that 97 per cent of the respondents
were from the rural communities and about 47 per
of respondents were staylng in the hostels located

in
Table 6.1.15:
Percentalle
accordlnq
reslde
distribution of samplL'_
to their options/deslre tu
------------------------------------------------------
Place of Option
Percentage
(N=550)
------------------------------------------------------
Villages
37.09
Towns
32.36
Cities
24.91
UndeClded*
5.64
------------------------------------------------------
All options 100.0i)
------------------------------------------------------
* This refers to those who have not decided as to
their options to reside or settle.
urban areas. Among those who wanted to migrate to
urban areas, majority preferred smaller towns than
cities. Thus the nature of occupation aspired and the
nature of educational courses desired along with the
intention to move out of rural areas indicate that the
hostellers desire for a shift from traditional social
structure to modern social structure.
273
SECTION - II
Factors Influencing A5pirations
In the following paragraphs an attempt is made
to test several hypotheses to find out the
influence
of
background variables on the educational
and
occupational aspirations of secondary school students
\.I,ho were in pre-matric hostels.
Aspirations are
considered as important
developmental variables
motivating
one to achieve
better.
The aspirations
themselves
are the resul ts of one's previou:;
achievements
and also get affected by the SOCiO-
cultural,
of social
environment as well as exposure to variety
roles. A model of attainment process has
already been discussed in the earlier Capter. Based
upon
that model several hypotheses were proposed HI
Chapter IV.
These hypotheses will be tested one at
time using chi-square technique
paragraphs.
in the following
Hypothesis 1:
There is no significant difference
in
the educational aspirations of the hostellers having
different occupational background of the father.
Table
6.2. 1
gives
the
distribution
of
educatlonal
aspirations
categorised
across
the
categories of
fathers'
occupations of the hostel
resldents. The distribution of educational
aspiration
274 --_ . .,-----_._.---
IV
-.J
V1
Table 6.2.1: Frequency dlstrlbutlon according to father's occupatlon by educatlonal asplratlons of the respondents
Father's
Educational AspiratIon
occupation
SSLC PUC TCH Diplolll !Xli versi ty B.Ed P.G Professional
General Degree Dgru
Degree
Casual
1 aoourpr
21 8 16 6 18 5 6 4
Rural artisans and rural
t r ad 1 tIOna 1
occJpat IonS 9 5 15 3 8 4 5 3
Agricuiture {owner
cultlHtorl 70 41 77 25 67 12 11 24
Salaned Jobs
"
5 4 3 2 3 ..
Total 102 59 112 35 96 22 24 34
2
x = 21.61, df = 21, p > 0.05
(1) rn case of 14 observatIons, the details of t4cher's occupations lIIere not known. He,nce they are not considered
for analysIs. Therefore,
.,
denotes chi-square
Total
84
52
327
21
484
did not show any significant dl"ff t 5
erence a per cent
level across
different categories
of
father'""
occupations (chi-square 21 6
= . 1, df = 21).
Therefore,
the hostellers "
1n general
had
similar
distribution of
educational
aspiratlons
irrespective
of
their
father's
occupational
background.
HypothesiS 2:
There is no significant difference in
the educational
between
belonging to high and low economic status.
Table 6.2.2
shows
the
distribution
ot
educat ional
aspiration in two categories of economlC
status of the family. The chi-square value obtained
was not found significant at 5 per cent level
(chi-
4

square = () .... , df = 7).
Hence the null hypotheSis was
accepted.
It may be stated that the economic status
of the family does not influence the educational
aspirations of hostellers.
HypothesiS 3:
There is no significant difference in
the educatlonal aspirations across two categorles of
fathers' educational status.
Tab 1 e 6.2.3 the distribution at
educatlonal aspirations across the two categories ot
father's educatlonal status. The obtained
IlJaS found not slgnificant at 5 per cent level (chi-
square = 6.46, df = 7). Hence the null hypothesis was
accepted.
-
foIJ
-..J
-..J
Table 6.2.:: Distribution of rducational aspiratIons of resPondents across status
Economic
status
Lower
Upper
Tohl
SSLC
70
37
107
PUC TCH
33 62
27 54
bO 116
2
x : 4.03, df: 7,
(Se::oncil':. SC'1001 only)
EducatIonal AsOlratlon
DIP10llla
21
15
36
P > 0.05
B.Ed
Seneral
Degree
58 14
39 B
97 22
P.S
Deqree
14
11
25
Professional
Degree Total
20 292
15 206
35 498
tv
-..J
00
Table 6.2.3: Frequency distribution according to educational status of father by educational aspirations
of the respondents
Father'si
Educationil Aspiration
Educational
Status SSlC PLC TOi DiplOllI lili versi ty B.Ed P.6
General Degre.
Degree
III iterates 60 31 61 21 51 9 12
School educited 38 27 53 15 4b 12 13
Total 104 58 114 3b 97 21 25
2
x = 6.46, df = 7, P) 0.05
t In eight observatIons the details of educational status at the father was not available. They are not
considered in the above computatIons. Hence the N = 490 lnstead of ~ 9
Professional
Degree Tohl
16 267
19 223
35 490
Hypothesis 4:
There is no significant difference
the educatlonal aspirations of hostellers studying in
different standards.
Table 6.2.4
gives
the distribution of
aspirations among students belonging to different
standards.
The chi-square value was found to be
significant at 1 per cent level (chi-square; 30.21,
df=14) and hence the null hypothesis was rejected. An
examination of the Table revealed that the proportlon
of hostellers studying in X standard aspired more for
TCH (28.8 per cent) and professional courses (10 per
cent)
as compared to the proportion of VIII and IX
standard students aspiring for the same courses at
lower
levels.
Similarly 31.4 per cent aspired to
complete SSLC among VIII standard whereas, it is only
22 per cent in the case of IX standard and about 16
per cent in the case of X standard.
Based upon the chi-square value the contingency
coefficient
(C)
was calculated. The value of C was
found to be 0.24.
From the percentage distribution it
may be stated
that as the student moves up the
educatlonal
classes, his educational
aspirations
become more job oriented.
Hypothesis 5:
There is no significant difference
the
educational aspirations of hostellers staying
b
a
nd rural areas.
hostels located in ur an
in
~
00
0
Table 6.2.4: Frequency n ~ percentage distribution of the resc::lC\dents accordll"} to cla.sses'/stanOa.rO
by educational aspirations
Classes/ Eau:ational Aspiration
Standards
studYing 55;.C Pu:
T- .
,LM D10 looa University B.Ed P.S
General Degree
Degree
VIII 33 10 21
or
25 4 3 ...
(31.4 ) (9.5) (2(,.(, ) C;:. 9) (23.8) (3.8) (2.9)
IX 41 25 35 13 39 10 14
!22.1l (13.5 ) (l8.9) <7.0) (21.0) (5.4) (7.6)
X 33 25 bO 20 33 8 B
115.9) 02.0) (28.8) (9.6) 1l5.9) (3.B) (3.B)
Total
107 bO 116 36 97 22 25
(21.5) (12.0) (23.3) <7.2) <19.5) (4.4) (5.0)
2
X
= 30.21, df : 14, P < 0.01, C : 0.24
Note: Figures in the parantheses indicate percentages to ~ totals.
Professional
Degree
b
(5.7J
8
(4.3)
21
(10.0)
35
(7.0)
Totil
105
(100.0)
185
(100.0)
20B
(100.0)
498
(100.0)
Table 6.2.5 gives both frequency and percentage
distribution of educational aspirations of rural
hostel residents and urban hostel residents. The chi-
square obtained was found to be significant at 5 per
cent
level (chi-square = 14.5, df=7) and hence the
null hypothesiS was rejected.
An examination of the percentage distributlon
showed that the students staying in urban hostels hdd
a slight edge over the rural counterparts in aspsirlng
for university courses.
HypothesiS 6:
There is no significant difference
In
the educational aspirations among hostellers belonging
to four backward class categories.
Table
6.2.6 shows that the
distribution of
educational aspirations across four backward
categories, do not differ significantly at 5 per
level (chi-square = 24.94, df=21). Hence the
hypothesls was accepted.
281
class
cent
null
...,
00
...,
Tablt Co< .:,
Place of
locatIon of
hostel
Village
(Rural)
Town
<Urban)
Total
2
x = 14.5, df = 7,
Frequency n ~ Pfrcentage distribution of eau:atlonal aspiratlons of rural hostel residents and
uroan hostel residents
SSLC PUC TCH
68 30 74
(23.1> (10.2) (25.2)
39 30 42
(19.1> (14.71 (20.6)
107 60 116
P < 0.05,
C = 0.17
Educational Aspiration
DIPloma
25
(S.5)
11
(5.41
36
University B.Eo
General
Degree
51 16
(17.3) (5.4)
46 6
(22.5) 12.9)
97 22
P.G
Degree
9
(3.1>
16
(7.8)
25
Note: Fi9ures in paranthe5es indicate percentages to row totals.
ProfessIonal
Degree Total
21 294
(7.1 ) (100.0)
14 204
/6.91 (100.0)
35 498
Tabl!.' 6.2.6: Frequency dlstributlon of educatlonal assplratlons the responoents across four
categories of Ba:kward Classes
S.C

Category
SSl[ PUC TCH D1C1M2 ty B.Ed P.G
General Degree
Degree
B T 20 7 18 2 18 3 4
B C T 27 15 27 7 33 3 5
tv
B C P1 a 10 18 7 9 b 3
co
C,oJ
B 5 G 52 28 53 20 37 10 13
Total
107 60 116 36 97 22 25
2
x : 24.94, df = 21, P > 0.05
ProfessIonal
Degree
4
6
3
22
35
Total
76
123
64
235
498
i
I
I
!
I
f
r
{
7
t

Hypothesis 7:
There is no significant difference
the educatlonal aspIrations among three categorles of
educational performance of the hostellers.
Table 6.2.7
provides the
distribution of
educational aspirations across three levels at
achievement. Chi-square value obtained is significant
at 1 per cent level (chi-square c48.50, dt=14)
indicating th@ existence of differences in educational
aspirations across educational performance. levels.
Hence the null hypothesis was rejected. Table 6.2.7
contains the educational
aspirational
categories
arranged on an ordinal pattern with the SSLC at the
lower end of the continuum and professional courses at
higher category. Similarly, the performance categorIes
are also arranged in an ordinal fashion from low to
high.
An examination of the distribution at
percentages
in each cell of the contingency table
showed that the proportion of low achievers
at the lower end of the aspirational scale was more as
compared to medium and high achievers. More than 56
per cent of high achievers aspired for university
general degree and above. The corresponding percentage
under medIum achievers was around 40 per cent and
among
low achievers it was 26 per cent. The value ot
contingency co-efficient
(C=O.30)
showed a medlum
level association between the two variables i.e.,
attalnments and aspiration.
the
Tab,. _._. , I'; :-lormance 1n an:-Iual exaDllnatlon by educat10nal aSplratlons of the respondents
Performance in Educatlonal
baJIlnation
SSLC PUC TCH
B.Ed P.G Professional
Genera: Degree Degree Total
De9ree
Low 69 30 64 19 45 5 7 8 247
(27.9) (12.2) (25.0) (7.7) (18.2) (2.2) (2.8) (3.2) (100.0)
27 25 41 8 31 10 12 14 168
06.1) (14.9) (24.4) (4.8) ( 18.5) (6.0) (7.ll (8.3) (100.0)
N
Hlgh 11 5 11 9 21 7 6 13 83
co
V'I 113.3) (6.0) 113.3) (10.8) (25.3) (8.4) (7.2) m.ll (100.0)
Total 107 6fJ 116 36 97 22 25 35 498
2
x = 48.50, df: 14, P < 0.01, C = 0.30
Note: Figures in parantheses indicate percentages to row totals.
Hypotha1iiis 8:
There is no significant difference in
the occupational aspirations of the hostellers having
different occupational background of the father.
The following Table 6.2.8 gives the distribution
of categorised occupational aspiration across the
categories of father's occupation of the
hostel
residents. The distribution of occupational aspiration
did not show any significant difference at 5 per cent
level across different categories of father's
occupations (chi-square = 25.968, df=24). HeAce the
null
hypothesis was accepted.
Therefore, the
hostellers in general have similar distribution of
occupational aspiration.
Hypothesis 9: There is no significant difference in
the
occupational aspirations betllJeen hostellers
belonging to high and low family economic status.
Table
6.2.9 shows the distribution
occupational aspirations of the respondents in
categories of economic status of the family. The
01'
tl-IO
chi-
val
ue obtained was not found significant at 5
sqL\are
ce
nt level (chi-square =11.04, df=8). Hence the
per
null hypothesis was accepted. Therefore, it can be
l
'rrespective of the family economiC
inferred that,
status,
the
hostellers had same distribution
of
occupational aspirations.
286
6.2.8: distrIbution of by occupationai 01 the
Fatner 's Occupational Aspiration
occupation'
111- A\;J"1- Mechanic Soldier SalarIed Prllary High Professional Officer/ Total
deClced
cuI ture "
1111 tary Jobs school school adllinistra-
Petty Tuct1ers Tuchers tI ve posts
bi.lSlneSS
CasJal
1 abOlJrer
(coolle) 8 6 12 9 26 10 3 9 B4
Rural artisans
tradltlOoal

00
occup a tI ons

0 2 2 7 21 B 6 2 52
....,
Aqncul turist 27 12 18 46 45 93 30 37 19 327
Salaried jobs 0 0 5 3 4 2 4 2 21
Total 40 13 26 b5 64 144 50 50 32 484
In 14 observations father's occupation was not and hence they are OIltted from analysis. Therefore, the N is 484 only.
2
x : 25.968, df : 24, P ) 0.05
IV
ex>
ex>
Table 6.2.9: distribution according to family economic status by occupational aspiratios of the
FasHly
econOflIC status
lower
Upper
Total
LN1-
decioed
30
10
40
(Pre-matric hostellers only)
Occupational Aspiration
Hecnanic SoldIer
culture & lilitary
Petty
buslness
7 18 3B
7 12 29
14 30 67
2
x = 11.04, df = 8, P > 0.05
Salaried
jObs
37
28
b5
Primary
school school
Teacher Teacher
87 32
61 18
148 50
Professional Oftl:er!
21
12
33
Aoa,nlstra- Total
tHe posts
"""' .:.
29
51
292
20b
498
i
t
i
i.
t

f
}
!
[
r
Hypothesis 10: There
1S no significant difference 1n
the occupational aspirations across two categories of
father's educational status.
Table
6.2.10
gives
the
distribut10n u1
occupational aspirations
across the two categories ot
father's educational status. The chi-square obta1ned
was found not significant at 5 per cent level
square = 10.976, df=8). Hence the null hypotheSiS was
accepted.
HypothesiS 11: There is no significant difference
1n
the occupational aspirations of hostellers studying 1n
different standards.
Table 6.2.11 gives the frequency and percentage
distribution of occupational
aspirations among
students studying in different standards at secondary
level.
The chi-square value was found
to be
significant at 1 per cent level (chi-square = 32.273,
df=16),
and hence the null hypothesis was rejected.
An
exam1nation of the table revealed that the
proportion of hostellers studying in X standard
aspired more for primary school teacher occupatlons
(33.7 per cent) and professional occupations <12.5 per
event)
as compared to the proportion of VIII and IX
standard students aspiring for the same occupations.
Slmilarly,
around 4 per cent aspired to
become
mechanic
among VIII standard students, whereas it
increased to 5 per cent in the case of IX standard and
...,
I.Q
C
Table 6.2.10: Frequency dIstribution accordIng to edu:::atlonal status by occupational asrations of the respondents
Father's
educational
status
f
Ill! terates
School educated
Total
2
Un-
decIded
22
16
3B
Occuoational AspiratIon
AgrI- Seldler/
cuiture lilitary
Petty
buSIness
6 16 47
7 13 19
13 29 66
Salaried
Jobs
32
32
64
x = 10.976, df = 8, P > 0.05
Pr illary
school
Teacher
80
67
147
Hi9h
school
Teacr,er
23
26
49
Professional OffIcer/
26
25
51
adiinistra-
ttv. posts
15
18
33
f As the information regarding the educational status of the fathers was not in 8 observations, they have not been considered
for computing chi-square.
Tctal
267
223
490
IV
""
....
Table 6.2.11: Frequency and percentage distribution accordlng tc ciasses/standaras by occupational asplrations
of the resDondents
C l a s s ~ s
stud:. :'1g
Occuoatlonal ASpiratIon
Un-
deCIded
Aqn-
culture &
Petty
business
MechanIC 501cIer
lid I tary
SalarIed
JObS
Prillary
school
Teacher
High
school
Teacher
ProfessIonal OffIcer!
VI II 3 2 4 23
(2.8) (1.9) (3.8) <21.9)
IX 18 7 9 20
(9.7) (3.8) (4.9) (10.B)
X
19 5 17 24
(9.11 (2.4) (8.2) <11.5)
Total
40 14 30 67
2
)( = 32.273, df = 16, P ( 0.01, C : 0.25
Note: Figures in par an theses indicate percentages to row totals.
17 30 9
<16.2) (28.6) (B.6)
27 48 2B
(14.6) (25.9) <15.11
21 70 13
(10.11 (33.71 (6.25)
65 148 SO
12
(11.4)
13
(7.00)
26
(12.5)
51
Ad.llnsl tra-
hve posts
5
(4.B)
15
(B. 1 )
13
(6.251
33
iotal
lOS
(100)
,
185
I
(100)
20B
.I
.J
(100) :1
. I
jl
, I
496
t

f
~
l
i
~
~
f'
I.
f
,
~
..
8 per cent in the case of X standard. Based upon the
chi-square value th contingency co-efficient (C)
I'JaS
calculated.
The value of C was found to be 0.25.
Based upon the percentage distribution it may be
stated that as the student moved up the educational
classes his oCcupational aspirations became more Job
oriented, particularly by the time he moved up to the
X standard.
Hypothesis 12: There is no significant difference In
the occupational aspirations of the hostellers staYIng
in hostels located in urban and rural areas.
Table 6.2.12 gives both frequency and percentage
distribution of occupational aspirations of rural
hostel residents and urban hostel reSidents. The Chl-
square obtained was found to be significant at 1 per
cent
l'?vel (chi-square =22.014, df=8) and hence the
null hypothesis was rejected.
An examination of the percentage distributlon
showed that
the students in urban hostels had a
Slight edge over the rural counterparts in asp1r1ng
for higher occupational categoris like high school
teacher, professional and administrative posts. In
all, around 31 per cent of the residents in urban
hostels ~ p l r e d for the above three occupat1onal
th percentage of the hostellers 1n categor1es whereas e
rural hostels f th e Categories was aspirlng or e sam
around 24 per cent.
Table 6.2.12: Frequency ar,u percentage dlstnbutlQr, of occupational upiratioos of rural hostel residents and urban hostel residents
Location of
Occupat ional Aspi ration
the hostel
Un- Agn- Mechanic SoldIer Salaried Prillary fHgh Professional OfflCl'rl
dl'cided
cuI ture " Ii II tary jobs school school
Adillnistra- iotal
Pett,
Teacher Teacher
h ve posts
bUSIness
VIllage 15 4 20 43 45 96 26 29 16 294
(Rural) (5.Il (1.4) (6.B) (14.6) (15.;3) (32.7) (B.B) (9.91 (5.41 (100.0)
IV
Town 25 10 10 24 20 52 24 22 17 204
\D (Urban) C12.3) (4.9) (4.9) Cl1.8)
W
(9.8) (25.5) 111.81 (10.BI IB.3) (100.0)
Total 40 14 30 67 b5 148 50 51 33 498
2
x = 22.014, dt = 8, P < 0.01 (LOS 1 per cent), C = 0.21.
Note: (1) Figures in parantheses indicate percentages to row totals.
2
(2) X denotes chi-square
Hypothesis 13: Ther .
e 1S no significant difference
in
the
occupational
aspirations
among
hostellers
belonging to four backward class categories.
Table 6.2.13 shows that th
e distribution of
occupational
aspirations across four backward class
categories, do not differ significantly at 5 per cent
level (chi-square = 32.104, df=24). Hence the null
hypotheSis was accepted.
Hypothesis 14:
There is no significant difference
in
the occupational aspirations among three categories of
educational performance of the hostellers.
Table
6.2.14 provides the distribution
at
occupa t ional
aspirations across three
levels of
attainment <performance). Chi-square value obtained is
significant
at 1 per cent level (chi-square = 44.71,
df
= 16), indicating the eXistence of differences
let
occupational asplrations
across
educatlonal
performance levels.
Hence the null hypotheSiS w ~
rejected.
An e:<amination of the
distribution
ot
percentages
in each cell of the contingency table
showed that the proportion of low achievers clusterIng
at the lower end of the aspirational scale was more as
compared to medium and high achievers. More than 48
per cent of high achievers aspired for high school
teacher occupatlon and above. The corresponding
percentage under medium achievers was around 31 per
cent and among low achievers it was 17 per cent.
...,
\0
V'
Table 6.:.13: Frequency dlstnbutlOn of occuoatlonal aSOHatlons of the responoents across four categories of bacl::lliaro classes
E C
CategorIeS
lil-
decided
8 T 4
BeT 6
B C M
8
B 5 6
22
Total
40
Aqr!-
cuI ture
Petty
bUSIness
2
4
0
8
14
2
I"'
x = ..:,;_. ..
OccupatIonal
l1eCtlaOlC SoldIer Saiar w:
1111 tary JQtJs
14 11
7 2'"
"-
15
6 2 6
16 29 33
30 67 65
0
1
24, F 0.0:1
PrIlIlary HIgh rroif5:ilDnaJ Officeri
school school Adllllnlstra-
Teacner TeachEr tl ve posts
24 6 5 9
38 13 9 9
23 9 6 4
63 22 31 11
148 50 5i 33
Total
76
123
b4
235
498
Table 6.2.14: Frl!Qu!.'ncy Uld pn(entag!.' dlstnbution oi performance in examinations by occupdtlonal aspirations of the
Performance Occupational Aspiration
In exallllnat IonS
\)1-
Mechanic Soidler Salaned Prl.ary High ProfessIonal Officer
aecided cu 1 ture L 1111 tary jobs school school Adllnlstra- Total
Petty Teacher Teacher tlve posts
bUS1MSS
LOllI 19 8 14 42 37 86 13 14 14 247
(7.7) (3.2) (5.7) <17.0) <15.0) (34.S) (5.3) (5.7) (5.71 (100.01
IV
\D
0'1
Pledium 15 5 10 16 23 46 22 19 12 168
(8.9) (3.01 (6.01 (9.51 (13.7) (27.4) (13.1 ) (11.3) <7.1 ) (100.0)
High 6 6 9 5 16 15 18 7 83
(7.2) (1.20) <7.2) (10.B) (6.0) (19.3) (lB.1I {21.71 (8.4) (100.0)
Total
40 14 30 67 65 148 50 51 33 498
2
x = 44.71, df = 16, P < 0.01, C = 0.29
Note: Figures in ino;cate percentages to ro. totals.
The value of contingency coefficient (C = 0.29)
medlum level association between
the
variables
i . e ,
the educational
attainments and
occupational aspirations.
Hypothesis 15:
There is no significant degree of
association
between occupational
aspiration and
educational aspiration among hostellers.
It was felt that the occupational
aspiratlons
and educational
aspirations were likely
to be
reinforcing each other.
In order to test the above
hypothesis occupational aspirations and educational
aspirations were cross tabulated and is given in the
Table 6.2.15. The contingency co-efficient (C) based
on chl-square was highly significant at less than 1
per cent level. The C value obtained was 0.8 and hence
the null hypothesis was rejected. The magnitude of
the value indicated very high association between two
kinds (1f
aspirations. As already mentioned, both
educational aspirations and occupational aspirations
are arranged on ordinal scales having eight categories
arranged in ascending order. An examination of the
frequency distribution indicated the association to be
in the positive direction. Categories representing low
occupatlons aspirations also showed low educational
asplrations.
297
Table 6.2.1S: FreGwency dlst"lbutlon of rpspondents occupatlonal aSplratlon by educatlonal aSpIratIon.
OCcUDatlOnc.J
Eoucatlonal
aso:rabon
S:_C PJC TCH DIploma UnIvHSlty B.Ec P.6 FroiesslOilal
General Degree
Degree
A9rlcu1 ture 1.
Petty busIness 12 0 0 0 0
{I
r1echan ic 4 10 2 12 "
0 0 (I ,
SoldIer !7
2() 0
...
7 0 0 ,
IV
\D Salaried Jobs 30 17 3 11
(X)
Pri.ary school
teacher 6 2 107 10 16 2 5 0
HIgh School
teacher 0
2 22 16 7
Professional
0
0 0 7 11 5 27
Administrative post!
offIcer
V 0
20 6 4
Total
% 50 114 36 8S' 21 24 34
t<IC .5:.
:.: P (0.0:. C = 0.80
NJte: 4(' ... ..,c ",: rot c.bOL't occupations are not conslo:'ered for rienee tne N 4% only.
Total
14
30
67
65
148
50
51
33
458

, ;
i \
!
t'
{ ,
r
(
J -.
r

r
r:
!
.
f ..
r '
.
.
,0"
c
Findings:
The above analyses show that both educational
and occupational
aspirations of the hostellers are
influenced by the standard upto which they have
reached, their
past
educational
attainments
(performance)
and the location of the hostel.
The
background variables like father's
socio-economlC
attributes and backward class categories to which they
belong do not influence the aspirations. lhe
educational aspirations and occupational aspirations
are mutually associated in the posltive direction. In
the attainment model, the two types of aspirationS
fall under the educational development factors.
In
order to test the contribution of these two variables
on subsequent educational attainment and occupational
attainment, this was not possible with the data of
current beneficiaries of 1987-88, who were staying in
the hostel.
collected
residents
survey.
In order to test this sequence, data was
separately on a sample of 230 past hostel
who responded to a mailed questionnaire
Out of 230 past beneficiaries 113
respondents were employed and the remaining 117 were
elther unemployed or stlll studying. Some descriptive
plcture
and detailed analYSis of the occupational
attainment
process of the past hostel
residents IS
presented in the next Chapter.
299
CHAPTER VII
FOLLOW-UP OF PAST HOSTEL BENEFICIARIES
CHAPTER VII
FOLLOW-UP OF PAST HOSTEL BENEFICIARIES
In the
previous
Chapter
socio-economic
background and educational development of current
beneficiaries at the time of the
survey were analysed.
Since it was not Possible with the cross sectional
survey design to find out outcomes in educational and
occupational
study of
fields with respect to BCs, a follow-up
the past beneficiaries through . mai led
questionnaire survey was conducted. Sample for t ~
survey was drawn from the population of the hostellers
who were studying in the final year of the respective
courses both at pre-matric and post-matric levels
i.e., who were studying in the X standard, II year PUC
and
in any other post-matric courses.
Out of 375.
questionnaires mailed, 230 filled-in questionnaires
giving ffiOSt of the information required were received.
Three questionnaires with partial information were
rejected. The response rate was 62.1 per cent. The
questionnaire covered the backward class category to
which the respondent belonged, father's socio-economlc
and educational status, occupation of grandfather,
father and the respondent, current educational status
of the respondent etc.
The ob' t'
lec lves of this survey were as follows:
1.
To establish a causal model of the occupational
attainment
using path model consisting
relevant variables.
of
2. To describe and quantify the intergenerational
mobility among three generations of which the
respondent belonged to the third generation.
Before
taking up the analysis to fulfil the
objectives, some
relevant background in fo'rma t ion
obtained from these respondents are described in t ~
following paragraphs.
DescT"iptiol"l Cl'f the Sample:
Bach'lard Class Categories of the Past Beneficiaries:
The respondent's caste information obtained
through questionnaire were categorised according to
the Backward Class category to which they belonged.
Table 7.1 gives the percentage distribution of sample
across four categories of OBCs.
It may be noted that
the percentage distribution obtained was similar if
not exact to that of current beneficiaries. Since the
sample drawn was not to represent all the hostellers
but
only those who were in the final years of
the
respective courses in which they were studying, the
percentage distribution is slightly different.
301
Table 7.1: Percentage distribution of sample accordlng
to ca tegor 1 es of bac k,,,,a rd classes as
compared to the ratios fixed
Government to Government
hostels
------------------------------------------------------
Categories Ratio*
prescribed
by government
for admission
for OBC, SC &c
ST
Ratios
worked out
for OBC**
only
Percentage
in the
sample
(N = 230)
------------------------------------------------------
B T 7.50
10.00 20.87
B C T 15.00
20.00 19.58
B C M 30.00
40.00 19.96
B 5 G
22.50 30.00 39.59
SC/ST
25.00 N A NA
-------------------------------------------------------
100.00 100.00 100.00
------------------------------------------------------
NA: Not applicable
* As prescribed by Government and also circulated
through Annual Action Plans for the Department of
BCM. Also, see G.O. No.SWL 100 BMS 79,
Bangalore, dated 26th July 1979.
**
Admission ratio arrived by working
percentages for 75 per cent of OBCs only.
302
out
Rural - Urban Origins:
The respondents were asked
to provide information on their place of birth and
place
in which they were residing at the time of
survey. Table 7.2 gives the distribution of the
sample.
It may be noted that 96.5 per cent of them
are from
rural
areas.
A similar background
characteristic was observed in the case of current
beneficiaries also. However, at the time of interview
78 per cent were staying in the rural areas and 22 per
cent had migrated to urban centres.
Table 7.2: Percentage distribution of sample
to place of birth and present
residence
according
place ot
------------------------------------------------------
Place of Birth
Present place ot
residence
------------------------------------------------------
Rural
Urban
Total
96.5
3.5
100.0
(N = 230)
Occupation of father and grandfather:
77.8
22.2
100.0
(N = 230)
Table 7.3 gives the distribution of the sample
across
the different occupations of grandfathers
and
fathers of the
respondents. The occupational
d f the past t
WO generations indicate
backgroun s 0
that
majority of respondents came from families depending
on
the
t
" s Less than 2 per cent of
rural based occupa 10n
grandfather
generation
were
depending on
3()3
Table
Percentage distribLltion of sample
to t dt" ---
-- ra 1 lanaI occupations of
grandfather and father --
accoJ'd J.lly
famlly,
----------------
--------------------
(N=230)
Occupations
Percentage
-------
----------
------------------
Traditional Occupation
family of grand
occupation father
----------------
OCCLlpdtlon
of father
----------
----------------------------
Agriculture
Sheep rearing
Fishery
Carpentry
Blacksmith
Barber
Potter
Weaving
Basket making
(Medarikae)
Tailoring
Pin.;ariki
(related cotton)
Petty business
Coolie
Other occupations
Teacher
Government salaried
occupations
Do not know
All occupations
67.34
3.92
0.44
1.31
2.18
0.87
0.87
3.48
0.44
2.18
0.87
1.31
13.05
0.87
0.87
100.00
* Includes copper smithy also.
50.87
1. 74
1. 74
1.31
1.31
1.31
2.18
0.87
0.44
4.35
13.48
1.31
*
0.44
18.70
100.00
52.18
0.44
0.44
1.74*
0.44
1.31
1.61
0.44
1.31
3.05
22.61
3.92**
2.18
$
0.87
6.60
100.00
** Includes occupations like commission activities,
small scale, khatik, house servants, soldering etc.
# Salaried jobs like police constable etc.
$ Government salaried occupations like post-man,
gobar gas supervisor etc.
304
occupations classifiable as tertiary sector.
o n ~
were
employed in industry or modern manufacturing
sector.
Around 51 per cent were agriculturists and
around
13 per cent were labourers.
In the case ot
father's generation (G ), the percentage of
2
depending on agriculture remained more or
familles
less the
same.
Most of the traditional service occupatlons
like fisherman, barber, basket maker etc.,
decreased
and the labourer category increased to around 23 per
cent. Around 3 per cent of the father generation were
in the tertiary sector. Against this background, the
occupations of the respondents at the time of the
survey may be viewed to get an idea of the changes in
occupations. Table 7.4 gives the occupational status
of the respondents at the time of the interview. It
may be noted that in all around 29 per cent were
unemployed and around 20 per cent were still studying,
of the remaining 50 per cent, about 17.8 per cent were
engaged in agriculture and 21.5 per cent were working
in the tertiary sector i.e., salaried employment. The
occupational status of the third generation indicates
that among hostellers, there exists a strong tendency
to shift from rural based primary occupation to urban
based secondary and tertiary occupations.
305
Table
Percentage distribution
to father's occupation
present occupation
of sample accordIng
2.!J.Q. respond en t ' !:..
------------
-----------------
-------------------------
occupational Category
Percentage
Father's
occupation
(N = 230)
Present
occupation
of the
respondents
(N = 230)
-----------------------------
-------------------------
Agriculture/Farming
Doing gainful activity
but looking for better job
Petty business
Salaried occupations*
Coolie
Traditional and other
occupations**
Continuing education
Unemployed
Do nat knol'!
All categories
52.18 17.83
2.50
3.05
1.31
3.05 21.50
22.61 5.22
12.51 1.70
20.44
29.50
6.60
100.00 100.00
*
Salaried occupations include semi-skilled
professional which carry some fixed salaries.
**
Includes all ather residual
categories of traditional type.
Education of Parents:
occupational
tu
Table 7.5 gives the distribution of educational
status of the parents of the respondents. The
percentage distribution shows that nearly 50 per cent
of the fathers and around 83 per cent of the mothers
\&Jere illiterates.
Only around 2 per cent of the
306
fathers and none among mothers were educated beyond
secondary level. Around 34 per cent of the fathers and
around 13 per cent of the mothers were educated upto
the middle school level. Even though the percentage
of illiterate parents in this sample is more or less
similar
to that of current
beneficiaries, the
educational levels of the literate fathers were found
to be slightly higher and varied. There was not much
difference with respect to mothers educational status.
Table Percentage
according
the parents
distribution
to the
of the sample
education of
------------------------------------------------------
Educational status
Percentage of
father
(N=230)
mother
(N=230)
-----------------------------------------------------
Illiterates/no education
upto IV Standard
upto VII Standard
upto X Standard
PUC/ITI/Diploma/TCH
Degree and above
Do not t::no,.,
49.57
19.10
14.79
6.53
1. 74
0.44
7.83
82.61
5.65
6.95
2.18
2.61
-----------------------------------------------------
Total
100.00 100.00
---------------------------------------------------
Economic Status of the Family:
The
respondents
were asked to give the
information on
the economic status of the family,
which
included the family income,
land and other
assets
they
owned at the time of their stay
in the
hostel.
In the case of agricultural family the
land
holding
,,,as
used to categorise the
families on
an
ordinal scale ranging from high, through medium to
status.
And in the non-land holding households the
annual
family income was used to categorise them as
high, medium and low status groups, taking Rs.3600 or
less
as low, Rs.3600 to 6000 as medium and above
Rs.6000 as high. The percentage distribution of the
respondents across their status groups is given in
Table 7.6.
It may be noted that nearly 3/4 of the
respondents belonged to low economic status category
and only around 3.5 per cent belonged to high economic
status category.
Table 7.6: Percentage distribution of sample according
to the family economic status
(N=230)
------------------------------------------------------
Economic Status
Percentage
------------------------------------------------------
Low
Medium
High
All categories
74.78
21.74
3.48
100.00
Educational Development related Variables:
The
educational
their
respondents were asked to give
aspirations and occupational aspirations
they had when they were residing in the hostel.
Educational Aspirations:
Table
7.7 gives the percentage distribution
of
the
respondents in terms of
their
educational
aspirations
across
7
categories
of education.
Table
2...:.1..L Educational Aspirations of the
hostellers
----------------------
--------------------------------
Educational Aspirations
Response in percentage
(N=230)
----------------------
--------------------------------
upto Secondary/SSLC
PUC or TCH
Diploma/ITI
College - General Degree
Bachelor Degree in Education
Professional degrees
(Engineering, Medicine, law>
Post-Graduate Degree
Not decided
11.30
12.17
4.35
29.57
10.00
3.48
20.00
9.13
------------------------------------------------------
100.00
------------------------------------------------------
The distribution shows that around 30 per cent of the
sample had aspired for completing general degree and
20 per cent of them wanted to acquire post-graduate
degree. It may be recalled that the entire sample
were studying in X standard and above. Around 11 per
cent wanted to terminate their education after SSLC
and about 4 per cent after PUC. 8 per cent and 10 per
cent of the respondents respectively aspired to
complete primary teacher course and secondary teacher
course.
Respondents aspiring for technical
certificates or degrees were very few.
From the above data it may be concluded that
more
than 50 per cent of the sample had aspired to
enter college, and most of them had aimed at general
courses rather than technical or professional courses.
309
Occupational Aspirations:
Table 7.8 gives the percentage distribution of
respondents according to occupational aspirations. The
number of occupations mentioned by the respondents and
the nature of those occupations appear to be more
diverse
and oriented to urban tertiary sector. Very
few people
aspired for occupations in the rural
primary sector or occupations in
industrial sector.
The variety of occupations show the exposure to modern
occupational structure.
The first preference was
given to primary school teacher as indicated by 15.6
per
cent followed by any salaried job in the
Government
accounting for 14.4 per cent. 8.7 per cent
wanted
to become high school teachers and around 6 per
cent wanted to be either lecturers or an officer in
the Government.
However, a considerable proportion
i . e. ,
23.9 per cent did not respond or indicate
anything regarding their aspirations at the time
they were staying in the hostel.
l.,hen
Table 7.8: Percentage
according
distribution Q.f.
to occupational
the Sdlllplt>
aspiratlorls.
________________ (N=230)
-------------
Occupations -------------------------
_________________ Percentage of aspiration
Agriculture
Petty business
Semi-skilled/Mechanic**
(Modern occupational hierarchy)
Any salaried job in Government
Village accountant
Hostel Superintendent/Gobar gas
Supervisor
Typist
Clerk (Office and Bank)
Conductor/Driver
Army/Soldier***
Polic/Forest Guard
Primary Teacher
High School Teacher (Secondary)
Sub-Inspector
Lecturer/Officer
Advocate
Engineer
Doctor
Indecisive
3.05
3.48
14.35
1.31
0.87
0.87
5.22
1. 74
6.53
3.05
15.60
8.70
1.30
6.09
0.87
0.87
0.87
23.92
------------------------------------------------------
All occupations 100.00
------------------------------------------------------
** Refers to (includes) lab. technician, telephone
operator, mechanic in modern sector
occupational hierarchy.
*** Army/soldier refers to non-commissiosned lower
ranks including driver, clerical, technical
and other trades in defence forces.
311
OccupatIonal Attainment: Path Analysis
A detailed methodology of path analysis has been
discussed in the 'Methodology' Chapter (Chapter IV).
Since path analYSis is a procedure which facilitates
the development of a causal model by eliminating weak
variables and redefining the causal model, an attempt
was made to include only those variables which showed
significant zero order correlation.
The follOllJing
correlation matrix <Table 7.9) was obtained by. using
the standardised scores on six variables: Caste,
economic status, educational aspirations, educational
attainments, occupational aspirations and occupational
attainments.
Table 7.9: Zero Order Correlation Matri>:
---------------------------------------------
X
1
x
2
x
3
---------
X
4
----------------------------------------------------
X
1
x
2
x
X
4
1.000
0.546
0.407
0.387
1.000
0.301
1.000
0.286
0.540
1.000
----------
---------------------------------------------
x
=
Educational
Aspiration
1
X
::: Occupational
Aspiration
'"'
.;;.
X =
Educational
Attainment
...,.
...j
X =
Occupational
Attainment
4
312
The
values
obtained
indicate that the
correlation coefficients with respect to caste and
economic
status in relation to other
variables
considered were found not significant.
The ather
inter-correlations were found significant at 1 per
cent level. It may be recalled that in the case of
current beneficiaries also, the background variables
were
not
associated with the
educational and
occupational aspirations. From the above it may be
concluded that the observed educational development of
the
hostel residents and the
educational and
occupational outcomes were nat influenced by the
socia-cultural backgrounds and economic status of the
family. Thus, the educational development indicators
and educational outcomes are influenced by factors
located outside the family context. Since the entire
sample is drawn from hostel stream the factors
influencing the above variables can only be hostel
related.
Path Model:
Based upon the above correlation analysis a path
model,
involving
two
educational
development
variables,
occupational
path
model
hypothesised
one
educational
variable
and
attainment variable was proposed.
for
oc c up at i on a 1
attainment
coefficients
is
discussed
in
Methodology Chapter ( See Fig.4.1).
313
one
The
"'lith
the
As indicated in the methodology, multiple
regression programme was run twice. In the flrst
instance (step) the educational attainment was used as
dependent variable and two aspirational variables were
used as independent variables. In the second instance
all the above three variables were treated
independent variables and oCCupational attainment
treated as dependent (resultant) variable. Since
regreSSions were run on using standardised scores
as
was
the
the
regression coefficients represented the path values.
The values of two residuals were obtained by finding
out the square root of the value obtained by
2
subtracting the R from 1. In the following diagram
(Fig. 7.1) the corresponding values are posted.
From the model (Fig. 7.1) it can be seen that
the occupational
attainments result
from their
educational developments and educational attainments
to a considerable extent. About 37 per cent of the
variations in the occupational attainments can be
explained by the direct and indirect effects of
educational attainments, educational aspirations and
occupational aspirations. Out of the above, a larger
proportion of the variation in the occupational
attainment is contributed by eduational attainments.
In the case of educational attainments, the causal
effects from aspirations is not very high. Only around
"t" l"n the educational
13 per cent of the varla lon
314
--
--
---
'.. --
-. ---
D.9Q9
\
0.B20
U2
0
.. - ---__ [.112
D. 3 ". ,.., -------__ ..
'-:::1 .
OCC ATT
E D 1'1 AT T n.
4 5
] ....
7\
_ ...
.' I' _
... -" -----
I' .-
..... .-
----------
EDN AS? = Educational Aspirations
DeC ASP = Occupational Aspirations
EDN ATT = Educational Attainment
DeC ATT = Occupational Attainment
Ul = Residual on EON ATT
U..,
.... =
Residual onOCC ATT
FIG l.": rAT H B H 11\ L '/ S ,s 0 roc CUP A T I 0 H H L
AT T A I 11 E H T
315
attainment can be explained by the effects of twu
aspirations.
One important aspect of the above model
is the nature of variables. All the three variables
causing occupational attainments are open for POI1CY
intervention unlike background variables.
It is
possible
to improve the aspirations and attainments
with
appropriate measures, outcome of which can be
obtained
in short time span.
Other variables like
socio-economic
background
may not
change - over
generations as a result of policy intervention. The
same path model with respect to the backward class
students not staying
in the hostel may yield a
different result.
It is likely that the causal
variables
in the present model may not have the same
effect and whatever may be the effect will likely be
weaker as compared to the effects observed
in the
present model. This has to be tested on the non-
hostellers sample.
Relationship
generations
across occupational structure of three
In the present context, the focus was on the
intergenerational mobility of the hostellers.
Hence
for this purpose, the reference points are,
occupations of father and grandfather.
Occupational
rank
values for father and grandfather were
obtained
by using common occupational hierarchies
for three
generations.
316
Before taking up the measurement of generational
mobility a description and intercorrelation of the
occupational ranking of three generations available in
the sample are presented in the following paragraphs.
It may be noted that the procedure for ranking
is already discussed under methodology. The following
Table 7.10 provides percentage
distribution of
occupations of the three generations under respective
ranking of occupations
Tab 1 e 7. 10
Percentage distribution of occupatiorlc, 01_
three generations under respectlve
ranking categories of occupations
(in percentages)
-----------------------------------------------------
Occupational Ranking of
categories Occupation Grand
categories father
Father Son/
Daughter
-----------
-----------------------------------------
Professions
Primary
School
Teacher
Modern
Salaried
jobs
Agricul-
turist
(owner-
Cultivator)
Rural
T r ad i t i on a 1
service
occupations
Casual
labourers
-----------
Total
1
o o 6.4
2
1.6
2.7 10.8
3
0.5
2.7
29.0
4
60.1
52.0
34.4
5
19.2
12.8
8.6
6
18.6
29.8
10.8
----------------------------------------
100.0
100.0
100.0
(N=188)
(N=188)
(N=93)
----------------
----------------------------------
317
a)
b)
The
occupational
information regarding
grandfather were available for 188 out of
hostellers.
Only
113 of
the grandsons/granddaughters
1'leT'e
employed and of the remaining, 117 were either
unemployed Or still studying. The occupational
information was available with reference to
grandfathers only in case of 93 out of 113 who
were employed in nr d / d
an son gran (G )
generation.
It is clear from the description that there IS
considerable disturbance in the ranking of third
generation
(6 ) as compared to first (6 ) and second
3 1
(6) generations whereas the occupational ranking of
2
second generation is more or less similar to that of
first generation. The following Table 7.11 gives the
correlation matrix of occupational values of the three
generations obtained by the product moment method.
father
The correlation between occupations of grand
(6 )
1
and father
(6 ) generations is
2
statistically significant at .01 per cent confidence
level.
The significance of correlation was tested
using Table 25 in Garrett's book (Garrett, 1981: 201).
Occupations
of the third generation (6 ) are,
3
though
significantly related to the second generation (6 ) at
2
0.05
but the strength of relationship
IS
318
Tab 1 e 7.11:
Correlation t
rna rix of occupational
structure ~ the three generations
~ ~ ~
1
2 3
------------------------------------------------------
G
1
0.32*
0.09
1
(N=188)
(N=93)
G
1
0.22**
2
(N=112)
G
1
3
--------------------------------------------------
* Significant at 0.01 level
** Significant at 0.05 level
relatively weak as indicated by low r (r=O.22). On
the other hand, ocupations of the third generations
(G )
are not Significantly related to the first
3
generation
(G ).
1
This finding indicates that the
occupational values of the third generation deviates
from the first and second generations. Such deviation
designates the possible occupational mobility. The
direction of the mobility and magnitude of the
mobility can be determined by plotting the
occupational structure in the form of scattergram
which is discussed in the following paragraphs.
319
Occupatlonal Mobility
class
An important policy objective of the backward
amelioration scheme is to bring about
posltlve
social mobility among the individuals and families of
BCs.
Educational schemes are supposed to facilitate
this
objective.
The occupational
mobi li ty
individuals is subject
to
the
influence
of
economy,
employment situation,
protective
discriminatlon
policy,
educational
attainments,
oCCupational
attainment etc.
Basically mobility refers to movement
of
an individual in socia-economic space from
pre-
determined
positions.
The reference POints
for
tracing mobility are occupations of father
and
grandfather.
The mobility uf the
individual
",as
by
identifying the individual's Position on
measured
an occupational hierarchy.
It may be noted that the procedure for meaSUrln(j
magnitude
and direction of the occupational mobllity
is
already
discussed under methodology
(See Table
4.4)
t he same is briefly discussed again to
HOloJe v e r,
l
mmedlate reference and continuIty.
f ac i 11 tat e
The
following procedure was adopted to measLlre
the magnitude
and
directlon of the occup at iona 1
mob11 i ty:
a) Cross
, ~ t " Cl the 0 ,- cup d tiD n a 1 s cor e s of
tabu.l.Q 1\."" -
tht:'
subjects
on
t onal sc
ores 01
a ~ l S and occupa 1
parents/grandparents on V-axis in the form of a
scattergram.
b) Each cell in the scattergram carries a weight.
This weight depends upon how many steps the cell
is falling away either to the left or right of
the Left to Right diagonal. The Left to Right
diagonal represents cases where the
subject
obtains same occupational score as that at
his/her parent/grandparent indicating 'no change'
observations.
Hence the diagonal cells carry
zero weight and mobility score is zero.
In the
scattergram, the cells towards the right of the
diagonal represent the instances of gains in the
occupational value score indicating positive or
upward mobility. The cells towards the left of
the diagonal represent instances of losses in the
occupational value score indicating negative or"
dOl-mil-lard mobility. Thus,the weights within eactl
cell
represent the mobility index.
The cell
value increases by unit from the diagonal towards
the right and decreases by unit towards the left
of the diagonal from zero (0) value point i.e.,
the cell falling on the diagonal. Thus the lowest
occupational
category has no
possibility
at
obtaining
negative
gains and the
highest
occupational
category
has no
possibility
to
obtain positive gains.
321
c) After obtaining the frequency distribution of the
observation in the scattergram the obtained cell
frequencies are multiplied by the respective
weights. The values thus obtained for cells of
each row when summed up (row wise) give the
aggregate/net mobility attained by the respective
occupational categories. The sum of all the row
totals gives the aggregate/net mobility of the
entire sample.
d) Aggregate of the deviations (multiplied values)
of the row divided by the total number of cases
in the given row (respective row) gives the
average mobility at the occupational category
level. The sign of the average mobility value
indicates the direction of the mobility. The
aggregate of all rows total divided by the sample
size gives the average mobility of the entire
sample.
The sign i.e., whether the average
mobility value thus obtained is positive or
negative
indicates the upward
or
direction of the mobility.
Using
the above
procedure,
mobility
calculated between two generations as follows:
The mobility attained by father's generation
(6 ) as compared to grandfather's generation
2
(6 );
1
322
i i) The
mobility
attained
granddaughter's generation
to grandfather's (6 ) and
1
by grandson's/
(6 ) as
3
compared
iii) The
mobility attained by son's/daughter's
generation (6) as compared to father's
3
generation (8 ).
2
The Table 7.12 gives the mobility index of the
father generation when compared with
grandfather
generation.
It may be noted that there was a positive"
correlation
between the father
and grandfather
generation in their occupations. When the mobility
index was calculated the entire father generation of
the sample showed a small negative mobility i.e.,
downward mobility of -0.117. The average mobility of
the individual occupational categories were positive
but less than one at the lower two levels and were
negative in the remaining three levels. This negative
mobility observed in G generation as compared to G
2 1
generation may be attributed to the aspects like the
G generation was devoid of education and effective
2
'protective discrimination' policy. Also it may be
partially due to the changes in the family structure
from
joint to nuclear, and
consequential
changes/fragmentation of landholding size and changes
in the economy.
323
Table 7.12
-;;:2rather's
enerat ion (6
):
Casual
1 labourers '
::upat IonS
OccupatIonal MobilIty fro. Grandfather Generation (G ) to Father GeneratlJn \G
1
Father's (6 ) generation occupatIons
2
Rural
AQric:ul t-
TradIti-
urist
Salaried
anal and
(Owner
lOdem
serv lce
cultivator:
Jobs
occupation:
Prllary
school
teacher
l10bi li ty
If DN
,
---'---
+
Net!
total
:number :Avt:;lge:
Net of
,
cases
l' - , I
. -,
: in the
row
I I _____ ___ ____ ____ _ ____ __
-------. I I I I I I I I I , . I
I I I I i I II I I , I j
I I :::========: ===========: :=:::======; :::=::::=::: : " : :" ; ;
,lS\;aJ
ltourers

:radltlOnal
and servic:e
;(cupatlons
";rlCUlturlst
OilIler
:ultlVitor)
illamd
.lOOern Jobs
'rimy sc:hool
:/icher
: ' 0 : 0 : 16 : 3 : 8 :: 27 : 0 : 27 : '27 : - :
: ! 24 : 0 8 : 2 : : : : : 35 : 0.:" J
: : (0)
, (l)
"
, ,
(2)
(4)
"
II
"
"
II t I I
---.r---- ------ --__________ ' I ___ ' ___ ' ___ ',..---i _______ '
-------- \ : :
-9 ''''''0:
II
II
" 9
, ,
: : (-1)
, ,
"
II
II
' ,
"
"
"
:: (-21
" II
, ,
"
' ,
"
"
I,
: ""': 5 ::
: (0) "" : (1) : (2) (3) ::
-4. : ----4-::
23 1: S4 : 3 2::
(-1) : (0) : (1) (2) ::
I I I II I I i I
-----0- -2 I 0 ;---'---'---'-------. -------,
o 0 \
, (-2) (-1) : (0) ,
5
2
3 :: 10 -9
, I I ,
I I I ,
--- --- ------- --
7 -47 -40
:: (-3)
0
I.
0 -2 -2 -"
"
--
0
"
, .1)1..)
"
(1)
"
II
I II I I : I ,
!! 0 0 2 -. -2 ,-2.,)
:: (-4) ; (-3) (-2) H) : I: ,
I 1==========:==:::======:====::::::::::==::::::=:======_==:::: ___ : ____ : ___ , ______ , ______ _
II I i
-------- I I
Av!rag! Intergenerational occ:upational lObility : 44 : -bO : -22 :-22/188:-0 17 ;
I I , !
,----,-----,---,-------,-------,
-----------------------------
II : UP = Indic:ate upward or POSl ti ve
uN = Indlc:ate DOII/nli/ard or negative
324
Table 7.13 compares the occupational
of third generation with the first generation i.e.,
the respondent
occupations
compared with his
grandfather's occupation. The average mobility index
for the entire sample shows a positive gain on
an
by 0.903. However, third generation having
casual
labourer as grandfather registered a positive
gain of more than 2 points on the mobility index and
the next category of the third generation having
grandfathers belonging
to service occupations
registered a mobility of more than one point.
Table 7.14 gives the scatter distribution of
occupational values of father and son in the sample.
The average mobility index obtained showed a gain of
1.00 for the entire sample. In other words, the entire
sample of son's/daughter's generation moved one step
above the father generation on the
occupational
structure.
The highest gains were registered by the
children of the casual labourers. Their average gain
was
2.16 points.
They were followed by
rural
traditional and service occupation category whose sons
reglstered on an average 1.07 points on the mobillty
index.
It is also encouraging to note that the upward
an
mobility is more pronounced in the case of
occupational stratum which is at the bottom of the
1
d wage labour (the
ranking, namely, the agricultura an
poorest).
This average occupational mobility of
one
325
:':-;
:Gl
[5 ):
Table 7.13
Occupational Mobility frDI 6randfather 6eneration 16 ) to 6randson/Granddaughter
(respondents) Generatlon (6 )
3
Grandson's/Granddaughter's generation (6 ) occupations
3
Rural Agncult-
Casual Tradlti- Urlst Salaried Pnury
labourers onal and 1000er 80dern school
serVlce culhvator:
Jobs teacher
occup atl on :
II I I I I II I I L

:: 4: 4 5 2 :: 17 :.:8
'0 : : B : : B : 5 :: r7 : 0 : r7 : 2-
[:-
::(0) , (1) : (2) (3) (4) (5) ::
"
.",1 ii ",::-:--:--:-7
t ,",:ce : : 2 : 5: 4 3 2: : .I
:,,::i)1S ::(-1) : (0) : (1) (2) (3) (4) ::
" , I I I I I I I ____ , __________ ' __ _
-10
-.. -.. :-tu-ns-t-:: -a ' -2 %1 16 10 , ;: l5
: : 4 2' 27 '16 5 3: :
-itor) :: (-2) (-1) (0) ; /11 (2) (3) : : _____ : ____ : ___ : _______ _
ii 0 0 : 0 X 0 0:: 0
57
.Id o o
I)
:: 0 0 0: 0 : 0 0::
:: /-3) 1-2) H) : (0) , III (2) ::
II I I I : : ____ I ___ I ______ _
"
"
o :: o -2 -2
',' scnool i 0 0 0 ' -2
i' , '0 0 0 2' 0 ' 0 : : 2 -l.ljO .
H) (-3) (-2) (-1) : (0) ; (ll ; ; ___ : ____ : ____ : ____ ,
o o o
:: 0 0 0 0 0: 0 ::
0 0 0 0 : 0
;; (-5) (-4) , (-3) : (-2) H) : (0) :, , ,
::==========:===========;===========:===========:=====:=====:===========::----,----,---,-----
---
Average Intergenerational occupatlonal lability
f :nOlcate upward or posItlve
Indlcate Downward or negatlve
326
,
,
---- ---- ----- -----
O.()O
':::!:Y1
(6 )
.,
..
:'::00
,ltor)

----
Table 7.14
Casual
labourers
2
(-2)
-4
Occupational fro. Fathfr's Gen.ration
(r'spondents) Gen.ratlon (6 )
3
Son's/daught.r's g.neration (G )
occupations
:3
Rural Agricult-
Tradi ti- urist Salaried Priury
lIlal and
(Owl,r
lOdem school
servic, cultintor: jobs teacher
occupation :
(S ) to Son's/daUQhtfr's
2
,
Profe-
,
SSlonS
I II I I I I
: -'
---0- -2 : 0 : 0 0 :: 0 -2 -2 -2
1_3,0 1-2,1 1-1,0 111
0
_{_21_
0
__ :: __ : __ : __ :_
2
_:_-\.""_:
o
o
, (-4)
o
o
(-3)
o
o
o
(-2)
0: I ii
HI :10 ,(1) ::
I I I I
-1 o o
4
---0- 0' 0
o 0 0 0 0 :: : :: 0,(
; --: -- -- ---- ----:
Averag. InhT'Qt!f1t!ratiooal .alii Ii ty : 121 : -9 : 112 ; 112/: 12: 1. (':1
, ,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---'--'-- --- -----
1. : Indicate upward Dr positiv'
: Indicate DoMnward Dr negative
327
step, which is upward, observed in G generation as
3
compared to G generation may be attributed to the
2
'interventions'
in
case of
OBCs through the
'protective discrimination' policy measure namely, the
hostel which provided them necessary motivation and
qualitatively better socio-cultural and educational
environment for educational attainments leading to
occupational attainments.
Besides,th. educational
attainments
might
have been motivated "by the
educational and occupational opportunities provided
through reservation policy,in admission to educational
institutions and in employment.
To sum up, the following are the outcomes of the
intergenerational occupational mobility analysis.
1) Thp.re is a considerable upward mobility of the
hostel residents when their occupational attainments
are compared with occupations of their father and
grandfather.
2) The intergenerational mobility has taken place
more at the lower rungs of the occupational structure
applicable to earlier generations.
3) The entire sample experienced an upward mobility
of about one step on the occupational ranking scale.
328
4) The association between the occupations of the
third with the first and second generation
is weakening indicating mobility/attainments based on
achievement
phenomenon
rather than ascriptive
phenomenon.
In other words, the occupations of the G
3
are the achieved/attained ones, independent of the
background (of) occupational categories to which they
belonged to in G
2
and G
1
generations.
5) The implications of the issues summed up as
outcomes mentioned at (2) above are that the hostel
programme has greatly benefitted those of the lower
strata which is also the objective of the programme as
could be seen from the procedure of 'means-cum-merit'
followed for hostel admission at pre-matric level.
In the next Chapter, the findings of different
analyses
and their policy implications will
be
discussed.
329
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
. Equality of educational opportunity is a notion
emerging out of the liberal philosophy of the west and
post-war expansion of democratic ideology.
In a
nation like India which emerged out of colonial rule
as an independent State, the values like liberty,
equality
and justice became the basis of the
Constitution of
the new State. The built-in.
inequalities in the social structure and wide spread
poverty among the population were perceived as hurdles
in the construction of the new Nation. Hence, the
Constitution tried to set right the inequalities in an
accelerated fashion through its directives to the
State and the Constitutional sanction for protective
discrimination to the weaker sections. The State was
obliQed to take up special measures to fulfil the
constitutional directives.
Genesis of the Problem
DurinQ the formative years of the Constitutlon,
attention was focussed on the lowest fringe of the
caste
system
in the form of untouchable
castes.
.oon a1tlr thl adoption of the Constitution
.eci.l 01 othlr marginal socio-economic
categories
compelled the State to include
such
sections for special consideration.
In the early
years, policy emerging out of the Constitutlondl
requirements
reservations
institutions
was concerned with the issues
and
facilitating access to
performing the social function
of
the
of
socialising and selecting individual for various adult
roles. Gradually this concern expanded to cover the
i ue. of equality of outcomes when the mere equal1ty
of access was ineffective. One important area where
much 01 the r ourc.. and efforts invested
educational development of weaker sections.
During the post-war reconstruction, education
was perceived .s an important input in socio-econom!c
development. The changes in the production technology
b ed upon modern science introduced altogether new
occupational rol which required different kinds of
education. The rapid expansion of economy required
newly trained manpower in greater numbers. Thus at
the macro level changes in the policy and orientation
of formal education and rapid expansion of the
quantity became a necessary condition for economlC
development. At the micro level 1n
IxpandinQ and changing .ducational process became an
essential requirement for improving the quality of
life at the individual and community levels.
331
for
In the context of rapid social change the PUllLY
equalising opportunities for the weaker sections
had to give high priority to educational development.
The role
of the State in the implementation
of the
policy b.cam. important.
Need for the Study:
Thl of the outcomes of the early
effort.
of the policy for the development
of weaker
.ections
were not encouraging and need was
felt for
systematic knowl.dge about the issues related to the
proce
of .duc.tion with reference
to weaker
sections.
Systematic
knowledge through researches by
social scientists in general and educational
r rch.r. in particular was not available during the
early years of independent India. The emergence of
sociology of education during late sixties and early
seventies helped in fulfilling the need for systematic
knowledge to some extent. The early studies which
focus d on the issue. r.lated to the equality of
.ducational opportunity (EEO) were concerned with the
education of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
The studies were mostly descriptive and fact findlng
in nature. Substantive educational issues figured in
very
few studies. Even though many State Governments
invested massively on the educational developments
of
332
Backward sections other than Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes, such population segments escaped
the attention of educational researchers.
The schemes and strategies implemented vlith
respect to educational development of Backward Classes
in ger,eral and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in
particular to achieve the objective of occupational
mobility through educational development have not been
studied to evaluate short term and long term policy
objectives with reference to their distribution,'
utilisation and outcomes. The questions
1 ike, V/ho
used what programme with what effects? and which ot
the interventions are more effective in achieving t ~
results?, have not been attempted so far Wl th
reference to OBCs. Answers to such questions are
important in identifying the factors that are amenable
to change through pol icy efforts
educational development of OBCs.
leading
Further
to
this
knowledge may result in reviewing the priorities and
schemes planned for the development of OBCs.
Conceptual Model:
The questions raised above need expression in
the form of & model in 'educational terms'.
The
general
based
that
assumption behind amelioration
upon functionalist framework.
It
efforts are
is assumed
the
educational
attainment
mediates the
333
transformation
of
input variables like f m i l ~
background and environment, abilities etc.,
into
occupational attainments. From the educational point
of view it is Possible to visualise educational
process intervening between the background factors and
educational attainments. The basic model of the above
type has guided the occupational attainment process in
the Western context, espeCially in the United States
of America.
This general model requires a minor
adaptation in the Indian context.
Just like ethnlC.
and race factors affecting educational development and
attainments in U.S. context, an Indian model requires
caste either as an additional background factor or as
a separate factor affecting the background factors at
the family level which in turn may have influence on
the subsequent causal chain. The above model can be
applied on general population in which OBCs belong to
one socio-economic category. Such studies have shown
that the low achivers were from lower socio-economlC
categories (Chopra, 1964; Das, J.P. 1966; Gore et.al.,
1970; Premi, 1977; Mohanty, 1972; Rath et.al., 1979).
The above model becomes ineffective when it is
used to study the educational development of only
OBCs,
with
as they form more or less a homogeneous group
least intra-category variations when separately
studied. But, when intervention schemes are introduced
the l
'nteractions of the model, it may be
among
334
POSslble to observe the.. 't' 'th t 1
Tarla 10ns ln e occupa lana
attainment in r 1 t'
e a 10n to educational attainment, ann
variations in educational attainment in relation to
educational
development factors.
However, SLlch
studies
are worthwhile only when the intervention
strong
enough to compensate the low levels
of
family/caste
enVironmental
values. The only
intervention
that can be identified
as strong
intervention among the schemes for backward cla?ses is
the scheme of providing hostel facilities. The value
of hostel with reference to OBCs can be more than mere
boarding and lodging facility.
It can substitute the
impoverished family environment and living conditlon
with reasonably better conditions. The same may not
hold good in the case of scholarship schemes or any
other financial incentives. The compensatory aspect
of 5uch schemes are mostly monetary and even in that
respect they are marginal. It doe. not alter the
qualitative nature of the living environment of
DBC
children when they attend school.
The
questions that may be asked
in the
background of the aboye model from the point of vie ..... '
of the policy are:
1) Are there any differences within backward
class categories which utilise the strong intervention
in the form of hostel facility and weak interventlon
in the form of scholarships?
335
2) Is it Possible to identify the educational
development to in the case
of hostellers?
3)
the long term effects of hostels
on the OCCupational attainments and
mobility of the hostellers?
occupational
4) Is it Possible to develop a causal model
involving policy amenable variables to determine the
occupational attainment?
Statement of the Problem:
Keeping in View, the questions raised above, it
was felt to take up a study stated as follows:
"A study 01 the utilisation of various measures
provided by the State to promote equality of
educational opportunity in the case of other backward
classes in a district of
Discussion of the Problem:
The problem stated above concerns with the
utilisation of the major schemes implemented by the
Department of Backward Classes. The intention was not
only to evaluate the implementation of the scheme but
also to assess the educational impact leading to
changes in occupational status of the beneficiary. The
schemes selected for the study are limited to the
336
scholarships and hostels. Analysis of the
schemes shows that the
amount disbursed to the
individual fa'1
ml y annually was found to be meagre,
ranging
from Rs.75 to Rs. 100 in the
case of pre-
matric scholars, and between Rs. 300 toRs. 500 at
post-matric level.
In most cases at the post-matr1c
level there was no tUition fee payable by the students
belonging to backward classes. The scheme by its
definition subsidises the educational expenditure but
does not
contribute
towards living expenses or'
opportunity
cost.
The 'educational' input 1S
completely absent in the scheme. In other words,
scholarship holders live with their parents wh1le
pursuing their stUdies and hence the home background
and neighbourhood of the poorer sections may not have
positive contribution in the educational development.
Many studies on general population consisting of lower
socio-economic strata have demonstrated the influence
of home and neighbourhood effects on educational
achievement as negative or marginal. Therefore, it was
felt that the marginal contribution of the scholarship
scheme which does not alter the home conditions, may
not
have demonstrable effect in the
attainment
process. However,
it was felt that the
characteristics of the scholarship beneficiary may
throw some light on the utilisation of this scheme. A
similar analysis of the background characteristics at
the beneficiaries from the hostel scheme was planned,
337
and in addition it was felt that the hostels in the
case of Backward Classes may make significant changes
in the living environment and hence may have an impact
on the educational attainments leading to mobility.
Hence the study intended to understand the educational
developoment related factors and occupatlondl
attainments of those who utilised hostel facilities lrl
the past.
Before conducting the empirical study it was
proposed to survey the historical evolution of the
idea of backward class welfare in Karnataka.
This
survey was intended to trace the development of socio-
political
involvement and changes in the nature of
intervention.
Objectives of the Study
1) To trace the history of the involvement of the
State in the welfare of the Backward Classes in
Karnataka.
2)
3)
To analyse the growth of institutlons,
beneficiaries and expenditure at the State level
with respect to the development at
Other Backward Classes during 1977-78 to 1988-89.
To compare the background characteristics of
backward class members utilising scholarship
hostel schemes.
338
the
and
4)
To compare the background profiles of pre-matric
and post-matric scholarship beneficiaries.
5) To survey the motivational factors in the form 01
aspirations and relate it to the contextual
factors of the hostellers.
6) To study the occupational mobility and attainment
in relation to factors which are amenable to
policy intervention through a follow-up study of
hostel beneficiaries.
Design of the Study
Methodology:
The historical aspect of the study was covered
by analysing the reports of the committees and
commissions constituted for this purpose both during
pre-independent and post-independent era.
The study on the growth of institutions,
beneficiaries and expenditure was based upon the data
published by Government of Karnataka in their annual
reports and annual action plans published by the
Department of Backward Classes. The secondary data
thus collected were analysed for trends in growth and
pattern of growth using graphical method at the State
level.
study.
Belgaum district was identified for empirical
339
A comparative study of the beneficiaries of
hostel scheme and the scholarship scheme was based
upon the survey of the beneficiaries of
thos L'
schemes.
In
the case of
scholarship holderc,
significant background characteristics on a sample 01
benefiCiaries were obtained from the
submitted
to
the
Department.
The background
characteristics of the hostel beneficiaries who were
staying in hostels at the time of the survey were
obtained through an interview schedule.
The
survey also yielded the data for a
descriptive
analysis of the factors associated with educational
development.
The final aspect of the study namely, the study
of
the occupational attainment and
occupat iona 1
mobility was based upon the mailed questionnaire
survey of the past beneficiaries.
Sample:
All surveys were based upon representative
samples. There were 13,358 scholarship holders at pre-
matric level and 3,084 at post-matric level which
excludes 129 post-matric scholarship awardees for whom
the information was either incomplete or not traceable
during
the year 1986-87. A sample of 2.5 per cent
o scholarship holders and 5 per cent
from pre-matrlc
o scholarship awardees was drawn based
from post-omatrlc
340
on a systematic random sampling from the
list of scholarship awardees of 1986-87. Thus a
sample
of
347 pre-matric and
154 post-matric
scholarship awardees was drawn. This formed sample
for comparison of profiles of
pre and post-matric
level awaradees by background characteristics as well
as for study of utilisation.
While comparing the utilisation of hostels ana
scholarship schemes, a comparable sub-sample of 164
pre-mat ric
scholarship beneficiaries studying lfl
secondary level only (VIII to X grade), was drawn from
the
larger sample of 347 pre-matric scholarship
beneficiaries mentioned above. This 164 scholarshlp
beneficiaries studying in secondary level only and 154
post-matric scholarship beneficiaries studying in
various post-secondary courses put together
(318)
formed a comparable sample for the purpose
ot
comparison with the sample of hostel
residents
(consisted of 550 current hostel residents).
In the case of hostel residents the survey was
confined to students who were studying in secondary
and above levels. This decision was based
requirement of reliable responses on aspirations
upon
and
other socio-economic factors pertaining to
families.
It
was felt that formation and
expression of
aspirations required some maturity and experience
in
341
the
hOlitel
environment.
Hence the popu 1 a t 1011
consisted of the hostellers studying in secondary
schools and post-matric institutions and who had
already spent minimum one year in the hostels and the
study was limited to the Government hostel run by the
Department 01 Backward Classes and Minorities. The
information
qualifying
from all
(1987-88)
regarding the number
of hostellers
for inclusion in the sample was obtained
pre-matric and post-matric institutions
in the district. Out of the total 2367
hostellers staying in Government hostels during
1987-88, only 550 hostellers fulfilled the required
condition. All of them were included in the study.
The follow-up study was based on a sample of
hostel residents who were studying in the X standard,
II PUC and any other post-matric courses during 1981-
82 and 1982-83. There were 375 such hostellers whose
addresses were obtained and the questionnaires were
mailed. 233 sent back filled-in questionnaires.
Three respondents had given incomplete information and
hence they were not included in ~ h analysis. Thus the
response rate was 61.33 per cent.
342
Hypotheses of the Study:
Major composite hypotheses of the study were:
1) The beneficiaries of the scholarship and hostel
scheme do not differ in their parental socia-economIC
backgrounds, backward class backgrounds and urban-
rural backgrounds.
2) The educational and occupational aspirations of
those who stay in the hostel are influenced by the
location of the hostel, the level of educatIon,
previous performance in education.
3) The educational and occupational aspirations of
those who stay in the hostel are mutually associated
in positive direction.
4) The aspirations are influenced more by hostel
related factors and less by family backgrounds of the
hostellers.
5) The occupational attainments of past beneficiaries
are determined by the educational attainments and the
educational attainment in turn is determined by the
educational and occupational aspirations.
null
The
form
above composite hypotheses were stated in
wherever it was possible to test them
statistically.
343
Tools and Data:
Apart from the secondary sources, the data for
the study came from surveys.
The survey of the
hostellers
of
1987-88 was conducted using an
interview schedule prepared for the purpose of the"
study. The schedule was prepared using established
procedures. The information covered under the survey
were parental background, place of birth, current
educational status, marks obtained in the previous
examination, future educational and occupational plans
in the form of aspirations etc. The data for the
follow up study came from a mailed questionnaire
containing both structured and semi-structured items.
The questionnaire was prepared following established
procedure. The information covered were, apart from
background characteristics, the current educational
and occupational status, the educational and
occupational aspirations they had when they were
studying etc. The field work was conducted by the
investigator during 1987-88 through interviews of
hostel residents in all Government hostels of Belgaum
district. The follow-up questionnaires were mailed
during May 1988 and periodic reminders were sent to
those who failed to respond to the questionnaire.
Filled-in
" d tl"ll February
questionnaires recelve
were included in the study.
344
1989
AnalYSis of the Data:
The information obtained from the scholarship
applications and interview schedules were coded
separately and fed into the computer. One way tables
were derived on the background characteristics of
scholarship
holders
and hostellers separately.
Percentage distributions were compared descriptively.
Two way tables were generated using data obtained
through interviews of the hostellers relating
background variables on educational and occupational
aspirations.
aspirations
Cross
tabulation
was also obtained.
of occupational
The strength of
association was tested wherever applicable using chi-
square and contingency co-efficient with confidence
level of 1 and 5 per cent. Standard computer packages
and programmes were used wherever necessary/possible
for computing statistical results. Similarly the data
obtained through mailed questionnaires were processed.
A path model was proposed involving occupational
aspirations and educational aspirations as exogenous
variables, and educational attainment as endogenous
variable and the occupational attainment (status) as
effect (resultant) variable. The model was non-
recursive and linear. The data on the aspiration and
attainments were scored using appropriate scales and
the scores
were standardised and
stepwise multiple
regression model was used to obtain path values
(co-
345
efficients). Mob"l"t
1 1 Y Index was derived by measuring
the
from
deviation of the respondent's occupational
the occupational score of his father
score
and
grandfather.
This value when averaged for different
ocupational categories gave average mobility index at
the category level and average of the entire ample
gave t ~ average mobility. Using the mobility index,
the intergenerational occupational mobility between
generations was computed.
Findings of the Study
Following are the major findings of the study:
e.. RevielAl of the Growth of Services, Beneficiaries and
E:<penditure at 1.!:l.!i State Level:
Trend analysis of the growth of major
developmental schemes for OBCs at State level revealed
that the policy of the State towards educational
development of OBCs might not have been guided by
developmental needs. Decade of 1977-78 to 1988-89
showed a sporadic expansion of the programmes in terms
of increase
in allocation and in number of
beneficiaries
under all major schemes
excepting
scholarship scheme.
There has been an uneven growth of pre-matric
hostels during the period from 1977-78 to 1988-89.
Most of the increase in the number of pre-matric
hostels took place during the last three years of the
346
Sixth Plan perl'od. Th'
lS growth had stagnated during
the entire Seventh Plan period.
The ratio between hostels for boys and girls at
pre-matric level, which was 11.5:1 in 1977-78 became
13.5:1
in 1988-89.
A similar was
reflected in the trend of growth of the number of
beneficiaries belonging to male and female population.
The gap between male and female beneficiaries
increased over the period of time. The average
growth rate of male beneficiaries increased by 9.3 per,
cent whereas it was 7.5 per cent in the case of female
beneficiaries.
It was found that the number of Grant-in-aid
(GIA) hostels at the end of 1988-89 had come down as

to 1978-79 and analysis indicated the
stagnation in the growth of number of GIA hostels run
by voluntary agencies.
Though there has been an initial spurt in the
number of post-matric hostels between 1979-80 to 1981-
82, it did not register any further growth during the
remaining part of the decade under consideration.
When the post-matric facilities with respect to boys
and girls were compared, it was revealed that there
was no significant difference both in terms of number
of institutions and number of beneficiaries with
respect to boys and girls.
A comparison of the
347
allocation made in the annual budget and actual
expenditure incurred under post-matric hostel
scheme
showed an underutilisation in most of the years.
Since the growth in hostel beneficiaries is closely
associated with the growth in number of hostels, the
trend of increase of hostel beneficiaries both at pre
and po:t-matric levels, corresponded with the trend
in increase of hostels.
The number of beneficiaries under the hostel
scheme 1S
low as compared to the number of
beneficiaries under scholarship scheme. The study
revealed the trend of stagnation in hostel scheme and
a steady growth of scholarship scheme.
The sexwise distribution of scholarship scheme
at the macro level (state level) was not available on
the official records. However, the sexwise
of hostel facility and number of hostel
beneficiaries was available and was found that
female
beneficiaries were very few as compared
to male
beneficiaries,
the female to male ratio being around
1:11.5.
The beneficiaries of scheme have
shown a steady increase throughout,
1978-79 to 1988-89. As compared to
starting from
hostel schemes
the scholarships scheme at pre-matric and post-matric
levels
registered respectively steady growth of
18.6
348
and 22.8 per cent annually in terms of beneficiaries.
The corresponding growth rates in expenditure was 22.6
and 22.9 during the decade.
The number of beneficiaries in the scheme of fee
concessions increased at an annual growth rate of 8.8
per cent. As compared to thiS, the expenditure in the
same scheme showed a negative growth of -0.6 per cent
annually.
Study of Utilisation of the Schemes at District 'Level
Utilisation of Scholarships - a Comparison of Profiles
of Pre-Matric and Post-Matric Scholarship Holders:
It was found in the study that nearly 3/4 (74
per cent) of the scholarship recipients were males at
pre-matric level and this increased to almost 86 per
cent at the post-matric level.
l m o ~ t 3/5 (62.5 per cent) of the pre-matric
scholarship recipients came from rural background.
This proportion increased to 77.6 per cent at the
post-matric level.
It was revealed that around 60 per cent of the
scholarship beneficiaries have rural
occupational
background. At the pre-matric level, majority of them
were agriculturists (31.12 per cent)
followed by
agricultural labourers (about 22.77 per cent).
At the
post-matric
level, a similar trend was observed.
349
However, the proportion of the post-matric scholarship
beneficiaries belonging to agriculturist category
increased further and the agricultural labour
proportion decreased steeply (from 22.77 to 7.14 per
c en t )
scholars
However, the proportion
of
belonging to
non-agricultural
post-matric
1 abourer
family, by and l ~ r g remained unchanged. It was
found that there was a tendency of higher occupations
within the range represented by OBCs utilising post-
matric scholarship more, as compared to pre-matric
scholarships.
Around 91 per cent of the pre-matric scholarship
holders came from families having an annual income of
less than Rs.2000 per annum. The corresponding
proportion in the post-matric group was only 62 per
cent. This showed that even among the OBCs,
hav ing relatively higher income continued
education beyond secondary stage.
those
their
At the post-matric level around 73 per cent of
the scholarship awardees were studying at Pre-
University level followed by 15 per cent studying at
degree level. A greater proportion of the degree
students were purusing Arts courses. Very few persons
were studying at post-graduate and professional degree
courses.
courses
Around 5.8 per cent were pursuing technical
in polytechnics and 3 per cent were studying
in secondary teachers training programme.
350
An analysis of the educational performance of
post-matric and pre-matric scholars showed that nearly
50 per cent of the scholarship recipients were
classified as second class and above.
It was observed in both pre-matric and post-
matric levels that 'Backward Special Group' utilised a
greater proportion as compared to the quota of 33 per
cent fixed by the Government. The representation of
Muslim community belonging to SCM category in the
scholarship scheme, both in pre-matric and post-
matric,
was higher than the proportion of the
population of Muslims in the district. In the case of
Seda caste under backward tribe category utilisation
of post-matric scholarship was proportionately higher
as compared to population percentage. Within the SSG
category the proportion of post-matric scholarship
holders belonging to Lingayath caste was far higher
than the proportion of pre-matric scholarship holders
from the same community. However, this proportion did
not exceed the proportion of Lingayath caste in the
population of the district.
By and large, the
distribution of scholarships across caste/community
conform to
the distribution of
population by
caste/community groups in the district.
351
Scholarship and Hostel Beneficiaries - A Comparative
Analysis
It was observed that the sex distribution in
hostel scheme was highly skewed in favour of males
the
as
compared to the scholarship schemes.
Nearly 1/5 of
the scholarship beneficiaries were females as compared
to only 4 per cent among hostellers.
An overwhelming majority of the hostel
residents
from rural background. The representation of
urban population was very small (2.36 per cent) under
hostel scheme. The
representation of urban
beneficiaries was relatively more (30 per cent) in the
scholarship scheme, as compared to hostel scheme.
It was revealed that, by and large, both the
schemes consisted students from families with rural
occupations. However, the distribution among such
occupations in each of the schemes differed
considerably.
The agriculturist category dominated
the
hostel scheme. Almost 2/3 of the hostel
beneficiaries belonged to agriculture category as
compared to around 2/5 of the scholarship
beneficiaries coming from the same category. The
percentage
of
agricultural
labourer and non-
agricultural
labourer category was
low among the
beneficiaries
of hostel scheme as
compared to
scholarship scheme.
352
The income distribution of the families under
the
two schemes differ considerably.
Nearly 75 per
cent of the scholarship holders came from families
having income of less than Rs.2000 per year. The
corresponding percentage under hostel scheme is 54 per
cent.
A comparison of the annual
income of the
families of
the
hostellers
and scholarship
beneficiaries revealed that the hostel facilities were
utilised by better placed families among the OBCs.
The profile of performance in annual examinations
of
students staying 1n hostels and
scholarship
recipients indicated that the two samples do not
differ much. Around 81-82 per cent of both hostel and
scholarsh1p beneficiaries scored less than 59 per cent
during previous year of the survey. There was a
difference of 2 per cent at the higher category (First
Class) of performance with hostel residents having
a higher percentage (around 19 per cent).
An analysiS of the representation of the 4
categories of BCs under two schemes against the
prescribed quota for each of the categories
revealed
that under the scholarship scheme, both backward
castes and backward community categories utilised less
than the quota prescribed for them and the BSGs exceed
their quota by 14 per cent. The over representation of
other t
' l'S ta",l'ng place at the cost
ca egor1es
of the
resources earmarked for BCM.
353
It
dominant
was observed that by and large, numerically
castes/communities/groups belonging to each
of the backward class categories were over represented
in both the schemes as compared to their proportion in
the population barring exceptions. A surprising
observation indicated in the study was the over
representation of Lingayath under both hostel and
scholarship schemes. Even though caste is not a
criteria in Backward SpeCial Group (B5G), the
proportion of Lingayath in BSG category was
far higher (22 per cent) in scholarship scheme and
almost same as their population in hostel scheme.
A
comparative analYSis of the two
schemes
indicated that the hostellers received higher level of
support; and per pupil educational input in the hostel
scheme is very high as compared to scholarship scheme.
Educational Development of Backward Class Hostellers:
Since the study intended to go deeper into the
utilisation of the hostel scheme in terms of
educational and motivational aspects, the sample was
drawn only from those who were studying at secondary
level and above (current hostel residents of 1987-88).
Apart from the background characteristics of
hostellers
for the purposes of comparison
with
scholarship beneficiaries,this survey also covered
educational development related aspects of the hostel
354
residents like the participation in extra-curricular
activities, newspaper reading, number of frIends, and
opinions regarding the importance of hostel. The
status of the above variables with respect
to the
hostel sample was in Positive direction.
Besides, the
survey focussed on the motivational variables like
educational
aspirations and vocational
aspirations,
self-assessment
and
educational attainment
(performance) u ~ i n g the previous year. Analysis with
reference to above aspects,
pertaining to current
hostel residents revealed the following:
It was observed that around 17 per cent of the
respondents came from small families with
less than
four members. A large proportion of the hostellers
belong to medium sized families with 5-8 members (62.4
per cant).
Around 20 per cent of the respondents were first
barns and around 59 per cent were middle borns.
Nearly 39 per cent indicated financial help and 30 per
cent indicated educational guidance from thier
siblings.
About 40 per cent of the hostellers had
d
change of S
ocial environment from rural to
un ergone a
urban because of the hostel location.
In the case of
t f the pre
-matric hostel sample the hostel
25 per cen 0
location was more
than 26 kms from their home
355
locality. At the post-matric level almost all the
hostellers had und "
ergone a change of envlronment from
rural
to urban. A larger proportion of the
hostel
residents had entered the hostel when they were in the
VIII Standard (46 per cent). For the entire sample of
current hostel r "d t
eSl en s, on an average a student
stays in the hostel for two years.
It
cent of
was revealed that slightly more than
the fathers and about 33 per cent
46 per
of the
mothers of the hostel residents
(of 1987-88)" were
literates.
About 44 per cent of the respondents would not
have continued
their education if the hostel
arrangement was not available to them. Out of the
remaining 56 per cent, around 40 per cent stated that
they would have commuted daily to attend school and
the remaining 16 per cent stated that they would have
stayed with their relatives or in rented rooms etc.
An attempt made to analyse the size of the close
friends unit and look into the social
interaction,
indicated that about 37 per cent of the respondents
had 4-6 close friends, about 42 per cent had less than
3 friends, and about 7 per cent had more than 11
friends.
It was revealed that almost 97 per cent of the
hostel
residents read newspaper available in the
356
hostel.
An attempt to look into the level of sports
participation revealed that around 60 per cent of the
hostellers participated in sports at medium and high
levels. Non-partl"c" t ""
lpan s were small 1n Slze accounted
by 14 per cent.
About 54 per cent of the hostellers of current
beneficiary sample spent their vacation
in helping
their
families in economic activities. Around 5 per
cent among them did work for wages. Around 21 per cent
spent their time for educational related activities,
and the remaining took real vacation.
An analysis of the performance of pre-matric
hostel residents in annual examinations, across three
categories
(level) of performance in individual core
subjects and aggregate of all subjects studied in the
school
revealed the following.
The pattern of
percentage
distribution of the respondents in
three
levels of performance indicated that the Backward
Class students (hostellers) score low in Mathematics
followed by General Science and Social Studies.
Even
the overall performance indicated a skewness towards
30-49 category.
The self-appraisal by the individual respondents
themselves using one's own yardstick and
their performance with their own ~ r and
indicated a
positive self-regard and also
357
comparing
classmates
took
the
form of motivating factor.
It was revealed that about
70 per cent felt they were equal in performance to
their hostel mates and around 25 per cent rated their
performance
as better than their hostel mates. But
their ratings with reference to their other class
mates in school indicated that 86 per cent felt equal
and only 8 per cent felt their performance as better.
About 67
per
cent e:<pressed
dissatisfaction regarding the performance
in
their
thei r
previous annual
e:< am ina t ions.
Around 31 per cent
attributed
the reasons for their
unsatisfactory
performance to the school related factors, 21 per cent
to the lack of learning aids and facilities like text
books and around 18 per cent ~ t t e d their family and
personal problems. Nearly 28 per cent could not locate
the cause for their low performance. Very few (3 per
cent) identified the reasons in hostel related
factors.
Regardin9
educational aspirations, a large
proportion of the pre-matric hostellers aspired for
courses leading to teaching occupations (28 per cent)
and
university general degree (19 per cent). Among
those
degree,
who aspire to complete university general
a la
r
g
e
proportion aspired for degree in arts.
The proportion of the Be hostellers who
technical diploma, professional
university degree was very low.
358
and
aspired for
technical
A similar trend was observed in case of post-
matric hostellers also. Ab t 38 ' d f
ou per cent aspIre or
bachelors degree in education and about 21
per cent
aspired to
obtain a university general degree. As
compared
to the proportion of pre-matric hostellers
""ho
had aspl'red t 1
o comp ete post-graduate degree (5
per cent),
a larger proportion of
the post-matric
hostellers (13.5 per cent) aspired for the same.
More
or less equal proportion (6.7 per cent)
aspi red for
technical diploma or professional degree among both
pre-matric and post-matric hostellers.
Out of the total sample, about 47 per cent of
the respondents stated that the family was not able to
support them in fulfilling their e d uc at i on a 1
aspirations and among the 47 per cent, around 79 per
cent indicated that they look forward for the support
of the Government schemes.
Regarding occupational aspirations a large
majority aspired for white collared and salaried jobs.
About
42 per cent
in the sample
aspired for
occupations
of
teacher and among
them larger
proportion had aspired specifically for primary school
teacher. About 12 per cent of the hostel residents had
aspired
to join military/as soldier.
The
remaining
opted
for clerical and other salaried
jobs. The
proportion of the hostel residents aspiring for
professional
and administrative post was relatively
359
10lAI.
The nature of occupational aspirations obtained
indicated that
an overwhelming majority aimed at
modern sector characterised by urban living.
It was revealed that as many as 57 per cent
lollanted
to move out of rural context
and settle in
urban environment.
Among those (57 per cent) who
wanted
to migrate to urban environment, majority
preferred smaller towns than cities. (The above data
indicated that the hostellers desire for a shift from
traditional social and economic structure to modern
social structure).
Factors InfluenCing Aspirations:
An analysis of the factors influencing the
educational developmental variables namely educational
aspirations and occupational aspirations of backward
class students of the pre-matric hostels revealed the
following.
aspirations
Both
of
educational
the pre-matric
and occupational
hostellers were
influenced by the standard upto which they had
reached, their past educational
attainments
(performance) and the location (urban-rural) of the
hostel. The background variables like father's sociO-
economic attributes and the backward class category to
which they belonged did not influence the aspirations.
The educational
and occupational aspirations
were
found mutually associated in the
positive
direction.
360
Follow-up of past beneficiaries under hostel scheme:
A representative sample of 230 hostellers who
stayed in the hostel during 1981-82 and 1982-83, was
followed up after 5-6 years to know their current
status. This follow-up survey aimed at assessing the
occupational mobility and testing a causal path model
consisting of variables amenable to intervention
leading to occupational attainments.
Analysis of some relevant background information
obtained on the sample of past hostel residents of
follow up study revealed the following:
Almost all the respondents (96.5 per cent) of
the past hostel residents were from rural areas.
However, at the time of the survey 78 per cent were
still staying in the rural areas and 22 per cent had
migrated to urban areas.
The occupational backgrounds of the earlier two
generations i.e., grandfathers' and fathers' of the
past beneficiaries indicated that majority of the
respondents came from families depending on rural
based occupations.
In the grandfather generation
around 51 per cent were agriculturists and around 13
per cent were labourers. In the father generation,
the percentage depending on agriculture remained more
or less same. Most of the traditional service
361
occupations like fishery, barber, basket making etc.,
declined and the labourer category increased to around
23 per cent (in father generation). Around 3 per cent
of the father generation were in the tertiary sector.
It was observed that at the time of survey, in
the son/daughter (respondents) generation around 29
per cent were unemployed and 20 per cent were still
studying. Of the remaining 50 per cent, only about
17.8 per cent were engaged in agriculture and slightly
more than 21 per cent were working in the tertiary
sector i.e., salaried employment.
The percentage analysis of the education of the
parents showed that nearly 50 per cent of the fathers
and around 4/5 (80 per cent) of the mothers of the
respondents of follow up survey were illiterates.
Around 34 per cent of the fathers and around 13 per
cent of the mothers were educated upto middle school
level. Nearly 3/4 of the sample of past hostel
residents belong to low economic status category.
It was found that around 30 per cent of the
hostel
residents (1981-82,
1982-83 hostellers> of
follow-up survey had aspired for completing general
degree and 20 per cent of them wanted to acquire post-
graduate degree. About 11 per cent wanted to terminate
their education after SSLC and about 4 per cent
PUC. About 8 per cent and 10 per cent
362
after
of the
respondents respectively aspired to complete primary
teacher
course
and
secondary teacher course.
Respondents aspiring for technical certificate or
degree were very few.
Thus it was indicated that more
than 50
per cent of the sample of follow up
aspired to
enter college and most of them
survey
at aimed
general Courses rather than technical or professional
courses.
The number of occupations mentioned by the
respondents of follow up survey and the nature of
those occupations appeared to be more diverse and
oriented to urban tertiary sector. Very few hostellers
had aspired for occupations of the rural primary
sector or occupations in industrial sector.
This
indicated that at least among hostellers there exists
a strong tendency to shift from rural based primary
occupations to urban based secondary and
occupations.
Occupational Attainment -a Path Analysis:
tertiary
The correlation matrix obtained by using the
standardised scores on six variables indicated that
residents
the educational development of the hostel
and the educational and occupational
(attainments) were not associated with the
cultural
family.
background and the economic status
outcomes
socio-
of the
For the purposes of above path analysis and
363
measurement of mobility only those who were
at the time of s u r ~ y were considered.
The path model proposed contained the
employed
reported
asplrations of the respondents during their study
years - stay in the hostels - as exogenous variables,
the educational
attainments in
terms of courses
completed
as
endogenous
variable and present
occupations as the effect variable.
Path analysis
using the standard procedures
indicated that the
occupational
attainments
results from their
educational developments and educational
attainments
to a considerable extent. About 37 per cent of the
variations in the occupational attainments
explained by the direct and indirect effects of
educational attainment, educational aspirations and
occupational aspirations. A larger proportion of the
varlation in the occupat ional attainment was
contributed by educational attainments. In the case
of educational attainment the causal effects from
aspirations
is not very high. Only a smaller
proportion
(13 per cent) of the variation
in the
educational attainment was explained by the direct
effects of two aspirations.
Relationship across occupational structure of three
generations:
The
grandfather
correlation
between
occupations
(6 )
1
and father generations
(6 )
2
364
of
was
statistically significant at .01 per cent confidence
level. The correlation between occupations of three
generations indicated that the occupational structure
of the third generation deviates from the first and
second generations. The occupational pattern of the
respondents who are employed showed a divergence from
the rural based occupational pattern of their fathers.
Occupational Mobility:
The
following
were the outcomes of the
intergenerational occupational mobility analysis:
There was a considerable upward mobility of the
hostel residents when their occupational attainments
were compared with occupations of their father and
grandfather.
The intergenerational mobility has taken place
more at the lower rungs of the occupational structure
applicable to earlier generations. The implicatlons of
this particular finding are that the hostel
had been greatly beneficial to those of
strata which was also the objective of the
programme
the lower
programme
as could be seen from
the
'means-cum-merit'
procedure/criteria followed for hostel admission
the pre-matric level.
at
The entire sample experienced an upward mobility
of about one step on occupational ranking scale.
365
The
association between the occupations of
the
third generation with the first and second generations
was weakened indicating mobility/attainments based on
achievement
phenomenon
rather than ascribed
phenomenon.
In other words, the occupations of the
sons/daughters
(G )
generation were the
3
achieved/attained ones, independent of the background
of occupational categories to which they belonged to
in grandfather <G ) and father (G > generations.
1 2
Conclusions
Based upon the above findings the following
conclusions may be drawn:
1) At the State level the financial allocation under
annual budget have not kept pace with the increase in
demand for education among backward classes. This has
resulted in the expansion of weak interventions like
scholarship schemes and stagnation of strong
interventions like hostel schemes.
2> Benefits of all major schemes have gone to male
segments of Backward Classes. Within
this segment
better placed categories within OBes have derived
greater benefits.
3)
The strong educational interventions are
utilised
more by
relatively higher strata among
OBes as
compared to utilisation of scholarship schemes.
366
4) Shift of students from his poor socio-economic
home environment to hostel environsment breaks the
vicious
circle of poor home background
poor
educational development
low educational performance
poor
occupational
attainment. The hostel
environment compensates for the poor home background.
This results in relatively better educational and
occupational attainment.
5) Hostel beneficiaries gain upward social mobility
as compared to the occupational status of their
parental generation.
6) HOVJever,
hostel scheme by its definition is
restrlcted

to the students from backward class
vJhere residing in rural communities
educat ional facilities are absent. From the
beneficiary point of view it is open to only those
families who can afford to forego the earnings of
their adolescent children as they have to send their
children to far off places. Both the families which
cannot
afford to do so and those families who reside
in a place where schooling facilities exist cannot
utilise the benefits of the hostel. Such a situation
is
likely to increase
inequalities among backward
classes.
367
Discussion:
The
present study has pointed
out that the
hostel
intervention is strong enough to bring about
changes in the occupational status of individuals
belonging to backward classes. At the same time the
study has indicated the weaknesses of the policy in
bringing about changes in the socio-economic status
of backward classes as a whole. The policy pursued
emphasises the equality of access to education. But
the schemes to achieve this objective are not equal
among themselves in terms of their financial inputs
and eligibility conditions. Hence, the apportioning
of demand by the backward class families under
different schemes is likely to perpetuate the
inequalities. In other words, the utilisation of
various schemes are controlled by demand factors
rather than supply factors.
Secondly, the backward class development policy
completely ignores the female segment of backward
classes.
Much of the backwardness of the backward
classes can be attributed to the neglect of female
segments. The study has shown that the schemes in
their present form do not reach the female population.
Even though the discrimination against feminine gender
pervades the entire SOCiety, the females of the
backward classes suffer from double handicap of gender
. and poverty. Thirdly, the backward
discriminatlon
368
class development policy, by and large, evades the
issues of equality of outcomes. The issues of equality
of outcomes largely depend upon the subordination of
educational system to other dominant system/s in the
larger society.
In the Indian context, historically
education system has evolved to serve the interests of
upper castes and urban classes.
Hence, the system of
education has devised various selection mechanisms to
restrict
the mobility aspirations of
the masses.
Except for the hostel intervention schemes none of the
other
schemes are capable of counteracting the
obstacles in the educational development process.
But the policy considers the hostel scheme purely in
terms of equalising the access and not as a scheme to
ensure equalising the chances of outcomes.
The above interpretations indicate that the
entire backward class policy in the area of education
is being guided by functional or structural-functional
framework which gained currency during the 50's and
60s. However, the subsequent developments
field of sociology of education has given
in the
rise to
alternative theories to explain the evidences
cannot be explained by functionalist theories.
which
These
alternative theories perceive education system as a
selection
device or as a reproduction
mechanism
employed by the status-quo
theory can be extended to
369
interests. The same
explain the internal
contradiction of backward class development policy in
the field of education in particular and social
policies in general.
Suggestions for the Policy:
In the light of the findings of the present
study the following suggestions are made to strengthen
the efforts of the State and other agencies involved
in the educational development of backward classes:
1 )
All intervention schemes should have equal
input
value
financial-cum-educational.
In other words,
the educational environment in the hostel should be
strengthened and in the case of those who are day
scholars, provision should be made for supplying
school lunch, improve the quality of schooling through
remedial classes, supplying with educational aids
like text books, uniforms etc., and make special
efforts to encourage the participation of backward
class students in co-curricular activities. Such
efforts need conscious thinking and spelling out
detailed plans.
2) The
finances available for
backward class
development should be channelised towards strong
interventions and should not be spent on pOpUllst
schemes. The scholarship scheme at present has least
1
ualue. However, the incremental
educationa y
allocations are being utilised to expand the scheme.
370
3)
The
backward class development policy should
recognise the special needs of female population. It
may be noted that speCial efforts towards the
educational development of female segment of backward
classes serve the cause (of backward classes) to ~
greater extent as compared to the efforts towards the
educational
development of backward classes
general.
In other words, female population should be
considered as a separate backward class category. This
categorisation may adopt the usual criteria of socio-
economic conditions as employed in the case of other
categories.
Once such a categorisation is arrived,
there should be separate quota in terms of allocation
and facilities for female backward category.
4) Efforts should be made to evaluate the content and
process of educational system in terms of its
relevance to the needs of the backward cal asses.
Efforts to plan relevant educational
systems as
alternative to the present system are required to
overcome the evolutionary distortions of the present
system.
Such alternative system should be planned
in
such
a way that the o u t o m e ~ of such
efforts should
stand the test of parity.
371
Suggestions for Further
The present study, being a beginning in the
study of educational development of OBCs, has only
explored the issues using a cross sectional study. It
is suggested that a few longitudinal studies of the
backward class children entering education through
various schemes may be undertaken to monitor and
compare the educational and occupational attainments.
Indepth studies of hostel experiences may be
undertaken to improve and strengthen educational
environment of hostels. Studies to define and map out
the needs and problems of female children of the
backward class families may be undertaken
facilitate
the alternative strategies under
backward class development policy.
372
to
the
APPENDICES
-...
-
APPENDIX - I
u' K.'RXATAK.'
Sob"," ; LOUII' Butw.v4 ClwtJ 01 CiUltllJ "UV 15(4) n116(4) COllJUCllUoa ot la4la-Bevlsloa
0/- '
au-
L Go,. .. rnm.nt Order No. S WI, U T138 77, .uted Jl'ebruuy 1977:
1. G)Y 'n:n' lit 0,,\, Yo DP \ 1\1 gilO 77, ,1..I,'d ':h lh,ch 1977.
3. OF'rilm""t O,d 'l Y.). 8lfL Ti;i 17, d.hl !itll X'w.mb"r 1977 .
.- GWl"""nt Ord'r Yo. TJl:l7i, ,hted
5, (hv 'rnm"nt Ort!, Yo. 8 IVt t syr ,oj, d.! .jl2th \.,.197.".
. 'nt Or'!", Yo. g IfL \ II SST j'. I : ,)til 8 ('78.
1. Gov'rum"ut Or,l" Xo DP.tR 3:; ':WO 7- . ht,d ttb Octnb_r I
S. (1)V 'rum .nt Ord" So. S IVL J7J BOA 7,i, ,hI ,d 27tb rcb 1979.
PUAJlBI.Z -
f{\r,.td,. ft'oolD.!D'ndl.tlon .. lQ"d" by thfl K.,&rnat."k.
CI .. C) n d;'" 1 U 11 r th e 1 I,fIU ,1I8:jI P lit Shr, L. O. H,'''",nur a.nd c1IHi5..,t{ thr> otht'r B.ohurd L""'Lt.SSf'8 of
r'H' tit :"lrp l ,.1 -I of AL ,d"!t I t) <ltll 1 'iU) o( G"Htitutif)n t)t India I!lto thr,'e ma.in catA>gorj p 8.
nAm .. IT: Ru.:k:WI.N CI1t'.1lIMi 'H,ck ..... nl Trib's' a.udi.nuedin
Ot\l-r liWL I j TJJS 77, J :! lrl ., bra r 'w "t 1 .. bov., "I:' 'otying tbe v.J.riolU c.a"t.rs and oom-
l.'">ln ld tb t\r '., e ,;.Irit". TAl! o(r''terv.ltion providrd tbf'tf'in lor .. Other
B.ekw"d Ot ... ,," of Citi .. n, aut! tb. Sp.eial Group' i ... follo ... :
( .. )
(b)
(e)
(.1)
B:lckw.rd
Baclrw.rd
Baclcward Tn b<l.
Sp,cial Group

10%
6%
6/.
,0
T 1;' r 1" in:\od l,tion to th' of for and 3% for Sohr.duled TriM-I.
J. 01 t"" ,b,v.- ,,"l Ord" d,t.d FJl>ru,ry 1977 th' Dp.rtm,ntofPasonn.l
&.1'1 \ I n:'l; R .. (;Jrtn, iiiu!d .. n Qrll'r ... 'tb. ll"uch. 1971 rc!\d at ahov" provLdtng r!HIip.rY&tiona in
" ) ). ;t': n: .:Ill P) ltd i'l C v.l 'rv;c '8. S:m,I"rly. (,r.ber S D,'pa.rtIUPoh. namrly:
gil! \'.n 1 ,,11 Y 'i 'U',,;! i D'p 11 'ut., II ,loci F..I.'1ldy D.Jputment and and Indus-
" '" .) '.i' U \" d ).",\ '" ,l l ('Ir r ' ... O'.i.tione to 'Ocb.'!r B\c\rW'.lord CI:u5es' of CitlkD.
C It l n .... '1) Ii - I 'IILl: t Il .. LltU:iot3, etc.
Tl
,{.rc..l.ll77
, J'_ 1 r J I" '
L'.' .,f 1'1' GJv'r.lm'ut Ord'r' ,1.It"d221lllp"uruaryln7 ... datl abO\'.,.",{ltb
1 .,, .. (!'1\:! '{nr\ ill writ p,tition Xo. -1371:;7 .1l1d
1 ; \ . ... t t', II ":'1 C 'l r r. '.ltly p I .... .d n:ul !H,I 'f., 4) ! 11" folh)wi It oil df.'et, !ld-ll1...Jy :
(.,) T l ,\1 (lJ'r.) C, 'l"llli '-'." U.' ,L It,l Cr'Hn 1. .,C B Ir,l Cl of Cltl1- 'n:4 IUtll"r \rtlci.!
1 j(1) .1.'1.1 !'j{,) of tho C, Ht.'U'.:OII d( hdi:L;
(,,) r!L :l.',;: ..... rf r,l\lllllt;' .... lI'rul'ly,13.llia.D,.\l(lio:,\.G ..
.: . 1'{ I, It \j ,t. \111 d /'!"d fWIll til :,. t ()f B CI \, -; 'S .)e Cltl2:,'U., un.!l r ,\rtidf' I /i( -i) of the
;
(.:) Tho !' ItlOll \,( 111Ir \r:.1"'\. 11;tl) ,)r for t Uackw,\rd COHHllunitl";' , is
;
(i) r, :. I' I ):' n:,r,'ll ILL \r"'! ';(l)'lrI\c"."tl1tldll( ..
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(1
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1'"
.\ .. tb. .... p"pnht" ,I" t)( .\r,\,U C.oml:tu It,.- is fl!' i .f",. (In Iy (). ,oft-h, tn! .11 poru!.. t lor, or the Itt'.
t\:;,;'" .... for .. M Qbdrr Articlp 1:,(4) !i"I'II ... nO
')11 ICC'.oU!lt 1)( .i1'1 'ttOCl t)f th.' ;.&iJ "pV"h frOM th. Ii.o:t 'R: cl.;w rd (\)DIJI,UI.lt It .... ' :lnd 68
tho'> P 'p"ll ... tiol ofth Lid -4t&V 'n -;.;; . hout"] 83 plr t:'t';lt ofth!: tobl populalJot: ofthr Stilt..:'.
Q.1,Ir 1 r.(tl o(tll- C It:tUtlll:l for '8 lok:W'ud Co'nman Iti(',,' n"f cl! rl'T'i"lon.
O"OS" No, SWL 1 BC.\ B,/ol'G.OLO1\ &. DAnn lor .If"".
\.c0;)r(iL,ugIy. tl(t.
6
r oonltidt, 1.11 :J.:-pcr:t:. of G .. "". f of tt" Court Ano tb( ('t'ntraJ . .\ct
.)(1 .:rj, b th.lt tbt G d. i2 77. J ,t'/122,,,l F, hruolry J 977 be mOf"iitit'd to
...
(.) ct h t"'} ,lrd-r.4 '.'HI'fl from r,im" I time rf'g.aTliJlIg ill(:()lll" lillilt. tJl/' Jist. of'Other liachrarrl
Ci l i". ,,j f:'d " U IIi . r lrticl J ;)( I) Inri I lie-I) C,l ,titut ion .. h.dI b,. a<> 'predl' 11 in .\,. _I'ld
,\.11 ,'tl .. -lI r"ip'di"ely this ordt'r;
(I}) T'le p orr., -cl' rv,\tion (or t!I' 'Ot h 'r B \ck ... krci CI of Citl z;('n,.' u"cllr .\rticlr j :Jet) and Artielt'
J li(.) 1)( t.) . C) It.!tut.lO:I, !4full b'l a'! fullo .... , naml 'T:
lJar"-l Oitu, ..
t. B"ct"',lN ChmmauitiP!'l
2. BlCh,.lN CIlIoHt,. ...
Boclnr.rd Trib
Thi'" j" in addition to:
u .. -I"" ArlicU I
20c

.i%
U,.,u,- (4)

0'
10/0
Q
.j
(Q) o( for Ii C.l.stf''t Al.d 3% (('Ir dul"n Trl ilf' ; al.ld
()) 'J, or.j f H '(: .11 G:-<lllP UJdl'C \rtld.- 1-4. r"ad Wlt.h A rtlch' 1 3. Illi 1 G(I) oft}jOl
t.!o I. t.) :)t I 'u :" HI (rOm tim" to tlrn., r"garding in04Jmf' J lJnit and othC'T ooliditrolili.
:1. oth. D, p 'nt ... oft.a., G:>V'.'rnm'nt mly On this subjrct.
By Order Ant! in the n.me of til, Gov.rllor of K.rn.tab,
T. D.
Dy, ,qet"Y tn I7ntlf!'rnm!"J1.l, St' 'tJl rr ...lj-,,.e t6 fAl)"'tlr T>rpl ..
-...
...
-
\:\:\ !:"T:RE-I
lOr B."'kw;lrd Cla>ses of citizPDS IIn,i"r Article ,1') (4) of tho Cuo.titutioo
A. BACKWARD
1. (a) Bahia :.;:.;:;e
(h) fla!"jiga tl{J:!/1
(e) },'a;,ju
(d) BOg.1ill T.!:Iga :: ...
(e) Baliia t.:!.:::
(t) Seth' B.1h)a ::u ...
Knsban !.:: t.:N"
(h)
(i)
Ii) Mutasi
(Ie)
(I) Janappan ..
(m) :.)"'..,d
2 (a) D!1.rzi dt!.
(b) Bha,,,,ar Kshatri,..
e! x"
(e) Cbippi :]i[,
(d) Cbippiga t.!'t,r1
(e) Simpi J.cZ>
(1) Shitn]i
(g) Sai 11
(b) Mirai ::lom:::lo<
(i) Rangari
(il Rangrez
(Ie) :-l"llari
(1) :-;amdev
(m) R"Dgare dCIT;)"
(D)
3. (a) Devadiga :!:;:;;:l/1
(b) Devadlg.u
(e) '!oill
(d)
(.) De\'3d;g
(f) D"vali
1.1iZ)
(b) Shprl.'.'l.H

:jl Snpli!i
. '1) Devaoga :!:o:r.or1
:-1 Dev3:;;:
: . )
'j) HubH .:tt.:.-r.o<
ie)
If) Winbr
(e) :0::::-:10
,Ii) lIutbr
H:ltgar
IS (a) O:miga
lb) Teli
(e) Gaudla
(d) Y;J,llIyan
6 (a) Idiga
(b) Ediga .,n
(e) Elillil
(d) n'ga. G<'M
(e) Halepaile
(f) Bdlava
(g) Devar
(h) Billava

(il D"e\'ar O:;:J;)o"'
(j) Divllramakkalu
::l:O::d oivl
(k) Namdhari
(I) Kalal
(m) G ,ondla
(n) Gcundla
(0) Thiyan .!:cjoi'J'
(p) Tiyan
-7 (a) Medari
(b) Burud
(e) G311riga
(d) :'IIedllra

:J:d.r.>CJ#
ff.>cr1
;j.,:md
8 (a)
(b)
Nayiodll
Nayanaja Kshatriya
(e) lIaiiam
(d) ;\"havi
II')
(f) Arnb.ttan
(Ill ,ng"la
(h) K"i.Lii
(i) 1\ '/;"wra,1
(i) K"howrik
(k) ChouriY3
(I)
(m) X;ll'i'h"
(n) flhallilliri

/!i::l;);;$.J


:!::..:u.,'"
;;l;;:,1t1


;-:"'ri


;:;:!;3

!l (II)
(h)

n
(e)
(.1)
. e:;:b!O;s
Bdllll"Il"&

(e) SrnilZ&
(f) Jam\khaDa
(g) Ayiri
(b) Avir
(i) &Ie
(i) P"drnasale
(k) Saflle rlOd
(I) Klllkolan
(m) Neikar
(n) J adar
(0) Jandra ex::!,;
(pi Swakulasale ..
10 Ca) Plltvekari
(bl
(e) P,'lttegar
11 Raj ut

i:JI.!lr'A
;:SI.! mal
w

12 (a) S .t.mi
(b) C . '
Srivlli:;!.nwa
(e) Vaishnava
13 (a)
(b) Akbsale
(e) Ahali
(d) Achari
(e) Viswa Brahman

(f) Dalvngnya
Brahman
(g) Kammar
(h) Ansala
(i) Kammllan ..
(j) Luhar (kalllrnari)

(k) KBmsal
(I) K.lm'<ll!a
(m) P.lnchal
(n) l'arlehala
(0) ::;utar ;:::y;:d
(p) B.1dagi :";0,'
(q) lI:lIliwadli !.::3::J=l,
(r) Soni ... :;J
(s) SOllar
(t) Pattar
(u) Gf'jjigar
(v) Silpi
.' 'leda' .-1eleterl "ide G.O. :\'(). SWL 12 TBS 77 dated ::!3-I-B it, is inclll'led it: ll':
bt of STs. Its synonyms are incllllfcd.
C,)
Ih} \"
(C) lllliibr
('\) Kllll,hil'i!"
(e) Heddy

..... _:; -'.
= .....


"
(,.) AgaRa
(b)
(f') S"l;nla
(d) Sl:,uhvaJtl
(e) Shllkala "lIti
(f) T'abill.
(g) Valllliln o;l;:.'"
(11) Dhuoi
(i) l'Mit
(j) Rajaka d::.ft
2. (a) Aghori
(0) Karkarmunda
3. (a) Agnani
4. (a) Ambalavasi eOlJ()J,) ....
(b) Ambalakarma e::.;ml;jor
(e) Ambalakarlln
5. Ambattan
6. .\nRpPlln
7. (a) Andi
(b) Andipandaram

8. (a) And,ulln
9. Aryan
10. (a) Atari
(b) Athari
11.
1')
IbhllTUpi
B"kudra


13. (a)
(") B.l:.1Uallala.
14 Baona
15 (a) B .. t',,,1
(L) !5.,tt.ll
(e) U ,Lt,,,
(d) Battar
16. (il) Ihthal
(p) B.d,,,d
(f) B"tt"r
(0) II ,I tf ,Ir
17. (a)
llCCl{ - S


-'1"t'-'
. ,-- .-,
-'.",,-
:,-t
...

:';!
:;!'
.... --'"
::;'
\f) (;\\,.13.
K"p"
(h)
(i) K'""ma
(j) RaJdy
1,- ::.!
.- -

e::::,.

..
B. BACKWARD
18. (a) Hhut
(b) Bhatraju
(e) Bhatrai
(d) Bohrot
19. (a) Bhatia
(b) Bhattia

........ -- ....
..,.._L.,,' .....

..
z.,;;U:':;.)

20. . Bbavin -
21. Binapattll
22. BiDgi
23 (a) Bogad
(b) BOg;ldi
(e) Bagadi
(d) Bagodi
Ie) Bagadi
(f) Bai(di
(g) bogodi
24. Chakkan
211 (a) Chaliyan
(h) Tenl\'an
(e) Chalti),a
!:);n





mn
:! ea
:!'.'"



2(1. Chll mboti
27. Cha moukutti
;:::":,oW
..
2il C,) Ch.'ptelo(ar

(b) Cb.'pt':gara
...
29 (.1) (,!" .. odi

(u) )It';chn

....... "':..
:lV
:.!;z;-=
:ll l'L.:!;,h.H

32 (.1)
"""--;'.-.'
(b) J,Il,:H
" .... __ _ r
.L ...
I)r';lra
......... -
-- .....
H'i'
- , . ..;;
\ ' .. ) t;. \"\' 1 ,,\., 1 r.". __ J
ti) :';\fl'''

15
33 (a)
(0) Gha,b!.i
:l6 (,,) Gi,J,lidki
(b) Pingle .:...:i\,
(e) Pingalo

37 (a) Goniga.

(0) ::>ad Ilsetty ...
311 (a) Gosavi
. rt..
(b) (xusayi

(c) Cos,\in

(d) Atit

39 (a) Gujllr

(bl Guzar

40 Gurkha
1\;;.:)1"
"
!
I
41 (a) Gurav

,
i
(b) (;tlrov
...
,
(e) Tambli :::.oM
f,
(d) Tamualla
(;urava r::d::
I
(f) (;UtuU r.:.':!_-:::::!
4;1 (a) (hbit

(b) G.bhit
,-;;,: .-:f
(e) lhpit

(,I) Ga,1 bit ,"";::":'3"
r
(e) Daalija
f (f) lJaav.,t
_-:"
(;I)
....
(I.) 1.,.lT'"Il .. ,jJ, .. h e
( . ) Ita -,:;-. ... ::::-,:.
(ti) ....
I") I ;"I\'IIIII:lth"
, .. :,.. ::::3
(f) .1::I:!go .
C::"':',"'i"
(:'1 .\"di1.'
--::"=';-,
B",t b'.,
.;.,..
(1) K.l!)I',ll:,r.l ":- '>-'.
Ij) 1;:.",\' Ii'"
;:'"

!,) 1\ ,,\.\,.. r '5:'
,i) K d'\"la.

'I!l i 1\1!1 i
1, I !\:I .11'\' i
-
-
-
-
-
----,-'------'
c .. ) 1'.'
(P) )
.J,,' (I1I1IIIi;...::r '01. ...
lTUll1 ]'I1C1jtdl) _ ..
, . ,) J
(r) T r, \'.1
',') ll.- ":,.,,,h.1
(t)
(\() l\ . Clr
'\'Ig I r
(w) '.!. era
('t) K.,lri.I
{y) :-: .. L.l.1.!'.lr
(z) :.:.
I.u) fl.:r!.;i
(bb) P,HI\,.lU
44 (a) H.l:.,w.,kkl-
-;:

t.";.
::;:;": 1.-



c:
;.:r,. :::J

...
t.: ........

\t" ,dod\' .1 ..:z:!:.;
(b) \- .
(c) (;r.UJ\ \,:"kdl i,;: ...
(d) (:01\\',i:l. ,-;:::1
(e) (;.lw.,da
If) (;"';,,<111
(:!) K "e'aU,al
iii) Cf'
(i) .\1:,'\' Ik),:,,1
(J) :".'l,I.Ik).:al
(k) Ha.lkkivakkal
45 (a) !hn"h.1tU 1ltr.:.:do
(0) !\I .. ';IU., (; 't/a
,\: .1,';\111 e:-:c:...Vv
(d) .\"".Iharu
(,.) 1l .. ::J I"t
if) II-;;.dt

;:;1"::':;;:0"
.j I K",[u Konkani
;;2 (a) K.llavant
(0) !\,.I"vant hi
(e)
(tl) Bhug.Lm
53 (<1) Kanabo
(h) Kanakar
S.j, Renate
55 Karikudumbi
56 Karuv&
57 (a) Ka,;ai
(h) Klltik
(e) Khatlk
(ti) K"tllka
(e) Kutllga
(f) I{"".b
(g) May
.38 (a)
1 (b) K,u,sar
(e) K,,"c-hori
(d) Knllcl!era
(e) Kanclzllgara
(f) Bogar, 'i
ell; II"",;,:,;"tir 611 Kaabin
,- II" 1,; "', Ilt
.: {"llL 7.1.(
. . ' . I r \'. t:!.: a
h) I I !"r
,) II c.",
.j I \1 "'M
I ,.) '\ "
( I) 1':, I", ,,Jj
".!) ]': \1.t i 1
.,11'. _,If 1
::-::j HI\ K:\\'adi
:', :':,.:;' I; I K:l I'll t i.I' an
-' ... -- ',-,
-"t. _, I
:::' _c,i;:::.f
::;;::Ii";:
.....

__ -'L ....
[\'icb,lglra ...
,i:! (a) 1\ ,,;"I:t Il
(h)
Ii' t.\)'-Knlayirl
..
(I.' ii.-) (.I) ",,JLl
J) .r. l h) K,,:laln
__ l! ____ ,')


e::-;;:ol
:1
:J:.

e;;.,c







fS!JJr1

00 ..
IS","'"



Ib:JolT.:d
:j:':I1.C'

r.i:)O


:f ..I.-r
_,""_..AJ..
'-'-'''' .... _\.1-...1




IiI. (.1.) l\.oll,Io{"
(\I) r;:,)II!-=."da
.. 7 (8) "of .. i
(0) Kottui
*68(3)
(b) !\.lrll'an
(..:) Kanlya
'If.'.;..
t.",--.;:)


f'_:. -:r


u9( a) Kokgara ::.!rtI:::
(b) K. t,;':,b
(e) Kott"gaca - :.!.,"I."
70 Koyav&
71 Kudubi
72 (a) Konbi
(b) KulwadJ
(0) Kunbi
73 (a) Kurma
(b) Kurmi
7. Kutuma
7[j (a) Kun1bara
(h) KuntOlllra
(') Khumbara
(J) Klltllbhar
(e) Kus;lvan
(f) KuJala
(g) KuJalar
(hI
,\,(a) KlI]'ub"
(b) Kurah
(,., Kllruh
(d) Kul'''u""
(,.) 1\11 fl' nl. . o
(f) KIlr";"J,,,
(,,) H:d',:llJ,dla
(h) !lltJ "e! : r
(i) HIt,,w.
1
(i) Oor, ,'.'
77 (a) L.,,:,'T
(I,) l.ao!
(,.) 1",.1 III
II,) Y,I.

a:zi.:::l
drl"
t1:,,_Q

..


ri::::r.d
IIc;:;:; .. "
'::':'::':,d
II:::;:;V<



;::\:


a:: :.:f'
e': =. :":=:f"


=-
----.,
,.. .. '""
rI __ ::;l
!..---;:-:=f'
.... ;


i!i 111' in '1\, ;,It,' d! ,d '.1 I .. 'I'll';
li,t . It!i ,\I'.llwlwl,d
:..:.!r' .L'ld .\["(.1"1 d,kt\,d \"Hie t. :\0 .. ..;\\.\. -;-; tIt. -.11'
I:} .. ,1' -t (If . .....; h,'d1l1d ('.1 itl':-I It ... ;\;.' i! ,,!./,d.
J\;.;. 1- tf(,tt.,d .\"> a ,"0 /,,1 .,. I\\d .. (CO, I,,'
, \' :le 1) i -t fi,': {Jf ("_'(.:)jl:; ...!.-t ..
"1' :Ir" . "lud"J
: ",'T' J.
78 I
79 \Li,'y,,\i
sO I a) :.1.11 '1\-&
(b' \l ..
81
82 (a) 'IlIlliVani
(b) _\!uuiyani
83 "<lnllan
8'
85 (II) :\Iarayan
(h)
"86 Uudhar
87 \ful.:kavan
88 lIurr.ui


:::l.-;t".Iq:j





;;JJOd
"





89 (a)
(h)
(e)
(d)

ador
l"pplwador
'f,,"ke Nador
90, Nalki
91 O.than
9:2. Otari
9:1. P:Ldit
!)4. P.,d"rti
<j,j. (,) Pnrliar
(L) I'adi:;or
9H. (a)
(I,)
!J7. l' ila.
:t,.-: :;,:0"'
;:;>C.




i::l'.:'U
S
:.;2
--..

:;::;-=::-:..:
(a) r .. I.,! .. raIU
,I,) 1'.""I.r ::::::::;<
(,') Pan lam
z::
l'ucda\'aku!"m
100, o::;<.le
101. P9Duekara'Kockani
,
1l'J. 'LlYi
1:!11. ("I TIc ,/:1
(h) ",'
fC) Tll!!,'r ':'11;-,
(,l) \'c"""kllh K,hatri:-a


hh;bl., Ksiwtriy

(f) Ill.1 I\.hatriya

102. Patra
103. Palramela
104, rlChati
l,;:,jlJ
105_ Pullav&o
106. ReinudJ8

107. (a) Ra.iapuri
(h) RiI}pur
(e) llalu\'alikar
IUS, (a) Raval
(b) na.,'alia
(e) Haul



109. (a) Rawat
(h) Raya !{,lwath

110. (a) Saniyar
(i!) J)1,arnllH.I)'1 Kllapu
.. :::.
rh) K iI /;I\',1n e:d;;:;J'
(I) 1',,;J i
....,
.. "
12J. (:1) Tu:u"t\
(h) Tiliu
3o\"OiJ

1:12
(a) Uppara
(b) Cppet" '..":t
(e) l"l'l,illiran
(d) Jl"I,br .:=;. ::;'
(e) !'="c! fIL
(f) CLlloar
Uav:llldi 11:::C'
(h) GOI'"n,Ji
(i) G;l\"di -
Ii) tlo:lUd i n"':C
(k) :llelus;lkkare
123. \'elluth.,!an :!;J'
III. Sanyasi
;::iJ;J,'" 124. Vett'lvan

112.
113. Siult.an
114. ctaIl,ka
115 (a) Slid it
(t..) :'utira
116. S'lt.ali
Iii. Tat 1,3\';ri
lIS. (II) Thtl.lfi
iiI) TIT,lii





:::.:;:.::.,;




125. (.1) Yd;lar
(b) Y,,:,I:lr
(,'J
(,I) Eg:.I:b
126. Y"raiu





127. ;.:;:\,h,d,litd (',!"t"8
to \L ri,' i:: Illfr Ilptn r1l'I'pfld
:on


----,-------_._-------
\[.1,' ,J, (d,,j li,!<- (;,tl. :\0,"':\\'1. I:.! TIl::' 7701,,' .. 1 i, 'S .:. :,iI,.1 ill ,it" :,,;
(,f 'I :.,,J!lkd (':: ..
d .,,:. ,(' U. 0. '\0. :-;\\'L l:.? T1\S
tIlt! ilst 11 'iui.-d L' -(t..;,
ci..lt,,i . .;iIH ,J it i'i in"l'ldrd ill
-
-C
-
L (.J) Bailapatar
(b) Ba!lpatu
(e) Bllapatar
2- (a) Bsiragi
(b) B.av'\
(e) Bavaji
(d)
(e) BavaUl
1. (a'i Bajania
(b) Bajl'Dia




t..-.o:!

ddcr.ll'\



40 _ Balasanthoabi ..
s_ <a) Banjari t):,t!;)O
(b) Brmjari
ee) Vanjara
(d) Wanj'lri
{e) Lalilll.l1i
If) L3rnL'lda tttJ:lct
(Il) Lambaid
(h) Su;(ali or SukAli
C. BACKWARD TRIBES
(m) Palellaf IS DBl"Hi
CD) 19 D/:"Ii
(0) Talw3C 20 Dombidua
(p) Valmi.i os.!l ..
(q) Valmikimakkalu 21 (a)
o:lC!f.<J *(b) Burbur.;ha
(f) Vedan
8 (a) Beri. t!O<:.:!J
22 (a) G .. rudi
(b) Garndiga
(el Gf\rad:ga
(d) ""digs
(e)
(t) Modikar
n;:O;Q

rr.C:l1i
9 (a) Besh tar t!m .... O"
L;;CtC- (b) Bunde-llestar

10 (a) Bhamta
a
(b) Bbompta :;
(e) Paraue.hi Bha:npta 0:0
tjtb
(d) Bhc rotra
(e) Takari
(f) Uehillian
(a) Bhardi
(b) Bhargi


;:lOll

23 GbiMdi


""m.a
24 (a) Golla
,(h) Guuli n"'V
leI Gop"l
(d) Yndtlv
(e) r! .... '<
If) y"Java
(g) A,I." 19o1Ja .... ioi
(h) Gopala
(i) Gore or Goria

12 (a) Budblldki
(b) BUllbuJkala
(e) Dcvari
t.J:c3J ..,':a.

cle;;lO 211
1:5.10\'&
(i) Gopali
..
fJ
e--r
Bazigar
fa) Bet1a
(h) Bl'daru
tel Ynl;miki
:d) Ihrki

:)
1) B{I":.ta r
::) H,,; od
: i;
,,;) Sank

ttl!'
::)
mt3t!a"
(d) Joshi
13 (a) Chara UOlO

9"0
(b) Chhar
(0) Chhar&







..

l' (Il) Chapparhaod ..
(L) Chapp.\fbi\nda

I hi
15 Cbitrakut IIJOS
16 DangDllsar

17
26
(a) Gonddi
{b)Gbondali
Ie} (Jond"I:ga
(d) GOlldbali
(p)





raj Hilun-bibri
(tl) "ar :!rtO
:!:t:n:c<
i) \":I;:d,!i
(,I) \\',Ic:iri
(,.)
Ii) ll.!.:ri
( :) ri
I':) 1'1" .. ,chari
I ,J






::;7,)
!h.lljna anu 'Lambaui' G,O, . .sWL 12 TnS 77 d.ltod ::3-1-71l -ince
.lre in the list of 3chedllhll'aste,. Its synonym, ,He
d ':et\'d \'ide G.O I:! TBS i7 it
.. ;,1' [t5 'Y1'-'.""";>'; 'r'
i.; .. :ltic!Iorc v;,le \}().'(r,:':WL I:! 77 dated 23-t- ._:; In("e ,( " :1.!!
in list of "llll.,.1 ('astc". [t., . ,<.: ... :.i ere illl,'ud..1
'P:!.llJlU:l' ,I.,',,'" I O. .\'/. ': TB-l ;7 JOlted ,"i
the:'" -t ,f pol t; .. ,l ea.
j Vil,
. f 'h!d C:1<tc.
T,j3 7 I :! l ,
... : !.
27 (a) Hdal"a
(b) Holeva
28 (a) Howgar
(b) Ilawgar
(e) IIawadiga
29 (a) Javeri
(b) J:l ..... ari
30 Johan
31 (a} Jogi
(b) JOl!cr
(e) Sanjogi
(d) Jogar
32 (a) Joshi
(b) Sw.ajoshi
:t<;:j

.m;:;n-.;oo'





... :l'l



39 (,,) I\:olhati
(0) K"lhatigi
40 (a) Korwar
(h) Kur ...ari
(e) Kaikadi
(d) I\:"rachar
(e) KOr3,!'lr
(f) Yerka!a
(ol) Erakala'
(h) Kunchi
(I) Kern
(j) Korava
(k) Koramasetty
(1) Yerukala

U 49

... cc.O'

f"lr.O

:U;j"I..U'"
c.!;'!F"U




'If ....

60 Sarllnia
51 (Il) g"rr><l,
(t.) Saru.:!a
(a) f:l,;kk,I'l(sr
(b) .31,'\'::1
l
g"r
(c) '::;il,;kalii(al.
53 T"kanknr

5l Yadr
115 Yaidu
41
e
42 (a)

56 Vasudev





bI/'.;<n


i:3:Q

;JO :<,edt or
33 (a) Ramati
(b) Kaman \I;$r.'" (b) Full-m"Jj
34 (II) KRnjirhhRt
(b) Khapj'rbhat
43 (a)
(b)


57 (a) Vir
(b) Veer
(e) YceraIn3sti
:;;'0' f

i:J!jijC).j

(e) Kanjirbbaat

44 (a)
(b) Daurigouvi
34 (a) Kanjari
(b) Kanjar
45 Pan,(ur

36 (a) K!lshikapdi
(b) Ka,hibpaoi
(e) Tirllmali
37 ('I) Kr'lbri
(lo) Kbellmri
38 (a) Katabu
. (h) ICltahar







46 ranguaul
(hI
(e) 1',lngWl ,]
'{7 Pnr,ldhi!
h)
(b) I'; c!:;:':'lta
,q I'! , hl!!Iu: tala







58 (a) \Va.Mar
(b) \"add .. r
\\".1,lua
(d) Do,i
(<!) Gir.li-Waddar
(e; Od
t..z:i 0'




UI'

Odue .
Tuuu;:,Wllddar
0'
0"
;:::3 c?

(i) r,ddar
(j) \'.'.:!:u
(k) 1\ .1111 r,l,I,Llr
;!l
(111) llha:HIi '-,yJ'!.lr

:::: -::,
';;::0 ... C
Kdl"kyatha vid,' G.r). '(" :':WL I:! Tn:; 77 <i<!:,': it " indll<lc<i ill
the, list. nf S,'hruukd C"stee, Its ')'r;, ... fP; :,:',rl.,l.
'. 'l;:"mdl<l' ;r11d 'I\ur:I11I,I' d..).-t".j, ,j" (;.0 ;.in. I:? Tn"'7 :?:I-I-7S ,;ncc tb .. \"
incllld.,n i'l tIL.' Ii.t.of (' I",', It, .\"[ G"ym, !C" In,'1','"\,,,1. .
'Koraga' .\.ol"t,'u "j,le n.r), :-'0. :':WI. CO" :j ':s:"o it is :n.IUoll'd in
tit,' list. ,)f Srli"duJ..d Trihe" Its ,,-n(Jl1\;, "r-:e ,,: :d(,l.
':::'1!,illg;1,IIl'"IJa' ,i,le ,;n ;:;WL I::! 'I g:, :7d"lo1 ,;11<"1> it is included
in 'I,p '. ,t .. I' "I.te;,
)[101 Ill' \"i,I, <l. 0, :'\\ L I. : m, <ia'"d :2:;-1-:9 : 'I" It i, inriuJ.tl in
I, .. ': ... -..:. ,,' ,lllll' rl I' I t ,)
.'1. !"t"i..-i'!e G, U. :\0 . ..;\\"1. I:?' 77 d,ted Slr.," it l' irc\r;,Ircl :"
,., . Cl:ite, Its 8:'u"nym3 1.P lr+;,),'J.

t
f
GOVERNMENT OF KARNATAKA
SoCIAL WELFA.P.E AND LABOUR DEPARtMENT
Enhancement of the percentage of reservation from 5 % to 15% In respect of Special Group, under
Articles 15 (4) and 16 (4) ot the Constitution of Inella-Orden rSiardiog.
Ib:AD :-
(
1
) Govcrlllllellt Order No. SWL 12 TBS 77 dated 2211d February 1977
(2) Governlltellt Ordcr No. 8WL 123 BCA 19, dated lst M.ay 1979.
PREAHl!LE :-
. In th.eir on1:r. rrad at (1) above, directed alllollg other tlillgh t.hut. tIle follo.wi
ti;C ,of Cltucns family income i;:t Rl!. 4,800 aud below per annulU suall Le c011siJcrcd 1\8 1\
Urou}) und shall be glveu special treatmeut uuder Articles 15 (4) and 16 (4) of the COnstitutiou of
11\<11.30-
(i) an aClual cultivator;
(ii) Au urtisan ;
(iii) a petty businessman
(iv) Oue holding an appointlllent either io Goveruwent Service or correspouuillg or.dtr
private employment. including Casual LaQour and
(v) any persou self-employed or engaged in allY occupatiou illvolvillg lllallual labour

, Five percent of in favour of the Special Group wall made for purposell of .o\rticltll
15 (4) alld 16 (4) of the COUlltltutlOU of Iudia. .
COll':icqueut upou the decision of the High Court of Kar\lata.J.:a ill Writ Petition No. 4371,77 III}!l
Uolcr CUllllCGtl'd thc Order, dated 22nd February 1!J77 and olher urdt'T!I
by GOVl'rlllllcut, the Gover'lIuent Orders No. SWL 12 TBS 77. dated 2211d Ft:bruary' 1(,77 'll:all
Ulodified u.uu revised orderl! were is:;ucJ iu the Govenuucut Order dated 1st May 1n9 r('au at (1)
a.bove
'l'he perceuL.l.gc of reservatiollS for Backward Clas:;e:; IIUU Special Group Uti }Jer GOVHllUll'llt Order
dated 1st May 197V are il:! follow:; :_
Backward COlliUluuiticli
Backward Castes
Bu(;kward Tribes
Specillol Group
Under
Art. 15,(4)
20 %
10 %
5%
5%
Under
Art. IG (4)
18 %
10 %
5%
5%
This j" ill auditiou teo the reservatiou of 15 percent for the Scheduled Ca:;tes aud 3 perccut for tbe
Sdleduled Tribe:!.
Repre:!clltatious have beeu made t.o Govemmeut for cllhauccmellt of IJcr(;cutage of rcocrvatiOl:1l
II favour of the 'Special Group'. .
No SWL 131 BCA 79, BA!\G.6.t.ORE, DATElJ THE 27TH JUNE 1\179
After CoLfeful cOllsi<ieratioll of lillllspects of the Cil:!e alld ill partial lUoditicati<l1l or th<' GuvrrlllllC'Il'
u,ll('u :l'211d F eLruan: 1977 alld 1st May 1979 Goverument arc p\elLsed to di reet, t the pl'r,' .. nt:.gr of
re"t'rv,ltioll III fl1vour of the Group' fur purposes of Artlcle/; 15 (4) allll 10 (4) read wltll
11, 15 (I) ,llltl Iti (1) of the Constltution of 1lldili be cllUallceJ from 5 pen;cut tu 1,5 pl'rCl'llt.
(:.!) 'rut! olher Secrctl1riat Dt!p'lrtlUtlutl! of tue Govermucllt requested to iS1Iue
ul\lcrti ill this Lehalf.
By Order and ill tue !lIllllt! of the Gu\'crllur of KarllPtakll,
(v) ,
t;. M. lL\MAIUl\lDlAIAH,
['"deT k)('(rtlur!J tl! (,'urollll,,t//.
'-';ucia/ ll'clj"fc tl1td LuiJull r iJc}Jurlmn1.l.
APPENDIX - II
--------------
Mea:.url's - Growth In of Institutions, ExpendIture and Benl'ficlirll'S (State Level)
PRE-MHTRIC HOSTELS
---------------------------------------------------

,.-----
:".78
,'- -.
':.r.;:J,
:':': ,e2
... ., ...
. :-.
". 'J!:
':." --'
.: -J'oJ
""1.J!)
81
" -,
': G ...
:::,
':,25
.3,69
'. . :-:
Boys Girls TDtal
184
IB4
265
276
286
379
470
566
566
500
590
61(1
:).1)(1

4.
3.62
').1)0
i). i)(j
4.:4
3.:9
24
31
40
44
44
44
45
45
O. (hj
37.5C,
0.')(
9.)9
29.17
:. 9.)3
l',I.U(1
U..)'j
0.00
0.0(1
298
410
510
0.0(:
4:.50
:.83
4.1):
32.26
19.61
).00
O.l)tj
4.
3.15
:'2.26
--------------------------------
-------------- ---------------------------
Sanctlonea Total Actual Allo- Actual ND. of No. of E:-pendr
Boys Girls benefrs catton Hostels Bentrs.
(5 )
N.A

13581
:4131
>+681
19531
21356
24256
24256
24256
27399
28070
(6)
N.A
978
988
988
1098
1448
1673
1773
1773
1773
1880
1930
12974
12794
14569
15119
15979
20979
23529
26029
26029
26029
29279
30000
ANNUAL GROWTH RATES
i4.=i4
4.05
5.31
31.25
11. 90
10.98
0.00
0.00
12.96
2.45
9.38
1.02
0.00
11.13
31.88
15.54
5.98
0.00
0.00
6.03
2.66
7.42
-1.39
13.97
3.78
5.69
31.29
I i
\.,
12.16
10.63
0.00
0.00
12.49
2.46
8.27
(8)
8988
10000
14569
15119
15979
20979
23529
26029
26029
26029
27100
29904
11.26
45.69
3.78
5.69
31.29
12.16
10.63
0.00
0.00
4.11
10.35
12.27
(9)
70.00
70.00
152.05
213.58
239.53
373.83
399.64
407.5
515.34
640.48
663.21
B07.72
0.00
117.21
40.47
12.15
56.07
6.90
1.97
26.46
24.28
3.55
21. 79
28.26
(10)
N.A
56.54
98.32
103.88
155.34
243.44
270.82
376.69
496.(;0
564.80
623.43
753.96
73.89
5.66
49.54
56.71
11.25
39.09
31.67
13.68
10.37
20.94
31.30
(11 ) ( 12)
N.A N.A
N.A N.A
246 . 10667
260 9830
310 11458
278 10627
277 10613
272 10398
253 9473
245 9199
245 9492
242 9500
5.69
19.23
-10.32
-0.36
-1.81
-6.99
-3.16
0.00
-1.22
0.12
-7.85
16.56
-7.25
-(1.13
-2.03

-2.89
3.19
0.1)8
-1.02
il3)
N.A
N.A
40.53
55.1
75.72
73.43
64.35
44.63
35.95
40.05
50.48
52.64
35.95
37.42
-3.02
-12.37
-30.64
-19.45
11.40
26.04
4.28
5.51
(Contd )
POST-KATRIC HOSTELS

of
Hostels
Nwaber
of Hostel
BeneflclarIes

-----------------------
--------------------------------
--------------
YEARS
B01S Gals
Total
Sanctlooed
Total
Actual Allo- Actual
Boys
Gnls
beoefrs catlOn
---------
(1)
( 14)
(15)
(161 (17)
(18)
(19) (20) (21) (22)
---------
1977.78
25
15
40
2SGO
750
3250 3:'50 5'j.OO 40.69
1978.79
25
15
40
2500
750
3250 3:::50 50.00 41).69
1979.80 34
20
53 3201)
875
4075 3800 61.00 55.08
1980.81 39
20
59
3200
875
4075 4075 69.00 53.84
981.82 44
21
65
3535 91)0
4435 4435 84.37 i8.64
1982.83 44
21
65 3595
875 4470 4460 90.15 90.41
1983.84 44
21
65
3610
875 4485 4485 94.91 74.51
1934.85 44
21
CiS 3610
675
4485 *485 97.12 75.31
1%5.86 44
21
05 3610
875 4485 4485 111.34 108.98
1S'3b.37 44 21
65 :(11)
875 4485 4485 I1B.89 94.43
40
"

975 4535
1 i6.1c 11)c.9:
til
1 46
-"
07 3590 995
4585 133.68 133.36
.....
AIiNUAL GROWTH RATES
: '{'G. 7q
I).
.1. 'JI}
('.1)0 0.(;0
0.00 0.00 0.(,0
0.00 0.00
.8\) 36.')(,
":"7

28.00 16.67 25.38 lc.92 2:.00 35.36
1980.dl 14.71 ('.'>')
1'''')
............ 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.:4 13.11 -:.:5
198! .82 1:.82 5.1)(1
10.17 10.47 2.86 8.83 8.S3 22.28 46.116
H32.a3
(,.1)1)
!j!j O.!):)
1. 70 -:.78 0.79 0.56 6.85 14.97
1983.84
(:.()(i (;. t..,ill
0.00 0.42 0.00 0.34 0.56 5.28 -17.59
1984.85
!). i:;.I:.It}
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
.. 1'(
1.07
i. ...... ..,
1985.80
(, .,)(1
(i .')(' 0.0(1 0.0(,
0.00 0.00 0.00 14.64 44.71
1986.37 (;. ')0 (.\)0
!),()O
0.00 0.:)0
0.00 0.00 6.78 -13.35
1987.88 4.55
O.t)(!
3.08 -1.39 11.43 1.11 1.11 -0.61 13.26
! Cidti.a9
C,.I)i) (i. i)()
0.00 0.84 2.05 1.10 1.10 13.13 24.09
Avg. ann.
Grcwtn :-t 0.19 :.48 5.19 3.64 2.75 3.41 3.30 9.62 13.36
(Contd )
SCHOLARSHIPS
Pre-matrlc Scholarshlps
Post-matric Scholarshlps Fee CoocesslOl'Is
-----------------------
----------------------- -----------------------
L(pendl ture
Expendlture Expendlture
01
-------------
No. of
---------- No. of
------------
'fEARS actur.l Allo-
Actual actual A110- Actual actual Allo- Actual
Benfrs. cation
Benfrs. cation Benfrs. cat ion
---------
(1) (2:3,
(24) (25)
(26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31 )
--------
-------
1977 .78 N.A N.A
N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A
1978.79 56452 35 35 9844 39.37 39.37 N.A N.A
1979.80 85763 SO 53.16 21441 68.26 85.76 169048 506.18 338.09
1980.81 127839 64.85 79.26 28186 B9 .15 112.74 149165 2b5.45 298.33
1981.82 15t;12? 93.07 93.07 30149 119.9 120.59 150615 300 301.23
1982.83 167168 103.64 103.64 30390 121.56 121.59 148574 297.15 297.15
1983.84 183317 ! 13.65 113.65 33048 132.19 132.19 113594 320 227.19
1984.85 19::46 146.36 146.36 37108 148.43 148.43 17')338 350 350.67
1985.86 :::9!>2 180.7 181.41 40452 150.2 161.81 275245 350 280.8
1986.87 235684 193 202.48 47470 158 189.88 31:;700 300 279.29
1987.88 239302 226 209.88 50487 199 191.59 394293 360 258.93
1988.89 254674 238.25 249.09 59148 211.16 236.59 25b765 372.2 268.36
ANNUAL GROWTH RATES
197&.79
1979.8r} 51.92 42.86 51.f!q 117.81 73.38 117.83
1981).81
49.(16 29.70 49.10 31.46 30.60 31.46 -11. 76 -47.56 -11.76
1981.82 17.43 43.52 17.42 6.96 34.49 6.96 0.97 13.02 0.97
1982.83 11.35 11.36 11.36 0.80 1.38 0.83 -1.36 -0.95 -1.35
1'1'83.84 9.66 9.66 9.66 8.75 8.74 8.72 -23.54 7.69 -23.54
1984.85 6.45 28.78 28.78 12.29 12.29 12.29 54.35 9.38 54.35
1985.136 14.25 23.46 23.95 9.01 1.19 9.01 56.98 0.00 -19.92
1986.87 5.71 6.81 11.61 17.35 5.19 17.35 13.97 -14.29 -0.54
1987.38 1.77 17.10 3.65 6.36 2'5.95 0.90 22.50 20.00 -7.29
1988.89 18.08 5.42 18.68 17.15 6.11 23.49 -33.19 3.39 3.64
AvCj. ann.
-1.04 -0.61
Grool".h rt 18.03
21.87 22.61 22.79 19.93 22.00 8.77
Note: = Not
( . i
, ... J.J
tHH
Caste
APPENDIX-III
Composition of the Population ill
Distrlct# ~ Karnataka State
Belgaum
- -- .- - - -- -. -- --... --_." ... -- .-.
-------------------------------------------
BELGAUM KARNATALA
------------------------------
Caste/Religion
Belgaum
Yo age Yo age Yo age Yoage
District
to the to the to the to the
PopLllation
total total total total
dist- dist- state state
rict rict popu- popu-
popu- popu- lation lation
lation lation (e::c-
(e::c 1- luding
uding SC/ST)
SC/ST)
---------------------------------------------------------
1 2
4 5 6
---------------------------------------------------------
-II- Religion HindLl
1- Agasa 1,845 0.07 0.06 1.23 1.00
...,
Ambal Vasi
0.00 0.00
..,..
Ambalakaran 0.00 0.00 ..;,.
4. Baandhi 612 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
5.
Balija 2,820 0.11 0.10 1.63 1.33
6. Ba va J i 1,009 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03
7. Beda 1,30,836 5.20 4.57 3.38 2.75
8. Bestha 31,701 1.26 1. 11 3.45 2.80
9. B:--ahmin 53,963 2.14 1.89 4.68 3.81
10. Budubudiki 441 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03
11. Bunt 183 0.01 0.01 1.02 0.83
12.
Darji 11,283 0.45 0.39 0.40
().33
13. Dasaru 4,259 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.12
14. Desha-
bhandari
0.01 0.01
15.
Devadiga
1''-' -...1 ..... 0.01 0.00 0.36 0.29
16.
Devanga
22, 119 0.88 0.77 0.91 0.74
17. Ganiga
994 0.04 0.03 0.55 0.45
18. Gatti
0.01 0.01
19. Golla
42,827
1.70 1.50 1.80 1. 47
2c) . Gondhali
3,469
(1.14 0.12 0.06 0.05
21.
Goniga
6 0.0 0.00 0.04 0.03
r")""'.\
Gudlgara
0.01 0.01
; ~ .
,..,..,..
Hala\lJakki-
: ~
\<Jakkal
0.24 0.19
-----------------------------------------------------------
con td
------------
---------------------------------------------
1
2
3 4 5 6
----------
-----------------------------------------------
24. Helava
1,038
0.04 0.04 0.08 0.07
25. Hindu
SikkaligaT"a
93
0.00 0.0 0.01 0.01
26. Hindu
116
0.00 0.00 0.03 0.03
HugaT"
27. Idiga
1,128
0.04 0.04 3.13 2.54
28. Jetti
0.02 0.01
29. Jagi
251
0.01 0.01 0.07 0.06
30.
235
0.01 0.01 0.30 0.25
31. Kan iyan
0.00 0.00
""':!",.,
Kanj LT"
0.00 0.00
Bhat
"'?"-:r
...j...,j. Katik
5,888 ().23
0.21 0.21 0.17
34. Kadagaru
20
0.00 0.00 0.29 0.23
35. Kate
Kshatriya
463
0.02 0.02 0.10 0.08
36. KattaT"l
10 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02
37. I<shatriya
32,198
1.28 1.13 0.54 0.44
38. Ludubl
1 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.07
39. KumbaT"a
4,984 0.20 0.17 0.86 0.70
40. Kuruba
2,66,247 10.58 9.31 8.51 6.92
41. Ladara
1,596 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.01
42. Lingayathl
VeeT"a-
8,06,465 32.05 28.19 20.81 16.92
shiva
43. MaT"atha 5,20,550 20.68 18.19 3.94
3.2()
44. MedaT"a 3,606 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.10
Mudaliyar 96 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.48
46. NagaT"thaT"u 0.04 0.03
47. NayaT" 109 0.00 0.00 0.19 (1.16
48. NaYlnda 3,928 0. 15 0.14 0.73 0.60
49. Neygi 3,253 0.13 0.11 0.80 0.65
50. PategaT" 450 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.04
51. Raj aput 4,562 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.15
52.
RajLI
KshatT"iya 286 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01
53. Ravalu
0.00 0.00
54. Raya Ravat 12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
55. Hindu
SadaT"u
0.07 0.06
56. Sa.tanl
0.07 0.06
57. S C
3,11,644
10.89 15.86
58. 5 T
32,773
1. 15
2.82
IJ Slddl
0.02 0.01
----------
--------------------------------------------
cantd . . .
( i i )
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
2
3
4 5 6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
60. o a ~ v ~ .. ha
391
0.02
0.01 0.08 0.07
K.hatriya
6l- Tewar
11
0.00
0.00 0.02 0.01
62. Tiaala
464
0.02
0.02 0.74 0.60
63. Uppara
67.990
2.70
2.38 1.61 1. 31
64. Uri
0
0.0
0.00 0.10 0.08
65. Vaishya
2.858
0.11
0.10 0.94 0.77
66. Vi.wakaraal
Panchala
42.899
1.70
1.50 2.41 1.96
67. Vokkal iaa 17.534
0.70
0.61 14.36 11.68
68. C.N.K.
(calte not known)10.498
0.42
0.37 0.83 0.68
Other Reliiion.
69. Buddhist.
11 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.04
70. Christian. 12,836
0.51 0.45 2.32 1. 89
71. Gurka 4
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12. Jain 1,23,615
4.91 4.32 1.03 0.84
73. "u.1 ia
2,71,134
10.71 9.48 13.48 10.97
74. Parsi 11 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01
75. Sikh 124 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total 26,61,010 100.00 100.00 100.00
(25,16,593) (26,61,010) (2,93,17,966)
Notel Worked out troa tabl.. ot Socio-Econoaic-oua-
Educational Survey 1964 - S r.port of S.cond
Backward Cia Co.ai ion, 1986. Vol.lll,pp.52-
67.
Fiaur.. in brack.t. ar. the r pective total
population of the coluan.
********
(111)
100.00
(3,61,24.594)
APPENDIX - IV
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE*
FORM - I
Pre-Matric/Post-Matric
1. Name of the Hosteller
2. Name of the hostel and place :
4.
6.
7.
Name of the school in which
the hosteller is studying
Class or standard in which
the hosteller is studying
Date of birth and age
Re 1 ig ion
( a)
Caste
Sub-Caste




:




8. (a) Under which BCs group were you selected (at
the time of jOining) to the hostel?
( i )
B T
(ii) BCM (
(i i i)
B C T
(iv) B S G
( v )
s C
(vi) S T (
(v i i ) Other
(b)
Which form did you enclose at the time of
admission to the hostel?
( i )
Form - I (i 1)
Form - II
( iii) Form - I I I
9.
( a )
Is YOLlr father alive? Yes No
(b)
What i s/\.llaS his occLlpation?
* This Interview Schedule was originally prepared in
~ ~ n n d (the regional and officlal language of
Karnataka State) and was used for collection of data.
(c) Age (if not alive, what was his age when he

(d) Educational status of father:
( e )
Any other training ( oc c up at i on a 1 /
professional training):
( f )
AnnLla 1
income of the father ( from all
sources) :
(9) Details of the assets:
( i )
Agricultural Land:
Irrigated (ac res)
Dry (acres)
Garden (acres) .
(ii) House site: Owned (independent) )
Government allotted
Relative's
Rented
( 1 J. i) HOLlse: Own (Self owned)
Government allotted
Relatives
Rented
(iv) House/s given for rent and the
income from it:
(v) Vehicle:
Bullock Cart
(Movable
property) Tractor
Power tiller
Cycle
Motor bike
Any other, specify
(vi) Any other assets (specify)
( i i)
(
10.
(a)
Is your mother alive? Yes
No
(b) Occupation of the mother:
(c) Age (if not alive, what was her age when she
died?> .........
(d) Level of education (educational status):
(e) Mother's income:
(f) Details of the property:
Land (in acres)
Jewels (specify unit)
Any other assets
( sp e c i f y) ..................... ...
11. Year of jOining the hostel and the class:
12 (a) Were you a resident of any
hostel earlier? Yes
No
(b) If yes, please furnish the details:
----------------------------_._---------_ .... :..-_-----------
Name of the
Hostel
1.
2.
4.
Place Standard Duration Distance
from the
native
place
------------------------------------------
------------
13.
( a) Are you in receipt of any
scholarship now? Yes
No
( iii)
(b) If yes, please furnish the details:
----------------------
--------------------------------
Name of the
department,
organisation
or association
Purpose
Amount Duration
From To
(Date, month
and year)
----------------------
--------------------------------
1.
2.
~
4.
14.
(a)
Were you getting any
scholarship earlier? Yes No
(
(b) If yes, please furnish the details:
Name of the
department,
organlsation or
association
Purpose Amount Duration
From To
------------------------------------------------------
1.
..
.;.. .
"'!'
. ..J
4.
------------------------------------------------------
15.
Presently,
concession
follOl.,ing:
if
/
you are getting
fee reimbursement,
Amount of Freeship:
Fee concession given:
R e ~ s o n s for getting:
Organisatlon/department:
(iv)
freeship/fee
mention the
16.
17.
18.
19.
If you were getting freeship earlier,
furnish details <fee concession):
Freeship amount:
For how many years?
Reasons for getting:
Department/organisatlon:
please
In case
admlssion
have
studies by
if you would not have been given
to this hostel, do you think still it
been possible for you to continue your
making alternative arrangements?
Yes
No
(a) If yes, how could you have managed?
the appropriate one)
(i) other general hostels
(i i)
( iii)
( i v )
Relative's house
In rented rooms
By travelling daily
from the native place
)
(tick
(b) If you were to stay in a rented room, how
would you have managed your boardlng facllitles?
(tick the appropriate one)
(i 1)
( iii )
( i v )
(a)
(b)
Relative's house
Self cooking
Hotel/Mess
(
Any other ....................... .
Mention your native place:
Distance between your
place and the hostel:

(a) upto what level you would like to continue
your studies (educational aspiratlons)?
( v)
2(>
(i)
Matric (SSLC)
( i i )
TCH/ITI/Diploma/PUC
(iii) B.Sc/B.A/B.Com
(iv) B.E/M.B.B.S/LL.B
(v)
M.A/M.Sc/M.Com
(v i )
B.Ed/M.Ed
( vii )
Any other (specify)
)
)
(
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( b ) Til 1 \4Jh at
thlnk you have
studles? (Keeping
your performance,
level (of education) do you
the ability to continue your
the circumstances in view like
f ac iii t y, etc.)
(i) SSLC only
(ii) TCH/ITI/Diploma/PUC
(iii) B.Sc/B.A/B.Com
(iv) B.E/M.B.B.S/LL.B
(v) M.A/M.Sc/M.Com
(vi) B.Ed/M.Ed
(v i i ) Any other (specify)
(c) Can your parentslfamily members afford to
sponsor your studies? (till your expected level)
Yes No
(d) If they cannot, how will you be able to
fulfil your aspirations?
(e) If you are not interested in pursuing your
~ t u l e ~ further, please mention reasons for the
same.
(a) After completing your education, what
of occupatlon/profession you would like to
up or join? (occupational aspiration)
(v i)
type
take
(b) Please mention your family occupation
(traditional) (tick the appropriate one)
Agriculture
Sheep rearing
Fishing
Carpentry
Blacksmith
Washerman
Barber
)
)
)
)
)
Cobbler )
Weaving )
Yes
No
(d) Occupation of your grandfather:
(please mention)
(e) If you are not able to get
job, would you like to continue
traditional occupation?
Yes No
(f) If no, what are the reasons?
( i )
( i i )
( iii)
your
your
)
aspired
family's
(g) If you get a job, where would you prefer
to reside?
( vii)
Villages
Small towns
Cities
Any other (specify>
21.
(a)
What are the facilities available in your
hostel?
( i )
( i 1 i)
( V )
( i i)
( i v>
(v i)
(b) Are
facilities
YOLI satisfied
in the hostel?
with the available
Yes
No
(e) Are you utilising your hostel library?
Yes
No
(d) Do you generally read newspaper daily?
Yes
No
22. What are the other facilities do you expect to be
provIded in the hostel?
(1)
( iii)
(v>
( i i )
( i v )
23.
(a) Please furnish subject-wise marks scored
annual examination of the previous class:
in
51. No.
Subject t1arks
scored
Ma::imLlm
Marks
----------------------------------------------------
i )
i i )
1 i i )
i '''; )
v)
vi>
vii )
VII i )
--- ----------
Grand Total
---------------------------------
---------
-------------------------
-----------------------------
(viii>
(b) Are you satisfied with the above mentioned
marks secured by you?
Yes
No
(
24. (a) Do you think that you would have scored
better marks than this?
Yes
No
(
(b) If yes, how? (note the explanation)
25. What difficulties did you face in scoring better
marks? m ~ n t i o n the difficulties)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
26. (a) Do you have any problems in your school
pertaining to your studies?
27.
Yes No
(b) If yes, what kind of problems do you face?
(tick the appropriate one)
Relationship with the teachers (
Relationship with the
classmates
Medium of instruction is
different from my mother
tongue
Lack of necessary books
Lack of teachers
)
Any other (specify)
( a )
What is your medium of instruction?
(b) What is your mother tongue?
28. (a) Number of Brothers and Sisters:
~
Brothers
Sisters
------------------------------------------------------
Age
Education Occupation
Age Education Occupa-
tion
------------------------------------------------------
Elder
Elder
1-
1.
"')
..:...
2 .
<"
~
....
.....
Younger
Younger
1-
"')
~ .
29.
1-
"')
..:...
~
..J.
(b) What kind of help you have received from
your brothers and sisters (tick the appropriate
one)
Financial help
Guidance for education
(
Guidance for taking up job
Any other (mention) ...
Does YOLlr
~ u u c ; ci t 1 art ell
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
native place
instltutlons?
has
Lower Primary (LPS)
Higher Primary (HPS)
High school
Junior College
First Grade College
the following
Yes/No
Yes/No
Yes/No
Yes/No
Yes/No
f) Any other (speci fy) .
(:d

30. Does your place has the following hostels?
31.
a)
Pre-Matric
(Private)
b)
Pre-Matric
(Government)
c)
Post-Matric
(Private)
d)
Post-Matric
(Government)
a) Why did you join the hostel
staying with your parents/relatives?
reasons for joining the hostel).
(i)
(i i)
( iii)
(
instead of
(mention the
(b) Did you make any attempts earlier for
,securing hostel admission?
Yes
No
32 (a) HOt>} did you come to knot>} about the hostel
facility? (From whom) (tick the appropriate one)
Friends
V L Ws
Relatives
O ~ l SOLlal Worker
School Teachers
Government Departments
Rad io/Net'Jsp ape r
Any other (specify)
(
(
(
(
( )
( )
( )
(b) Who was responsible for your
admission into the hostel?
securing
33. How do you generally spend your time during the
vacation? (tick the appropriate one)
Playing
Helping parents
Studying
Helping in agricultural work
Helping the father in his
traditional occupational
activities
(
(
(
(
Any other (specify)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( xi)
34. Does your hostel Superintendent also help you in
Y0L.lr stud i es?
Yes/No
35. Whether the part time teachers who come to the
hostel are helpful to you?
Yes/No
36. How do you rate your performance in studies as
compared to your classmates in your
~ 7
38
(i) hostel?
Better
Equal
Worse
(
(
(ii) school?
Better
Equal
Worse
(
(
(
a)
How many close friends you have got in the
hostel?
Only one ( )
2 - .::. ( )
4 - 6 ( )
7 - 10 ( )
More than ten ( )
None
( )
b) How do you appraise your performance in
studies as compared to your close friends?
Better
( )
Equal
( )
Worse/backward
( )
a) Do
school
you participate in any sports and games at
or in the hostel?
Yes
b)
pI ay?
i )
(i i i)
(v)
If
No
yes, what are the sports and games you
( i i)
( i v)
( vi)
c) How many hours do you spend in playing sports
and games?
.... hours
d) Have you won any prize/s in any of the sports
and games organised in the school or hostel?
Yes
No
e) If yes, furnish the details of the same.
i )
i i )
iii)
i v)
Name of the sport/game
Prize won
39. a) Whether any of your brothers or sisters
utilislng the hostel facilities presently?
Yes No
b) If yes, furnish the following details:
------------------------------------------------------
5l.
No.
Brother/
Sister
Name of
hostel &
place
Class
studying
Name of
the
school
studying
Distance
from
your
native
place
------------------------------------------------------
1>
i i )
iii)
i v )
------------------------------------------------------
40. a) Did any of your brothers or sisters stay in
any government or aided hostel previously?
Yes No
b) If yes, furnish the following details:
------------------------------------------------------
51 Brother/ Name of Place Years Class
S lster the Hostel stu-
No. died
1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------------------------------------------
i>
ii>
iii)
-------------------
---------------------------
--------
can td
(xiii>
------------------------------------------------------
If studying If employed If unemployed
----------------- ------------------ ---------------
School/
College
Place
Position/ Place
Designa-
Place of stay/
present resi-
dence
tion

7
8 9
10 11
------------------------------------------------------
i>
ii>
iii>
------------------------------------------------------
41.
What type of facilities/help you would
from the government departments or
organisations/associations for completing
education?
i>
ii)
iii)
i v)
v)
***********
(:<i v)
e:<pect
other
your
APPENDIX - V
A Study of the Utilisation of Various Measures
provided by the State to Promote Equality of
Educational Opportunity in the case of Other Backward
Classes in a District of Karnataka
Resarcher: U.P.Chandrashekhar
No.460B, First Floor,
Pathadae Buildings
Bhadkal Galli
Belgaum 590 002
Supervisor: Dr C S Nagaraju
The role of education and providing opportwnity
for access to education assume vital significance in
bringing about desirable social change. In this
direction the various measures undertaken for the
welfare of backward classes also assume equal
importance. This study attempts to examine the various
educational measures implemented for the welfare of
backward classes and the consequent impact on the
educational development, attainments and occupational
attainments.
As you were earlier residing in hostel meant for
backward classes for educational purposes, this
questionnaire has been mailed to you with the
intention of obtaining information regarding your
socio-economic background, educational and vocational
asplrations,attainments etc.
The information provided by you will be kept
strictly confidential and would be used for research
purposes only. The results of this investigation
would be presented statistically to derive scientific
and objective inferences.
You are requested to extend valuable cooperation
by way of providing the required information in the
given questionnaire. Please return the filled-in
questionnaire through the enclosed self-addressed
(postal stamp affixed) envelope by
With thanks,
( i )
S 1 . No
QUESTIONNAIRE*
1- Name
and
Address
'?
a)
Date of birth
..:...
b)
Age
"T.
>-J. Sex
4. a) Did you utilise the
hostel servicesl
facilities to complete
your studies?
b) Did you stay in the
hostel which was getting
financial assistance
from the government?
c) If yes, furnish the
following details with
regard to hostel/
boarding facilities
.
.
Form II
Pre-Matric/Post-Matric
Male ) Female
Yes ) No ( ) -
Yes No (
------------------------------------------------------
Name and address
of the hostel/
boarding
i )
ii>
iii>
5. Period during which
you stayed in the
hostel (l&Iith date,
month and year)
Classes
studied
Years of stay in the
hostel
From To
From . To
------------------------------------------------------
* This questlonnaire was originally prepared in
~ a n n a d a (the regional and official langu,-ge of
Karnaraka State) and used for data collection. The
questionnaire was mailed to collect data.
( i i )
6. To which community/caste
do you belong?
a) Caste
b) Sub-caste
c) SLlb-sect
7. Religion (Tick the appropriate)
8.
i) Hindu
iii) Muslim
( i i ) Ch r i s t ian
(iv) Jain
)
)
v) Any other
(specify) .................. .
a) Which income certi-
ficate form or
caste certificate
form did you submit
while joining the
hostel? (tick the
appropriate one)
b) Under which group
you were considered
l.,h i 1 e g i v i ng
facilities in the
hostel?
(tick the appro-
priate one).
c) Information with
regard to your
birth place
i) Place
ii) Taluk
iii) District
d) Furnish the following
information regarding
your father when you
were staying in the
hostel (if your
father was not alive,
furnish information
regarding your
guardian)
i) Father'sl
guardian's
occupartionl
p!"ofession.
( iii)
Form 1
Form 2
Form 3
(
(
(
)
)
)
Any other (specify>
S C
S T
Backward Tribe (BT)
Backward Caste (BCT)
Backward
community (BCM)
Backward Special
Group (BSG)
e)
ii) Age .
.
iii)Level of Education:
(class studied)
iv) other training
v) Annual income
(from all sources)
Details ~ i t regard to
father's property
(assets) (specify the
units)
Agricultural land
Dry land
Irrigated land
.
.
.
.
Garden (Plantations):
ii) HOLlse site: Owned
........ acres
.... acres
..... ... acres
Allotted by Govt.
Area and value (specify):
iii)House
iv) If there are any
house/s given for
rent, what is the
income derived?
v )
Asse ts (all/ned)
(Movable Property)
.
. Independent
Allotted
freely by
Government
Relative's
Rented
Bullock cart ( )
Power tiller ( )
Tractor ()
Blcycle (
Motor Cycle
Any other (specify)
...................
( i v)
VI.
f)
i )
If engaged in
business, specify
the kind of
business
ii) Income derived from
the business
Information regarding
your mother when you were
in the hostel
1) Occupation/Profession
2) Age
3) Level of education






Annual income :
4)
5)
Details of the property:
g) Present details regarding
father and mother, if there
are any changes with
reference to question Nos.
8(d) (e) (f).
9. What was the distance
between your home
town and the hostel in
which you stayed?
10. Present place of your
resldence
Name of the Place
Taluk
District
Distance between your
.
.
i )Land (specify the
units)
ii>Other Assets
kms/miles
native place and present place
of your residence (if your
present place of residence
is different from your
native place)
11) What are you doing at
present? (tick the
appropriate one)
(v)
Continuing education
Employed
Looking for employmentl
job
Engaged in agriculture
.
.
Any other activities (s "f)
peCl y ................
12. Furnish more details with
regard to the
13
quest ion No. 11
(a) If you are employed,whether
were you selected under
any reserva.tion
category?
(b) If yes, under which
reservation category
you were selected?
(tick the appropriate
one)
c) I f you are emp loyed,
furnish the following information:
Yes/No
SC/ST
BCM
BCT
BT
BSG
Group AlBIC IDlE
-----------------------------------------------------------
Name of the
departmentl
organisation
Desig- Central
nation Govt.
State
Govt.
Coopera-
tives
Any other
(specify)
-----------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------
14. What is your present
i) Level of education?
ii) Monthly 1ncome?
.lil) Annual income?
15. a) upto which educational level (educational
course/degree) you had aspired to complete, when
staY1ng 1n the hostel?
( vi)
16.
b) If you
had an
aspiration to
educational level
details.
alternative
the above
(aspiration),
educational
mentioned
please give
c) Could you accomplish your educational goal
(aspiration)?
d)
a)
b)
If no,
same?
i>
it>
iii)
Yes/No
what were/are the reasons for
What was your occupational aspiration
you were a student? (while staying in
hostel)
the
Could you accomplish your
occupational
aspiration?
Yes/No
c) If yes, how could you do it and what are the
facilities that helped you to accomplish
that aspiration?
i )
i 1 )
iii)
d) If no, specify reasons:
i )
i i )
iii)
e)
If you had any alternative plans other than the
. b give
one mentioned above, regarding your JO ,
details.
f )
If you are employed, do you
View that while giving
reservation POliCY should
consideration?
Yes/No
( vii)
subscribe to
promotions,
be taken
the
the
into
g) If yes, what are the reasons for the same?
i )
i i )
iii>
17. Being in employment,what are your future plans and
aspirations (for employed only)?
Educational
Occupational
1.
1.
2.
2.
18. If you have completed your education, mention your
school/college last studied and other details.
~
Name of the
school/
college
Place
Course/
class
studied
If you were a resident
of hostel, furnish
details of the hostel
-----------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------
19.
If you are still continuing your studies,
getting student scholarship?
Yes (
No (
b) If yes, furnish the folowing details:
are you
----------------------------------------
--------
-----------
Dept. forgan i-
sation/
association
Reasons for
getting the
scholarship
Amount For I.,hat pur-
pose YOLl use
the scholar-
ship
----------
---------------------------------------------
ii>
-------------
--------------------------------------
~ -- ~ - -
20
a) Were YOLl getting
scholarship earlier?
Yes
No
( vii i )
b) If yes, furnish
the following details:
- -----------------------------------------------------------
Dept/organi-
sation/
association
Reasons for
getting
scholarship
Amount Duration
From To
For what.
purpose
you used
this
scholar-
ship
~
i1)
i i 1)
~
21.
..... ,,.,
-- .
(a)
b)
i )
i i )
i 1 i )
i v )
v )
If you are still continuing your education, and
getting fee exemption, furnish the following
information:
i ) Amount of fee concession
(e>:empt ion)
ii) For which reason the fee
IAJas e:<empted?
iii) Department/organisation
which is reimbursing
the fees
.
.
What were the facilities available
~ o s t e l in which you resided?
1>
i i )
iii )
i v)
v)
in the
h t
the
e
ssential
According to you, w a are
facilities still to be provided in the students
hostel?
Pre-Matric
pos-Matric
i>
ii>
iii)
i v)
v)
Furnishtdetails about the marks scored in your highest
examlna lon completed:
---------------------
--------------------------------------
Subject
Marks Scored Ma:: imum Marks
-----------------------------------------------------------
i>
ii>
iii>
i v)
v)
vi)
vii)
vii i )
Total
-----------------------------------------------------------
24.
25.
a) Are you satisfied with the above scoring?
Yes
No
(
b) Do you think that you could have scored better
than this?
c)
i>
ii>
iii)
Yes No
Mention the difficulties/hindrances
prevented you from scoring better marks:
d) i) What was your medium of instruction?
a)
ii) What is your mother tongue?
Are/were there any problems for
school/college pertaining to studies?
Yes
No
l.A,hich
you in
b) If there are/were problems, tick the following:
i) Lack of necessary books
ii) Lack of teachers
111)Problem of medium of
instruction
iv) Any other (specify) ..
( :.: )
26.
27.
a)
b)
What is your family's traditional occupation?
(tick the appropriate)
Ag ric u I t u r e
( )
Sheep
rearing
( )
Blacksmithy
( )
Washerman
( )
Fishery
( )
Barber
( )
Cobbler
( )
Weaving
( )
Carpentry
(
Any other (specify)
Are you continuing the above occupation
present?
Yes
No
at
c) If you are still unemployed, would you like to
continue your family's traditional occupation?
Yes
d) If no, loJhat are the reasons?
a)
i )
i i )
iii)
Is your grand father alive?
Yes
No
No
b) What is/was your grand father's occupation /
professlon?
':'::8. a) Number of brothers/sisters
-------------------------------------------------------
Elder
1.
..,.
..,J.
Younger
1.
Brothers
Age Educa- Employ-
catlon ment
--------------------------------
( :-:i )
Sisters
Age Education Employ-
ment
Elder
1.
...,
..:...
"<
w
Younger
1.
...,
....
"<
w'
---------------
------------
b)
In what way your brother/s and sister/s
helped you in your education? (tick
appropriate one)
Helping financially
Giving guidance on educa-
tional aspect
Guidance for taking up job
Any other (specify)
(xi)
)
c) Who inspired you in your education most?
(tick the appropriate one)
Father (
Brother (
Uncle (
)
)
)
Any other (specify)
Mother
Sister
Aunt
have
the
d) How did they help/influence you in your education?
e)
(specify) ..........
Other than your relatives, who else
influenced/inspired you in your education?
Friends Teachers
( )
Any other (specify)
has
29. How do you rate your performance in the stUdies in
comparison with your class mates? (while you were in
the hostel>
30.
a)
b)
Better
Worse
Equal
Whether you were participating in any sports
and games?
Yes No
If yes, what are the sports and games
participated?
i )
i i )
iii)
i v)
(:<i i>
you
31.
i )
ii>
iii )
iv)
c) Have you got any prizes for having participated in
the games/sports?
Yes
No
d) If yes, furnish the details:
Name of the game
Prize secured
i )
i i )
iii )
i \I )
e) Have you in any
activities? (music, drama, debate, others)
Yes
No
f) If yes, have you got any prizes? Furnish details.
(1)
( i i )
Item
Prize secured
a)
Presently, is any of your brothers or sisters
staying in the hostel?
Yes No
b) If yes, furnish the following details:
Brother/ Name of
Sister the
hostel
Place Standard Name of
studying the
school
Distance
from
your
native
pl ace
-------------------------
----------------------------------
a) Did any of your borthers/sisters stay
student's hostel earlier?
Yes No
(:-:iii)
in any
b)
If yes, furnish the following details:
-.. -------------
---------------------------------------------
Brother/ Name of Place
sister the
hostel
Year Standard
studied
If employed
Desi- Place
gna-
tion
(Posi-
t ion)
-----------------------------------------------------------
i)
:t.i )
1 i i )
lV)
-----------------------------------------------------------
~ 3 a) If you are continuing education,what kind of
facilities do you expect from the Government to
complete your education?
i )
i i )
iii>
b) If you are unemployed/looking for job, what
of help/assistane do you expect from
Government for securing a job?
kind
the
c) Other than Government, what are the other
institutions/organisations you think should
provide facilities to complete your education and
also to get an employment (what type of
facilities)?
i )
i i )
iii>
i v )
34) a) Being a member of backward class, what kind of
help/guidance you propose to extend/provide to
your fellow backward class members in your
nelghbourhood for their general
welfare/development?
1)
ii>
iii)
(xiv)
35.
b) What type of help the students, in your
neighbourhood/in your village, belonging to
backward classes, can expect from you regarding
their education?
Any other opinion/information:
**********
(xv)
APPENDIX-VI
A STUDY OF THE UTILISATION OF VARIOUS MEASURES
PROVIDED BY THE STATE TO PROMOTE EQUALITY OF
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN THE CASE OF OTHER BACKWARD
CLASSES IN A DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA
BY
U.P.CHANDRASHEKHAR
Post-matric/Pre-matric
Information Schedule (pre-coded)/Code Manual for Data
Collection from Post-Matric and Pre-matric
Scholarship Beneficiaries' Application [of 1986-87]
Male 1
Female 2
2. Course Post-matric
PUC
B.A.
B.Sc.
B.Com.
B.Ed.
B.E.
M.B.B.S -
B.A.M.S -
M.A.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
M.Com. a
M.Sc. b
T.C.H. c
1.T.I d
Technical-
Dlploma
Other vocational
diploma/
certificate
LL.B.
e
f
9
(i)
Pre-matric
Higher Primary - 1
(V to VII grade)
High School
(Secondary) - 2
(VIII to X Grade)
3. Rural-Urban Background
Rural
Urban
4. Father's Occupations
Agriculture
Agricultural coolie
Other coolie works
Petty business
Artisan] Potters ]
] Goldsmiths]
1
2
1
2
3
4
] Carpenters]- 5
J Blacksmiths]
] Cobblers ]
Service
Occupation
JHair-
J
Jdressers ]
JGoundis ]-
JWasherman ]
]Milkman ]
Other
Not reported
5. Scholastlc achievement
High (60 and above)
MedlLlm
(50 to 59%)
LOll'
(I ess than 50%)
6. Income Level
Less than Rs. 500
Rs.501 - Rs.l000
Rs.100l - Rs.2000
Rs.2001 Rs.3000
Rs.3001 Rs.4000
Rs.4001 Rs.5000
Rs.5001 Rs.7000
Rs.7001 - Rs.10,OOO &
above
Not reported
6
7
(i i)
9
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
7. Category Affiliation:
B.T.
B.C.T.
B.C.M.
B.S.G.
1
2
4
8. Category applicants caste affiliation:
Not applicable
Tal'>Jar
Naika
Bestar
Beder
Valmiki
Gondhali
o
1
2
4
5
6
9. BeT Category applicants caste affiliation:
Not appl icable
Kurubar
Tigala
Agasa
Kumbara
Badigar
Ionan
Uppar
Kol i
Garav
Honaber
o
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
10. BCM category applicants caste affiliation:
Not applicable
Muslims
Vokkaliga
Reddy
Shimpiga
Devang
P anchal
Nhavi
Rajput
Medar
Kabbal ig
( iii>
o
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
11. BSG Category applicants caste affiliation
No t ap p 1 i c ab 1 e
Not reported
Lingayat
BI'ahmin
Maratha
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Jains
Christians
o
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
*******
(iv)
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