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November 15, 2013

Unit #3 Periodic Properties of Ionic Compounds and Acids


Why is it called a periodic table? properties of the elements repeat in a periodic way

Does this have repeating properties?

History of the tables development 1. Antoine Lavoisier compiled a list of elements in 1790's 23 known elements known as Father of Modern Chemistry 2. John Newlands first to use repeating patterns in 1864 70 known elements Law of Octaves > properties repeat every 8th element > did not work for all of the elements

3. Dmitri Mendeleev credited with the 1st periodic table in 1869 arranged elements in atomic mass order major contribution: > left blank spaces > predicted the properties of some undiscovered elements 4. Henry Moseley established the atomic number in 1913 arranged the elements in increasing number of p+

Periodic Law - when the elements are arranged in increasing atomic number order, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties
Periodic table organization periods - (series) horizontal rows groups - (families) vertical columns ! group numbers: new system 1 - 18 or older A/B system representative elements - elements in the s and p blocks ! also called main group ! groups 1, 2 & 13 - 18 (1A - 8A in the book)

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Special group names inert gases specific noble gases will not react He, Ne, Ar & Kr inner transition metals 2 series below the table AKA rare earth metals

Standard State ! solids > most elements ! liquids > Br and Hg ! gases > H, N, O, F, Cl > noble gases

3 Classes of elements 1. Metals Properties Ductile > drawn into wires Malleable > hammered into sheets Lustrous (luster) > shiny Conductor of heat & electricity High melting points and density Solid at room temperature - except Hg

2. Nonmetals Properties Dull > not lustrous Low melting points and density > most are gases Poor conductors of heat and electricity > Good insulators
Chlorine Bromine Iodine

Sulfur

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3. Metalloids - B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po & At Properties Intermediate properties Si > semiconductor > used in computer chips Ge > used in solar cells

Identifying the 3 classes of elements on the periodic table Stair-step line

Silicon

Arsenic

Remember these trends in valence electrons

Octet rule atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons An octet consists of eight electrons Because: noble gases have eight electrons Therefore: we assume that an atom is stable when surrounded by eight electrons

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Ionic Bonding ! a bond formed when oppositely charged atoms are electrostatically attracted to one another as a result of the transfer of electrons

Ionic compounds form from: > metal + nonmetal or > metal + nonmetal group Oxides class of compounds between a metal and oxygen MgO Mg and CO2.MOV Salts generic name for most other ionic compounds NaCl Zinc Iodide.MOV NaCl.MOV ZnI2

Introduction to Ion names and formulas Monatomic ion - a one-atom ion cation - positive ion formed by the loss of valence electron(s) ! atom loses electrons to have an octet like the previous noble gas " cations ! name stays the same as the atom Li " lithium atom Li+ " lithium ion anion - a negative ion formed by the gain of electron(s) ! atoms gain electrons to achieve an octet " anions ! the suffix -ide is added to the root of the element name Br " bromine atom Br- " bromide ion

Trends in monatomic charges based on location cations not listed need a roman numeral
H+

Zn2+

Ag+

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Polyatomic ions ions made up of more than one atom charge applies to the whole group fixed subscripts of atoms within the ion
Required Polyatomic Ions ammonium bicarbonate hydroxide nitrite sulfite NH4 + HCO3 OH NO2 SO3 2 acetate carbonate phosphate nitrate sulfate C2H3O2 CO3 2 PO4 3 NO3 SO4 2

Polyatomic ion trends

name sulfide sulfate sulfite S2SO42SO32N3NO3 NO2 -

name?

-ide exception: hydroxide OH -

Ionic compound formulas from names Ion Charge method: 1. write the symbol and charge of each ion 2. add charges to check for a neutral compound 3. add ions to balance charges 4. write the formula with subscripts and without charges example: sodium carbonate Na+ Na+ CO32Na2CO3

potassium phosphate

aluminum oxide

copper (II) bromide

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barium nitrate

iron (III) sulfate

Ionic compound names from formulas Steps: 1. name the cation and anion 2. USE the subscript to identify the ion as needed > identify polyatomic ions by subscript > do not include the subscripts used in balancing in the name > work quantity and charge to find roman numeral as needed example: Li3PO4 polyatomic anion used to balance formula (not in name)

cation
calcium hydroxide

cation

example: Al2(SO4)3

Na2SO4
polyatomic anion

(NH4)2S

used to balance formula (not in name) example: Cu(NO3)2 polyatomic anion used to balance formula (use to find roman numeral)

AgC2H3O2

CuCl

cation

LiHCO3

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Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius defined as how closely an atom lies to a neighboring atom Trends # atomic radius generally decreases across a period (L!R) # atomic radius generally increases down a group

Radius changes due to ion formation cations > loss of electrons > loss of outer energy level > radius decreases sodium atom: Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 sodium ion: Na+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s0 anions > gain of electrons > additional electron causes more repulsion > radius increases fluorine atom: F 1s2 2s2 2p5 fluoride ion: F- 1s2 2s2 2p6

Isoelectronic Series chemical species with the same number of electrons formed by loss and gain of electrons during ion formation > nitride N3- 1s2 2s2 2p6 > oxide O2- 1s2 2s2 2p6 > fluoride F- 1s2 2s2 2p6 > neon Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6 > sodium Na+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 > magnesium Mg2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 > aluminum Al3+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1

In the series: the largest radius is the species with the lowest number of protons

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Ionization Energy the energy required to remove the outermost electron trends are opposite the atomic radius trends the more closely held the electron = more ionization energy

Ionization energy trends generally increase across the period there are exceptions due to stability

Naming Acids Acid a substance whose molecules yield H+ when dissolved in water Names based on the suffix of the anion bonded to the hydrogen ion.

phosphoric acid

HBr

Formula Anion name HCl chloride H2SO4 HClO2 sulfate chlorite

Naming system Acidic name hydro- anion root -ic hydrochloric acid anion root -ic anion root -ous sulfuric acid chlorous acid

hypochlorous acid

H2CO3

HNO3