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Air Pre-Heater

Fossil Fuel Fired Plant

Air Pre-Heater Fossil Fuel Fired Plant 1 How it Works • Absorbs waste heat from flue

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How it Works

Absorbs waste heat from flue gas and transfers this heat to

incoming cold air by continuously rotating heat transfer elements

of specially formed metal sheets.

Bi-sector Air preheater preheats the combustion air. Tri-sector preheats the secondary and also primary air.

High efficiency elements are spaced and compactly arranged with in twelve/twenty four sector shaped compartments and twenty four sector shaped compartments.

The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct connections at both the ends, and is adequately sealed by radial and axial sealing members forming an air passage through one half of the Air preheater and a gas passage through the other.

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PMI Revision 01 3 Heat gained by boiling water 38% •Loss due to moisture in
PMI Revision 01 3 Heat gained by boiling water 38% •Loss due to moisture in
PMI Revision 01
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Heat gained by boiling water 38%
•Loss due to moisture in air.
•Loss due to moisture in fuel.
Fuel Energy
•Loss due to comb. gen. moisture.
100%
•Dry Exhaust Gas Losses~ 4.6%
Hot gas
Flue gas
•Heat loss from furnace surface.
Heat gained
•Unburned carbon losses.
by SH & RH
38%
•Incomplete combustion losses.
•Loss due to hot ash.
Heat gained by economizer & air
pre-heater 11%
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Air Pre-Heater-functions

An air pre-heater heats the combustion air where it is economically feasible

The pre-heating helps the following

Igniting the fuel

Improving combustion

Drying the pulverized coal in pulverizer

Reducing the stack gas temperature and increasing the boiler efficiency

There are three types of air heaters

Recuperative

Rotary regenerative

Heat pipe

 

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Advantages by use of APH

Stability of Combustion is improved by use of hot air

Intensified and improved combustion

Permitting to burn poor quality coal

High heat transfer rate in the furnace and hence lesser heat transfer area requirement

Less un-burnt fuel particle in flue gas thus combustion and both r efficiency is improved

Intensified combustion permits faster load variation and fluctuation

In the case of pulverised coal combustion, hot air can be used for heating the coal as well as for transporting the pulverised coal to burners

This being a non-pressure part will not warrant shut-down of

unit due to corrosion of heat transfer surface which is inherent with lowering of flue gas temperature

 

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Air-heater Selection

Gas temperature entering APH

Gas quantity entering APH

Air quantity leaving APH

Desired pressure drop on air/gas side

Gas temperature leaving APH

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Air Heater in Fossil Fired Plant

 

The rotating cylinder packed with thousands of sq m of specially formed sheets of heat transfer surfaces

of sq m of specially formed sheets of heat transfer surfaces As it revolves, heat of

As it revolves, heat of FG is absorbed through one half

The accumulated heat is released to the

incoming air as the same surfaces pass

through other half

The heat transfer cycle is continuous as

the surfaces are alternately exposed to

the outgoing gas and incoming air

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Types Of Air Preheater

Recuperative

Regenerative

Plate type Airheater

Steam Air Preheater

Langsdorm type

Rothemuhle type

Tri sector Air Heater

9 Tubular Air Heaters (Recuperative) 10
9
Tubular Air Heaters
(Recuperative)
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Tubular Air Pre-Heater

Tubular Air Pre-Heater   11 Design Parameters • Tubes are generally arranged in staggered pattern •
 

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Design Parameters

Tubes are generally arranged in staggered pattern

Steel tubes of Dia: 37 63 mm

Transverse pitch: S 1 /d = 1.5 1.9

Longitudinal pitch: S 2 /d = 1.0 1.2

The height of air chamber:1.4 4.5 m

Gas and Air flow velocity : 10 16 m/s

Plate Recuperators:

Instead of tube, parallel plates are used

The gas passage is 12 16 mm wide

The air passage is 12 mm wide

 

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Regenerative air pre heater

BYPASS SEAL RADIAL SEAL HOT END AXIAL SEAL COLD END HOT INTERMEDIATE
BYPASS SEAL
RADIAL SEAL
HOT END
AXIAL
SEAL
COLD END
HOT INTERMEDIATE

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Components of Air heater

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Rotary Plate (Regenerative)

type Pre-Heater

Rotates with a low speed : 0.75 rpm

Weight : 500 tons

This consists of : rotor, sealing apparatus, shell

etc.

Rotor is divided into 12 or 24 sections and 12 or 24 radial divisions

Each sector is divided into several trapezoidal sections with transverse division plates

Heat storage pales are placed in these sections

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Electric Motor Cam Clutch Box Overrunning Clutch Fluid Coupling Gear Box Air Motor
Electric Motor
Cam Clutch Box
Overrunning Clutch
Fluid Coupling
Gear Box
Air Motor

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17 The Material used in APH for heat storage • Material used Cold end in
17 The Material used in APH for heat storage • Material used Cold end in
17 The Material used in APH for heat storage • Material used Cold end in

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The Material used in APH for heat storage

Material used Cold end in the basket is a special type of steel (corten steel (trade name)) which has high resistance to the low temperature sulphur corrosion, thus prolonging operational life.

In the hot end mild steels are used

The optimal geometric shape is usually corrugated and sizes are determined based on design modelling and experimental data. The turbulence of air and gas flow

through the package increases the heat transfer rate.

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Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater

Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater 19 Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater • The heat storage elements are static

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Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater

The heat storage elements are static but the air/gas flow section rotates.

The storage plates are placed in the stator.

storage elements are static but the air/gas flow section rotates. • The storage plates are placed

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Trisector air Heater

Trisector air Heater 21 Heating Elements • Hot End Baskets • Hot Intermediate Baskets • Cold

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Heating Elements

Hot End Baskets

Hot Intermediate Baskets

Cold End Baskets

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NF Profile 1.2 mm thick DU Profile 0.8 mm thick Change in Cold End Profiles
NF Profile 1.2 mm thick DU Profile 0.8 mm thick Change in Cold End Profiles

NF Profile

1.2 mm thick

NF Profile 1.2 mm thick DU Profile 0.8 mm thick Change in Cold End Profiles 23

DU Profile

0.8 mm thick

Change in Cold End Profiles
Change in Cold End Profiles

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New Profile 25 TYPES OF SEALS • RADIAL SEAL (HE & CE) • AXIAL SEAL
New Profile
New Profile

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TYPES OF SEALS

RADIAL SEAL (HE & CE)

AXIAL SEAL

CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL

ROTOR POST SEAL

SECTOR PLATE STATIC SEAL

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PERCENTAGE AIR LEAKAGE OF TOATAL LEAKAGES

1. HE Radial seal leakage

-

62.21%

2. CE Radial seal leakage

-

11.98%

3. Axial seal leakage

-

08.78%

4. By pass or circumferential seal leakage

-

0.87%

5. Center post seal leakage

-

3.17%

Total percentage

=

87.01%

Entrapped leakage

=

12.99%

TOTAL

=

100%

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leakage - 3.17% Total percentage = 87.01% Entrapped leakage = 12.99% TOTAL = 100% 27 28

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29 Radial Seals 30 15
29 Radial Seals 30
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Radial Seals
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RADAIAL SEALS & SECTOR PLATE

RADIAL SEALS AND SECTOR PLATES ARE

LOCATED AT THE HOT AND COLD ENDS OF THE AIR PREHEATER. THE RADIAL SEALS ARE ATTACHED TO THE DIAPHRAGMS, WHICH SEPARATE THE INDIVIDUAL ROTOR COMPARTMENT.

PURPOSE: - THE PURPOSE OF RADIAL SEALS IS TO REDUCE THE AREA AVAILABLE FOR LEAKAGE FROM THE AIR TO THE GAS SIDE BETWEEN THE DIAPHRAGM AND THE SECTOR PLATE

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TO REDUCE THE AREA AVAILABLE FOR LEAKAGE FROM THE AIR TO THE GAS SIDE BETWEEN THE

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33 AXIAL SEALS AND SEALING PLATES • AXIAL SEALS MINIMIZE LEAKAGE PASSING RADIALLY AROUND THE

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AXIAL SEALS AND SEALING PLATES

AXIAL SEALS MINIMIZE LEAKAGE PASSING RADIALLY AROUND THE ROTOR SHELL. THE AXIAL SEALS ARE MOUNTED ON THE OUT SIDE OF THE ROTOR SHELL AND SEAL AGAINST THE AXIAL SEAL PLATES MOUNTED ON THE AIR PREHEATER HOUSING.

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AXIAL SEAL DIAPHRAGM COG RIM PIN
AXIAL SEAL DIAPHRAGM
COG RIM PIN

Axial Seal

AXIAL SEAL DIAPHRAGM COG RIM PIN Axial Seal 35 36 18

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AXIAL SEAL PLATE AXIAL SEAL INSPECTION DOOR TURN-BUCKLE ADJUSTABLE BOLT JACK BOLT PMI Revision 01
AXIAL
SEAL
PLATE
AXIAL SEAL INSPECTION DOOR
TURN-BUCKLE
ADJUSTABLE
BOLT
JACK BOLT
PMI Revision 01
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Axial Seal Arrangement

Curved axial sector plate adjustable from outside

Seal strips are attached to the rotor.

The thickness of seal strips :

6 MM straight strips in Russian. 2.5 mm thick and bend backward in BHEL.

BHEL APH has better accessibility of axial

seal adjustment as compared to Russian design

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CIRCUMFERENTIAL

SEALS

THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALS PREVENT AIR AND GAS FROM BYPASSING THE

HEATING SURFACE THROUGH THE SPACE

BETWEEN THE ROTOR AND THE HOUSING SHELL. THEY ALSO PREVENT AIR AND GAS FROM FLOWING AXIALLY AROUND THE ROTOR.

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CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL- RUSSIAN

CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL H.E. DIAPHRAGM 2.5MM RADIAL SEAL H.E. ROTOR FLANGE
CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL
H.E. DIAPHRAGM
2.5MM RADIAL SEAL
H.E. ROTOR FLANGE

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ROTOR FLANGE AXIAL SEAL CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL ADJUSTABLE BOLT
ROTOR FLANGE
AXIAL SEAL
CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAL
ADJUSTABLE BOLT

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CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEALS

ACTUATING MECHANISM- RUSSIAN

Actuating Bolt
Actuating Bolt

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ROTOR POST SEALS

ROTOR POST SEALS PREVENT LEAKAGE BETWEEN THE ENDS OF THE ROTOR POST AND THE AIR PREHEATER HOUSING.

THE STATIC SEALS PREVENT LEAKAGE BETWEEN THE HOT & COLD END SECTOR PLATES AND THE HOT AND COLD END CENTER SECTIONS.

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SECTOR PLATE STATIC SEAL
SECTOR PLATE STATIC SEAL
HE ROTOR POST SEAL PMI Revision 01
HE ROTOR POST SEAL
PMI Revision 01

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DIAPHRAGM CE ROTOR POST SEAL
DIAPHRAGM
CE ROTOR POST SEAL

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DIAPHRAGM CE ROTOR POST SEAL 45 AIR SEAL HOUSING 46 23
AIR SEAL HOUSING
AIR SEAL HOUSING

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ROTOR POST SEAL 47 THICKNESS OF RADIAL SEAL STRIPS • RUSSIAN MODEL : 6 MM
ROTOR POST SEAL
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THICKNESS OF RADIAL SEAL
STRIPS
• RUSSIAN MODEL
: 6 MM
• BHEL DESIGN
: 2.5 MM
• SOFT SEAL
: 0.1 MM
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FLEXIBLE / SOFT SEALS

THE FLEXIBLE SEALS WAS DEVELOPED TO REDUCE NORMAL LEAKAGE CAUSED BY THE THERMAL EXPANSION OF THE ROTOR WHILE THE UNIT IS OPERTAING. THE ROTOR EXPANSION OPENS UP

AREAS OF DIRECT AIR TO GAS LEAKAGE THAT CAN

BE GREATLY REDUCED BY INSTALLING FLEXIBLE SEALS.

MERIT : - SOFT SEAL IS SET TO A NEGATIVE CLEARANCE IN COLD CONDITION, AND WHICH WILL EXTEND IN THE HOT CONDITION TO OPERATE AS A STANDARD PROXIMITY SEAL.

DEMERIT : - SINCE THIS IS AN INTERFERENCE OR CONTACT SEAL, THE WEAR LIFE IS VERY LOW.

 

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COST OF SOFT SEALS

RADIAL SOFT SEAL HE/ SET :- 1 LAC

RADIAL SOFT SEAL CE/ SET :- 0.95 LAC

AXIAL SOFT SEAL/ SET :- 0.4 LAC

 

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RADIAL SEAL

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BY PASS SEAL RUSSIAN

BY PASS SEAL RUSSIAN
BY PASS SEAL RUSSIAN

PMI Revision 01

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Rotor Bearings

A thrust bearing supports the complete rotor. Support bearing assy has two types

Hanging design

Integral design

Load is transmitted to thrust bearing by a trunnion, bolted to the lower end of the rotor post or by an extension to the rotor post.

To guide the upper end of the rotor, a guide trunnion is bolted to the face of the rotor post. A radial guide bearing assembly maintains the position of this trunnion.

Both the support and guide bearings are lubricated with an oil bath.

Guide bearing

of this trunnion. • Both the support and guide bearings are lubricated with an oil bath.

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Support Bearings

Support Bearings 55 Oil Circulation System • The system supply the bearing with a bath of

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Oil Circulation System

The system supply the bearing with a bath of continuously cleaned oil at proper viscosity.

The bearing oil is circulated by a motor driven pump through an external

filtering system.

The system components are a pump, motor, thermometer, pressure gauge cooler and filters.

A thermostat is used to limit the operation of the system to temperature, which will not overload the pump or motor as a result of high oil viscosity.

The schematic diagram shows the path, which the oil takes as it, passes through this system

Oil is drawn from bearing housing by the pump into the filter and back to the bearing housing.

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Schematic

Schematic 57 SCHEME FOR SUPPORT BEARING LUB OIL CIRCULATION 58 29

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SCHEME FOR SUPPORT BEARING LUB OIL CIRCULATION

Schematic 57 SCHEME FOR SUPPORT BEARING LUB OIL CIRCULATION 58 29

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Rotor Drive System

The driving force for turning the rotor is applied at its periphery.

A pinion attached to the low speed shaft of a power driven speed reducer engages a pin rack mounted on the rotor shell.

The auxiliary drive ensures the continued operation of the preheater even if power to the electric motor is interrupted. Generally Air motor is used for the auxiliary drive.

The auxiliary drive motor may also be used to control the speed of the

rotor during water washing of the heating surface.

The gear box is furnished with an auxiliary high speed shaft extension, thus permitting the installation of the auxiliary drive motor at any time.

A lubricator is furnished with all air motor drive for installation in the air line.

Clean dry compressed air with required pressure is supplied into the Air motor to avoid jamming / failure.

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MAIN DRIVE ASSY

compressed air with required pressure is supplied into the Air motor to avoid jamming / failure.
compressed air with required pressure is supplied into the Air motor to avoid jamming / failure.

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PERFORMANCE

DEGRADATION OF APH

Seal Leakage

Erosion

Corrosion

High Press Drop Across APH

APH Fire

AH Leakage

Typically air heater starts with a

baseline leakage of 6 to 10% after an

overhaul

What we measure is mainly leakage through

radial seals at hot & cold end

Leakage through circumferential seals is

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cold end • Leakage through circumferential seals is 61 substantial and has a major effect on
cold end • Leakage through circumferential seals is 61 substantial and has a major effect on

substantial and has a major effect on heat

transfer but nominal effect on APC

Leakage is expressed as a % of inlet gas flow

and not a % of fan input flow

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THANK YOU

PMI Revision 01

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