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Raiseboring

in Mining and Construction

First edition 2008 www.atlascopco.com

Turning heads and pulling the string

A tough environment demands tough machines. Machines built for tight places able to squeeze out the most productivity in the least amount of time. Machines that are versatile, reliable, cost-efficient and with the highest rate of penetration and safety on the market. No other company has the experience, the innovation and the commitment to the industry like Atlas Copco. Whatever the rock, wherever you are. Weve got the raiseborer to fit your application. Count on Atlas Copco, (We wont string you along)

Committed to your superior productivity.

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB www.atlascopco.com

Contents
Foreword
2 Foreword by Marcus Eklind, Product Line Manager, Raiseboring, Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB

Talking technically
3 Rock drillability 7 History of raiseboring 10 The raiseboring concept 13 The raiseboring machine 20 Computer based training for raiseboring 22 Horizontal and low angle boring 25 Development of boxhole boring 29 Down reaming 33 Modern boxhole boring with BorPak 36 Selection of raiseborer drive system 38 Computers improve rock excavation productivity 40 Site preparation 47 Operating the raiseborer 51 Bailing considerations 56 Cutter and reamer design 64 Raiseboring drillstring components

Product specifications
82 91 96 99 101 102 103 104 108 Robbins raiseboring machines Pilot bits from Atlas Copco Secoroc Drill string components Power packs Drill pipe handling equipment Transporters Tools Raiseborer system upgrade kits Conversion table

Case studies
67 Boxhole boring at El Teniente 73 Raiseboring for production at McArthur River 78 Replacing Norways Tyin hydropower plant

Front cover: Robbins 34RH C at the Kvarntorp test mine in Sweden

Produced by Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB, SE-701 91 rebro, Sweden, tel +46 19 670 70 00, fax 019-670 73 93. Publisher: Marcus Eklind, marcus.eklind@se.atlascopco.com Production Manager: Elisabeth Nilsson, elisabeth.nilsson@se.atlascopco.com Editor: Mike Smith, mike@tunnelbuilder.com Senior Adviser: Hans Fernberg, hans.fernberg@se.atlascopco.com Contributors: Bjrn Samuelsson, Jan Forsberg, Johnny Lyly, Mikael Bergman, Rikard Erlandsson, Roberto Lopez, Sverker Hartwig all name.surname@se.atlascopco.com, Steve Brooke, steve.brooke@us.atlascopco.com Digital copies of all Atlas Copco reference editions can be ordered from the publisher, address above, or online at www.atlascopco.com/rock. Reproduction of individual articles only by agreement with the publisher. Edited by Mike Smith, tunnelbuilder ltd, United Kingdom. Designed and typeset by ahrt, rebro, Sweden. Printed by Welins Tryckeri AB, rebro, Sweden. Legal notice Copyright 2008, Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB, rebro, Sweden. All product names in this publication are trademarks of Atlas Copco. Any unauthorized use or copying of the contents or any part thereof is prohibited. This applies in particular to trademarks, model denominations, part numbers and drawings. Information in this publication is provided as is. Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB disclaims any representation or warranties of any kind including without limitation warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement or content. In no event will Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB be liable to any party or any damages for any use of this publication. The contents, including illustrations and photos, in this publication may describe or show equipment with optional extras. It may also contain references to products or services that are not available in your country. This publication, as well as specifications and equipment, is subject to change without notice. Consult your Atlas Copco Customer Center for specific information.

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Foreword
A generation ago, excavating raises was hard and dangerous manual work, carried out by only the most experienced miners. Mines needed ore passes and ventilation raises, and there was only one way to excavate them, using drill/blast. When James Robbins built the prototype Robbins 41R raise drill in 1962, it was the beginning of a new era. Boring of raises was far more attractive than traditional methods. It was faster, cleaner, and, above all, took the operators out of the raises and placed them in accessible, well ventilated, and safe positions. summarized as: reduced labour; faster and smoother operation; quicker response to blocky ground; and data logging and diagnostics. New control systems ensure that the operator can select the optimal running parameters to get the most out of the raise drill, both in performance and economy. Functions such as automatic shutdown and anti-jamming make it possible to carry on drilling between shift changes, without worrying about spin backs or losing the drill string.

From the Robbins 41R to the current model 191RH, the Robbins raise drill has come a long way. Both in the capabilities of the machine, and in the technology behind it. Our raise drills are now capable of boring holes 1,000 m-long, and up to 6 m-diameter. As a result, raiseboring is now the preferred, and most cost-effective, means of excavating openings in underground projects. Increased automation is a continuous trend in the business of raise drilling. The reasons for this are simple, and can be

As the hydraulic drives have developed and become more efficient, the improved control accuracy has made them the first choice for most customers. Hydraulic drives offer good reaming characteristics and are very soft on the drill string. Combined with the new reliable control system, this is proving to be the way forward in most operating environments. This book is designed as a reference for all raise drillers, describing the methodology in detail, and giving an insight into the current equipment offering from Atlas Copco. We hope you find it useful, and we are available to discuss the finer points with you at any time.

Marcus Eklind
Product Line Manager, Raiseboring Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB marcus.eklind@se.atlascopco.com

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Rock drillability
Fracturing rock
Drillability is the ability to fracture or drill rock using mechanical means, and is governed by a number of factors. Some of these are related to the rock formation, and others to the forces applied, and the geometry of the drilling equipment. Rock properties, rock failure mechanisms, and drilling parameters all relate to drillability, and are helpful in evaluating drilling efficiency, trouble shooting problems, and estimating cutter performance. General rock boring principles and their practical application are the basis of modern raiseboring. Two basic principles are used together in full face boring - these are cratering and kerf breaking. The objective when boring is to crush the rock until tensile cracking occurs, causing chips to break away. The art is in the design of the cutters and the pressure with which they are kept in contact with the rock. This is where experience counts, and nobody has more knowledge about raise boring than Atlas Copco Robbins. Zone of triaxial crushing Radial cracks

Figure 1: Cratering is the first stage of kerf breaking.

Rock properties
Data on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is the most commonly available rock property. However, it is difficult to use UCS to predict drilling performance without additional information. The average UCS for selected formations is shown in Table 1 (next page). One simple method to determine the approximate hardness of a formation is the Moh scale, if UCS information is unavailable. The Moh scale is used to classify the relative hardness between different minerals. Diamond is at the top of the hardness scale, rating a 10, and talc is at the opposite end, rating a 1. In general, the minerals at the high end of the scale are harder than those on the low end of the scale. Scratch testing can be used to estimate the hardness: a fingernail can scratch up to about 2 Mohs, a copper coin up to about 3 Mohs, and
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glass up to 6 Mohs. However, care must be taken to ensure that the scratch is not a powder residue left from the item being used to scratch. Some common minerals and rocks are shown with their corresponding Moh Hardness number in table 2 (next page). Other factors that influence drillability are: Abrasiveness abrasiveness of a formation is usually indicated by its silica content. Abrasive formations accelerate cutting structure wear, causing slower drilling rates as the carbide becomes blunter, and sometimes cone shell erosion, which can ultimately lead to lost inserts. Jointing and bedding formations with joints or layers are easier to drill than massive unfractured formations, since the anomalies provide free faces which make failure easier.

Schistocity schists have layers of mica interbedded with harder, more brittle rock. These mica layers absorb the energy of the drilling process, with the rock acting as a plastic, rather than a brittle material.

Rock failure
The primary failure mode employed by the rotary drilling method is the tensile failure of the rock under a compressive load to form rock chips. In weaker, more ductile formations this primary method of failure may be replaced or augmented by the gouging and scraping action of the cutter. Studies have shown that the action of the cutting element is progressive, as shown in Figure 1. As force is applied to the cutting element, the cutter deforms the rock. As the force increases, a pressure bulb
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Formation
Berea Sandstone Austin Chalk Sandstone Quartzitic Sandstone Shale

UCS (Psi)
2,500 3,000 9,000 9,000 15,000

Mpa
17 21 62 62 104

Formation
Limestone Marble Dolomite Porphyry Pink Quartzite

UCS (Psi)
20,000 20,000 24,000 40,000 68,000

Mpa
138 138 165 276 469

Table 1: Average UCS for selected formations.

of finely crushed rock forms under the cutter. The pressure bulb transmits pressure to the surrounding rock, causing tensile fractures. As these propagate to the rock surface, chips form, releasing the pressure of the pressure bulb. Rock breakage also relies upon the interaction of several cutting structure elements and their contact points on the rock. The placement of the cutting structure elements is a critical part of the cutter design.

Cutting structures
Atlas Copco uses three types of cutting structure geometry for raiseboring applications: kerfed carbide insert cutters; rowed cutters; and randomly-placed carbide insert cutters.

Kerf, or disc cutters use an extension of the rock failure mechanism described above. When properly-spaced discs are combined with sufficient cutter force, very efficient drilling results, since the disc maintains continuous contact with the formation. Interaction between adjacent disc paths produces shear failure of the rock between these paths. Figure 2 demonstrates the pattern of a kerf type cutter on the rock face. Kerf cutters tend to spall out 10 -20 cm (4 to 8 in) long banana shaped chips and smaller, almost circular chips depending on the formation and the loading. Compared to randomly placed carbide insert cutters, kerf cutters tend to require higher thrust and torque to spall out chips, but are more efficient if sufficient

Figure 2: Kerfs on the rock face.

Table 2: Moh hardness numbers for selected common minerals and rock.

Mineral or Rock
Amphibolite Andalucite Andesite Basalt Bituminous Coal Chert Cryolite Diabase Diamond Dolomite Emery Feldspar Gabbro Gneiss Granite Graphite

Moh Hardness
6.2 7.5 7.2 7.0 2.5 6.5 2.5 7.8 10.0 3.7 8.3 6.2 5.4 5.2 4.2 1.0

Mineral or Rock
Gypsum Limestone Magnesite Magnetite Marble Potash Pyrite Quartz Quartzite Ryolite Salt Sandstone Slate Soapstone Sulphur Zircon

Moh Hardness
1.5 3.3 3.5 4.2 3.0 2.2 6.2 7.0 7.0 7.2 2.5 3.8 3.1 1.0 2.0 7.5

load and torque are available. The kerf cutter concept is shown in Figure 4. Carbide rowed cutters perform somewhere between the kerf-type cutter and the random insert-type cutter. The rowed cutter design has multiple rows of inserts, but no steel kerfs in which the inserts are located. The lack of kerfs allows more room for cuttings removal, less opportunity for abrasive formations to wear away the cutter shell, and greater penetration of the inserts into the formation with less power consumption. The staggered insert location and multiple rows tend to decrease the torque requirements, somewhat similar to the random cutting structure, and the rows of inserts allow for rock kerfs to spall out of the formation, although generally smaller than a pure kerf cutter design. The patented design of random insert cutters employs a random pattern of inserts on the cutter shell to provide
Figure 3: Random pattern on rock face.

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Zone of tensile failure

Rock chip

Figure 4: Rock failure occurs between insert pressure bulbs.

a fairly dense axial coverage in a complete revolution of the cutter. This design has shown significant increases in drilling rates, while reducing drilling torque, which has proven beneficial for situations where the length of the raise, and the formation characteristics, have proven equal or greater than a machines capabilities. The random insert cutter tends to spall out circular chips of approximately 1.5 in-diameter or smaller. An example of the random insert pattern produced on the rock face is shown in Figure 3. Multiple passes of the cutter can provide a wide range of insert spacing on the formation. Rock failure occurs when sufficient passes have been made to achieve the shear failure between insert pressure bulbs, as illustrated in Figure 4. An additional benefit of the random insert location is a reduction in the phenomenon known as tracking. Tracking occurs when the insert slips into an existing pressure bulb crater created by the last pass of the cutter. Tracking can wear the edge of the insert prematurely and result in shear failure of the carbide, thereby reducing the penetration rate over time. Tracking can also be reduced in non-random cutters through varying
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the angles between the inserts in a given row. The random location of the inserts helps produce a new pattern with every pass of the cutter. As a result of this design, efficient drilling can be achieved over a wide range of rock conditions, and is independent of kerf spacing.

Drilling parameters
Three drilling parameters have a significant effect on performance. These are cuttings removal, force on the cutter, and rotary speed. A fourth parameter, drilling torque, is also of interest, since it sets limits on the other operating parameters. Cuttings removal can have a significant effect in down reaming operations, since cuttings on the bottom of the hole are being reground and limit the effectiveness of the cutting process. Extended nozzles directed towards the wall of the hole can help sweep the cuttings towards the pilot hole. The profile of the cutting structure in conjunction with the angle being drilled can also aid or deter the cuttings removal. For raise drilling, cuttings fall away from the drilling face, so their removal is not

a problem. However, rock accumulation on the cutter head can affect drilling performance. Thrust force on the cutter is the parameter that can have the most dramatic effect on drilling rate. The graph in Figure 5 (next page) shows the typical response of a cutter to applied force. This chart is for several different strengths of rock drilled with a disc cutter. The spacing between cutters will affect the location of the curve, but will not change its shape. At lower cutter loads, the response of drilling rate to load is approximately linear. However, above the threshold loading, drill rate increases dramatically with increasing loads. This increase follows the relationship Drill Rate = Function (force to the power of n) where n varies from 1.2 for low-strength rock, to approximately 1.8 for hard rock. As an example, if a hard rock is drilling at 2 ft/hr at 18.2 t/cutter (40,000 lb), an increase to 22.7 t/cutter (50,000 lb) would produce 2 ft/hr x (50,000/40,000) 1.8 = 2.99 ft/hr. In recommending higher drilling loads, another relationship needs to be kept in mind regarding the bearing life of the cutter, which is Cutter Bearing
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Penetration Rate Vs. UCS


4 Penetration Rate 3 2 1 0 0 10000 20000 30000 UCS 40000 50000 60000 n = 1.8 n = 1.6 n = 1.4 n = 1.2

Figure 5: Random pattern on rock face.

Life = Function (force to the power of 3.33). In the previous example, if the 40,000 lb cutter load results in a 1,000 hr bearing life, then the 50,000 lb force would result in 1,000 hours x (40,000/50,000) 3.33 = 475.7 hr. The actual load applied to each cutter must be used for this application, and the load must be broken down into axial and radial load in the bearing, for a closer estimate. The reduced life is even more pronounced when the cutters are considered as a system. For example, the above calculation may be accurate when one cutter is considered, but what if there are 10 cutters in the system? If the odds are that there will be one failure in 100, or 1%, in that period of time, the chances of failure increase as the number of cutters increases. In addition, too little force may also be detrimental to the life of the cutting structure on the cutter. If the applied load is insufficient to fracture the formation (minimum of 80% of the UCS assuming a 1 square inch contact area per cutter), the inserts will wear rapidly. This failure is enhanced in abrasive formations.

speed of the head to under 350 ft/min. These limitations have been set due to concerns over gauge wear on the head, drill string wear, and drill string failure, all of which have occurred at high peripheral speeds. Higher rotational speeds are incorporated into smaller raiseboring machines, but caution must be exercised when using high rotational speeds on large diameters. The relationship between rotary speed and bearing life is also linear, but is negative, leading to a 10% decrease in bearing life as a consequence of a 10% increase in rotational speed. Increases in penetration rate due to increases in rotational speed are not as Cratering Cratering is the term used to describe the crushing action in the rock directly beneath the contact area of the cutter edge, which is usually a chisel shaped tungsten carbide insert. As increased loading is reacted into the rock by the cutter, it is crushed to a fine powder and compressed. The induced stresses initiate radial tensile cracks in the rock mass, which break back to the free surface. As penetration of the cutter edge into the rock continues, the cracks expand, and chips split away. This allows the crushed fines to escape and new tensile cracks to form. In this way, continuous production is possible by simply keeping the rotating bit pressed against the face.

dramatic as penetration rate increases due to increased cutter load, but should not be discounted. Often, the increased speed is within the capability of the drilling machine, with the consequence being increased power consumption. Insofar as drilling torque is concerned, capacities of equipment often dictate the load that can be applied to the cutters. Several factors influence torque requirements, such as load per cutter, reamed diameter, formation, and angle of the raise. Additionally, the torque requirements tend to fluctuate radically, with peak torque more important than average torque. All things being equal, the torque required increases as the load per cutter increases, as the diameter of the raise increases, and as the angle of the raise increases away from vertical. Formation can be more difficult to classify in regards to torque requirements. However, in general, the softer the formation, the deeper the insert penetrates, and the higher the torque requirement. This relationship can be altered considerably if the rock fails readily through shear, as in some vertically jointed formations. Broken and blocky formations can also produce large spikes in the required torque as the formation tries to unravel.

Steve Brooke

Rotary speed and torque


Rotary speed generally affects drilling rates linearly. For example, a 10% increase in rotary speed should produce a 10% increase in drilling rate. The traditional approach to rotary speed recommendations has been to limit the peripheral
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Kerf breaking Kerf breaking occurs when radiating cracks beneath the cutter edge reach an adjacent kerf and form a chip between the two cutter kerfs. Kerf breaking is applied to the entire rock face by a reamer dressed with either single row disc cutters or multi-row button cutters. These are mounted on the reamer at spaced intervals outward from its centre. As it rotates and is thrust forward into the rock face, the cutters roll against the surface of the rock and crush kerfs in concentric paths. Once the critical depth of penetration to spacing ratio is reached for the particular rock type being bored, chipping occurs between the kerfs, and the rock face can be systematically excavated.

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History of raiseboring
Forty five years on
It is now 45 years since Atlas Copco Robbins built the worlds first successful raiseboring machine, and launched a worldwide revolution in underground mining and construction that is still gaining momentum. New products, concepts and techniques, such as automation, computerization and horizontal reaming are creating exciting new opportunities for the user underground. The latest innovation is the application of Atlas Copcos CAN-bus control technology to raiseborers, using components that are common to other new generation products such as Rocket Boomer and Simba drill rigs that may already be at work on the mine. In this way, mechanization for one-man operation is facilitated without having large inventories of spares, and with very short learning curves for all concerned.

Market share
The history of raiseboring is really the history of Robbins raise drills. As the industry pioneer, the company has manufactured 350 raise drills of the approximate 600 that have been produced in total to date, giving it a +60% market share. In all, some 35 models have been introduced, with reaming diameters of 0.6 m to 6.0 m. Of the models produced, the 73RM is the most sold, with a reaming diameter of 1.8 m-3.1 m. Nearly all of these Robbins raise drills are still available for work. So, despite always requiring high capital investment, raise drills have given an exceptional return to their owners while retaining solid residual value. This sums up the raiseboring story. Apart from mechanizing the singularly most dangerous job in mining, these machines have proved to be a wise investment all round.
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Figure 1: The Robbins 41R, first of a long line of raise drills.

Built for life


When James Robbins built the first raise borer in 1962, little would he have thought that it would still be working 45 years later. However, the fact is that the very same 4 ft-diameter machine, the original Robbins 41R as shown in Figure 1 with pinned drill tubes and steel cutters, was recently reported as working in Morocco. By 1966, rapid development on the part of Robbins had established industry

standards for tungsten carbide cutters, and a float box to reduce stresses in the main bearing and drill string of the raiseboring machine. Connectors using API-standard 7-inch tapered threads were introduced to connect the drill tubes on the second machine built by Robbins and was in use in various sizes until the DI-22 thread was invented in 1969. This proved to be a well functioning and reliable connection. In 1967, Robbins upped its game with the introduction of the Robbins
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boring machines achieved milestones by reaming 150 ft (46 m) raises in soft granite at two-week intervals. These had previously taken several months using the older methods. Before long, bored raises exceeding 1,000 ft (305 m) became common. Raise diameters of over 20 ft (6 m) have now been bored in medium to soft rock. Single passes in hard rock are approaching 3,280 ft (1,000 m) in length. Raiseboring machines have proved superior and more economical when compared to the drill and blast methods of raise excavation. They have also opened new opportunities for mine planning, offering more opportunities for less development investment and earlier production. Another advantage is that, because there is no blasting, the rock is not shattered. The result is a smooth interior raise surface, which allows for more efficient movement of ore and air, and provides maximum wall stability. Finally, mechanization with raise boring machines requires less manpower overall. Skilled conventional miners, always in short supply, are not needed to operate a raiseboring machine. Less total manpower, less rock to handle, less construction time, and increased safety all add up to earlier profits.
Figure 2: Robbins 63RM was predecessor to the worlds most sold raise drill, the Robbins 73RM . Figure 3: Atlas Copco Jarva raiseborer.

61R, capable of reaming a 6 ft-diameter hole. This became the most-sold machine in the world, reaching volumes of 50-60/year in the early-1970s. The 61R became the 63R, as shown in Figure 2, and is now the 73RM and the current market leader with the biggest volume sales to date. From 1971-73, larger machines such as the Robbins 83R were developed to satisfy a demand for bigger diameter boreholes. All machines built before 1973 were equipped with two-speed AC motors, but from then onwards, DC drive and hydraulic drive became the natural choice. The first boxhole borer appeared in 1974, giving miners the option of excavating raises where there is limited or no access to the upper level. The raiseborer is set up at the haulage level and a full-diameter raise is bored upward,
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with the cuttings gravitating down the hole for removal. Within ten years, the Robbins BorPak was launched, facilitating boxhole boring without a drill string, making the operation vastly more efficient and easy to set up.

Improved methodology
Since Robbins introduced to the mining industry the first machine built exclusively for raiseboring, the advantages over older methods have become increasingly evident. Foremost among these is safety, as workers are not required to be in the raise during the excavation process. The inherent dangers of rock falls, fumes, and the handling of explosives are eliminated. The second advantage is speed of operation. Even early on, Robbins raise
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Figure 4: The control console of the Atlas Copco Jarva raiseborer.

Acquisitions
In the late 1970s, Robbins bought Ingersoll Rands raiseborer division, with its well-regarded tungsten insert cutters, which to this day are acknowledged as the best available. Robbins immediately switched from Reed cutting tools to those of its own manufacture, and has since supplied them with every raiseborer produced. Ingersoll Rand had itself built some 30 raise boring machines prior to the takeover by Robbins. Another acquisition by Robbins was that of Drillco Texas when it was under Chapter 11 administration. In 1980, Atlas Copco bought the Jarva Company, based in Solon, Ohio. Four very advanced raiseboring machines were built in 1982-1983 as shown
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in Figure 3, with variable speed drives and computer control as shown in Figure 4. These machines are today operated by Dynatec in North America.

Future trends
The current trend is towards computerization of the raiseboring operation using Atlas Copcos patented Rig Control System (RCS). This is CAN-bus based, with a single power cable servicing all of the electric units, and analog or digital switches controlling the use of the electrical power. The digital signal is superimposed on the powerline, and a computer listens to this, and sends out instructions in the same manner. Two tiny wires have been added to cope with the signalling, and

sometimes two powerlines are required. The CAN-bus system is very reliable, flexible and easily expandable. New units can be added anywhere on the machine, without adding another cable. It has become very popular in the forest and textile machine industries, and most cars, trucks and construction vehicles are, or will be, equipped with this system in the future. RCS gives the operator greater control over the machine, with some of the more mundane aspects of the boring process computerized, leaving him free to concentrate on the more complex aspects. The result is that a single operator can now control all functions on a raiseborer, including rod changing.

Marcus Eklind
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The raiseboring concept


Particular terminology
The raiseboring concept involves terminology that is a little different from normal mining language. Raiseboring, also called raise drilling, is the process of mechanically boring, drilling, or reaming a vertical or inclined shaft or raise between two or more levels. All levels may be underground, or one level may be at the surface. During the early development of mechanical raise excavation, different approaches were pursued and, in several cases, systems were developed. The most successful method became known as raiseboring. Today, raiseboring is accepted as the world standard for mechanical raise excavation, and the name of Atlas Copco Robbins is synonymous with the technique.

Figure 1: Raiseboring process.

Raiseboring process
In raiseboring, the machine is set up at the surface or upper level of the two levels to be connected as shown in Figure 1. A small pilot hole is then drilled down to the lower level using a drill bit attached to a series of cylindrical drill pipe pieces, which form the drill string. Upon completion of the pilot hole, a reamer with a diameter larger than the pilot hole is attached to the drill
Figure 2: Low angle raiseboring.

string at the lower level. Using the reamer, the small pilot hole is reamed back to the machine on the upper level. The cuttings excavated by the reamer fall to the lower level and are removed by any convenient method.

Applications
Raiseboring machines have been used in both mining and civil projects for holes in the range 0.6-6.0 m-diameter and up to 1,000 m-long. Some specific applications of bored raises are: Mining: materials transport; ventilation; manriding; mineral production.

Civil: hydro penstocks and surge chambers; redirection and retrieval of hydro water; petroleum, pressurized gas, and nuclear waste storage; road and rail tunnel ventilation; stormwater storage and drainage; access for pipes, hoses, and cables; water inlets and outlets for fish farms.

Horizontal and low angle raiseboring


Standard raiseboring machines are capable of boring raises at angles from vertical to 45 degrees from horizontal. Raises from 45 degrees to horizontal

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have been completed with the addition of only a few accessories and minor adjustment of the standard machine as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 3: Boxhole boring.

Other methods of vertical boring


Other methods of mechanical raise and shaft excavation have been developed in addition to raiseboring. These methods are described in the sections below and are as follows: boxhole boring; blind shaft boring; down reaming; pilot down - ream down; hole opening; BorPak.

Boxhole boring
Boxhole boring is used to excavate raises where there is limited or no access to the upper level. Here, the machine is set up at the lower level and a full diameter raise is bored upward. While boring upward, stabilizers are periodically added to the drill string to reduce oscillation and bending stresses. The cuttings are carried by gravity down the hole, and are def lected from the machine and removed at the lower level. Boxhole boring can be completed with or without a pre-drilled pilot hole, as shown in Figure 3.

Blind shaft boring


Blind shaft boring is used where there is access to the upper level of the proposed raise, but limited or no access to the lower level. With this method, the raise is excavated from the upper level downward using a down reaming system connected by a drill string to the machine above. Weights are added to the reamer mandrel as shown in Figure 4. Stabilizers are located above and below the weight stack to ensure vertical boring. A reverse circulation system, or a vacuum system, is typically used to remove the cuttings out of the shaft.

Down reaming
Down reaming begins by drilling a conventional pilot hole, and then enlarging it to the final raise diameter by reaming from the upper level to the lower level as shown in Figure 5. Larger
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diameters can be achieved by conventionally reaming a pilot raise, and then enlarging it by down reaming. During reaming, the cuttings gravitate down the pilot hole, or reamed hole, and are removed at the lower level. To ensure sufficient down reaming thrust and torque, the down reamer is fitted with a non-rotating gripper and thrust system, and a torque-multiplying gearbox driven by the drill string. Upper and lower stabilizers ensure proper kerf cutting, and reduce drill string oscillations.

Pilot down, ream down


This method, also known as hole opening, is used to enlarge an existing pilot hole with a small-diameter reamer. The operation is similar to pilot hole drilling, the only difference being that a small reamer is used instead of a pilot bit. The small reamer is designed to use the existing pilot hole to guide the drilling. Stabilizers are used in the drill string behind the reamer to prevent it from bending. Pilot down, ream down hole opening is only used when a standard reaming system is either impractical or impossible, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 5: Down reaming.

BorPak
The BorPak system is used for blind hole boring. It comprises a guided boring machine, a power unit, a launch tube/ transporter assembly, a conveyor, and an operator's console. The BorPak operates like a microtunnelling machine, climbing up the raise as it bores. Cuttings pass through the centre of the machine, falling down the raise and launch tube onto a conveyor. This revolutionary machine has the potential to bore from 3.9 to 6.6 ft (1.2 - 2.0 m) diameter holes at angles as low as 30 degrees. Like a raiseboring machine, the BorPak offers high speed drilling, but eliminates the need for a drill string. It also provides the steering flexibility of a raise climber. BorPak is especially attractive when flexibility and mobility are at a premium, or when the job requires drilling a series of short raises.
Figure 4: Blind shaft boring.

Figure 6: Pilot down, ream down.

Roberto Lopez

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The raiseboring machine


Thrust and rotation
The raiseboring machine (RBM) provides the thrust and rotational forces necessary for raiseboring as well as the equipment and instruments used to control and monitor the raiseboring process. The RBM is composed of five major assemblies described in the sections below. These are: derrick; hydraulic system; lubrication system; electrical system; and control console supplied with each machine.

Derrick assembly
The derrick assembly supplies the rotational and thrust forces necessary to turn the pilot bit and reamer as well as to raise and lower the drill string. This assembly consists of several major components. These are: base plates; mainframe; columns; headframe; hydraulic cylinders; and drive train assembly.

Base plates
The base plates, left-hand and righthand, provide the structure for supporting the weight of the derrick assembly as well as for positively transferring the forces required for raiseboring into the derrick mounting system. The base plates are normally set on a level concrete foundation pad and anchored by rock bolts passing through the pad into the rock formation below. In some instances, the base plates are mounted to a steel beam system, which in turn is secured to concrete foundation pads and the rock formation.

Figure 1: Derrick assembly layout .

Mainframe
The mainframe is the major load bearing structure of the derrick assembly. It is mounted and secured on the base plates with removable turnbuckles and expansion pins. Each turnbuckle consists of two threaded eyes screwed into a turnbuckle body. The turnbuckles
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establish and maintain the required boring dip angle. After the boring angle is confirmed, the expansion pins are tightened to provide linkage between the mainframe and turnbuckles, and the base plates and turnbuckles, for the positive transfer of boring forces. Removable pivot brackets mounted at the rear of the mainframe allow the hydraulic cylinders of the transporter system to be attached to the mainframe for derrick erection and takedown. These brackets also serve as rests for the derrick assembly when loaded on the transporter. The mainframe is equipped with a worktable. This is designed with a hollow centre to allow passage

of drill string components from the drive train assembly into the pilot hole. The plane of the worktable top surface remains perpendicular to the axis of the drill string at all dip angles. All worktables are equipped with, or are used in conjunction with, a worktable wrenching system. This reacts the machine torque into the mainframe for threaded connection makeup and breakout. The wrenching system is also used to hold the drill string and the cutting components securely in the hole when adding or removing parts. The worktable also provides mounting for various accessories necessary for raiseboring machine setup and
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Main Drive

DC Crosshead

Hydraulic

AC

Hydraulic cylinders

Gearbox

Headframe Hydraulic cylinder

Drivehead

Columns

Mainframe Machine worktable

Turnbuckles

Turnbuckles Expansion pins


Figure 2: Exploded view of derrick assembly.

Expansion pins Baseplates

operation, such as the pilot hole starter bushing, the outlet housing of the blooie system, the drivehead installation and removal tools, and the ram assembly, if fitted.

and shares the boring torque between columns. The headframe is most commonly secured to the columns by use of a bolted crown gear coupling system.

Columns
Chrome plated cylindrical columns provide torque transfer from the drive train assembly into the mainframe. These columns are connected at their bottom to the mainframe, and at their top to the headframe. They pass through machined bushings in the crosshead, and guide the crosshead as it travels up and down.

Hydraulic cylinders
The hydraulic cylinders supply the thrust required for raising and lowering the drill string in relation to the raise boring machine. These same cylinders also supply the thrust necessary for both pilot hole drilling and raise reaming. Extra thrust capacity is often provided in the design of these cylinders to deal with special circumstances.

boring. General descriptions of the three major components making up the drive train assembly are given below. These are: crosshead; main drive motor; and gearbox.

Crosshead
The crosshead is a moving platform to which the main drive motor system and gearbox are mounted. Driven by the hydraulic cylinders and guided by the columns, the crosshead raises and lowers the drill string and transfers torsional forces into the raiseborer columns. Most Atlas Copco Robbins raise boring systems utilize the crosshead as a reservoir for the gearbox lubrication oil. Other lubrication system components, such as the lubrication motor and pump, can also be housed in the crosshead.
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Headframe
The headframe is mounted atop the derrick assembly columns, linking them together. This dampens column vibration,
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Drive train assembly


The drive train assembly supplies to the drill string and cutting components the rotational power necessary for raise

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Main drive motor system


The main drive motor system of the derrick assembly supplies the rotational power necessary for raiseboring. Four types of main drive motor systems can be used with Atlas Copco raiseboring machines. These systems are: AC, DC, hydraulic and VF. The AC system has the simplest design, lowest cost, and highest reliability of all raise drill drive motor systems. It features fixed speed and fixed torque, and is best suited to competent ground, where minimum motor stalling will be encountered. DC drive is variable speed and variable torque, and is best suited for larger raise diameters in mixed ground conditions. Hydraulic drive, employing variable speed and good torque limiting control, is suited for use in all ground conditions and has high reliability. The VF drive system, developed inhouse by Atlas Copco, combines the simplicity of the AC drive motor system with exact motor speed, torque, and positioning control. The VF system circuitry controls the speed, torque, and position of its AC motor by first converting the incoming
Figure 4: Pilot drilling and reaming.

Drivehead capscrew Splined connection

Axial oat Floating box with patented spherical design and replaceable threaded insert

Swiveling action

Figure 3: Cross-sectional view of the drivehead.

AC mine power to DC, and then converting it back to an AC signal. The

frequency and voltage of the AC signal outgoing to the AC motor can be adjusted, enabling precise speed, torque, and positioning control.

Gearbox
The gearbox mounts directly to the main drive motors at its input end, and reduces motor input speed to a speed compatible with raiseboring at its output end. Most gearboxes use a planetary reduction system. This shares the load among three planetary gears, reducing the diameters of the individual gears required, and allowing a more compact drive train assembly. Gearbox reductions must include ratios capable of providing high torque and low speed for raise reaming, and high speed and low torque for pilot hole drilling. It is not uncommon to have a multi-speed gearbox with a variable speed motor. The output end of the gearbox is attached by a splined connection to the floating box, which connects it to the
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The floating box can be housed internally within the gearbox, or mounted to the output end of the gearbox as a separate component. When mounted separately from the gearbox, the assembly housing the floating box is referred to as the drivehead. The drivehead is connected to the output end of the gearbox by spindle bolts or a single threaded capscrew. If a single capscrew is employed for this connection, drivehead installation/removal tools are required when installing or removing the drivehead from the gearbox.

Hydraulic system assembly


Figure 5: Hydraulic power unit.

drill string. The splined connection, while enabling the rotational power of the drive train assembly to be transmitted into the drill string, also allows the floating box to drift axially when threading or unthreading drill string components. Axial free f loat permits the threading of the floating box to follow the threading of the stationary drill string component, greatly reducing the chances of thread damage during connection make-up or breakout. Periodic height adjustment of the drive train assembly
Figure 6: Electrical power unit.

in relation to the drill string component is necessary, which can be carried out by the operator. Spl i n e d c o n n e c t io n f lo a t i n g boxessupplied with newer raiseboring machines are equipped with a spherical design patented by Atlas Copco Robbins. This provides a swivelling action in addition to free float. This prevents bending, stresses from damaging the gearbox and accommodates slight drill string misalignment.

The hydraulic system supplies hydraulic power for raiseboring. This assembly comprises the hydraulic power unit and all interconnecting hose assemblies. The hydraulic power unit is on a skid-mounted structure containing a hydraulic reservoir. These are used as mounting platforms for the majority of the components making up the hydraulic system. Included in these components are the motors and pumps used to power the hydraulic system along with various valves, filters, and manifolds. Lifting eyes are provided on the hydraulic power unit for hoisting and positioning. Design of individual hydraulic system assemblies varies according to the type and size of machine. The service manual should be consulted for specific hydraulic system setup, operation, and maintenance procedures.

Lubrication system
The lubrication system assembly ensures proper delivery of lubricating oil to the high-speed bearings and other selected components of the drive train assembly gearbox. This assembly is commonly made up of the lubricating oil reservoir, with level gauge, thermometer, and breather; pump drive motor; and lubricating oil pump, filter, heat exchanger, and flow meter. Most Atlas Copco Robbins raise boring machines employ the crosshead of the drive train assembly as the lubrication reservoir, and as the housing for the lubrication pump drive motor and
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Figure 7: Robbins 73RH C with RCS control panel.

pump. Some machines are designed with the lubrication system reservoir and components located separately from the derrick assembly, usually to permit the derrick to be tilted to bore raises at low dip angles without affecting the level of the lubrication oil reservoir and the functionality of the lubrication system.

Electrical system
The electrical system assembly comprises the electrical power unit and all electrical power and control cables. The electrical power unit consists of an enclosed cabinet containing the power and control distribution hardware and circuitry for the entire raiseboring system. Lifting eyes are provided on this cabinet for hoisting and positioning. Power and control cables are included in the electrical system assembly. Most of these cables are of the quickcoupler type, with all the plugs and
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receptacles identified for ease in making proper connections during system setup. Because of varying site power supplies, and differences in main drive motor systems and machine options, the design of electrical system assemblies can be quite diverse from machine to machine. The service manual supplied with each raiseboring machine should be referenced for specific electrical system setup, operation, and maintenance procedures.

Control console
The modern rig control system from Atlas Copco features a Control Area Network (CAN) for digital communication between all modules connected to the Bus wire. The entire system features various I/O (In/Out) modules for communication with all machine sensors and

meters, a master module for computing and processing of operational data, and a display module for presentation of calculated data. The I/O modules are positioned in the thrust pack and the drive pack, as well as on the derrick assembly. The computing module is usually placed in the drive pack, which is located in a safe, dry place for power supply and convenience to major components. The display module is part of the control panel, itself a robust assembly enclosed in a waterproof envelope, specially designed for outdoor and underground use. Manufactured and delivered to over 400 units since 1998, this proven, standardized control system is modular, with all major parts interchangeable with other similarly-controlled Atlas Copco products.

Jan Forsberg
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Robbins 73RM-DC in Tasmania


Henty Gold Mine, owned by Gold Fields Tasmania Pty, is located on the west coast of Tasmania, in the middle of an environmental protection area with many restrictions. The mine needed more fresh air, and opted for a raise bored ventilation shaft from surface. Pilot and ream The pilot hole was pre-drilled by a subcontractor in three stages to HQ 14 in using DTH equipment. A Robbins 73RM-DC raiseborer was then employed by Skanska Raiseboring of Sweden to develop the 689 m-long, 2.44 m-diameter vertical ventilation shaft. Crawler transporter Some ten 20 ft containers were used for transportation of the equipment to site. The rig was mounted on an air powered crawler transporter capable of 1.5 km/h and positioned on a speciallydesigned steel frame over a 10 m-deep concrete lined pre-sink of 4.5 m-diameter. All drill tubes were inspected with a magnetic particle inspection kit before the project started. One month of boring Skanska had three operators and one supervisor on site. Set up took seven days, and take down five days. Drill pipe was high strength, with 10 in outside diameter in 5 ft lengths. Thread lubrication was Best o Life 3010 from Dallas, Texas, US. Pipe changes took 5-6 minutes, using a side loading pipeloader and crane. Boring took place over a 31-day period, during which average penetration rate was more than 22 m/day. The 2.44 m (8 ft) reamer was dressed with 14 cutters, 7 fourrow and 7 five-row. The raiseborer developed thrust of 100 - 280 t, the equivalent of 7-20 t on each cutter, with a torque of 350 and 7-8 rev/min. The drillstring was stabilized using a stinger and two 13.625-in stabilizers, and no cutter changes were necessary during the boring operation. Satisfied customer The machine gave close to 100% mechanical availability, delivering the raise in half the expected time, allowing ventilation the equipment to be installed earlier than expected. The mine had to bring forward extra resources for mucking, in order to keep pace with the raise drilling. There were no accidents or incidents, and no reportable environmental impacts, such as oil leakage, and the customer expressed satisfaction with the project.

Side loading pipeloader in operation.

Robbins 73RM-DC under installation.

Reaming the Henty ventilation shaft.

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Variable frequency drive for Norilsk

One of two Robbins 73RM-VF machines delivered to Norilsk Mine, Russia..

Most popular model With 35 units delivered worldwide since 1980, the Robbins 73RM has become the most popular raiseboring model today. The 73RM is used to develop raises and shafts in the crucial 1.8 m to 3.1 m-diameter (6-10 ft) range. The two medium-sized Robbins 73RM-VF raise borers now at work developing ventilation shafts in the arduous conditions at Norilsk, Russia are an example. The Variable Frequency drive governs the speed of the main motors, and consequently the speed of the pilot bit and the reaming head, by means of frequency conversion of motor current. Variable frequency With VF control, the machine and the drill string are automatically protected from over-torque. Using full torque at minimum current and low speed gives smooth start-up and stop procedures at constant torque, with reaming performed in the 0 8 rev/min range (0 50 Hz),

and pilot hole drilling in the 0 30 rev/min range. At constant power, reaming is performed in the 8 16 rev/min range (50 100 Hz), and drilling in the 30 60 rev/min range, where the torque drops as the speed increases. Overcoming geology The ability to vary the reamer head speed is particularly beneficial for operation under widely varying geological conditions, whether working in hard or soft rock, or solid to fractured. Also, the reaming head speed can readily be adapted to various reaming head diameters. Variable speed control was previously achieved by either a hydraulic or DC electrical motor drive. The advantages of the Atlas Copco Robbins AC drive, which is fully torque vector controlled, are superior efficiency, reliability and reduced operational costs. In all, the final outcome is higher productivity and better cutter economy.

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Computer based training for raiseboring


Latest version
Atlas Copco Secoroc recently introduced version 4.0 of its Computer-Based Training (CBT) package as being of paramount importance in achieving the highest level of competence in rock drilling tools among distributors and customers, as well as its own sales force. Correct understanding of how to choose, use and maintain the rock drilling tools affects profitability for all, and adds to competitiveness. Atlas Copco Secoroc believes that the CBT package for rock drilling tools is the most comprehensive interactive training tool available in the industry today.

Expert knowledge
The course is based on the skills and experience gained by key Atlas Copco Secoroc personnel over many years and conveys expert knowledge in the use of modern rock drilling products.

Main menu. This is the first picture shown when you start the CBT. From this main menu you can choose which of the courses you would like to enter.

CBT Rock Drilling Tools version 4.0 was released after six years of patient development. Computer based training transfers knowledge about raiseboring

Course menu. View picture for the course Raiseboring. Under the text Introduction you find two buttons, Learning objectives will explain what you are expected to learn. Introduction will give you an overview by running pictures and a speaker talking. Under Lessons you choose chapters.

and drill string products, and their use, in a simple and efficient way. Aided by 3-dimensional animations, photographs, film sequences and interactive lessons, the training course explains how the markets leading raise boring and drill string products can increase both productivity and profit. With version 4.0, CBT now includes training on all Atlas Copco Secoroc products, with: 1. Three separate packages divided into Tophammer, DTH and Raiseboring. 2. Separate libraries for drilling equip ment and applications in all packages; 3. Updated product training section on tophammer equipment including troubleshooting, bit grinding and care and maintenance; 4. Product training section on in-the hole equipment including trouble shooting, bit grinding and care and maintenance; 5. Product training section on consum ables for raiseboring equipment, in cluding care and maintenance; 6. Focus tests on each lesson;

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Chapter. In this section you choose the lesson you want. In the lower right corner you find four buttons. X will finish the actual step. Number two will take you back one step. The third button allows you to scroll through the course.

Lesson. There are three buttons for presentations. Video camera button: running pictures and speaker text. Photo camera button: pictures from more important or difficult parts. Text button: pictures and text.

Step player. When pressing the step player button you will find film sequences or animations. At the end of every lesson you can also go through a test, Focus test, to check your knowledge.

Product selection exercises. At the end you also have the possibility to go through some real exercises, where you will have the background for a specific rock excavation and from that choose the suitable equipment to do the job.

7. a new section of product selection exercises.

Complete training
The whole Secoroc CBT Rock Drilling Tools package comprises approximately 50 hours of lessons and tests. With a recommended maximum of four hours of lectures per day, the total length of a complete training course on rock drilling tools can be estimated at three weeks. CBT enables efficient training whenever the need arises. For instance, a new
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employee can start the learning process right away, and learn about how the product is manufactured, its characteristics, wear limits and much more. A modular structure enables users to study lesson by lesson, or in a selective way at their own pace. With personal computers, learning can take place whenever and wherever the individual chooses, including in the field. The training package teaches you to find the right tool for any given rock drilling application at any time of the day. Similar to its experience with CBT version 2.0, Atlas Copco

Secoroc has found good market acceptance of version 3.0, which has been advising key customers and technical schools on its use, as well as its own sales team. The new version of CBT 4.0 is expected to even further contribute to the added value in Atlas Copco Secoroc sales service, inproving profitability and competitiveness for all involved in raiseboring and rock drilling.

Bjrn Samuelsson

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Horizontal and low angle boring


New applications
Raiseborers have been adapted to some unusual situations where horizontal or low angle holes have been required. These have been well documented at projects where raise bored holes were planned, such as at Venda Nova in Portugal. However, recent legislation following a tunnel fire at Guadarrama in Spain completely changes the picture. At the Guadarrama twin railway tunnels, the TBMs were well ahead of the cross passage development when a fire occurred near the face. As a result, the fire crews were denied access to the face along the parallel tunnel, and had to stand off. All future twin tunnels in Spain will now have to develop cross passages close to the face. Because these tunnels are mainly TBM-driven, and blasting would be risky to hugely expensive equipment, the cross passages will have to be developed mechanically. Horizontal raiseboring is possibly the only currently available alternative.

Robbins raise drill in front of the face.

Modifications
There are many different applications that require horizontal or low angle drifts. Raiseboring is a non-explosive method, so the vibration effect on surrounding rock, and on buildings close to the drill site, are kept to a minimum. Hydropower projects, urban sewerage
Low angle raiseboring.

projects, and service drifts in mines are a few examples where horizontal raiseboring has advantages over drill/blast methods. The latter methods are not even an option in the 0.7-1.2 m-diameter range, because men and equipment are simply not available to safely work such small openings. The raiseboring method does not change when the angle is lowered to horizontal. However, transporting the rock cuttings from the face becomes a challenge, because gravity does not help in the same way as for steeper holes. Hitting the target with the pilot bit also requires more skills than in a

vertical raiseboring application, because of the downward pull of the drill string. However, most types of raiseboring machines can be modified to pull horizontal and low angle raises. These modifications generally include an altered gearbox lubrication routing, a modified base plate, and the addition of a rear support for the guide columns.

Handling rock cuttings


A reamer used in a horizontal application employs scrapers to remove cuttings from the rock face. These clean

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Collaring of the reamer showing the scrapers.

Steel container collects cuttings behind the reamer.

the lowest point on the face prior to each gauge cutter passing through, so that the reamer is not forced upwards by the cuttings. This will avoid unwanted bending stress in the drill string. A large volume of water is also required to keep the rock face clean and free of cuttings. This can be introduced through the drill string, and either piped from the back of the reamer, or through holes drilled in the stem directed at the gauge cutters. Additional f lushing water can be pumped from the machine to the face on the outside of the drill string. A sealing system around the drill string, equipped with an intake valve, is necessary with this method. This is similar to the blooie system, which uses air as the flushing medium for pilot hole drilling. On raises with angles steeper than 3 degrees from horizontal, large volumes of flushing water, up to 3,000 lit/min, should be sufficient to remove the cuttings. Raises larger than 1.8 m-diameter can generally be mucked using a small loader, while short holes can be mucked by hand. Water and scrapers are needed to keep the rock face clean. For smaller diameter raises close to horizontal, mucking methods are more
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innovative. The following methods have been used successfully on recent projects. A pulley with steel cable is attached on a swivel on the back of the reamer. The cable passes through the reamer, and a pair of air-powered winches is used alternately to pull out a scraper, which cleans the cuttings from the raise. Water and scrapers are needed to keep the rock face clean. Alternatively, a steel container is attached to the back of the reamer with a swivel. The scrapers on the reamer lift the cuttings into the container, from where a slurry pump and pipeline convey the cuttings out of the raise. This method occasionally requires people inside the raise to extend pipe, route power to the pump, and remove any oversize cuttings. Another method is to use a nonrotating sealed plate pulled on a swivel behind the reamer. A pipe is connected to the sealed plate, and a pan is mounted just below the pipe connector on the reamer side. The reamer scrapers lift the cuttings onto the pan, and a mixture of air and water supplied through the drill string cleans the face. The increased pressure inside the sealed area ensures that cuttings are blown out

through the pipe, which has to be extended as reaming progresses. A cable that attaches to the back of the sealed plate is used to winch the reamer out of the raise when necessary.

Horizontal piloting
The weight of the drill string causes deviation of the pilot hole in a horizontal application, so great care has to be taken throughout the piloting sequence. If the thrust is too high on the pilot bit, it will divert the pilot hole upward. If too low, it will divert the pilot hole downward. Stabilizers installed along the pilot hole will counteract some of the drill string weight, as will a balanced amount of bailing medium, although too little bailing may cause the drill string to stick. The accuracy of the pilot hole is most affected by the machine set-up and collaring, for which an experienced operator is a necessity. An accurate, but more expensive and time consuming, approach to a horizontal pilot hole is to drill it in three stages. First, a guided coredrilling machine drills an accurate small-diameter hole. This is reamed by DTH to pilot hole size, following
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Venda Nova Dam worksite

Location map for Venda Nova Dam worksite.

which the raiseboring drill string is installed.

Challenge at Venda Nova


A consortium of three Portuguese companies, Somague, Moniz da Maia Serra & Fortunato (MSF) and Mota, was formed to complete the civil works of the
Checking the raiseborer drillstring in the 110 m shaft.

Venda Nova project situated on the river Cavado in Ruives-Vieira do Minho, in north Portugal as shown in the map alongside. The project required the drill/blast excavation of 300,000 cu m of rock to provide a 2.8 km inlet tunnel, a 1.4 km discharge tunnel, a powerhouse cavern, a 625 m-long ventilation tunnel, a 1,210 m access tunnel, and a 130 m water intake. There are also two raisebored shafts of 415 m and 110 m. The consortium chose Atlas Copco equipment for the main operations using Rocket Boomer drill rigs, Secoroc rock tools, Swellex rock reinforcement, and a Robbins raiseborer. Somague is the leading company in Portugal for drilling, mining and civil works, and its relationship with Atlas Copco goes back some 40 years. Rock conditions at the Venda Nova site are mainly favourable. The host rock is granite, with some areas of schist and zones with fractures and faults. One of the most challenging aspects of the project was the development of the shorter of the two raise bored shafts. The 110 m escape and ventilation shaft has a decline of only 26 degrees, from the turbine hall to the existing ventilation and escape system. Drillcon Iberia Lda, a subsidiary of Drillcon AB of Sweden, used an Atlas Copco Robbins 73R raiseboring machine to develop the shaft in fairly hard granite of 170 MPa. The raiseborer was mounted on a concrete platform in the escape tunnel, from where the pilot hole

was drilled down to the turbine hall. The tunnel was then reamed upwards, back to the escape tunnel. A Secoroc RRL 3.5 m reamer was flown in from Australia specially for the project, as pictured below. The cutters performed perfectly, and the mucking was very easy, using water pressure to assist with flushing the muck out during reaming. A total of 18 new cutters were used on the reamer: nine 5-row cutters, and nine 4-row cutters. The deviation on the finished hole was 40 cm, which is less than 0.5 %. Atlas Copco assisted the contractors with every step of the raiseboring process, from training drillers on the Robbins unit, to helping install new cutters on the reamer. When the hole was finished, Atlas Copco personnel were on hand to demonstrate servicing of the reamer, maintenance of the cutters, and regreasing. Drillcon have another two Robbins raiseborers in Portugal, stationed at Neves-Corvo copper-zinc mine, where they drill approximately 2,500 m/ year. The new Venda Nova plant and tunnel system came into operation in 2004 to provide much needed generating capacity for the national grid. Venda Nova will also act as a pumped storage station serving its companion dam Paradela further downstream. When electricity demand is low, water that has passed through the powerhouse for storage at Paradela can be pumped back through 4 km of tunnels to the Venda Nova Lake, to provide extra power at peak periods.

Mikael Bergman
Secoroc RRL 3.5 m reamer as supplied to Venda Nova in Portugal.

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Development of boxhole boring


Safe and efficient
The boxhole borer concept emerged in the early 1970s, and the current models of dual-purpose raiseborers are a combination of the engineering skills and experience gained since then. Boxhole boring has come a long way since the early machines employed on the South African gold mines, and creditable advances are being consistently achieved at mines around the world, without pilot holes and with minimum site preparation and setup time. Most of the machines ever built are still working, releasing miners from the thankless task of manual raising, to the benefit of all. Boxhole boring has contributed greatly to improved safety underground while providing a far superior raise at less cost.

Four decades of evolution


Raiseboring started in Germany, primarily in the Ruhr coalmines, where they piloted from a lower level to a higher level and reamed down with successively bigger reamers. The first machine to drill down and ream up using the technique that is now known as conventional raise drilling, was the Robbins 41R-1101 built in 1962 for the Homer Wauseca Mine. The raise was 40 in-diameter and 200 ft-long. The drill pipe was 5 in-diameter and 4 ft-long, with oil drilling standard API tapered thread. This pipe was torqued up so much during reaming that it belled on the box ends and welded at the shoulder, and each length had to be cut off as it was removed. The pilot hole was drilled using a Mission DTH hammer, and Security designed and built the reamer. Since those early days, some 600 raiseboring machines have been sold worldwide. The first Robbins 34R units were made for Falconbridges Kidd Creek mine in Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and have been in continuous use since they were commissioned.
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Figure 1: The Robbins 34R raiseboring machine was the predecessor to the versatile Robbins 34R.

The mine uses the machines to bore 1.2 m-diameter slot raises, and for downreaming 710 mm-diameter holes, which are used for dumping backfill into empty stopes. The Robbins 34R has a number of special advantages: it is small, compact and powerful; it can operate with as little clearance as 3.4 m while drilling or reaming; and the hydraulic drive provides

variable speed control which helps the operator to maximize machine performance in varying rock conditions. In addition, with a number of automatic features, the Robbins 34R can be operated by one person. These features include a sensor that automatically shuts down the boring cycle at the end of a cylinder stroke, or at a pre-determined level of torque.
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Figure 2: The Robbins 34RH raiseboring machine has demonstrated its versatility at projects around the world for more than 25 years.

Since those first two machines, the Robbins 34R torque and thrust has been increased, and the model renamed the 34RH-HT (High Thrust). It used to be necessary to bolt such machines down securely on a concrete pad, to cope with their high torque and thrust. Such pads were costly and timeconsuming to install, and have since been replaced by a drilling platform that uses leveling jacks combined with stinger cylinders in the derrick columns, eliminating the need for pads.

From raiseboring to boxholing


The advantages of raiseboring are: more economical and much faster advance rates than drill/blast; more stable excavation and considerably safer and better work environment; smooth wall needing 300% less power for air ventilation; cost/metre decreases as raise length increases, allowing more flexibility in mine design and planning; and a significant reduction in labour requirements.

The common boxhole raise is an ore pass raise driven from the haulage way below to the ore body above. At the bottom of the raise, in the haulage, is a chute base with guillotine gate to control feeding of ore by gravity into haulage cars. The raise going up from this chute box or base is therefore known as a boxhole. The Robbins 34RH-HT can drill boxholes, for which the machine is set up at the lower level and a full-diameter raise is bored upward. During boring,

Figure 3: Boxhole boring can be carried out with or without a predrilled pilot hole, or in a combination of both.

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stabilizers are periodically added to the drill string to reduce any oscillation and bending stresses. The cuttings are carried by gravity down the hole, and deflected from the machine for removal at the lower level. Boxhole boring can be carried out with or without a predrilled pilot hole, or in a combination of both, where a shorter pilot hole is predrilled to ensure straightness and orientation, followed by single pass/blind reaming and piloting in one step.

Boxhole borer development


Originally, the South African gold mines utilized drill and blast techniques for the 8-10 boxholes needed in each stope. In the highly stressed footwall of these very deep mines, this proved dangerous. In 1972, the West Driefontein Gold Mine asked the Robbins Company and Calweld Corporation to develop a boxhole borer. The raises were to be 90 mlong, 5 ft-diameter, and from vertical to 60 degrees inclination. The result was the Robbins 51R, first produced in 1973, featuring 24 in non-rotating drill string and in-the-hole motor and drive system. The thrust was 350,000 lb and the torque was 95,000 ft lb. The drill pipe was 4 ft-long with 3 radial fins for stabilization. The rig weighed only 28,000 lbs and could be transported through a 2 m x 2 m drift. The 51R was later rebuilt as a 55R, which was the prototype of the 52R. The 52R was more compact, used 24 indiameter flanged pipe, had many hydraulic and drive train improvements, a built-in water spray, and non-rotary drill string with in-hole cutterhead drive. Some 22 units of 52R with hydraulic and electric drive were built, many of which are still operating. In 1982, Robbins launched a project to design a new machine, the 53R with derrick drive and rotary drill string. The machine was designed so that site preparation work was limited to only a basic pad. The reaming torque was 80,000 lbs ft and thrust was 620,000 lbs. The Robbins 53R was ready for South African gold mining, and the first machine went to Vaal Reefs 8 Shaft in 1984, where the first 42 m-long hole was pre-piloted. All subsequent holes were drilled blind, achieving penetration
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Figure 4: The Robbins 51R raiseboring machine, first produced in 1973.

rates of 2 m/hr to 2.5 m/hr with a 5 ftdiameter head, which in 25,000 psi quartzites was considered excellent. As a result, the Robbins 53R became popular in the South African gold fields. The muck chute was improved, and further work was done on stabilizers.

An important advantage with the dual-purpose machine is that both boxhole boring and raiseboring can be carried out. The conversion between drilling modes is relatively quick and easy. The 34R is turned upside down and a float box spring is added, whereas
Figure 5: Robbins 53RH set up underground.

Dual purpose machines


The Dual Purpose 34R is a low profile, small diameter machine developed on the basis of the 32R. The High Thrust HT version was developed in the 1980s with 47,500 ft lbs torque and 289,000 lbs thrust. It allows quick conversion from raiseborer to boxholer. It is also used around the world at places such as: Brunswick Mine, Canada; Toyoha Mine, Japan; Leinster Mine, Australia; Western Metals (ARD), Australia; and EI Teniente Mine, Chile.

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the 53R has top and bottom chucks into which the swivel is attached. Dual-purpose machines are especially useful in South African boxhole situations where mine layout allows boxholing and conventional raiseboring from the same place, giving multiple holes from one location. Standardization on one machine type results in significant savings in machines, parts inventory, operator training, maintenance training, procedures and documentation.

Boxhole reaming
Initially, the reamer for boxhole boring machines was installed overhead, a cumbersome procedure which also entailed extra time and expense for the preparation of each drilling site. Accordingly, it was decided to extend the width and depth of the machine to accommodate the reamer and stabilizers. The drill pipe wrenching system was integrated in the machines worktable, and was split into two halves, so that hydraulic cylinders opened it wide enough to allow the passage of the reamer. This feature increases the footprint of the machine, but does not increase its height, and produces a more functional system. The remote controlled, hydraulically operated slide-opening worktable enables the entire drill string, including boxhole stabilizers and reamer, to pass through the worktable of the machine. Depending on model and frame width of the 34RH-HT, reamers of diameters from 692 mm to 1,060 mm can pass through the worktable. Over the years, Atlas Copco engineers have designed many reamers, both standard and specialized. Concern about the possibility of ground squeezing during boxhole boring was overcome by fitting a set of gauge housings and cutters, which are installed on the underside of the reamer. In the event of the ground squeezing during boring operations, the RCC Duro cutters would cut their way out as the reamer is withdrawn from the completed boxhole. All Robbins 34R units are designed so that the machines full torque and thrust are available in either the pushing or pulling mode. The 34RH-HT was modified to use stronger 10 in (254 mm)
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Figure 6: The remote controlled and hydraulically operated muck collector is fully integrated into the derrick assembly, and remains on the machine even during transportation.

drill pipe, to better stabilize the reamer, and to transmit the full torque and thrust of the machine.

Muck collection
To prevent the cuttings from covering the machine as they fall down the bored raise, a muck collector is installed between the bored hole and the machine. Atlas Copco have designed a muck collector that connects to the head frame of the Robbins 34RH HT, with extension bars that can be adjusted to raise or lower the muck collector by pushing it with the drive head. The muck collector unit is fitted with a rubber seal, which assists in containing muck and dust. This is designed in two halves, to be opened by remotecontrolled hydraulic cylinders for the reamer and stabilizers to pass. It also features a cone-shaped seal to clamp around the drill pipe to prevent muck and water

from entering the drive box area of the machine. The collector also incorporates a muck chute, which deflects the muck away from the machine to the rear end in a 90-degree working range. Furthermore, this remote controlled and hydraulically operated muck collector is fully integrated into the derrick assembly, and remains on the machine, even during transportation. The design of the 34RH-HT continues to evolve, as customer requirements change, resulting in 360-degree drilling, no concrete pad requirement, reamer and stabilizer installation under the head frame, and an integral muck collector. Close cooperation between Atlas Copco engineers and customers is resulting in the continued development of this most versatile raise drill.

Roberto Lopez
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Down reaming
Increased safety
Down reaming is a type of raise boring where a pilot hole is reamed from the machine to a lower level. This can be done in one or several steps to final diameter. The cuttings are transported through the pilot hole to a lower level. This method is mainly used for smalldiameter slot-raises and backfill drifts. Very occasionally the down reaming method is used for large diameter raises, usually in steps. Down reaming is more complex and more costly than raise reaming due to the necessity to stabilize the reamer and drill string when reaming. Removing cuttings from the face requires more effort than a standard raisebored shaft. Down reaming is mainly used when the lower level is unsafe or if access to the lower level is financially not viable. One advantage for the down reaming method is that all work is done at machine level further increasing safety over competing methods.

Figure 1: Part of the down reamer used on the San Giacomo project in Italy.

as described above. When the first reamer completes and is removed from the raise, the second, larger reamer is collared into the top of the hole. The front of this reamer follows, and is stabilized
Figure 2: Down reaming, one step.

in the raise using drill string stabilizers of the same diameter. Weight stacks have historically been used on the reamer to increase the thrust capacity in the downreaming system, as shown in Figure 3.

Down reaming, one step


In the working sequence below, the reamer needs to either pass through the machine work table or be assembled to the drill string in a pit underneath the raiseborer. The raise is piloted Drill string is pulled The reamer is attached and collared As the raise advances, stabilizers are attached to the drill string, usually in a pre-determined pattern After breakthrough the drill string is pulled The diameter limitations on the above method are set by the raiseborer thrust bearing load limit, the pilot hole size, and the chosen reamer connecting procedure as shown in Figure 2.

Pilot down

Ream down

Down reaming, two or more steps


The down reaming sequence, when the raise is done in several steps, is the same
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Reamer, guide and stabilizer design


Down reamers should be equipped with a front guide. It should stabilize the reamer in the pilot hole while allowing the cuttings to pass through into the pilot hole. Cuttings pass the front guide between the wear ribs. Some designs lead the cuttings from the face through the centre of the guide. In raise reaming, a flat reamer profile is best. This is not the case in down reaming. The cutters should be on an angle towards the pilot hole, so that gravity can help the cuttings flow downwards. To prevent recutting, raises with lower angle than the reamer profile should be avoided. If the down-reamed hole has a lower angle than the reamer profile, than the cuttings have to be scraped, flushed or lifted into the pilot hole, since the lowest point of the face is not the pilot hole. The cuttings are flushed into the pilot hole by water piped down the drill string to the reamer, and out to the reamer gauge. A rear guide ring will further stabilize the reamer action, keeping carbide breakage to a minimum. To centre and prevent side loading of the drill string, rotating or nonrotating stabilizers are installed on even spacing. The rotating stabilizer is of a simple design that works well in low load applications. It is bolted onto the wrench flats on the drill string. The nonrotating stabilizer consists of a special drill pipe with four arms mounted on a bearing bushing. This design runs quieter, and can be more heavily loaded.

Raiseboring machines to be used for down reaming


Most standard raiseboring machines are equipped with a smaller bearing on the pushing (pilot) side compared with the main bearing on the pulling side (reaming). Exceptions are the Atlas Copco Robbins 34RH and 53RH Raiseborers. These machines are designed for raise reaming, down reaming and boxhole boring.
Figure 3: Down reaming, large diameter.

Roberto Lopez and Mikael Bergman


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Brunswick Mine has a partnership with Atlas Copco Construction & Mining Canada that encourages new product testing and innovative change. For the Brunswick operation, the change from 2-cutter to 3-cutter RDI 720 down reamer in their slot reaming programme has been a great success. Falconbridge Limited Brunswick Mine has extracted and processed ore from the world's largest underground zinc mine for more than 40 years. Located in northern New Brunswick, Canada, approximately 30 km southwest of Bathurst, the mine produces 3.6 million t/y of zinc, lead, copper and silver ore, and has produced 110 million t of ore to date. The Brunswick orebody comprises massive sulphides, with zinc, lead, copper and silver being the principal metals produced. The host rocks and the mineralization have undergone four significant deformation events, resulting in intense folding and faulting. Production is carried out on five main levels to a depth of 1,125 m, and two shafts provide access. The mine employs approximately 800 people. Regular programme From the first test run three years ago, the Robbins 34RH has down reamed 3,700 m of slot-raises. The mines regular programme is 3 to 4 slot raises a month. The bench height is normally between 20 m and 45 m. The slots are drilled on a slight angle from vertical. The down reaming working sequence is as follows: clean the drill site down to bare rock and pour a concrete drill pad at the site; erect, anchor and align the machine on the drill pad at the required angle; drill the 9 indiameter pilot hole to break through, and retract the drill string; install the down reamer through the drill table, and down ream the hole to break through; attach rotating stabilizers to the wrench flats on the first rod above the down reamer and on the wrench f lats of every fifth rod; pull the drill string and down reamer out of the hole, once the hole is complete; and move the equipment to the next prepared drill site. Viable alternative Down reaming provides a viable alternative to conventional reaming when the lower level breakthrough site access is restricted due to the mine planning sequence. At Brunswick mine, as the advantages of the RDI 720 down reamer were understood, a large number of the slot raises that were scheduled for conventional reaming were switched to down reaming. Unlike in conventional reaming, the complete downreaming operation can be handled at machine level, and securing of the lower level is no longer necessary.

Robbins 34RH set up for down reaming at Brunswick Mine.

Secoroc RDI 720 reamer in the hole.

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RDI 720 down reamer.

This, of course, is a big advantage in underground benching, sub level stoping, or any other underground mining method where an open face needs to be created to safely blast the initial excavation of a new production area. Stable reamer action The RDI 720 down reamer has improved the speed of the operation in all aspects. Since the three-cutter design provides more stable reaming action compared to its twocutter counterpart, the reamer can be loaded higher, and rotated faster, without transmitting excessive stress or

vibration back into the drill string. At Brunswick, this more than doubled the penetration rate, while increasing cutter life and reducing machine down time. With this higher productivity, the mine has reduced its need for contracting additional raiseboring services from external sources to keep up with the ongoing slot raise demand. Historical down reaming problems, low cutter life and low penetration rate virtually disappear with the threecutter design, and the customers save money by doing the work themselves.

RDI 720.

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Modern boxhole boring with BorPak


Effective solution
The Robbins BorPak offers a novel concept in the mechanical excavation of hard rock. A steerable blind boring machine, it operates without a pilot hole, without drill pipe, and, most importantly, without a man inside the excavation. BorPak is an effective solution for traditionally difficult areas of mine excavation or underground construction, particularly where top access is unavailable. It is suitable for a wide variety of mining and construction projects, such as drilling from one level to another, or from tunnel to surface. It is especially attractive when flexibility and mobility are at a premium, or when the job requires drilling a series of short raises of up to 2 m-diameter. The carrier-mounted, low-profile BorPak is simple to position underground for blind boring of orepasses, ventilation drifts, and slot raises. These can be from 20 m to 200 m-long, as low as 30 degrees from horizontal, and up to 90 degrees vertical.

BorPak on site.

Innovation at work
BorPak gets its name from the expandable packer unit that absorbs the torque and thrust of the rotating cutterhead. Cuttings gravitate down a guidance tube and onto a conveyor. Operated from a panel outside the raise, BorPak improves worker safety and lowers labour costs. A hydraulic power system advances the cutterhead, and steering is continuous, using a laser as a guide. Safety grippers prevent the unit from sliding down the raise between strokes or in the event of power failure. Atlas Copco engineers will work with clients to design BorPak to specific requirements of the job. The system can be fully automated, and is capable of around-the-clock operation. Site preparations are minimal, and no concrete pad is needed. The launch
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tube housing the cutterhead is braced against the rock face, and drilling can commence immediately. Preparation and set-up takes less than two hours under normal conditions. To begin boring, the machine extends from its starting tube, which is anchored to the rock face by hydraulic jacks. The expandable rubber packer holds the machine in position and reacts forward thrust and torque during boring. Adjustments by the operator at his console direct steering shoes at the front of the unit, controlling the boring direction. Each time the machine completes its half-metre stroke, the expandable packer releases, and the operator shifts the steering shoes to hold mode. The packer is deflated, moved forward in the hole, and reinf lated. A new stroke can then commence, the whole regripping process having taken less than two minutes. This regripping sequence can be computer controlled using Atlas Copcos well-tried and tested Rig Control System, now in its third generation.

When the hole is complete, the BorPak is automatically retracted and lowered to its crawler frame, ready to be moved to its next job. These features of the current BorPak add up to greater availability, less downtime, and improved production.

Boring unit
BorPak comprises two major assemblies: the boring unit; and the carrier and launcher. The boring unit has a cutterhead at the front, or top. This is supported by the body of the machine, with steering pads for directional control. The packer anchors the main body in the raise during boring, while the safety grippers hold the boring unit when the packer is not pressurized. The drive train for cutterhead rotation is mounted within the main body, and a cuttings outlet is incorporated. Also within the body are the thrust cylinders, electrical and hydraulic circuits for powering and controlling the
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BorPak in transport mode.

machine, and water circuits for cooling and dust control. These circuits are hooked up to trailing cables and hoses, which connect the machine to the bottom station, where the operator's control panel, the electric power source and the hydraulic power pack are located, The cutterhead is equipped with disk cutters similar to those used on TBMs. In hard rock, these can be equipped with multi-row carbide button rings. For softer rock a steel disk ring is used. This optimizes the cutterhead design for the type of rock that is to be bored. The cutterhead is rotated by a number of AC electric motors. A three axis main bearing has been incorporated to withstand high thrust loads, and a multiple sealing arrangement is included to ensure long life of the important drivetrain components. The hydraulic system supplies sufficient pressure to achieve an average load of 225 kN per cutter. The four steering pads in the upper region of the main body are activated by differential hydraulic pressure to move the head sideways during boring,
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controlling the direction of the bored raise. The pads also serve to clamp the front section of the machine in the raise during regripping for a new stroke, and to stabilize the cutterhead during boring. The rubber packer is a set of wear resistant rubber pads, expanded against the bored raise to grip the machine in the hole, reacting its thrust and torque. This is a compact arrangement, which spreads the grip forces evenly over a large area, and adapts to irregularities in the rock surface. The packer also permits steering, while maintaining its grip. The safety grippers at the bottom end of the main body prevent the machine from sliding backward when the packer or the steering pads are not pressurized because of power cut, or in the case of a malfunction.

Carrier and launcher


For ease of movement to the underground raise location, the BorPak system can be mounted on a diesel-powered crawler carrier with an integrated

launching tube, or on a sled or a rail carrier. The machine is moved on the crawler to the collaring point, where the outriggers are lowered hydraulically to adjust the base frame into a horizontal position. The launching tube is raised to the proper angle and extended out to the rock surface by two hydraulic thrust jacks. The roof jacks then tighten the tube against the rock. Total set up time is a few hours, instead of the several days required for traditional boxhole drilling equipment. The packer is inflated for collaring, and cutterhead rotation and thrust are engaged. The machine climbs upwards inside the launching tube, and cuts into the rock. The muck produced by the cutterhead is funnelled by a tube through the centre of the machine into a hopper and onto a belt conveyor. This dumps the rock several metres away, from where it can be loaded out. At the end of each stroke, cutterhead rotation and thrust are halted for regripping. The thrust cylinders are
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Typical operating installation of BorPak machine.

retracted to move the packer forward. Boring is resumed after reinflating the packer and returning the steering pads to the sliding mode. Regripping can be executed either manually or by automatic control, and takes approximately two minutes. A side-tilt feature can be added to the BorPak collaring system, enabling the launching tube to be tilted up to 30 degrees to either side. The entire boring operation is run by Atlas Copcos patented Rig Control System (RCS) via a control console.

Applications
The first 1.2 m-diameter BorPak was put to work at a copper/nickel mine in Canada, where it encountered 130 Mpa ore and 310 Mpa granitic gneiss. The machine was engaged on blind slot raises of lengths 6.4 m to 32.3 m at angles from 65 degrees to 90 degrees. Over the first 17 raises it achieved a typical boring speed of 1.5 m/h after collaring, with a maximum of 4.8 m/h. This machine featured four 380 mmdiameter single disc carbide insert cutters
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and two 355 mm-diameter tridiscs at the centre, each loaded to 222 kN to cut the hardest rock efficiently. An AC drive system provided 104 kW to the cutterhead, which operated at 14 rev/min at maximum torque of 80,000 Nm. Auxiliary hydraulics provided 200 bar system pressure for the BorPak thrust mechanism. The second BorPak, a 1.5 m-diameter machine, went to a platinum mine in Zimbabwe to bore ore passes from haulage levels up to the reef, a distance of roughly 15 m. Some 2,000 m/year of blind raising was scheduled for the machine. The third machine went to a copper mine in Chile for boring ore passes and muck chutes in block caving development. This BorPak has a cutterhead equipped with four twin-cutter assemblies and four single disc cutter assemblies, all 15 in-diameter. Rotary power is supplied by three 52 kW, watercooled, three-phase electric motors through a gearbox and final drive. The drive system has a closed pumped lubrication circuit with filter and heat exchanger. Four main hydraulic cylinders

provide the thrust to the cutterhead, while eight expandable packers grip the body. The operator can steer the machine using steering shoes located at its front end. BorPak has proved its value in meeting the challenges of blind shaft boring in the mining industry, and is now ready to take on civil construction, where it is perfectly suited to accurate excavation of vertical and high angle raises for hydro projects. BorPak also has a future in transport tunnelling, where horizontal raise drilling has already been used to excavate crosspassages on major projects. The compact dimensions of BorPak, and the nondisruptive nature of its operation, allow it to be introduced close enough to TBM tunnel faces to provide early ventilation between parallel tubes. The provision of crosspassages close to the face is a prime safety requirement, especially for fire fighting.

Marcus Eklind

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Selection of raiseborer drive system


Four alternatives
The main drive motor system of the raiseborer is mounted on the derrick assembly. It supplies the rotational power through the drill string to the pilot bit or reamer. Four types of main drive motor systems can be used with Robbins raiseboring machines, each suited to different conditions. These systems are: alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), hydraulic (H), and variable frequency (VF). The correct drive to be selected is a combination of site availability, environment, ground conditions, and Customers capability and available maintenance and troubleshooting skills. Atlas Copco experts will advise on the choice of most suitable drive for specific conditions.
Electrical system assembly.

AC drive
The alternating current AC drive motor system uses a two-speed squirrel cage induction motor. This type of motor provides constant power with mine duty construction. A two-speed gearbox is used with the AC motor to offer a choice of four different output speeds. The AC system has the simplest design, lowest cost, and highest reliability of all Robbins drive motor systems. It is best suited to competent ground where fixed rev/min and minimum motor stalling will be encountered. For best performance, the power source and supply cable to the motor should be able to handle the locked rotor power demands of the motor, such as when tightening a threaded connection, without excessive voltage drop. State-of-the-art soft start units are used for bigger models. Considerable developments in this field are allowing the design and manufacturing of simpler compact units with relatively simple maintenance requirements.
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DC drive
The direct current DC drive motor system uses a variable speed shunt wound DC motor. This type of motor is open drip proof with mine duty construction. It is used with a two-speed gearbox. The DC drive system has been used in all types of ground conditions and on raises in excess of 20 ft (6 m) in diameter. It has a simple design, lowest cost, and highest reliability of the variable speed main drive systems. DC drive has proven performance on larger raises where low revs/min must be accompanied by high torque, and in areas of broken ground where repeated reamer stalling occurs. Because of the variable rev/min and good torque limiting control, DC drive is best suited for larger raise diameters in mixed ground conditions. Long manufacturing time and high cost for specialized design motors used for raiseboring are the trademark of this option. Small control units, high efficiency, and low heat generation are the top options for the customer with

sufficient resources and tecanical knowledge.

Hydraulic drive
The hydraulic drive motor system consists of one or more hydraulic motors coupled to a multiple speed gearbox. Hydraulic power is supplied to the hydraulic motors by one or more highpressure hydraulic pumps. Hydraulic drive motor systems are equipped with variable volume pumps for infinite boring speed control. The exact configuration of each hydraulic drive motor system depends on the particular raiseboring machine. Latest design of higher efficiency motors, combined with the use of proportional displacement systems are the preferred option for raiseboring machines. With variable speed and good torque limiting control, hydraulic drive can be used in all ground conditions and has high reliability when normal hydraulic preventive maintenance systems are in place, and heat generation, and space
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for handling of the hydraulic rotation units is not critical. The hydraulic drive motor system has the lowest inertia of all the drives and does not subject the drill string to high stall torques, such as happens with electrical drives.

VF drive
The variable frequency VF drive motor system combines some of the simplicity of the AC drive motor system with exact motor speed, torque, and positioning control. The VF drive system was developed in-house by Atlas Copco Robbins. The VF system circuitry controls the exact speed, torque, and position of its AC motor by first converting the incoming AC mine power to DC and then converting it back to an AC signal. The frequency and voltage of the AC signal outgoing to the AC motor can be adjusted, enabling precise speed, torque, and positioning control. The VF drive motor system offers several advantages over conventional AC drive as follows: 1. Adjustment of motor speed and torque, automatic motor braking to prevent thread damage or over torque of drill string threaded connections during connection starting, and makeup. 2. System built-in diagnostics and fault indications, simplifying motor maintenance and troubleshooting. 3. Lower Costs. The VF system uses less electrical energy than AC drive systems because of its higher power factor, requires normal mainte nance, and utilizes specially desig ned and manufactured main drive AC motors. 4. Conversion of a standard AC drive motor system to a VF system. This conversion can transform an older four-speed AC system into a versatile state-of-the-ar t raise borer. Inherited into the VF drive technology is the considerable amount of space required to handle heat dissipation. Since standard types of AC motors are not recommended for use in VF drives, a new Atlas Copco Robbins specification AC motor should be installed with every VF drive conversion.
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Hydraulic system assembly.

Control console
Controls on the console assembly are for both electrical and hydraulic functions. Drive train assembly controls in-clude those for reversing rotation and selecting drivehead speed. Other electrical controls are provided for rapid crosshead traverse, electrical motor starting, and hydraulic cylinder thrust pressure control. Hydraulic controls are provided for oil flow rate and thrust pressure regulation. Controls for an optional Pipeloader are commonly housed in a portable pendant station that is located at the control console assembly. Control consoles on more raise boring machines have meter readouts of main drive motor amperes or main drive motor pressure, depending on the type of main drive motor, and drivehead revs/ min. Additionally, actual force applied to the rock face by the pilot bit or reamer is displayed by use of a bit force computer. Indicators for various hydraulic pressures are also displayed.

The latest now-available RCS control console assembly contains all the controls and readouts necessary for raise boring system operation. A modern compact rig control system from Atlas Copco features a Control Area Network (CAN) for digital communication between all modules connected to the communication wire (bus). The entire system features various I/O modules for communication with all sensors and meters involved, and a master module for computing and processing of operational data, as well as a display module for presenting of calculated data (graphical user interface). The new control system is the proven Atlas Copco standard CAN-bus control panel, manufactured and delivered to over 140 units since 1998. It features a solid shell specially designed for outdoor and underground usage under severe conditions. All components involved are deve oped and long term tested for the same conditions.

Roberto Lopez

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Computers improve rock excavation productivity


Rig control system applied to raiseboring
Atlas Copco Robbins is applying its well-established RCS drill rig computer technology to raise borers. This represents a quantum leap forward with respect to drilling accuracy, equipment reliability, logging capabilities, reduction of manpower, and serviceability. CAN-bus technology, well proven in the automobile industry, is an integrated part in the computerization. The new systems are an option on new raiseborers, and have already been retrofitted to a number of older machines.

Introduction
In mines and tunnels, an accurate excavation profile contributes to better rock stability and overall economy. These qualities accelerated the acceptance of computerized rigs underground, giving Atlas Copco the confidence to apply the technology to other products, including raiseborers. The latest generation of raiseborers requires less operators to supervise them, while offering improved working environment and high production with reliability. Atlas Copco has a great interest in what raiseboring can do to improve the rock excavation process as a whole, and continually monitors the performance of machines working for customers around the world. The PLC system, installed on drill rigs for many years, uses a large radial network to connect the central computer with the various sensors and processors. It handles analog high-speed signals, while hosting many processors for advanced digital communication and man-machine communication. This
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RCS is a common platform for all Atlas Copco mining and construction products.

means that all sensors are hooked into one central computer, which processes the instructions sequentially. When automating a raiseborer that is hosting only a few steps, PLC is probably still a good solution. However, as control systems become larger and more complicated, the mix of highprecision and high-speed signals becomes more difficult to optimize in PLC systems, and the radial networks involved require intense cabling.

CAN-bus raiseborers
With the introduction of the CAN-bus system on the new generation of Atlas Copco Robbins raiseborers, completely new thinking in the derrick control

and rod changing systems has been enabled. Two levels of customer access to the parameters are possible. At the first level, the operator can change a few parameters. At the next level of parameter access, the foreman is provided with a password. At this level he can change all of the relevant para-meters. Another important feature with the CAN-bus rigs is that these have a builtin diagnostic procedure for the electronic system, making it easy to find and repair faults. The electronic components on the CAN-bus rigs are common and interchangeable, thus requiring fewer spares at site. CAN-bus can be adapted to the type of application, whether surface or
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Rig control systems


RCS promotes quieter and more spacious surroundings for the operator, since there are no longer any hydraulics or gauges in the cabin. Instead of dials and switches, the operator has a screen and joysticks, backed up by a full diagnostic and fault finding facility. Once he has programmed the hole, the computer takes over, optimizing the pilot drilling or reaming process, and leaving him free to carry out other duties. Stress on the operator is reduced, while his productivity is increased. The result is quality holes and happier workers. RCS also provides a gradual rampup of power at the start of pilot drilling and reaming. Smoother control during the boring operation then takes the stress off the drill string, and improves the penetration rate. When jamming starts to occur, it is detected by an increase in rotation pressure, which immediately causes boring to stop, avoiding unnecessary torsional stresses in the machine and drill string.

Monitoring module condition.

underground, the pilot and reamer sizes, the level of automation, and the introduction of new functions, without the need to install a heavy and expensive computer in the small and less complex rigs.

Quality drilling
The new raiseborers offer numerous improvements in the drilling and quality of the drilling result, which eventually will lead to lower overall cost. Some of the advantages are listed. Higher availability of the raiseborer is expected The running costs are expected to be lower, as the proper follow-up of the machine performance and direct fault finding will improve the availability of the rig. Because fault tracing is carried out by the software, the service organization does not require a deep knowledge of digital or computer technology. Monitoring of the rock characteristics is possible Using the MWD (Measuring While Drilling) function, rock parameters can be logged during pilot drilling and reaming, without extra input. This is valuable in interpreting the results of parameter monitoring. Rod changing is automated Using radio remote control, the operator is able to undertake rod changing without assistance, removing the need for a second person. Rod joints are tighter The RPC-F function keeps rod joints tight, which ensures efficient energy transmission.
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Future trends
Automation products are already available to connect a raiseborer to a customers communication network. Once the raiseborer is connected to the network, the project control and management systems will receive vital
RCS applied to raiseboring.

information on drilling data and the rigs internal condition. The raiseborer will also be able to load new working orders and information.The new series raiseborers are automation-ready and intelligent, with options such as teleremote operation, navigation and autonomous operation. They also have a customer application interface to standardize the exchange of data between machine and jobsite. The connectivity network offers customers better service support, with engineers based at the home factory carrying out remote troubleshooting. Rigs can repor t failures, and request servicing, using either direct modem connection, or via the Internet. With the RCS system, and its PCbased technology, upgrading raiseborers of all types and manufacture has never been easier. Atlas Copco Robbins is now able to provide a full range of automation options to its computerized raiseborers, such as: Automatic collaring Automatic rod handling Automatic drill control Bailing surveillance Detection of worn out reamer and pilot drill bits Lubrication surveillance system Maintenance logging Measure While Drilling logging Rig Remote Access

Johnny Lyly

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Site preparation
Improved efficiency
Correct site preparation eliminates major delays and adds noticeable efficiencies to the raiseboring operation. The site planner needs to know the geology and layout of the hole so that a correct design can be evolved for the areas at both top and bottom. It is necessary to have good access to both positions, and sufficient manoeuvring room for tube changing at the top and clearing away muck at the bottom. Consideration also has to be given to the routes along which all of the equipment will pass. A well thought-out site will be of benefit to the operators, both in time and money. Clearance for derrick erection from the transporter system Overhead clearance for complete derrick extension

Site layout
Raiseboring site preparation begins with a comprehensive plan, for which the site planner must first receive the following information well in advance of the scheduled boring date: 1. Survey drawings showing the propo sed collaring point, proposed break through point, and hole axis section. Dip angle and actual length of the hole should also be specified. 2. A geological section through the hole axis including its location and a brief geological description. From this information, a site layout plan is formulated for the surveyors. Site planning considerations include: derrick mounting systems bailing fluid selection bailing fluid and cuttings discharge storage and positioning of drill string components overhead clearances floor space and equipment positioning compressed air water electrical power lighting telephones and ventilation
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Overhead clearances.

Derrick mounting systems


The derrick must be positioned and mounted at the site before the raiseboring operation can begin. The two most commonly used mounting systems are concrete pad and steel beam. When deciding the type of derrick mounting system, the layout of the site and availability of construction materials are factors to consider. Once the mounting system is decided, a detailed design specific to the site layout and raiseboring machine needs to be put together. This should be approved by a qualified engineer who has to ensure that the mounting system is strong enough to safely react the maximum thrust and rotational forces transmitted by the raise boring machine. The dimensions and position of the mounting system, and the exact location of the pilot hole collaring point and base plates, must be indicated on the site layout drawing.

Concrete pad mounting


This mounting system is constructed by casting a concrete pad at the raise boring site on which the derrick base plates or sub bases are mounted. The latter are used when boring at dip angles of less than 45 degrees from horizontal. Concrete pad systems are typically designed with a sunken channel running between the base plates to permit collaring of the pilot hole, drainage of the bailing discharge, and installation of the blooie system when needed. Advantages of using the concrete pad system are: it is the least expensive of the derrick mounting systems; it is relatively simple to design and construct; it ensures a smooth horizontal surface for the mounting of the base plates; and steel reinforcement of the concrete is usually unnecessary. Design considerations for concrete pad mounting systems include: 1. The surface area of the concrete pad must be significantly larger than the raise final diameter to protect both
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Derrick

Base plates

Concrete pad Rock bolts


Concrete pad mounting system.

Sloped sunken channel

derrick and concrete pad from slum ping into the hole upon completion. 2. It is extremely important that the con crete pad be poured to solid bedrock to ensure the best foundation possible. 3. The concrete pad must be of sufficient quality and thickness to positively re act the maximum load transmitted into the pad from the derrick during the raiseboring operation. 4. The recessed channel should be slo ped toward the rear of the machine to drain bailing fluid and cuttings away from the working areas at the front of the machine. 5. The upper concrete pad surfaces on each side of the recessed channel must be smooth, absolutely horizontal, and level with one another. 6. The horizontal base plate mounting surfaces of the concrete pad must be designed to accommodate the dim ensions, spacing, and hole pattern of the base plates. These are given in the section "Site Preparation and Equipment Setup" in the service ma nual supplied with the purchase of each raiseboring machine.
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Steel beam mounting


With the steel beam mounting system, the base plates are secured to a steel structure, which can be bolted to a
Steel structure concrete pad mounting.

concrete pad or directly to the invert rock, or to reinforced concrete pads at opposite ends of a sunken pit. Advantages of steel beam mounting systems include:

Bolts fastening the base plates to the steel structure

Concrete pad

Steel structure

Rock bolts

Rock bolts

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Steel beams bolted to the concrete pad.

1. They can be reused with the same raiseboring machine on future raises. 2. They provide support for the reamer during removal of the derrick and for excavation of the top of the raise.
Reamer breakthrough using steel beams.

3. They elevate the derrick off the site floor making collaring of the pilot hole easier, and facilitating bailing discharge drainage and installation of a blooie system.

4. Complete reamer bore-through is pos sible with a sunken pit, eliminating drill and blast to excavate the last portion of the raise, reducing the cha nce of damage to reamer and cutters. 5. Rock bolts can be placed outside the reamer envelope. Design considerations for steel beam mounting systems depend on the exact mounting configuration to be used with the steel structure. Three configurations are commonly used: steel structure - concrete pad; steel structure - direct rock; and steel structure traversing a sunken pit.

Steel structure - concrete pad

Design considerations for the steel structure include: the upper surfaces must be made horizontal and level with one another, possibly using shims; any space left beneath the steel beams should be fully shimmed or grouted to provide maximum support; the steel structure must accommodate the dimensions, spacing, and hole pattern of the base plates
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Robbins 97RL at work in a typical cavern with good overhead clearance.

or sub bases. The concrete pad must be designed to accommodate the dimensions of the steel structure.

Steel structure - direct rock

Design of the steel structure is similar to that described above for concrete pad mounting. Care should be taken to ensure the rock formation is smooth, level, competent, and of sufficient strength to positively react the maximum load transmitted from the steel structure during the raiseboring operation.

Steel structure traversing a sunken pit

With this type of system, the steel structure traverses the sunken pit and is secured to reinforced concrete pads at opposite ends of the pit. Design considerations for the sunken pit include: the inner walls of the sunken pit must be designed to allow complete clearance of the reamer upon breakthrough; the walls and floor of the
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circular pit must be competent, or be lined with concrete in softer, structurally unreliable rock formations. The centre of the pit should be at the section axis of the raise, and its wall clearance should allow for construction misalignments or slight deviation upon collaring of the pilot hole. The pit must have sufficient depth beneath the steel structure to permit stinger clearance for complete reamer borethrough. Design of the steel structure is similar to that for concrete pad mounting. When using a steel structure with a sunken pit, steel mounting pads must be placed between the steel beams and the concrete pads in order to move the load path from the steel structure into the concrete pads as far from the edge of the sunken pit as possible. Steel reinforcing may need to be incorporated into the concrete pads for added tensile strength. This additional strength is sometimes required in the surfaces of the concrete pads to prevent sloughing of the pads into the sunken

pit. Note that the rockbolt holes on the concrete pads for the mounting of the steel structure must correctly located. The choice of bailing fluid will influence the choice of mounting system for the raiseborer. This is dealt with in detail in the earlier article entitled Selection of Bailing Fluid.

Floorspace and overhead clearance


The raiseboring site layout must take account of the number and type of drill string components to be accommodated. Easy loading into and removal from the derrick of these components is the main consideration. Their storage is usually decided by many factors at site, such as natural layout, resources available, and method of transport. A timber-constructed rod rack is very popular, arranged so that the components can be rolled to the raiseboring machine pipeloader. Sometimes a rail
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Erection of a Robbins 34RH.

system is laid to the pipeloader and the delivery rail cars used for storage. The raiseboring site must have adequate overhead clearances for the setup and complete extension of the derrick. If the raise is to be bored at an angle, the angled extension of the derrick must be provided for. The required dimensions can be found in the section entitled Derrick Assembly in the particular machine service manual. If a transporter system is to be used for derrick erection, adequate overhead clearance is required above the positioned transporter to swing the derrick from its horizontal transport position to its boring position on the mounted base plates. The raiseboring site must have sufficient floor space for locating and correctly positioning all necessary equipment. This equipment typically includes the following: derrick and mounting system; hydraulic system; electrical system; control console; pipeloader; drill string components; tool boxes; auxiliary
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mine transformer; bailing fluid and cuttings handling system; barrels to fill hydraulic reservoir and lube tanks; and any other required accessories. The site layout must allow everything to be positioned for all electrical cables and hydraulic hoses to be interconnected. The service manual provided with each machine lists its cable and hose lengths. Extra floor space is required to allow the derrick transporter, where used, to be properly positioned for derrick erection.

Site services
Compressed air is required at site to power pneumatic tools and to provide a bailing medium during pilot hole drilling. Also, some crawlers are driven by compressed air. Clean water is required at the raiseboring site for cooling the hydraulic oil, the lubrication oil, and the electrical cabinet SCRs used on machines with

DC main drive motor systems. Some motors may also require water for cooling, and water may be used as the bailing medium during pilot hole drilling. In extremely cold temperatures, antifreezing precautions should be taken. The electrical power supply required by the raiseboring machine at the site is dependent upon the individual machine being used. Additional electrical power may be required at the site for lighting and accessory equipment. Minimum compressed air, water and electricity requirements are listed under General Specifications in the section entitled General Information of each machine's service manual. Adequate lighting is required at the raiseboring site, and whitewashing helps to eliminate shadowed areas. A telephone communication link must be provided between the raiseboring site and the breakthrough site to enable installation and collaring-in
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Robbins 73RH C set up in Tayahua Mine, Mexico.

of the reamer at the breakthrough site; for lowering and raising the reamer during cutter changes or reamer repair/ replacement; for cleaning the rock cuttings from the breakthrough site; and to stop the reaming operation in the event that broken reamer or cutter parts are found in the cuttings. The mine telephone system can be used, or a compatible sound-powered system can be supplied by Atlas Copco Robbins.

electrical cabinet air filter replacments. Upon completion of planning and the layout drawing, the site must be surveyed and excavated to the required dimensions.

Locating and installing base plates


A template can be employed to locate the drill holes that will secure the base plates to the rock formation or steel structure. The exact mounting hole dimensions for the base plates are given in the section Site Preparation and Equipment Setup of each machine's service manual. The base plate hole pattern can be located on the mounting surfaces by aligning the scribe marks on the base plates with the survey line on the mounting surfaces. If the raise is to be angled from vertical, the template must be offset from the survey line at a distance directly corresponding to the dip of the pilot hole. If a steel beam mounting system is being used, the base plate mounting holes should be oversize to cater for any misalignment. Washers made of thick steel plating are generally installed between the bolts and nuts to
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Site survey
Upon complete construction of the derrick mounting system, a site survey must be carried out to ensure the base plate mounting surfaces are absolutely horizontal. The exact locations of the pilot hole collaring point and the base plates should be recorded. The concrete or rock formation surface at the collaring point should be smooth and perpendicular to the axis of the raise to avoid pilot hole deviation. The surveyor should check that the excavation is to planned dimensions with full overhead clearance, and that the derrick mounting system has been correctly positioned in relation to the sidewalls of the site.

Ventilation
The ventilation air supplied to the raise boring site should be fume-free, with a dust count kept at acceptable levels. The air temperature should be comfortable for the operating crew and acceptable for machine operation. Excessively high air temperatures can lead to the overheating of hydraulic and lubrication oils, and damage of electrical and hydraulic equipment. Furthermore, high dust and fume levels promote frequent
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The excavation must be large enough to allow both the reamer to be positioned and to accommodate the rock cuttings produced by the boring operation. The site must also be accessible to loading and transport equipment. Direct communication between the breakthrough site and the machine operator at the raiseboring site is essential during operations involving the pilot bit/bit reamer-stabilizer removal and reamer installation. A telephone system is typically installed to serve this purpose. A supply of water and compressed air is necessary at the breakthrough site. Water is required for cutter changes, hosing down the reamer during preparation, and when any necessary examination of the reamer is to take place. Compressed air is required for the operation of pneumatic hand tools. Additional preparations include setting up proper lighting and ventilation, and installing at least one lifting eye for reamer assembly and positioning. The breakthrough site should also have adequate drainage, especially important if water is to be used at the rock face during the reaming process.
Concrete pad with bailing trench and pump pit.

Rikard Erlandsson
enable the base plates to be secured to the structure. If required, stops can be welded to the steel structure at the rear of the base plates to prevent sliding, which can occur when pilot hole drilling a dipped hole. When using a concrete pad system for derrick mounting, rock bolts must be secured into the rock formation be-low the pad. Any annulus between the bolt and hole must be backgrouted. The base plates can then be fastened to the concrete pad using threaded rock bolts and a locking nut system. After the base plates are installed to the mounting surfaces, they must be checked by survey to ensure that they are absolutely horizontal and level with one another. If the base plates are not correctly orientated, it may be necessary to correct any inaccuracies using steel shims. If sub bases are used, the base plates must be fastened to the sub bases using a locking nut setup with threaded bolts of
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equal diameter to the rock bolts used for securing the sub bases.

Additional installations
The bailing fluid and cuttings handling system may now be installed, together with any lifting eye bolts needed for setup and operation of the raiseboring system. It is good practice to install at least one lifting eye above the derrick in case main drive motor system repairs become necessary. If the derrick has to be dismantled for transport, lifting eyes must be located directly over the final assembly positions of each major component.

Breakthrough site preparation


The breakthrough site must be excavated to size to permit removal of the pilot bit and reamer-stabilizer, and to install the reamer.

Oil trap under hydraulic power pack.

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Operating the raiseborer


Machine manual
Proper operation of the raiseborer can be summarized in the methods and sequence required to complete the raise safely, keeping in mind reliability, cost effectiveness, and maximum performance usage of the machine Drilling a raise is only effective if it meets the requirements of the project. Each raise drill is selected to perform a defined requirement, so it is imperative to understand the capabilities, limitations, and safety requirements involved in the methods and usage of the equipment. The manual supplied with each machine gives instructions on how to maximize its utilization. While the operational details are specifically defined by the model and function, the fundamental objective remains the same: to excavate the raise from start point A to finish point B on time and in a safe, cost effective way. The manual describes the method and procedures for setup of the specific machine, pilot drilling, reaming, and removal of the in-hole equipment.

Robbins 34RH C.

Worksite preparation
The first stage of the raiseboring operation is the preparation of the worksite, keeping in mind the layout required for the machine, power units, drill pipe, and accessories. This is planned and defined in advance of the arrival of the machine, because items such as power supply and disposal of the cuttings are crucial to the efficiency of the operation. A suitable concrete pad or structure must be provided upon which the base plates and rig are secured. Transportation of the equipment to the worksite is the next step. Crawler, sled or rail bound haulage may be used to carry the machine as a complete unit or in component parts, depending on its size and the roadway clearances along the route. If assembly at the worksite is required, the area must be prepared in
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advance to ensure sufficient floor space and headroom. Once assembled the equipment must be positioned in the base plates. The base must provide sufficient anchoring to lock the machine in place, and must be able to react to the torque and thrust forces that will be generated during operation. Poor anchoring of the base may cause displacement of the equipment. This will move its centreline and cause loss of direction, inducing bending moments in the drill string and increasing the risk of failure. The pad must be designed to take into account the bailing method used for pilot drilling, which may imploy water, air, a mix of the two, or a special fluid. Cuttings disposal must be planned in advance as this varies according to equipment, ground conditions and local services.

Anchoring and aligning the equipment correctly during the set-up process determines its orientation and ensures accurate targeting of the lower point. After collaring the pilot hole, alignment should be re-checked. During the collaring process a series of precision machined starting pipes and subs are added. These are guided through a bushing to assure centre line direction. Collaring is carried out through the concrete base and into the rock formation. The drilling characteristics of these materials are different, so excess force and speed must be avoided, otherwise deviation of the hole may result. Correct pilot drill bit configuration for the expected rock conditions and flushing medium are crucial. Used pipes should be checked for condition, and handled and stored carefully. A file can be used to smooth down
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result in an off-target holing and, if it cannot be corrected, the hole may have to be cemented and re-drilled. The diameter of the pilot bit must be checked using a bit gauge to ensure it is within recommended tolerances. Nozzles may be installed in the bit when drilling with air. For water, any nozzles should be removed.

Collaring procedure
A liberal coating of general purpose grease is applied to the collaring components, after assuring there are no protruding spots in their surfaces. Likewise, the machined outer surface of the starter pipe must be greased. It is important not to use thread lubricant for this purpose. The bailing medium is then turned on, and the passages through the pilot bit checked to ensure they are clear and properly configured. Only minimum volume is required at this stage. If air is the medium, add water as necessary to control dust. Until the pilot bit is collared in, the rotational speed should not exceed 10 rev/min. At the BIT FORCE indicator section of the control console, set the switch to the PILOT position. Refer to the instructions in the Service Manual on how to setup and use the bit force indicator system to be sure to zero the readout before touching the face. When the pilot bit contacts the concrete surface, adjust the machine for minimum force needed to start penetration. At this stage, the starter pipe and bushing are providing guidance, so the initial collaring should be carried out very slowly at, say, maximum 10 mm/ min (0.5 in/min). Down drilling at minimum bit force should be continued until the lower wrench flats of the starter sub are below the worktable of the machine. Grease or oil should be applied to the starter pipe as required. Once the start section is completed, the starter bit sub is replaced by the roller bit sub, and the process is repeated using the starter pipes and bushing. The float valve should be installed at this stage. The float valve prevents backflow and entry of cuttings into the bit that may plug the passages. The gauge

Crawlers increase mobility of the raiseboring machines .

and condition of the roller bit sub cutters should be checked, and any worn or damaged rollers replaced. All passages should be clear, and each roller free to turn. Continue guiding the pilot hole by replacing the starter pipes with the stabilizers, until at least two stabilizers are in the hole. Three stabilizers may be needed to guide long holes. Exercise care to prevent foreign material, particularly metal objects, from entering the open drill hole, because these will damage the pilot bit when drilling resumes. The starter pipes and bushing can now be coated with a light lubricant such as diesel oil and stored until the next raise.

any protrusions in the drill string in order to avoid chances of damage to the bronze guided sleeve of the starter bushing. A milled-tooth bit is generally used to drill into the recess area of the concrete base for the blooie installation. When using compressed air to flush the pilot hole, the blooie seal is installed at the top of the annulus to divert the high velocity cuttings away from the drilling personnel.

Drilling the pilot hole


Pilot hole drilling can be started once the collaring process is completed. Because rock is not usually homogenous, continuous monitoring and adjustment will be required to maintain the optimum cutting rate, feed rate, rotation speed, and bit force. Refer to the instructions in the Service Manual on how to setup and use the bit force indicator system to be sure to zero the readout before touching the face. Different ground conditions require different approaches, needing skilled and experienced operators. Every raise represents a series of challenges from which the operators learn their skills. Drill pipes must be inspected before use, and the connections greased. A damaged thread will transmit the failure to the mating part, so pipes should always be handled and treated as precision items. Because of the high torque and tension on the connections, only approved greases should be used. This will help ensure that each connection is loaded with the correct torque. Loose threads may over-torque, causing over-tight connections when pilot hole drillingLikewise, these may loosen during the reaming process. Raiseboring operations require high tension and torque in all of the pipe connections, and these must be tightened properly to ensure a uniform coefficient of friction and prevent galling
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Pilot hole
Before drilling of the pilot hole can commence, the tricone bit has to be collared deep enough to accommodate the bit sub and stabilizers just behind the bit and establish their direction. Collaring is carried out using the starter sub and pipes for drilling, and adding two or three six-rib stabilizers behind the bit reamer-stabilizer to provide drilling accuracy. In soft, blocky ground, or when drilling low angles, additional stabilizers may be used at intervals between drill pipes if required. The starting bushing comprises a strong holder with a bronze element to guide the drill string components. This bushing must be monitored for hot spots, which are an indication of forces tending to deviate the bit. These can be caused by the rock formation, improper drilling operation, or changes in the machine centreline set-up. A deviated start will
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during unthreading. Only thread lubricant approved by Atlas Copco should be used. The drillpipes must be de-rated as their outside diameter wears. Torque/ tension graphs, published by the pipe manufacturer are available, and should be consulted for minimum and maximum values and de-rating factors. When worn in excess of 4 to 6 mm the pipes should be removed from service. If in doubt it is better to discard a pipe rather than risk losing an entire string. A drill string inspection programme must be maintained and, in particular, any pipe that is dropped or mistreated must be inspected before use. Thread protectors should be installed when the pipes are not in use. If threads are accidentally bumped, they should be repaired before use. A drill string is as strong as its weakest pipe or connection.

Efficient drilling
Drilling can be controlled by speed or bit force. The choice of method is based on experience, skills in the specific ground, and site conditions. Atlas Copco Robbins raise drills have independent controls and monitoring instruments for feed penetration rate and bit force. The conventional penetration speed control is recommended, which is more focused on the accuracy of the hole. The penetration rate should be limited to a maximum of 2 in/min (50 mm/min) to minimize deviation. The operator should monitor and record the parameters of the pilot drilling operation in order to provide ground information for reaming. The maximum penetration rate may also be controlled by predetermined bit force using the rotation speed and feed rate controls. This method will achieve a faster pilot hole. Whatever method is used, the maximum weight on the bit is the ruling consideration, limited by the rotational speed of the machine and the capacity of the bailing system to remove the cuttings from the hole. Before changing rods, it is essential to clear the cuttings from the hole, otherwise they may settle, cementing the string. Given the depth of the hole and the annulus area, the bottom-up-time can be calculated. This is the minimum flushing time required to ensure all the
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Surface commissioning of a Robbins 73RH C.

cuttings have been removed from the face before turning off the bailing, at least theoretically. Operators have to be prepared to make control adjustments during the drilling process, since different rock types, formations and characteristics may be encountered. Penetration speed should be regularly monitored to ensure it stays within the required range. The bit force indicator will show changes in rock hardness. The cuttings being discharged can be inspected to for chip size. Small chips indicate efficient cutting,

while sandy discharge indicates insufficient load on the bit or inappropriate bailing volume. Both promote regrinding of the cuttings, and are detrimental to the drilling process. If voids are encountered, the returning medium will be lost, and the drill string should be withdrawn. Attempting to drill without returning medium can cause a stuck drill string, with loss of both equipment and hole. Cementing the hole may be necessary to seal the voids and stabilize the hole.
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Additives such as bentonite may be used to seal fissures and prevent excessive losses of return fluid. When drilling angled hard formations it is possible that only one of the bit cones will be making full contact. This is usually caused by reduced weight on the drillstring as it transitions from down thrust to hold back. This can cause harmonic oscillation on the drill string that can be transmitted up to the machine, characterized by the drill pipe jumping. This is normal, but requires the operator to adjust the rotation speed and force away from the harmonic point. Shock absorber tools are available for use where harmonic oscillation is a recurrent problem. Because of the variables that affect pilot drilling, the breakout point at the lower level cannot be fully predicted, so precautions must be taken. Breakout may be accompanied by an explosive burst of rock and discharge of water, so the area must be properly secured.

The reaming process


Accurate ground information acquired during the pilot hole drilling will assist the operator to prepare for the reaming process. In very hard formations, this can help the decision to continue reaming or to lower the reamer for inspection. It may also indicate cutter failure. Once the pilot hole is completed, the drill string must be lowered to allow the removal of the drill bit stabilizer, together with any other stabilizers. At least one stabilizer must remain on the string. Caution is necessary to avoid sharp shocks to the drill bit or the roller cutters. The roller bit stabilizers can be removed as one unit. The bit must be removed with the raiseboring machine. The make-up/breakout tool should be used to loosen the connections. To prevent seizing or rusting of the components they should be cleaned and stored in a bath of oil or coated with grease or light lubricant such as dieseline. The number of stabilizers required on the reamer stem can vary, but at least one stabilizer must be left in place. To minimize the chances of breaking the stem, which is expensive and tedious to remove, a saver sub can be
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installed as a sacrificial piece to protect the stem against excessive loads. To avoid premature wear of the hex stabilizer, a saversub is often used just above the reamer stem, which experiences the highest wear. Flexers can be introduced into the drill string to absorb bending moments induced by uneven rock formations. If the reamer detaches and drops to the bottom of the hole, it can be fixed and reconnected. If it gets stuck in the raise, then the situation is more serious and potentially dangerous, so assistance should be sought about methods and techniques for retrieval. The golden rule is to never work under an open raise, because of the danger of falling rock and equipment. While reaming, the cuttings must be removed continuously. Nevertheless, it is a good idea to leave a few cuttings to act as a cushion in case the reamer is dropped. It should be remembered, however, that cuttings can compact in the hole, forming a plug that may break loose unexpectedly with explosive force. If problems occur with cutting cleaning at the lower level, reaming must be stopped for rectification. Once the reamer head is connected, communication with the machine operator must be established. Proper lubrication and alignment of the reaming attachments is required to prevent crossthreading or damage to threads, and correct torque should be applied to the connections using the make-up/breakout tool. A loose connection is the most common factor in drill string breakages. This can accompany stalling of the reamer and, once loose, will act as the fulcrum point of the connection. It will either unscrew during a stall, or will break the connection items. It takes longer to rescue, fix and reinstall a reamer than to tighten the connections correctly.

Collaring the reamer


Starting the reamer is a slow process until all of the cutters are in contact with the face. The force used varies with the number of cutters in contact at a specific time, and it is necessary to go slowly to avoid stalls in high spots that can create spin backs.

Refer to the instructions in the Service Manual on how to setup and use the bit force indicator system to be sure to zero the readout before touching the face. Once collaring of the reamer is completed, the raise can continue at normal drilling rates. The cutters are loaded to the optimum spalling point to break the rock, and then maximum possible rotation is applied to increase the penetration per revolution. By observing the cutters it is fairly easy to determine the cutting efficiency, and the bigger the chips the better the raise. Be aware some limestone formations may produce huge boulders which make reaming very difficult. The objective is safe, effective cutting within the scale of maximum permissible load/cutter. Continuous monitoring and adjustments may be required to maintain the optimum cutting rate, feed rate, rotation speed, and cutter force. The drilling record from the pilot raise indicates the rock conditions that can be expected. The set-up of the site will determine the options for clearing the site after drilling the hole. In very short vertical raises, it is reasonable to lower the reamer, disconnect it at the bottom, and then remove the pipes at the top. In long, or angled raises, the ideal is to remove the reamer from the top. The concrete base at the top of the hole must be wide enough to provide support around the perimeter of the reamed raise, and strong enough to absorb the required thrust. Placing an extended concrete base may be necessary. Once the reamer is properly secured in place at the top, the machine can be moved from site and a crane or hoisting device used for the removal of the head. Extreme caution must be taken when working near open raises. An inrush of air can be expected when the reamer is removed. Various accessories and methods are available, depending on the machine model and size, and intended raise.

Roberto Lopez

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Bailing considerations
Importance of bailing
It is important during pilot hole drilling to provide a bailing medium such as water, compressed air, or compressed air with water. This should be of sufficient quantity and pressure to ensure that all material being cut is removed immediately from the bottom of the hole and exhausted up the annulus between the drill string and the pilot hole walls. Adverse effects of inadequate bailing are: shortened bit life due to the abrasive effect of reground cuttings; bailing pressure goes up and bailing return is lost; sticking of pilot bit or drill string, which could result in twist-off of the bit; lower penetration rate; rougher drilling operation; and greater hole deviation. Obviously, for a trouble-free hole, bailing is a major consideration.

Air and water


The bailing medium is injected at the raiseboring machine through a rotary seal housing into the hollow core of the drill string. It exits at three ports in the pilot bit, removing the cuttings from the bit face and forcing them up the annulus, where they are directed away from the finished pilot hole. If compressed air alone is used as the bailing medium, a blooie system must be installed at the collaring surface to seal off the annulus. The cuttings and dust are directed away from the machine through an abrasive resistant line to a convenient discharge point. If compressed air with water is used as the bailing medium, a blooie system may or may not be used. It is important that the water being injected into the air stream be controlled carefully. The approximate amount of water for this mode is 20 lit/min (4.5 gal/min). Too little water may create sticky mud, which can severely limit bailing action, due to caking around the drill string
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Part of the site set up cavern blocked off to create a water and settling tank.

and increased friction on the pilot hole surface. Too much water will also reduce bailing action. An important fact to remember is that it takes approximately 1 psi of air pressure to lift water 1 ft in the annulus. If water alone is used, a blooie system is not required. There is no dust to contend with, and the velocity of the return water is much less than with compressed air.

When drilling with air, the pilot bit should be air-cooled. This type of bit utilizes a portion of the air to cool its bearings. When drilling with water, bits having sealed bearings should be used for longer bearing life. After adding drill pipe, the bit should be raised off the bottom of the pilot hole and rotated with bailing applied to flush the bit bearings and bottom of the hole.
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increases; or as the amount of cuttings in suspension in the annulus increases due to heavier cuttings or deepening holes. When drilling with compressed air it is important to ensure that all cuttings are removed from the pilot hole prior to shutting off the bailing air after drilling each pipe-length. This is particularly important at increased depths. Manufacturers assume that the air supply will cool the bit bearings. Therefore, it is necessary to provide sufficient backpressure through the bit to ensure adequate cooling flow through the bearings. For normal applications in raiseboring, nozzles with orifices of diameters 12.7 mm (0.5 in) to 15.9 mm (0.625 in) are adequate. The nozzles also act to increase velocity at the cutting face.

Drilling with water


Drilling with water as the bailing medium generally requires 570 lit/min (150 gal/min) at a pressure of 552-690 kPa gauge (60-100 psi). This will provide a bailing velocity of approximately 50 m/min (160 ft/min). This, of course, is dependent on the same factors as mentioned for drilling with air. Pilot bit manufacturers recommend the use of sealed-bearing bits for longer bit life.

Selection of the bailing fluid


A supply of pressurized bailing fluid to the bit is required during pilot hole drilling. Water, compressed air, or a combination of the two, are typically used. Under normal circumstances, water alone is the preferred bailing fluid because of its ease of handling and dust suppression qualities. For this reason, bailing fluid selection is usually dependent upon the availability of water at the site. Bailing fluid selection guidelines are as follows: 1. Where water is plentiful at the site and site drainage adequate, water should be used as the bailing fluid. If con servation is desired or site drainage poor, water can be collected at the
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Raiseborer set up with trench for bailing pump.

Drilling with compressed air


The general consensus of bit manufacturers is that at least 23 cu m/min (800 cu ft/min) of air supply through the annulus at 414-552 kPa gauge (60-80 psi), with a minimum velocity of 1,500 m/min (5,000 ft/min), is necessary when drilling with compressed air. This velocity
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ensures that cuttings are being removed from the bottom of the hole. The approximate bailing velocity can be calculated using the equations overleaf. Velocity of bailing air will be decreased under the following conditions: if water is encountered during drilling, or added into the air supply; if heavier material is encountered; as hole depth

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site, settled, and recirculated using a reservoir system. 2. Where the geological description of the proposed raise indicates the pre sence of water through the section axis of the raise, it is recommended that water be used as the bailing fluid. This will stop the formation of sticky mud in the pilot hole caused by the mix of cuttings and ground water. Compressed air bailing fluid, or a compressed air and water mixture, used under these conditions forms a mud, which cannot be efficiently lif ted up the hole. 3. Where water is in very limited sup ply, compressed air with the addi tion of a small amount of water for dust suppression, say 20 lit/min (4.5 gal/min), can be used for bailing the pilot hole. The water can be added to the compressed air line with a wa ter injection elbow. If the water is added to the exhaust line, a nozzle should be used in the elbow to intro duce the water as a mist to the com pressed air. 4. Where water is not available, com pressed air alone can be used for bai ling the pilot hole. 5. Under special circumstances, water can be mixed with a water-soluble material, such as bentonite, to create a high viscosity bailing fluid. This type of bailing mixture is utilized in porous ground conditions to help seal the pilot hole walls and improve the return of bailing fluid and cuttings to the raiseboring site. Recommended bailing fluid flow and pressure values for both water and compressed air are given under the heading Bailing System in the Description section of each machine's service manual. Minimum bailing return velocities are as follows: for water Vw = 50 m/min (160 ft/min) for air Va = 1,500 m/min (5,000 ft/min) Bailing return velocity or pump/compressor output, depending on which value is known, can be calculated using the following equations: For water Q1 = (D1sq - D2sq) x V1/24.5 Q2 = (D3sq - D4sq) x V2/1273 V1 = Q1 x 24.5/(D1sq - D2sq) V2 = Q2 x 1273/(D3sq - D4sq)
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Where Q1 = pump output (gal/min) Q2 = pump output (lit/min) V1 = bailing return velocity (ft/min) V2 = bailing return velocity (m/min) D1 = pilot hole diameter (inches) D2 = drill pipe diameter (inches) D3 = pilot hole diameter (mm) D4 = drill pipe diameter (mm) For air Q1 = (D1sq D2sq) x V1/183.3 Q2 = (D3sq - D4sq) x V2/1,273,240 V1 = Q1 x 183.3/(D1sq D2sq) V2 = Q2 x 1,273,240/(D3sq D4sq) Where Q1 = compressor output (cu ft/min) Q2 = compressor output (cu m/min) V1 = bailing return velocity (ft/min) V2 = bailing return velocity (m/min) D1 = pilot hole diameter (inches) D2 = drill pipe diameter (inches) D3 = pilot hole diameter (mm) D4 = drill pipe diameter (mm) Site availability values should be checked against recommended values when deciding on the type of bailing fluid to be used. If water is to be used as the bailing fluid, the water pump supplied should have a rating higher than recommended to deal with plugged pilot hole conditions. Furthermore, a second water pump with a rapid connection should be kept on site. If air is to be used as the bailing fluid, elevation derating values must be applied to compressor specifications for high altitudes. As a precaution, the bearing and seal design of the pilot bit to be used must comply with the bailing fluid type. Failure to check the bit design against the bailing fluid type can result in premature bit failure. Provisions must be made for the discharge of bailing fluid and cuttings. After the bailing system has been decided and designed, its dimensions and location should be recorded on the site layout drawing.

Blooie assembly used mainly for drilling with air or a mix of air and water.

Water
Two water systems are commonly used for bailing: non-recirculated and recirculated.

Non-Recirculated When water is chosen and is not to be recirculated, the discharge handling system should be designed to conform to the natural layout of the raiseboring site. This, and the design of the derrick mounting system, will usually determine the method of transporting the bailing discharge from the pilot hole collaring point to the cuttings handling area. Site layout permitting, the derrick mounting system and bailing discharge handling system can be jointly designed to direct the bailing discharge to the cuttings handling area using the force of gravity, as with a ditch or channel system. When using a steel structure with a sunken pit, a standpipe may need to be installed to prevent cuttings from re-entering the pilot hole upon loss of bailing fluid pressure. The standpipe should be sealed at the pilot hole collaring point. The bailing discharge can then be pumped from the sunken pit to the cuttings handling area. In other cases, it may be necessary to construct a reservoir near the derrick, direct the discharge to the reservoir from the derrick, and pump the bailing discharge from the reservoir to the cuttings handling area.
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Recirculation reservoir arrangement.

Bailing discharge must be directed to an area at or near the raiseboring site with ample storage space for cuttings and with adequate water drainage or a method of water removal. If the cuttings are to be removed from this area, the area must be accessible by personnel and transport equipment. To plan for the volume of cuttings storage required, use the following equations: V1 = D1sq x L1 x FF/4,950 V2 = D2sq x L2 x FF/1,273,240 where V1 = volume of cuttings (cu yd) V2 = volume of cuttings (cu m) D1 = pilot hole diameter (inches) D2 = pilot hole diameter (mm) L1 = depth of pilot hole at completion (ft) L2 = depth of pilot hole at completion (m) FF = fill factor (generally 1.3 to 1.4) The simplest method of handling cuttings at the raiseboring site is to direct the bailing discharge onto the site floor
54

and utilize the cuttings as site floor fill. If this method is to be used, proper floor drainage is required. If floor drainage is inadequate, bailing water can be pumped to a drain or into a transport car with a screen liner and drainage holes.

Recirculation
Guidelines for transporting bailing discharge when using recirculated bailing water are similar to those shown above. For water recirculation, the cuttings handdling area must be set up as a reservoir or series of reservoirs at or near the raiseboring site. Design considerations for the reservoir system include: 1. The reservoir system must separate the cuttings from the return water be fore the water is recirculated, possi bly with a series of settling reser voirs. Alternatively, a series of gates may be added to a single reservoir to separate the discharge area from the suction area.

2. The reservoir system must be made watertight, usually by lining with pla stic membrane. 3. The cuttings collection area should have ample storage space for cut tings. Refer to the equations given earlier for volumetric calculations. If the cuttings are to be removed, the collection area must be accessi ble by personnel and transport equip ment. 4. The reservoir system must have suf ficient volume to compensate for loss of bailing fluid return due to porous or faulty ground conditions. 5. Water must be available at the site to refill the reservoir system to its proper level in the event of bailing loss.

Compressed air and water


The installation of a blooie system and abrasive resistant pipes is required for bailing discharge transport when a compressed air and water mixture is used
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Bailing discharge Compressed air

Abrasive resistant pipe Blooie system Drill pipe Nozzle Compressed air and cuttings

Water injection elbow

Blooie system and exhaust pipe.

for pilot hole bailing. The pipe system connects to the outlet housing of the blooie system, and can be designed to direct the bailing discharge to the cuttings handling area. The bailing fluid and cuttings must be discharged into an area with ample storage space and accessibility to personnel and transport equipment if the cuttings are to be removed from the area. If possible, the discharge area should be isolated from the operating area of the raiseboring machine and any other areas frequently occupied by personnel. An isolated discharge/handling area reduces noise and dust levels for the crew, and eliminates any danger posed by high velocity cuttings discharge.

given previously in the section Compressed Air and Water.

High viscosity water (mud)


When additives such as bentonite are used with water to form a high viscosity bailing fluid for reducing bailing losses,
Water circulation.

the bailing water should be recirculated for reasons of economy. Site planning considerations for the transport of bailing discharge and the handling of cuttings are the same as those given earlier.

Roberto Lopez

Compressed air
Site planning considerations for the transport of bailing discharge and the handling of cuttings when using compressed air alone are the same as those
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Cutter and reamer design


Raiseboring components
Cutters, reamers or heads, stems or stingers, and pilot bits are all components of the raiseboring system, on the opposite end of the drill string relative to the drill, that have direct contact with the rock formation being drilled. This section will discuss these components with regards to the design, features and benefits and how they interface with the rock.

Rock interface
The raiseboring system includes the raiseboring machine, drill string comprising pipe, stabilizers, various subs and roller reamer stabilizers for the pilot hole, the stinger, the reamer, and the cutters. Only the cutters come into contact with the formation for the purpose of fracturing the rock. The cutters are mounted on the reamer using saddles. The stinger connects the drill string to the head. Thrust and torque are transmitted from the machine, through the drill string and stinger, to the reamer cutters and the rock formation. Since the cutter interface with the rock is very important to the performance of the raiseboring application, the design of the cutters is important.

Figure 1: The cratering and kerf breaking mechanism.

remainder of this chapter addresses multi-row carbide cutters. A carbide cutter has multiple cutting rows machined into an integral steel cutter hub. Tungsten carbide inserts are placed in each of the cutting rows to increase cutter life. Multi-row carbide cutters are designed in the shape of a truncated cone. The larger diameter end of the cutter is designed to be mounted outboard of the smaller diameter.

Cutters
Cutters are used to excavate rock when reaming or boxhole boring upward, or shaft sinking downward. These are mounted on cutter housings positioned and welded to the reamer, and are designed to be the expendable wear item of the raiseboring operation. Hence, they are removable and can be replaced in the field. Single row steel disc cutters can be used for raiseboring, particularly in soft rock formations or for short raises. However, since most raiseboring occurs in medium to hard rock formations, the
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Main cutter types


There are at least four types of cutter geometry used for raiseboring applications. These are disc cutters, kerfed
Figure 2: Disc cutter, cutting ring profiles.

carbide insert cutters, rowed cutters and randomly placed carbide insert cutters. Each of these cutters employs a crushing mechanism in which adjacent rows of steel, carbide or adjacent inserts induce cracks that propagate between each other and spall out a kerf, or fragment of rock (figure 1). Disc cutters have gradually fallen out of favour due to the increased diameters being drilled, the increased demands on the cutters, and the introduction of new types of cutters more suited to the current challenges. A disc cutter originally employed steel rings with different shapes on the outer diameter of the ring depending on the hardness of the rock (figure 2). Generally, the harder

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Figure 3: Steel ring disc cutter.

Figure 4: Domed reamer.

the rock, the blunter is the outer diameter of the disc cutter (figure 3). Tungsten carbide insert rings have been used widely on disc cutters over most of the last decade. Disc cutters are usually employed on a domed type of reamer (figure 4), with disc spacing between 25 mm (1 in) and 100 mm (4 in). This spacing changes, along with the shape of the outside diameter of the disc cutter, relative to the hardness of the rock and the location on the head. Disc cutters and domed reamers in combination served the industry adequately in the early years of raiseboring in soft and medium applications. The domed type reamer has declined in popularity for a number of reasons. Disc cutters tend to require more torque to spall out kerfs, and this is compounded on domed profiles. The domed reamer
Figure 5: Cuttings produced by kerf cutters.

design is generally difficult to work with, difficult to measure, and difficult to expand. Although the disc cutters still have useful applications, the industry has moved to kerf cutters, rowed cutters, or random carbide cutters.

Kerf cutters
Kerf cutters use an extension of the rock failure mechanism described for disc cutters. When properly spaced kerfs are combined with sufficient cutter force, very efficient drilling results, since the kerf maintains almost continuous contact with the formation. Interaction between adjacent paths produces shear failure of the rock between them. Kerf cutters tend to spall out 4 to 8 in-long banana shaped chips and smaller, almost circular chips, depending on the formation and the loading (figure 5).

They produce a pattern of grooves on the drilled rock face relative to the spacing between the cutter rows. Compared to randomly placed carbide insert cutters, kerf cutters tend to require higher thrust and torque to spall out chips, but are more efficient if sufficient load and torque are available. Grooves between the inserts aid in cuttings removal (figure 6). Kerf cutters have historically been designed to reproduce the geometry of disc cutters with row spacing between 25 mm (1 in) and 100 mm (4 in). However, most of the kerf cutters used in the raiseboringmarket today have the ability to provide 25 mm (1 in) and 50 mm (2 in) spacing. Usually one cutter geometry is utilized to produce 50 mm spacing, and both geometries are used to produce 25 mm kerf spacing. Kerf cutters are not as flexible as disc

Figure 6: Rock face, worked by a kerf cutter reamer.

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Figure 7: A pair of Magnum kerf cutters.

cutters because the latter can be rearranged individually for each cutting row. The kerf cutter is generally employed in flat or barrel-shaped profiles, rather than in domed profiles. It is generally less expensive to operate, since fewer saddles are required to cover diameters in medium to hard rock conditions, and the bearing component is not required for each row of carbide as for a disc cutter. Each kerf cutter design provides certain benefits to the application. The RCC cutter design, for instance, provides a
Figure 8: A RCC11 cutter.

cutting structure with more relief within the rows for better cuttings removal, and can provide true 50 mm row spacing. With both cutters run in pairs, the row spacing becomes a true 25 mm. When coverage from both cutters is not required on the gauge row, these can be staggered to provide an extra inch in the length of coverage in the cutting path. This can reduce the number of cutters required on larger heads, and increase unit loading. This cutter also utilizes a 14 degree cone angle, which provides true rolling

at smaller diameters than possible with flatter cutter designs, and non-true rolling at larger diameters. In soft and medium ground this non-true rolling can enhance penetration rates, as the cutter tends to include an element of rock shear to enhance the crushing action. The Magnum cutter design is longer and flatter than the RCC cutting structure, so it employs true rolling in a slightly larger diameter. This provides a true 25 mm row spacing, but not quite true 50 mm row spacing, since both cutters employ insert rows spaced 25 mm apart, either on the gauge (MKC55G) or the nose (MKC55N) (figure 7). This cutting structure allows for extra coverage on the nose of the cutter and the gauge of the cutter, when run in pairs. This feature provides longer life in transition areas where carbide is stressed more than in the flat areas of the head. The paired cutters can also be staggered to provide an extra 50 mm in the cutting path coverage, which can reduce the number of cutters used on larger heads, and will increase unit loading. In addition, the Magnum insert pattern within each row is designed to reduce the incidence of tracking by employing an increasing or decreasing pitch between inserts. This patented insert location has proven to physically reduce tracking. The kerf cutter has become the industry standard, while rowed cutters and random cutters have been relegated to a smaller role in the raiseboring market.

Carbide rowed cutters


Carbide rowed cutters perform somewhere between the kerf cutter and the random insert cutter (figure 8). Eleven distinct rows can be seen on this cutting structure, hence the nomenclature RCC11. The nose and gauge of this cutting structure are reinforced to improve life, but the inner rows have reduced numbers of carbide to improve cuttings removal and enhance penetration rates. The rowed cutter design has multiple rows of inserts, but no steel kerfs. The lack of kerfs allows more room for cuttings removal, affords less opportunity for abrasive formations to wear away the cutter shell, and facilitates
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greater penetration of the inserts into the formation, with less power consumption. The staggered insert location, lighter insert coverage on the inner rows, and multiple rows, tends to decrease the torque requirements, in somewhat similar fashion to the random cutting structure. The rows of inserts allow for rock kerfs to spall out of the formation. These are generally smaller than for a pure kerf cutter design, since the spacing between rows is smaller. The rowed carbide cutting structure design also employs the method of skip pitch on inserts within the row. The pattern on the rock formation is somewhere between the pattern left by the kerf type cutting structure and that of the random insert location cutting structure.

Figure 9: Cuttings produced with random cutters.

Random insert cutters


Random insert cutters offer a fairly dense axial coverage in a complete revolution by placing inserts in a random pattern on the cutter shell. This design has shown significant increases in drilling rates, while reducing drilling torque, which is beneficial where the length of the raise or the rock formation are outside the scope of a machines capabilities. The random cutter spalls out small circular chips of approximately 1.5 in diameter (figure 9). Multiple passes of the cutter can provide a wide range of insert spacing on the formation. Rock failure occurs when sufficient passes have been made to achieve the shear failure between insert
Figure 10: Random cutter cutting structure.

pressure bulbs. No discernable pattern or row is evident on the cutting face, except at the nose and gauge of the cutter. An additional benefit of the random insert location is a reduction in tracking. Tracking occurs when the insert slips into a pressure bulb crater created by the previous pass of the cutter. It can wear the edge of the insert prematurely and result in shear failure of the carbide, reducing the penetration rate. Tracking can be reduced in nonrandom cutters by varying the angles between the inserts in a given row. The random location of the inserts helps produce a new pattern with every pass of the cutter. As a result of this design, efficient drilling can be achieved over a wide range of rock conditions, independent of kerf spacing. Figure 10 shows a random cutter cutting structure.

Bearing and seal design


Bearing designs have evolved into two distinct types, known as preloaded tapered roller and roller-ball-roller. Examples of both of these designs are shown in figure 11. The tapered roller bearing uses off the shelf bearings with integral bearing races. This type is preloaded using spacers between the bearings and is very impact resistant. The roller-ball-roller utilizes carburized races, which are machined into the journal and shell along with roller and ball bearings made from high quality bearing steel. Unlike the tapered bearing, this approach does not require a preload. Special greases are used that enhance the seals, while additives provide high load carrying capacity to the bearings.

Figure 11: Preloaded tapered bearing and roller-ball-roller bearing systems.

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The reamers are designed with several paired cutter housings. Both housings of each paired set are an equal distance from the centre of the reamer. Cutters multi-track at the inner and outer transition areas between the flat and bevelled parts of the reamer profile to offset the high stress and wear normally expected at the corners of these transition areas.

Head design
Reamers or heads are designed in different ways for several different requirements. Some of the standard head designs are integral heads, expandable or modular heads, downreaming heads and boxhole heads. Other heads are generally modifications of one of these four designs.

Integral heads
Figure 12: 1.8 metre integral head.

Both cutters employ metal face seals featuring two metal rings and two elastomer o-rings on either end, to maintain the resiliency of the seal under operating conditions.

Reamers
Reamers are available for excavating a wide range of raise diameters in varying rock conditions. The reamer is attached to the drill string by means of a Dl-22 threaded connection on the reamer stinger. The stinger is normally removable from the reamer, but, in a few instances, it is an integral part. Cutters are held securely to the reamer by steel cutter housings, or saddles. These are generally fastened to the main reamer body by welding, but bolting may be used near the centre of the assembly. The bolted design enables these housings to be detached and repositioned on the reamer. This allows for removal of the stinger, and the use of different drill string sizes with the same reamer. Positioning of cutter housings and cutters on the reamer has to be exact for efficient boring performance. Cutter
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housings are located precisely on the main reamer body using dowel pins, so that the cutter housing may be removed for rebuild or replacement in the field. Cutter housing locations can be rechecked in the field using a profile check assembly, which is a precisely notched steel template of the exact radial position of each cutting row of the reamer. The profile check assembly permits this template to be installed at the centre of the reamer and swung 360 degrees about the reamer's cutting profile. In this way, the positions of the cutting rows of each cutter can be checked against the positions located on the template. Reamers equipped with water spray systems for cutter cooling and dust suppression are available on request. The general cutting profile of the reamer is flat, with a slightly depressed angle at the stinger, and a standard bevel at the gauge area. This flat profile reduces the number of cutters needed to excavate the desired raise diameter. With fewer cutters on the reamer, less torque is required to rotate the reamer, which leads to more efficient drilling. The bevel at the gauge area adds reaming stability.

Integral heads are designed to drill a single diameter. They are generally cheaper, stronger and shorter than expandable or modular designs, because there is no attachment mechanism required to expand the reamer or head to a larger size. Integral heads may have integral or replaceable stems or stingers. Integral heads may be as small as 65 cm (26 in) diameter, but generally range in size from 1 m (39 in) to 3 m (10 ft). Some of the general features for integral heads are low profile design, open spaces for cuttings removal, and ability to cover the prescribed diameter. Examples of integral heads are shown in figure 12. They are used in a number of applications, including slot raising, where diameters rarely change.

Expandable or modular head design


Expandable or modular heads are designed for easy change of diameter, according to the requirements of the mine. They all employ replaceable stems or stingers. Two examples of expandable or modular heads are shown in figure 13. Critical features for an expandable or modular head design are: the head should provide the diameters required;
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Figure 13a: Mini superbase with 4.0 metre extensions.

Figure 13b: RRS reamer in 2.4 metre mode.

the head and wings are small enough to be transported and assembled on site; the head is rigid enough to function at the diameters required; the head cleans rock cuttings; and the attachment mechanism is simple, effective, easy to operate and quick to assemble. The attachment mechanism is very important to the design of the head, and may range from a simple bolted flanged connection, to the dowels and keys and wedges. There are a number of attachment mechanisms available to keep wings attached to the base head. The simple bolted connection is used frequently in the industry, and may require torque tools ranging from hand tools with multipliers to hydraulic torque tools depending on the diameter of the bolts and the torque required. An example of a simple
Figure 14: Attachment using a simple bolted connection.

bolted connection is shown in figure 14. Wing attachment mechanisms also include this design, which incorporates dowels to locate the wing easily, and keys and bolts to handle the loading. Figure 15 shows a design that incorporates all of these features. Using hydraulic torque tools, the wings are assembled easily and quickly to the base head. Wedge, bolt and dowel mechanisms are also utilized to attach wings to base heads very effectively. Figure 16 shows one such method, allowing small diameter 25 mm bolts to be used to attach the wing. This design employs only two wings, rather than the standard four wing design. Two dowels, two wedges, and 24 off 25 mm bolts are required to hold the wing in place.
Figure 15: Attachment using dowels for guiding and a combination of bolts and keys to handle the load.

Expandable or modular bases are well adapted to the right drilling application, but there are other jobs that require a different set of design requirements. These include boxhole and down reaming applications, where different machines are used, requiring different designs.

Boxhole heads
Use of boxhole heads has decreased in recent years. These are designed to drill upwards, being pushed and rotated by the machine. Commonly, a boxhole will follow a pre-drilled pilot hole Alternatively, the pilot hole may be drilled as part of the boring operation. The connection to the drill string is either through a flanged connection
Figure 16: Attachment using a combination of wedge, bolts and dowels to handle the load.

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Stinger designs
Stingers, or stems, are a critical part of the raiseboring process. These are made from high strength steel, and connect the drill string to the head, transfering the thrust and rotation from the raiseboring machine to the head under a great deal of stress. The stinger connects to the drill string with a Dl-22 threaded connection. Stinger designs have changed over the years, and a number of different types are still used in the industry. These are known as weld-in, Taperlok, Bikon and flanged stingers. Most stingers are removable from the reamer, so that transportation dimensions are reduced, and a single reamer will suffice for different pilot hole sizes and raiseboring machines. Reamer repair down time is also reduced in the event that a stinger is damaged. The upper portion of the stinger remains in the pilot hole during reaming, and is designed to act as a stabilizer. It is wear resistant against the abrasiveness of direct rock contact. Stingers having more than 6.4 mm (0.25 in) wear on their outer diameter should not be used until rebuilt. Designs of the upper portion of the stinger differ, with some having a replaceable wear sleeve. Other stingers are hard-faced using multiple weld passes of extremely hard metal alloy, or ribs embedded with tungsten carbide inserts. Hard-faced wear ribs can be an integral part of the stinger, or welded-on wear pads. Each of the above types has its advantages. The wear sleeve and welded-on wear pads can be replaced in the field. The tungsten carbide insert type offers extended wear resistance, but cannot be replaced when worn.

Figure 17: Boxhole reamer.

or a DI22 connection on the bottom of the head, or both (figure 17). Boxholes are generally used where there is limited top access, or when it is financially more feasible than a raised hole. Boring boxholes may be the preferred method of raising because of poor ground conditions, or because of its better profile. The most common boxhole diameters range from 1.5 m (60 in) to 1.8 m (72 in), with a maximum diameter of around 2.1 m (84 in).
Figure 18: 720 mm down reamer.

Down reaming heads


Down reaming heads follow down an existing pilot hole from the raiseboring machine, employing rotating or nonrotating stabilizers. In general, down reaming is used when the ground conditions preclude attaching the reamer at the bottom of the pilot hole and reaming back toward the machine. Most down reaming heads have been relatively small in diameter, due mainly to the requirements in the market. Historically, down reamers have utilized two cutters to ream from the pilot hole out to the final diameter, but recently three-cutter versions have been utilized, which bore faster and smoother. Down reamers are generally designed with a built-in stabilizer and a stem or stinger, with replaceable nose guide. Some down reaming heads can be used as an integral raiseboring head. Figure 18 shows a version of the current down reamers used in the industry.

Non-standard heads
There are a number of other head designs based on customer requirements which include heads adapted to drill at low angles or completely horizontal, as well as a number of other specialized applications where access may be limited, dangerous or unprofitable with standard designs.
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Weld-in or integral stingers


Some stingers, especially on smaller heads and downreamers, are either machined directly into the head, or welded in place. These are generally very similar to replaceable stingers, and may have wrench flats, burnout rings, flex points or other design features requested by the client.
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For example, with down reamers a pocket is relieved in the stinger to accept the closest cutters.

Bikon stingers
Bikon stingers are fitted using large tapered dowels and clamp rings, are very reliable, and are relatively cheap to manufacture. In the standard capacity design, approximately 100 bolts have to be torqued to specifications to keep the stinger in place (figure 19). The Bikon design comes in sizes commonly used in raiseboring, and is the only standard stinger type that can be lowered into the head from above.

Taperlok stingers
Taperlok stingers are installed using a hydraulic injection system, in which a mating taper in the head is expanded and the stem is pressed into place. The mating taper is then allowed to shrink to its original geometry. The Taperlok is one of the most reliable stingers, but its design is very dependent upon exact geometry and cleanliness, which is not easy to attain underground. The manufacturing cost is lower than for other designs, but special hydraulic pumps and injection tools are required. Figure 20 shows an example of the Taperlok design.

Figure 19: The Bikon stem connection.

the pilot hole. Pilot bits used in raiseboring are equipped with an API regular threaded pin for connection to either the starter sub during pilot hole start
Figure 20: Taperlok stem.

up, or the bit reamer-stabilizer during pilot hole drilling.

Steve Brooke
Figure 21: Flanged stem.

Flanged stinger
Flanged stingers are attached to the head using bolts and dowels. They have become the industry standard over the years, see figure 21. The flanged stinger is designed to fit all standard pilot holes used in raiseboring. The assembly requires an adequate lifting device and torque tool. This design is very strong under tension, but has some limitations when loaded in compression, such as when removing a stuck head from a hole, or putting the weight of the drill string on the head. The flanged stinger design is more expensive to manufacture than most other designs, due to material costs.

Pilot bits
The pilot bit is installed at the bottom of the drill string and utilized for excavating
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Raiseboring drillstring components


Safe mechanical connection
The drill string is the mechanical connection between the cutting components and the raiseboring machine. It is hollow, to allow the passage of fluid for cooling and removal of cuttings. It is sufficiently robust to consistently transmit rotational and thrust forces from the machine to the pilot bit or reamer, and to provide support for the reamer in the raise when adding or removing drill string components. The design of the drill string must always be compatible with the machine on which it is used. Atlas Copco drill string components are designed for purpose and manufactured in lengths that are easy to handle, store, and transport. Crucially, they are sized to be readily installed and removed from the derrick of the raiseboring machine, making them safe and efficient in use.

Drill pipe

Six-rib stabilizer

Drill string
The drill string is commonly known as all the components used for the drilling operation, including the drill pipe, subs, and stabilizers.
Bit reamerstabilizer Pilot bit

Bottom pack
Bottom pack is known as the bottom section of the drill string that determines the pilot hole diameter. These are made of the tricone bit, roller bit sub, and stabilizers. These can vary from standard configurations to fit the requirements.
Reamer

Pilot drilling and reaming.

Starter pipe
Starter pipe is required for pilot hole start up, this pipe is different from regular drill pipe only in that outer diameter are machined. They are available in various lengths and diameters depending on the application. The starter pipes
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are used in conjunction with the starter bushing.

Starter sub
The starter sub is connected directly to the pilot bit during initial stages of pilot

hole startup. It is equipped with a DI-22 threaded pin and an A.P.I. thread on the box end to accommodate the tricone bit. This component is used in conjunction with the starter pipes. In addition to the wrenching areas located near the upper DI-22 threaded
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pin, the sub is equipped with wrenching areas near its lower A.P.I. threaded box end. These lower wrenching areas enable make up of the floating box starter sub connection without reacting machine torque through the weaker A.P.I. starter sub pilot bit connection. The use of the lower wrenching areas is necessary for this makeup when there is insufficient distance between the machine work table and the collaring surface to utilize the upper wrenching areas of the starter sub.

Stabilizers
Stabilizers are connected in the drill string adjacent to the cutting components. They reduce pilot hole deviation, maintain the full gauge diameter of the pilot hole, and reduce bending stresses in the drill string during raise reaming. Two stabilizer types are used in raiseboring. Bit reamer stabilizer Rib stabilizer

Bit reamer stabilizer.

Bit reamer stabilizer


The bit reamer stabilizer is installed adjacent to the pilot bit during pilot hole drilling. It is equipped with a DI-22 threaded pin at its upper end and an
Straight and spiral stabilizers are available.

A.P.I. regular threaded box at its lower end. The bit reamer stabilizer uses three or six cylindrical rolling cutters to ensure the pilot bit is centred and uniformly loaded in the pilot hole. It is the function of the cutting roller on the bit reamer stabilizer to maintain the correct pilot hole diameter, compensating for any wear on the tricone bit. This will ensure that the pilot hole is to the proper dimensions for the stabilizers.

Rib stabilizer
A number of four-rib or six-rib stabilizer are added to the drill string after installation of the pilot bit reamer stabilizer. These types of stabilizer are manufactured with a DI-22 threaded pin and box at opposite ends. The number of six rib stabilizers used in the drill string can vary from one raise to the

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TalKING TecHNIcallY

next according to specific factors of the particular raise. The rib design can be straight or spiral depending on the application. The stabilizer can be considered as the primary guide maintaining direction of the pilot hole.

Shock absorbers
A shock absorber is a specially designed component that is available for the pilot drilling. The shock absorber adds suspension to the drill string, helping the bit to ride the rough bottom of the hole, reducing movement throughout the whole drill string. This movement is taken up by springs in the shock sub. The load on the bit is then more constant, and vibration is taken up by the shock sub. These components are specially designed to control the very high cyclic loads generated as the bit cones go over the higher and lower areas at the base of the hole.

A typical section of raiseborer drill pipe.

Stress or flex modifiers


Stress modifiers or flex modifiers are specially designed drill string components designed to flex the connection between the reamer head and the drill string. Unlike the saver sub the stress or flex modifiers are designed, to absorb bending forces without breaking.
Secoroc pilot bits for raiseboring.

Reamer
The reamer head is used to back ream the pilot hole. Various design types of cutters and reamers in a choise of diameters are available depending on the specified ground conditions and customers needs.

Drill pipe float valve


The float valve is used during pilot hole drilling to act as a check valve, preventing reverse bailing fluid flow from entering the drill string through the pilot bit upon a depressurization of the bailing fluid in the drill string. Depressurization is necessary when adding or removing drill string components at the derrick assembly. Before pilot hole start up, the float valve is installed into the lower end of the bitreamer stabilizer adjacent to the pilot hole drill bit

Roberto Lopez

Pilot bit
The pilot bit is a tricone type bit used for drilling the pilot hole. Various types of bits are available depending on the specified ground conditions.

Saver sub
The saver sub is a small section of pipe with threaded connection to match the drill string and the stem or stinger. Its function is to serve as a fuse and absorb all the bending forces between the reamer and the stabilizer. This component is designed to break and protect the stabilizer connection.
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BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

Boxhole boring at El Teniente


The lieutenant marches on
State owned Codelco is Chiles largest company and the worlds largest producer of refined copper. The Codelco-owned El Teniente (The Lieutenant) mine is presently the worlds largest underground mining operation. The mine average production rate is currently 126,000 t/day. Boxhole boring between the production and haulage levels using Atlas Copco Robbins machines is a major component in achieving such high outputs. Recently, two raiseborers modified to suit the El Teniente mine conditions were commissioned by Atlas Copco. They were evaluated for three months, during which time the crews were trained in their operation. Both exceeded the set target performance criteria.
Basic facts iN NEW opEratioN
Main caving level Level: 2,210 m above sea level. Drifts: 15 m. Section: 3.6 x 3.4 m. Caving with horizontal cut: 4 m in height. Production level Level: 2,162 m above sea level. Drifts: 30 m. Sections: 4.0 x 3.6 m. Draw Bell: 17.3 m

Orebody (narrow cut)

Slot hole 0.7 m diam/15 m long

Loading, LHD Dumping

Production level Robbins 34RH Orepasses

Ventilation shaft, 1.5 m diameter 35 m long Robbins 53RH

Tapping

Ventilation shaft, 1.5 m diameter 45 m long (max: 75 m)

Introduction
Codelco, renowned for its refined copper output, is also the second ranked world supplier of molybdenum, as well as being a major producer of silver and sulphuric acid, both of which are by-products of its core copper production. The El Teniente mine, located high in the Andes at an elevation of 2,100 m, has been producing copper since 1904. The orebody is 2.8 k m-long by 1.9 km-wide, and is 1.8 km-deep, with proven reserves of some 4,000 million t, sufficient for a mine life of 100 years. Approximately 2,800 miners work seven levels on a 24 h/day, 7 day/ week operation. El Teniente production increased significantly in 2005, when its new Esmeralda section came on line, using the pre-undercut panel caving method. Overall mine output has increased by 31,000 t/day, with 45,000 t/day coming from the Esmeralda Project, making it the most important sector in the mine. The two new boxhole boring systems supplied by Atlas Copco Robbins are a vital part of this production system.
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Transportation level

Ventilation level

Mining method at El Teniente.

The 3.6 x 3.6 m operating limits at the mine work sites demanded an extremely low reamer design with a quickly detachable stinger. This reamer is bolted onto the machine when not in use. When piloting, the stinger is removed from the reamer, to allow the drill string to be fed through. In reaming mode, the stinger is refitted using the pipe loader, and the locking bolts are tightened manually.

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BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

52R, the 53RH multi-purpose machine has been developed since the early 1980s. The 34RH has been used as a raiseboring and downreaming machine for a similar period, and was first introduced in the boxhole configuration in 1998. To accommodate the restricted working space in the mine, the already low-profile 34RH and 53RH had to be redesigned to further decrease the working height. Both machines are selfpropelled, and equipped with efficient muck collectors, remote-controlled pipe handling and automatic data logging.

Atlas Copco Robbins 34RH


The Robbins 34RH is a low profile, small diameter raise drill, designed for applications such as slot raises, backfills and narrow-vein mining. This multipurpose, lightweight raise drill can be used for downreaming and upward boxhole boring, as well as for conventional raiseboring. The machine features a variable speed hydraulic drive with a two stage planetary gearbox, and hollow-centre shaft to enable pilot-hole flushing. To change boring methods, the Robbins 34RH is easily turned upside down, to orient the drive head into either upward or downward boring position. The Robbins 34RH was already a true low-profile raise drill. However, to accommodate the restricted site dimensions, and to allow room for a muckhandling system on top of the machine, the maximum working height had to be lowered further. This was achieved through the use of shorter high-thrust telescopic cylinders, and by utilizing 750 mm-long by 254 mm-diameter drill rods. This reduced the working height of the assembly to 3.6 m, including the muck handling system. The new muck handling arrangement, which had been fitted on two earlier Robbins 34RH machines commissioned in 1998 and 1999, has been further developed for efficient muck collection in the boxhole boring mode. The remote controlled and hydraulically operated muck collector is fully integrated into the derrick assembly, and remains on the machine, even during transportation.
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Schematic of equipment layout for boxhole boring.

Mine requirements
El Teniente tendered for the purchase of two boxhole boring units to excavate the draw bell slot holes for the panel caving operation. These units would also be used to bore ventilation raises and ore passes between the production and the haulage level. The vertical draw bell slots are generally 15 m-long and 692 mm-diameter. A total of 800 m, comprising 45-50 shafts, are bored annually. Because drifts have not been developed on the production level, all ventilation raises and ore passes are bored from the haulage level and upwards using the boxhole boring technique. The average length of the vertical and inclined ventilation raises is 25-50 m. The inclined ore passes average 25 m-long, but this varies up to 75 m-long. The total annual requirement for 1.5 m-diameter bored raises is 1,000 m. Restrictions are placed on the machine design by the size of the underground sections. Work sites measure 3.6 x 3.6 m, and maximum transportation dimensions are 2.5 m-wide x 2.5 mhigh x 4.8 m-long. The machines must either be self-propelled or transported on rail, and have to have tramming and directional lights, as well as a fire extinguisher system. The mine electrical installations provide power at 575-4,000
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V, 3-phases at 50 Hz, and 24-220 V, single phase at 50 Hz. Each machine is designed for three, or less, operators per shift. The operating environment is 2,300 m above sea level, with teperatures from +25 degrees C to 0 degrees C. Relative humidity varies from 15% to 90% in the mine, where acid water and occasional blast vibrations may be experienced. Both machines are operated 24 h/day, 7 days/week, with a maximum machine utilization of 15-16 h/day.

Evaluation period
An evaluation period of three months was established to study the performance capabilities of each machine. Target performance criteria for the smaller slot hole machine was set at 264 m bored during the three month period, and 330 m for the larger boxhole machine. This performance target was based on a 24 h/day operation, with net available operating time of 15-16 h. The number of operating personnel required, set-up and moving time, the rate of penetration and machine availability were all recorded during evaluation period. Atlas Copco boxhole boring units Robbins 34RH and 53RH were found to meet the requirements of the up-hole boring tender, and were selected by the mine. Built on the experience of the

BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

During pilot hole drilling and reaming, the rubber sealed muck collector is applied adjacent to the rock face. The muck slides on a chute assembly to the rear of the machine. The two earlier Robbins 34RH machines featured a 270 degree working range, with muck spilling to either side or to the rear end of the machine, whereas the muck chute on the new El Teniente 34RH machine has a working range of 90 degrees, due to simpler and more compact design. The Robbins 34RH features a remote controlled hydraulically operated slideopening worktable for use in both downreaming and boxhole boring applications. The entire drill string, including boxhole stabilizers and reamer, can pass through the worktable of the machine. The standard frame Robbins 34RH currently in use at El Teniente accommodates a 692 mm-diameter reamer through the worktable, while a wide frame model of the 34RH accommodates a 1,060 mm-diameter reamer. The Robbins 34RH worktable is equipped with semi-mechanized wrenching, which features a hydraulically powered forkshaped wrench manipulated from the operators control console. The rod handler is designed to pick up all drill string components, including boxhole stabilizers and reamer.

Robbins 53RH set up underground.

Robbins 53RH
The Robbins 53RH is a low profile, medium-diameter raise drill, suitable for boring orepasses and ventilation shafts. It is a versatile multi-purpose machine, capable of boring upwards boxhole, downreaming, or conventional raiseboring, without modification to the drive assembly. It has a hydraulic drive to enable variable rotation speeds and has dual drive motors placed offline on a gathering gearbox that transmits torque to the drive heads. The Robbins 53RH features a raiseboring and a boxhole float box, which allows the boring methods to be changed by simply installing drill rods in either the upper or lower float box. In addition, this multi-purpose unit is provided with a removable water swivel, to
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facilitate pilot bit flushing in both raiseboring and boxhole boring modes. The El Teniente machine has been substantially upgraded from previous versions of the Robbins 53RH, to increase its productivity and working range. The input power has been increased by 31% to 225 kW, the torque has been increased by 44% to 156 kNm, and the thrust by 21% to 3,350 kN. To achieve the same low profile as standard Robbins 53RH machines, high thrust telescopic cylinders have been used. This has resulted in a machine with an overall height of just 2.9 m that utilizes 750 mm-long drill rods with an outer diameter of 286 mm. For ease of operation, the unit is equipped with semi-mechanized wrenching in the worktable, as well as the headframe. This features a hydraulically powered forkshaped wrench manipulated from the operators control console. The larger Robbins 53RH does not feature an opening worktable, as the wings of the stabilizers and the reamer are attached on top of the machine. Muck is handled by a separate collector system designed to suit the machine. Unlike the Robbins 34RH, this muck collector is not integrated into the machine design, but is attached to the rock face by means of rock bolts. As it is separated from the derrick

assembly, this remote controlled, hydraulically operated system provides a 360 degree working range for channelling the muck away from the machine. The remote controlled rod handling system on the Robbins 53RH is used for side and ground loading of drill pipes. This configuration of pipeloader has previously been used on all other Robbins models, and is now available on the 53RH. Due to the restricted machine dimensions, it is not possible to add the stabilizers within the machine frame. Instead, the pipeloader inserts a stabilizer pipe with stabilizer wing attachment sleeves. Once this is pushed through the headframe, the lightweight stabilizer wings are attached to the sleeves before continuing on through the muck collector, and into the hole. A new reamer handling system has been integrated into this machine design to eliminate the handling of the reamer at each set up. The reamer has been designed to bolt on top of the headframe during transport and erection. The hollow centre design of the reamer still allows prepiloting of the hole if desired, in which case a special stinger is inserted through the headframe and into the reamer, whereas the reamer is unbolted from the machine frame and attached to the stinger. The diesel transporter used for this machine is sized to
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BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

Diesel powered crawlers are used for transporting Robbins 34RH and Robbins 53RH.

accommodate the derrick, including the attached reamer.

Raise drill performance


As the use of boxhole boring units was new to El Teniente mine, the evaluation period was preceded by startup and commissioning of the machines. After approximately four weeks of training and commissioning, the machines went into full 3-shift production, and the three months evaluation began.

Additional equipment
The boxhole boring machines working in El Teniente were each delivered with a diesel powered crawler, for rapid movement of the derrick from site to site. The newly designed crawler features a cordless remote controlled operating system and a high-power Deutz diesel engine for high-altitude operation and minimal environmental impact. To give the mine better control over machine productivity, a Data Acquisition System was delivered with each machine. This records operating variables in real time, and stores them on a memory card. It also features a display panel that shows the parameters being recorded. The machine operator can view any variable, as well as current time and date, and battery life during operation. The recording brick is configured to log data to the memory card every 30 seconds. During the interval, variables are continuously monitored and key points are logged. The Data Acquisition System is provided with a data analysis software package which processes the output from the recording brick stored on the memory card, and creates graphical plots of the data. The software also generates data files that can be inserted into spreadsheets.
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Robbins 34RH evaluation


The startup period for this machine type included classroom and maintenance training, and the drilling of three raises. The average net penetration rate achieved was 0.8 m/h, or 3.9 m/day. The startup period was strongly affected by lack of water to flush the pilot bit, poor ventilation, and availability of concrete pads in the working area. However, learning progressed steadily, and the operating crew was ready to begin the evaluation period at the completion of one months training. During the three-month evaluation period, seven raises of approximately 14 m in length were drilled each month. The average production rate was 93.3 m/ month, with a total production of 280.1 m for the entire period. This exceeded the monthly target rate of 88 m and 264 m for the full period. The average rate of penetration during the three months was: 1.80 m/h; 2.15 m/h; and 2.17 m/h. Machine utilization during

the evaluation period was 29.8%, with a mechanical availability of 95.5%. Lack of access to the machine due to shift changes, blasting and non-worked weekends had the greatest negative affect on machine utilization. The second largest contributing factor was lack of site availability. During the completion of 20 production holes, the average move and set-up time was between 10 and 12 h. Drilling each hole took two days, which compensated for the low machine utilization, and provided a high rate of production. Some downtime resulted from the replacement of instruments broken by rock falling from the face, and time was also taken to improve the protection of these parts. The boring cycle included pre-piloting of 1 to 2 m, depending on the ground conditions. After that, the hole was bored to full diameter in a single pass. The 692 mm reamer mounts two RCC raiseboring cutters, and an attachment for the bit sub and pilot bit. During single pass boring, the 279 mm pilot bit is also engaged in cutting the rock. To ensure adequate flushing of the cuttings past the bit-sub, water was pumped through the centre of the drill string to the tricone bit. As the drilling took place on the production level of the block caving operation, the hole actually broke through into the broken ore. As there is no access to the head, it was critical to observe any changes to thrust and torque on the machine, to know when breakthrough occurred. The moment breakthrough was achieved, boring was stopped, as any further advance could result in the reamer getting stuck.

Robbins 53RH evaluation


In addition to classes and maintenance training on the Robbins 53RH, a couple of holes were drilled as part of the commissioning. Again, the startup period was strongly affected by lack of water, poor ventilation, and availability of concrete pads in the working area. However, as the personnel were, by this time, well-trained raiseboring operators, the evaluation period could begin within a few weeks. During the three month evaluation period, three raises of approximately
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BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

40 m in length were drilled each month. The average production rate was 111.1 m/ month, and total production was 333.2 m for the entire period. This exceeded the monthly target rate of 110 m and 330 m for the full period. The average rate of penetration during the three months was: 1.12 m/h; 2.60 m/h; and 1.63 m/h. Machine utilization during the evaluation period was 40.3%, with a mechanical availability of 91.3%. Machine utilization was again negatively affected by non-worked weekends, blasting near the drill site, and shift changes. The next largest factor contributing negatively to machine utilizations was site availability due to site cleaning, waiting for concrete pads, and the availability of electricity and water. During the completion of nine production holes, the average move and set up time for the machine was between 13 and 15 h. As drilling of a hole could be completed in a little more than 6 days, a high production rate was achieved, despite the low rig utilization. The boring cycle included pre-piloting of 2 to 3 m, to ensure the straightest hole possible. This also facilitated easier reamer collaring, by reducing deviation caused by the dead weight of the reamer head. Following completion of the pilot, the hole was bored to full diameter in a single pass. The 1.5 m reamer mounts eight RCC raiseboring cutters, and an attachment for the bit sub and 311 mm pilot bit. As with the smaller machine, water was pumped through the centre of the drill string to the tricone bit, to ensure adequate flushing of the cuttings past the bit sub.

Conclusion
The application environment in the El Teniente mine placed high demands on the boxhole boring equipment supplier, both in size constraints, and in operation of the equipment. The mine personnel also had aggressive performance expectations, in keeping with the established high productivity of the mine. Atlas Copco chose to offer its proven 34RH and 53RH boxhole machines with customized features to meet the special needs of El Teniente. Most of these
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Robbins 34RH.

features were focused on accommodating the restrictive work environment and high performance expectations. After thoroughly monitoring the capabilities of both machines, the project in

El Teniente has provided important input to future development of boxhole boring technology. With production results exceeding expectations, it has also proved to be
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BoXHole BorING at El TeNIeNte

a new milestone in the application of boxhole boring machines.

Acknowledgement
Atlas Copco is grateful to the management and staff at El Teniente for their help and assistance with this article, which was originally published in 2001.

Rock Type Composition Density [%] [ton/m3] Andesite Fw 36 2.75 Andesite Hw 24 2.75 Anhydrite Breccha 20 2.70 Andesite Breccha 12 2.70 Diorite 8 2.75 Rock properties at El Teniente.

UCS [MPa] [MPa] 100 125 115 100 140

Youngs Modulus [---] 55 55 55 50 60

Poissons Ratio 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.12 0.15

Robbins 53RH-EX under test.

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McArtHUr RIver, CaNada

Raiseboring for production at McArthur River


World class supplier
The McArthur River underground uranium mine in north Saskatch ewan, Canada, is operated by Cameco Corporation, the worlds largest supplier of combined uranium and conversion services. McArthur River is the only operation in the world that relies solely upon raiseboring for production, rather than methods requiring conventional excavation or utilizing blasting methods. For this extraction technique, the mine is using five Atlas Copco Robbins raiseborers. This article provides an overview of the operation, and outlines recent innovations that have improved upon the safety, efficiency and effectiveness of this mining method to produce over 18 million lbs/year of U3O8. Cameco Corporations vision is to be a dominant nuclear energy company producing uranium fuel and generating clean electricity, but its core business is the supply of uranium concentrates and associated nuclear fuel services. The company owns controlling interests in the worlds largest high grade uranium deposits, at McArthur River and Cigar Lake, and the largest uranium mills, at Key Lake and Rabbit Lake, all located in northern Saskatchewan.

McArthur River minesite and headframe.

Mine access
The McArthur River Operation is jointly owned by Cameco Corporation (70%) and Cogema Resources Inc (30%). It entered production in December, 1999 and successfully ramped up production to become the worlds largest uranium mine, at over 18 million lbs/year of U3O8. The minesite is located approximately 620 km north of Saskatoon. Access is by both air and all-weather road. Air travel is used to transport personnel to and from various locations in Saskatchewan, while road transportation is used for materials.
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The site is located in a valley between glacial drumlins. The Pollock Shaft is the main access for men and materials, as well as being a source of fresh air for the underground operations. It is concrete lined, with a diameter of 5.5 m, and is approximately 680 m-deep. Two production levels, at the 530 m and 640 m elevations, provide access above and below the ore zones for raisebore mining. These two levels are also joined by a ramp, which provides access to a third production level at 560 m elevation. The No 2 Shaft, located approximately 300 m south of the Pollock shaft, is also concrete lined, with a diameter of 6 m and a depth of approximately 530 m. Its main purpose is mine exhaust ventilation, and as a secondary means of egress via ladders. Shaft No 3, located approximately 500 m south of No 2 Shaft, is again concrete lined, with a diameter of 6 m and a depth of approximately 530 m, and is used for fresh air ventilation, as well as a permanent means of emergency egress, for which it is equipped with a small mechanical hoist.

Radiation overview
Worker annual exposure limits have been established in conjunction with the CNSC, and take into account the cumulative exposure to alpha and gamma radiation and radon gas, along with long-lived radioactive dust. Radon gas decaying to its progeny causes alpha radiation. It is typically derived from radon bearing groundwater sources that enter mine workings, and is a critical source of radiation, particularly where inadequate ventilation allows gas build up. Gamma radiation is directly proportional to ore grade. Long-lived radioactive dusts are essentially airborne ore particulate that has been generated by some aspect of mining or ore handling. Discreet radon sources need to be captured in suction ventilation ducting, and delivered to non-entry return airways. General ventilation is normally single pass to non-entry return airways to limit exposure to the decay process. Time, distance and shielding are the key design criteria used to limit gamma radiation exposure. Processes are designed to
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RaIseborING for prodUctIoN at McArtHUr RIver

Negative ventilation applied to a raiseborer.

covering of +300 mm concrete. Dust is controlled by using a wet process for ore handling, as soon as practical, and by providing secondary process ventilation systems where necessary. A full appreciation of the implications of the radiation exposure potential, provided by detailed modelling of each step of the process at McArthur River, led to the development of the non-entry raiseboring mining method. All personnel involved in ore extraction and handling carry direct reading dosimeters (DRDs) that provide realtime numeric readouts of gamma radiation exposure. Personnel working underground are also equipped with personal alpha dosimeters (PADs) that measure alpha radiation exposure. Extensive dust sampling is also conducted. All personnel on-site are provided with thermalluminescence device (TLD) badges that register gamma radiation exposure over a specific period of time. possible. Finally, shielding, typically steel, lead, concrete, or even water, is incorporated into processes as required. At McArthur River, much of the process piping is Schedule 160, and ore storage tanks typically have a suitable

minimize the time personnel need to be in contact with ore sources. When interaction is necessary, the distance between personnel and an ore source is maximized. Additionally, the surface area of the ore source should be minimized where
Inspecting freeze holes on the 530 m level.

Ground freezing
Ground freezing is utilized around the ore to cut off the groundwater flow path from the sandstone. It also provides consolidation of the halo of poor ground surrounding the ore, caused by major faulting. The ground-freezing programme is presently required to maintain, rather than initiate, freezing. The programme consists of 107 holes on line around the ore in Panels 1, 2, & 3 of Zone No 2. Calcium chloride brine for freezing is delivered via two 250 mm-diameter insulated pipes installed in the Pollock Shaft in a high-pressure closed loop. Delivery temperature is typically 30C to maintain the required steady-state temperature for the underground portion of the system. On the 530 m level, a series of heat exchangers allows for heat transfer with a low-pressure closed loop brine distribution system that delivers brine to the Zone No 2 area. Delivery temperature is typically 27C. The freeze pipes in the holes contain a smaller diameter inner PVC feed pipe that allows the brine to travel to the bottom of the hole, prior to flowing out of the feed pipe, while contacting the outer casing to allow heat transfer with the surrounding rock.
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RaIseborING for prodUctIoN at McArtHUr RIver

Raiseboring overview
Raiseboring was selected as the initial mining method for Zone No 2, since it is not possible to work in the ore zone due to radiation exposure and ground freezing. There is also a need to control ventilation circuits extremely well, and low orebody rock strength eliminated the use of mining methods requiring explosives. Initially, three raisebore chambers were established on the 530 m level inside the freeze-wall. Two rows of raises are bored from each chamber to respective extraction chambers on the 640 m level. Each row contains from 10 to 16 raises, depending upon local geology. All chambers are provided with a concrete floor, for ease of setting up the raisebore drills and for cleanup, and with halogen lighting for better visibility. Upon completion of reaming in a given chamber, the raisebore and extraction chambers are backfilled with concrete, and subsequent chambers are then developed adjacent to these backfilled drifts, ready for reaming the next two rows of raises per chamber. Pilot hole deviation averages just 1%, due to careful alignment of the raisebore drills, and standardization of pilot hole drilling parameters. Raises completed to date have varied from 50,000 lb to over 1,000,000 lb of U3O8, with raises averaging 75 m in length. Due to the generally soft nature of the ore zone, the production rate, when reaming in the ore, is constrained by ore-handling capacity. Reaming in excess of 50 t/h is theoretically possible, and 20 to 30 t/h has proved to be sustainable. In a 3.05 m-diameter raise, this equates to 0.9 m/h to 1.4 m/h. Special precautions are taken during both pilot hole drilling and reaming to ensure the safety of the operators. Due to radon gas and progeny generation, the raise air has to be contained during the reaming cycle. This involves maintaining a good seal at the pilot hole collar, and introducing compressed air down the pilot hole during reaming; utilizing a negative pressure 2.5 cu m/s wet bath dust scrubber at the bottom of the raise, as part of the ore collection chute (OCC) system, that exhausts to the return air side of raiseboring on the
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Robbins raiseborer 53RH-EX, one of four at site.

640 m level; and using proper restrictive barriers to ensure that no personnel enter on the return air side of raiseboring on the 640 m level.

Loading ore
Ore is collected at the bottom of the raises by line-of-sight LHD. A simple chute arrangement is placed below the raise to direct material to a 1.2 mdiameter chute opening, which dumps directly into the LHD bucket. Stationary cameras indicate when the bucket is 75% full, and the driver contacts the raisebore operator to cease reaming. The driver, located 20-40 m away on the fresh air side, then backs the LHD away from the chute, using line-of-sight remote control. He then boards the LHD into a pressurized, air-filtered cab, and drives it to a scanning station, where the ore grade is determined by gamma radiation response before delivery to the indicated location. Ore grading less than 2% U3O8 can be skipped to surface via the Pollock

Shaft. Ore grading greater than 2% U3O8 is delivered to the underground grinding circuit, with a semi autogenous grinding mill, and then hoisted hydraulically to surface. Once at surface, the slurry is stored in radiation-shielded storage tanks to await transportation to Key Lake mill, some 80 km away.
Direct reading dosimeter.

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RaIseborING for prodUctIoN at McArtHUr RIver

Innovative raiseborers
Cameco is using a fleet of five Atlas Copco raiseborers at McArthur River: one Robbins 73RM-H machine and four 53RH-EX units, using some reaming heads and cutters supplied by Secoroc. As of March 2003, some 114 raises had been reamed, for a total production of approximately 55,150,000 lb of U3O8. The following table highlights the annual production.
Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 (to March) Total Production 3,410,000 11,670,000 17,170,000 18,520,000 4,185,000 55,150,000

Robbins raiseborer 73RM-H at the 530 m level.

If it is necessary for a worker to approach within 10 m of the chute area, a Radiation Work Permit is required. A radiation technician conducts an alpha and gamma radiation survey, to establish both the radiation and work guidelines, and the personal protective equipment requirements. Upon completion of a raise, the reamer is lowered to the collar of the raise, and a cleanup of the area is conducted utilizing the line-of-sight LHD, and washing the area with high-pressure fire hoses. The ore collection chute and dust scrubber are then removed. The reamer is lowered out of the raise, and a backfill gantry is slid into place below the raise. A remote breakout tool is then used, which attaches to the LHD boom after bucket removal, allowing the reamer to be broken from the drill string and removed remotely.
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Backfilling
Once the reamer has been removed from the raise, the backfill gantry is placed into the correct position to act as the formwork for backfilling the raise. This backfill gantry raises a platform up to the back, and seals the raise breakthrough with a plug fabricated of Styrofoam, plastic, or canvas. Concrete is used for backfilling. An initial plug of +30 MPa strength is pumped via a feed pipe through the backfill gantry from below, and allowed to cure for 48 hours. This is followed by a second pour via the pilot hole, and a final pour of +15 MPa strength to complete raise filling. During this timeframe, the raiseborer is setting up to drill the next pilot hole. Raises are designed to overlap slightly, in order to achieve high ore recovery.

Raiseboring standards are being maintained using: a quality assurance programme, with NDT testing of major drill string components; preventative maintenance programmes for the raisebore drills after every raise; and design and fabrication of a reamer catcher system. For the quality assurance programme, every reamer is inspected before being installed. This includes a visual inspection for wear on pads and cutters, as well as Magnaflux testing of the stempin. Magnaflux testing is also carried out on the pin and box ends of all stabilizers, as well as wrenching rods when used, before the rods go into the pilot hole. The reamer catcher system uses a cable system, which allows safe removal of an OCC if a reamer breaks away from the drill string. For use with the Secoroc reamers, this reamer-on-a-rope system has a wedge anchor at one end that is installed into the pin end of the reamer stem. The cable has an anchor that is pushed up through the annulus of the stabilizer/wrenching rod at the end of the drill string, to sit at the top of the pin of the stabilizer or wrenching rod connected directly to the reamer. The cable has a swivel at the other end that is attached to the wedge anchor. If the first joint breaks, the cable catches the reamer, which is suspended in the raise until the OCC can be removed
RAiseboRing

RaIseborING for prodUctIoN at McArtHUr RIver

using a remote LHD. Once the OCC has been removed, a cushion of muck is placed at the bottom of the raise, and the reamer is lowered. A turntable is used to swing rods into the proper orientation for the pipeloader to grab them for loading into the drill, while aluminium rod racks reduce the number of injuries from lifting heavy timbers. Rebuilding of cutters and tricone bits is also being actively pursued. A two-piece reamer stem has been introduced, which has a joint near the platform elevation of the stem. This allows the upper portion of the stem to be changed, rather than replacing the entire stem complete with flange. With some of the pilot holes overlapping, various plastics were tried, before an aluminium standpipe was implemen-ted. This lighter material allows for the drilling out of the standpipe of a previous pilot hole, without damaging the tricone bit. Two raises have also had to be reamed through to the 530 m level because the reamers could not be lowered out of the bottom of the raise. This required careful planning, to ensure health and safety, as well as limiting worker radiation exposures. The procedure involved reaming to within 3 m of the sill, drilling backfill holes into the raise below the reamer from the 530 m level, backfilling the raise while still leaving a void below the reamer for the cuttings, reaming up through to the baseplates, removing the reamer from the raise, and completing the backfilling to the sill of the 530 m elevation.

530 m

Raiseborer machine

Pilot hole Ore zone

Reaming head

Exhaust ventilation

Fresh air Remote control scooptram Operator

640 m

Exhaust air scrubber

Schematic of production system at McArthur River.

proved to be quite successful, and larger canvas bags are being investigated for full plug pours, rather than just for sealing purposes.

Innovative backfilling
In order to reduce radiation exposure during the installation of the backfill gantry (BFG), a plastic plug has been introduced to seal the bottom of the raise. This is utilized if ground conditions around the collar of the raise will not allow sealing with Styrofoam. A canvas bag with attached fibreglass rebars, that is inflated with concrete, was designed and tested. It was installed on top of the BFG, and the BFG placed under the open raise remotely. Then, the canvas bag was inflated with concrete, sealing the bottom of the raise and placing the rebars vertically. This initial test
RAiseboRing

The future at McArthur River


One of the most interesting aspects of this mining programme is the unconventional use of raiseborers. This unique operation has created opportunities to reinvent drilling procedures, as well as design one-of-a-kind equipment. With the success of conventional raiseboring as the primary mining method, the future is bright for McArthur River. This mining method has been proven, and has matured to such a level that it is the primary mining method planned for new mining zones. However, upcoming challenges in regard to the required

development for access above and below future mining zones indicates that alternate mining methods should be investigated, such as boxhole boring and jetboring. A test programme is also being conducted to try mining without the OCC under the raise, which could lead to more conventional mining methods in the future. The McArthur River Operation has been granted ISO 14001 Certification, underlining its commitment to protect the environment.

Acknowledgements
Atlas Copco is grateful to Cameco Corporation for permission to publish this article, and in particular to chief mine engineer V Clay Wittchen, who wrote and presented the papers on which it is based.
77

Ovre Ardal, NorwaY

Replacing Norways Tyin hydropower plant


Environmentally sensitive construction
Norwegian contractor Selmer Skanska has completed its part of the construction of the replacement for the 1940s hydropower station serving the rdal aluminium smelter, located near Sogndal in western Norway. Overall cost of the project will be approximately 180 million, with the Selmer Skanska contract accounting for 60 million. The new power station has been excavated in rock, together with nearly 21 km of associated tunnels of various cross sections. The client, Norsk Hydro, is c ommi t te d to pre s e r va tion, and this is reflected both inside and outside the mountain, and includes health, environment and safety. This was emphasised when they awarded the contract, along with an insistence that their current daily production of electricity should not be disrupted. Three generations of Atlas Copco drill rigs were used at Tyin, ranging from the older Boomer H185 and 322, through Rocket Boomer 353C, to the latest L2C and fully computerized WL3C, equipped with COP 1838HF rockdrills. Secoroc supplied its Magnum SR35 rock tools for the drill rigs, and Atlas Copco refurbished a Robbins 97RLC raiseborer for the surge shaft excavation. There was even an Atlas Copco ST1000 Scooptram at site! The compact dimensions of the Robbins 97RL C raise drill enabled the surge shaft to be drilled safely from the surge chamber, for which access was limited and difficult. Tyin is a testament to the ability of a single company to supply and support all the equipment necessary for a major tunnelling project, while complying with the environmental strictures placed on working in sensitive areas of the world.

Robbins 97RL C in operation.

Tunnel system
The tunnel system runs from a laketap intake in Lake Tyin to the existing storage lake at Torolmen, and then on to the powerstation penstocks and turbines, finally discharging through a tailrace at rdalsvatnet. Five surface creek intakes have also been constructed. These have been coupled to the existing power tunnel, which will then work as a top feed to the new tunnel, connected by a shaft located

approximately halfway along its alignment. Selmer Skanska subsidiary E-Service drilled the 1 m-diameter x 25-50 mlong holes to connect the creeks to the existing headrace. An access tunnel 1.54 km-long with 50sq m cross section was driven downgrade at 1:10 to reach the power station site in June, 2002. The rock cover of 1.5 km is resulting in heavy pressure on tunnel face and crown. It involved some 75,000 cu m of excavation using an Atlas Copco Rocket
RAiseboRing

78

ReplacING NorwaYs TYIN HYdropower PlaNt

First worksite for the upgraded Robbins 97 RL C raiseborer

Torholmen Tya

Tyin 1073-1083 m.o.h.

Existing tunnel Shaft New tunnel

New powerhouse Lake rdal above sea level

Idealized section of Tyin tunnel system.

Boomer 353C equipped with 5.5 m-long Secoroc Magnum SR35 rods to drill the hard gneiss. Some 75-80 x 48 mm holes were drilled per round, using Secoroc Magnum SR35 button bits, to obtain a 4.85m pull. Dyno Nobel slurry explosive and Nonel detonation provided good fragmentation, and spoil removal was undertaken by a subcontractor.

created by over 1,000 m of head between Lake Tyin and the powerhouse. Massive crane rails have been installed to cope with the turbine components and the 240 t transformers.

Tailrace
The tailrace tunnel is 2.7 km-long, and 9.5m-high x 5.5 m-wide, with 46 sq m section. This was driven by an Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer WL3C drill rig with three booms and a basket, delivered new in February, 2002. The WL3C was equipped with the latest 1838 HF rockdrills, which drilled at 1.5 m/min in the granite gneiss. It drilled 90 holes/ round using 5.5 m-long rods and 48 mm button bits with Secoroc Magnum SR35 thread, with blasting by Dyno Nobel slurry with Nonel detonators. The rock cover of 1.5 km resulted in heavy pressure on the mountain side of the drive, causing blocky ground which had to be secured using 4 m-long resin anchored bolts. Some 12-15 bolts were installed per round, in alternating rings of 6 and 7 at 2.5m spacing. Where the rock tension permitted, 2.4 m-long bolts were used. Steel fibre reinforced shotcrete was applied as a matter of course. Turning niches were excavated at 130 m intervals for the wheeled loaders, which discharged into road tippers. Rock from the tailrace tunnel was carried by bottom dump barges to an area

of the fjord that has been reclaimed as a nature reserve. The access and tailrace tunnel entrances are 3 km apart along a tarmac all-weather public highway. Large 1.8 m-diameter fans and 2 m ducts provided 35 cu m/min of fresh air to the faces.

Headrace
The pressure tunnel was advanced at 27 sq m section on a 0.5% gradient from the power station position towards Lake Tyin. Meantime, development of
Atlas Copco ROC 642 HP used for bulk excavation of power station cavern.

Power station
The power station excavation was completed in October, 2003, with dimensions 17 m-wide x 60 m-long x 38 m-high, beneath 1.6 km of rock cover. It is designed to replace output from the existing plant and to add an extra 15%, bringing electricity production to 1,400 GWh annually, without changing the water reservoirs. The power station roof was profile drilled using a Rocket Boomer 353C and supported by 6 m-long resin anchored rockbolts installed on a 2 m square pattern in holes drilled by an Atlas Copco Boomer H185 drill rig. Some 7-10 cm of steel fibre reinforced shotcrete was applied, using a truckmounted jumbo. An Atlas Copco ROC 642HP quarry rig drilled 4 m-long x 64 mm-diameter vertical blastholes with 2.5 m burden on the benches for bulk excavation of the powerhouse, where the generator pit will house two Pelton turbines. These will be driven by the hydrodynamic forces
RAiseboRing

79

ReplacING NorwaYs TYIN HYdropower PlaNt

At the controls of the Rocket Boomer WL3 C. One of the Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer 353 C drill rigs.

the 350 m-long Biskopsvatn adit was commenced in October, 2001, at a point approximately halfway along the 7 km alignment between the power station and the storage lake known as Torolmen. Biskopsvatn adit reached the pressure tunnel horizon by Christmas, 2001. From here, the pressure tunnel was advanced in both directions using two identical Atlas Copco 353S drill rigs and tracked loaders with 2.1 cu m side tipping buckets at each face, operated by single crews on each of two shifts. A maximum 35 rounds/week was achieved, with an average of 26 rounds, which equated to 65 m advance. Both rigs used Secoroc Magnum SR35 equipment, 5.5 m-long rods and 48 mm button bits, in the 29-30 sq m section, and each round took around 2 hours to drill. A workshop was established underground at the junction of the Biskopsvatn adit and the pressure tunnel drives. Towards the right downgrade side, the drive was in granite, and towards the

80

RAiseboRing

ReplacING NorwaYs TYIN HYdropower PlaNt

left upgrade side, it was in phyllite. Each round required more blastholes in the phyllite, together with up to six 102 mm cut holes. The final stretch of tunnel, from Lake Torolmen to the draw off point in La ke Tyi n, was d r iven f rom an adit using an excavator loader and dumptrucks. The first 226 m was downgrade, followed by 2.4 km slightly upgrade at 20 sq m section. The face was drilled using an Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer L2C, using ANFO as the blasting agent.

Surge shaft
At a position known as Tora Bora because of its remoteness, the 9,000 cu m surge chamber was excavated early in the project using an Atlas Copco 322 twin-boom drill rig and ANFO. Poor access limited the size of equipment that could be used, which included an ST1000 Scooptram. The 436 m-long x 4.04 m-diameter surge shaft was raise bored from the surge chamber by Skanska raiseboring AB using its Robbins 97RL C. This is a high power and low profile raise drill specially designed for working on sites with size and weight restrictions, and is one of the strongest ever produced for up to 600 m-long raises in the diameter range of 2.4 m-5.0 m. The conversion of the 13 year-old machine to computer control was undertaken by the raiseboring department at Atlas Copco in Orebro, Sweden, who upgraded the entire system using RCS technology, and added a new power pack and electrical cabinet. The upgrade made the control system more reliable and easier to use, and the raise drill easier to assemble at site, because of the reduction in cabling. Technical data can be logged and downloaded onto a PC card, and the whole system is programmable, making it easier to add new features. Indeed, a catch-rope feature was added and programmed into the machine after it had been delivered and set up. With this feature installed, if the reamer loosens, it is restrained by a wire rope inside the drillstring, and a red light appears on the panel. Due to weight restrictions and size limits of the access road along the
RAiseboRing

Robbins 97RL C set up and drilling at Tora Bora.

mountainside, the machine had to be dismantled and hauled in by tractor. It took Skanska nine trips to get the raise drill into place, and an additional 30-40 helicopter trips for transportation of drill rods and accessories. Site preparation and assembly took around three weeks. During winter, it was impossible to keep the road open due to snowstorms, and the raise drilling crew had to rely on helicopter or snowmobiles for transportation. To avoid a cumbersome commuting situation, night-quarters were fitted in the warm and snow free tunnel, close to the working site. Drilling of the 15 in pilot hole started in December, 2002 and took three months to complete. A drift from the power tunnel reached the lower level of the pilot hole by March, 2003, and reaming of the 4.04 m-diameter shaft commenced the following month and was completed by the end of June, 2003.

Summary
The Tyin project began in September, 2001 and was completed in late-2004. A total of 4,500 rounds were blasted to remove 680,000 cu m of rock. Some 27,086 rockbolts and 15,100cu m shotcrete were installed.

Selmer Skanska and its subcontractors had a total of 160 employees on site, of which 50 lived at the intermediate adit location, with the remainder at a camp in rdal, next to the site area. Everybody worked the North Sea system of two weeks on and one week off. Excavation was completed during 2003, with the final blast in the tailrace taking place in the last week in May, and the headrace from Biskopsvatn to the powerstation breaking through on 10th July. The draw-off tunnel at Torolmen was finished at the end of July, with the lake tap left ready drilled for blasting in mid-2004. The piercing of Ardalsvatn from the tailrace was carried out in Spring, 2004. Selmer Skanska is justifiably proud of this project, which involved drilling and blasting nearly 21 km of tunnel and excavating 45,000 cu m of powerstation in just 19 months. This part of the project was completed without a single serious accident during the course of 600,000 manhours.

Acknowledgements
Atlas Copco is grateful to Magnar Myklatun, project manager for Selmer Skanska at Tyin for his assistance with this article.
81

ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

34RH
Main specications
Frame
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drillpipe Diameter Optional diam. Length, s/s** Standard 34RH with optional ground loading pipeloader Pilot hole Diameter

Low
1.2 m (4 ft) 0.6-1.5 m (2-5 ft) 340 m (1,115 ft) 610 m (2,000 ft) 203 mm (8 in) 254 mm (10 in) 750 mm (2.5 ft) 229 mm (9 in) 279 mm (11 in)

Standard

Wide

1.2 m 1.2 m (4 ft) (4 ft) 0.6-1.5 m (2-5 ft) 340 m (1,115 ft) 610 m (2,000 ft) 203 mm (8 in) 254 mm (10 in) 1,219 mm (4 ft) 229 mm (9 in) 279 mm (11 in) 0.6-1.5 m (2-5 ft) 340 m (1,115 ft) 610 m (2,000 ft) 254 mm (10 in) 203 mm (8 in) 1,219 mm (4 ft) 279 mm (11 in) 229 mm (9 in) 64 kNm (47,500 lbf ft) 1,285 kN (289,000 lbf) 110-160 kW (150-215hp) Hydraulic 3,350 mm (132 in) 3,350 mm (132 in) 2,200 mm (87 in) 2,250 mm (89 in) 11,100 kg (24,470 lb)

Optional diam.

The Robbins 34RH is a low prole and small diameter raise drill, ideal for slot raises, back lling and narrow vein mining applications. The multipurpose and light weight raise drill can be used for conventional raiseboring, downreaming as well as upward boxhole boring depending on the conguration of the various options available. This makes the Robbins 34RH the most versatile raise drill on the market.

Torque and force Reaming torque 64 kNm 64 kNm (47,500 lbf ft) (47,500 lbf ft) Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive 1,285 kN 1,285 kN (289,000 lbf) (289,000 lbf) 110-160 kW (150-215 hp) Hydraulic 110-160 kW (150-215 hp) Hydraulic 3,250 mm (128 in) 3,250 mm (128 in) 1,700 mm (67 in) 1,800 mm (71 in) 7,600 kg (16,755 lb)

Dimensions Height extended 2,900 mm (115 in) Height retracted 2,900 mm (115 in) Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal 1,700 mm (67 in) 1,650 mm (65 in) 7,200 kg (15,870 lb)

Features and benets


The single power pack hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. Rigid columns provide efficient torque reaction, extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. Telescopic thrust cylinders provide high thrust in low profile. The entire drive train features a hollow centre, enabling efficient transmission of any flushing media to clear the pilot hole. A choice of different types of worktables is available. The slide open worktable facilitates downreaming or boxhole applications while the horseshoe fork worktable wrench, as well as the worktable wrench, are available for conventional raiseboring only. The optional ground loading pipeloader offers maximum exibility in terms of pipe handling. It is capable of installing all the drillstring components as well as the reamer*** (*** Max. diameter 1060mm). The optional high rev/min version offers almost twice the production for downreaming applications. 82

90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45)

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

44RH
Main specications
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Optional diam. Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter Optional diam. Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive 1.5 m (5 ft) 1.0-1.8 m (3.5-6 ft) 340 m (1,115 ft) 610 m (2,000 ft) 203 mm (8 in) 254 mm (10 in) 1,219 mm (4 ft) 229 mm (9 in) 254 mm (10 in) 75 kNm (55,000 lbf ft) 2,000 kN (450,000 lbf) 160 kW (150 hp) Hydraulic 3,400 mm (134 in) 3,400 mm (134 in) 1,750 mm (69 in) 1,600 mm (63 in) 8,000 kg (17,636 lb) 90 - 60 (45)

Dimensions Height extended Height retracted Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

Building on the proven design of our low prole and light weight raise drills, the Robbins 44RH adds higher torque and thrust to a small diameter raise drill. The 44RH is a versatile and high production raise drill, for raise requirements in the smaller diameter range.

Features and benets


The single power pack hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. Rigid columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. Telescopic thrust cylinders provide high thrust in low profile. The entire drive train features a hollow centre, enabling efficient transmission of any flushing media to clear the pilot hole. The sturdy worktable is available with insert or horse shoe fork wrench for fast and reliable pipe threading. The sideloading pipeloader offers safe and efficient pipe handling.

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

53RH
Main specications
Models
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum*

53RH
1.8 m (6 ft) 1.2-2.4 m (4-8 ft) 490 m (1610 ft) 650 m (2130 ft)

53RH-EX
1.8 m (6 ft) 1.2-2.4 m (4-8 ft) 490 m (1610 ft) 650 m (2130 ft)

Drill pipe Diameter Length, s/s Pilot hole Diameter Optional diameter Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust 286 mm (11-1/4 in) 286 mm (11-1/4 in) 750 mm (2.5 ft) 1524 mm (5 ft)

311 mm (12-1/4 in) 311 mm (12-1/4 in) 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 156 kNm (115,000 lbf ft) 3,350 kN (754,000 lbf) 255 kW (340 hp) Hydraulic 2,700 mm (106 in) 2,700 mm (106 in) 1,900 mm (75 in) 2,150 mm (85 in) 156 kNm (115,000 lbf ft) 3,350 kN (754,000 lbf) 255 kW (340 hp) Hydraulic 4,000 mm (158 in) 3,650 mm (144 in)) 1,900 mm (75 in) 2,150 mm (85 in)

Installed power Main drive Dimensions Height extended

The Robbins 53RH is a unique multi-purpose raise drill, able to perform upwards boxhole boring as well as conventional raiseboring, without any modications to the drive assembly. The Robbins 53RH is of low prole design which gives it the most application exibility in restricted environments.

Height retracted Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

14,000 kg (30,865 lb) 14,000 kg (30,865 lb) 90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45)

Features and benets


The hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. Telescopic thrust cylinders provide high thrust in low profile. Unique design with dual drive chucks heads for easy change between boring mode. A removable swivel enables efficient flushing in both boxhole boring and raiseboring. A sliding fork worktable wrench in combination with the optional semi-automatic drive head wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches (optional). The sideloading pipeloader offers safe and efficient pipe handling both in boxhole and raiseboring mode.

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

Visit www.raiseboring.com for more information 84 RAiseboRing

ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

73R
Main specications
Models
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Optional diam. Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter

73RAC
2.1 m (7 ft) 1.5-2.4 m (5-8 ft) 550 m (1,800 ft) 700 m (2,300 ft) 254 mm (10 in) 286 mm (11-1/4 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 279 mm (11 in) 311 mm (12-1/4 in)

73RH
2.1 m (7 ft) 1.5-3.1 m (5-10 ft) 550 m (1,800 ft) 700 m (2,300 ft) 286 mm (11-1/4 in) 254 mm (10 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 311 mm (12-1/4 in) 279 mm (11 in)

73RVF
2.1 m (7 ft) 1.5-3.1 m (5-10 ft) 550 m (1,800 ft) 700 m (2,300 ft) 286 mm (11-1/4 in) 254 mm (10 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 311 mm (12-1/4 in) 349 mm (13-3/4 in)

Optional diam.

With more units sold worldwide than any other raise drill model in production, the Robbins 73R has become the reliable workhorse for virtually any raiseboring application. The 73R is a medium size raise drill, ranging from 1.5 m to 3.1 m (5-10 ft) in diameter.

Torque and force Reaming torque 173 kNm 225 kNm 225 kNm (128,000 lbf ft) (166,000 lbf ft) (166,000 lbf ft) Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive 4,159 kN 4,159 kN (935,000 lbf) (935,000 lbf) 215 kW (290 hp) Electric (AC) 305 kW (400 hp) Hydraulic 5,250 mm (207 in) 3,600 mm (142 in) 1,600 mm (63 in) 1,900 mm (75 in) 11,500 kg (25,350 lb) 4,159 kN (935,000 lbf) 305 kW (400 hp) Electric (VF) 5,900 mm (232 in) 3,850 mm (152 in) 1,600 mm (63 in) 1,900 mm (75 in) 13,000 kg (28,660 lb)

Features and benets


The AC version offers a fixed four speed drive with high durability and maintainability. The hydraulic and VF drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A patented, two piece swivel float box prevents transfer of bending moments to the gearbox, and a replaceable threaded insert lowers maintenance costs. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. A simple in-line drive system provides balanced thrust loads to improve cutting action. A sliding fork worktable wrench in combination with the optional semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches (optional). Small footprint requires a smaller drilling pad and fewer tie down bolts.

Dimensions Height extended 5,550 mm (219 in) Height retracted 3,800 mm (150 in) Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal 1,600 mm (63 in) 1,900 mm (75 in) 12,000 kg (26,455 lb)

90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45)

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

83RH
Main specications
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive Dimensions Height extended Height retracted 4.0 m (13 ft) 2.4-4.5 m (8-15 ft) 500 m (1,640 ft) 1,000 m (3,280 ft) 327 mm (12-7/8 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 407 kNm (300,000 lbf ft) 6,124 kN (1,376,700 lbf) 455 kW (600 hp) Hydraulic 6,000 mm (236 in) 4,350 mm (171 in) 1,650 mm (65 in) 2,150 mm (85 in) 20,000 kg (44,100 lb) 90 - 60 (45)

Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

The ruggedly built, large diameter and high torque Robbins 83RH, is one of the toughest raise drills going for the widest applications throughout the mining industry. The 83RH is recommended for reaming shafts and raises from 2.4 m up to 4.5 m (8-15 ft) in diameter.

Features and benets


The hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A patented, two piece swivel float box prevents transfer of bending moments to the gearbox, and a replaceable threaded insert lowers maintenance costs. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. A simple in-line drive system provides balanced thrust loads to improve cutting action. A sliding fork worktable wrench in combination with the semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches (optional). Small footprint requires a smaller drilling pad and fewer tie down bolts.

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

91RH
Main specications
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal 5.0 m (17 ft) 2.4-5.0 m (8-17 ft) 600 m (1,640 ft) 1,000 m (3,280 ft) 327 mm (12-7/8 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 450 kNm (330,000 lbf ft) 6,700 kN (1,510,000 lbf) 500 kW (670 hp) Hydraulic 5,100 mm (201 in) 4,050 mm (160 in) 2,300 mm (91 in) 2,500 mm (99 in) 24,000 kg (53,000 lb) 90 - 60 (45)

Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive

Dimensions Height extended Height retracted Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

The Robbins 91RH is the latest addition to the Robbins low prole series that brings the advantage of raiseboring to more underground mine locations. Its modular design allows it to be disassembled into relatively small components for easy transport through smaller haulage ways, yet the powerful hydraulic drive of the 91RH makes it ideal for large raises up to 5.0 m (17 ft).

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

Features and benets


The hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A gearbox incorporated in a barrel allows the drive train to be disassembled into smaller components without losing the preload of the main bearings. This saves time during maintenance and transportation. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. A simple in-line drive system provides balanced thrust loads to improve cutting action. A sliding fork worktable wrench, in combination with the semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches.

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

97RDC
Main specications
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive Dimensions Height extended Height retracted 5.0 m (17 ft) 2.4-5.0 m (8-17 ft) 600 m (1,640 ft) 1,000 m (3,280 ft) 327 mm (12-7/8 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 450 kNm (330,000 lbf ft) 6,845 kN (1,538,200 lbf) 375 kW (500 hp) Electric (DC) 4,400 mm (173 in) 4,400 mm (173 in) 2,250 mm (89 in) 3,300 mm (130 in) 24,000 kg (53,000 lb) 90 - 60 (45)

Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

The Robbins 97RDC is a high power and low prole raise drill specially designed for mines with size and weight restrictions. Despite its low prole, the 97RDC is one of the largest raise drills ever produced. Recommended diameter range is 2.4 m up to 5.0 m (8-17 ft).

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

Features and benets


The digital DC drive incorporates the latest electric technology. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A patented, two-piece swivel float box prevents transfer of bending moments to the gearbox, and a replaceable threaded insert lowers maintenance costs. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction, extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. The low profile layout employs an offset drive line with underslung motors, planetary gearing and telescopic cylinders. A sliding fork worktable wrench, in combination with the semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches.

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

123R
Main specications
Models
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise Length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Optional diameter Length, s/s Pilot hole Diameter Optional diameter Torque and force Reaming torque

123RH
4.0 m (13 ft) 3.1-5.0 m (10-17 ft) 920 m (3,020 ft) 1,100 m (3,610 ft)

123RVF
5.0 m (17 ft) 3.1-6.0 m (10-20 ft) 920 m (3,020 ft) 1,100 m (3,610 ft)

327 mm (12-7/8 in) 352 mm (13-7/8 in) 352 mm (13-7/8 in) 327 mm (12-7/8 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 1,524 mm (5 ft)

349 mm (13-3/4 in) 381 mm (15 in) 381 mm (15 in) 450 kNm (330,000 lbf ft) 8,923 kN (2,000,000 lbf) 500 kW (670 hp) Hydraulic 349 mm (13-3/4 in) 540 kNm (398,000 lbf ft) 8,923 kN (2,000,000 lbf) 525 kW (700 hp) Electric (VF)

Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive Dimensions Height extended Height retracted Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

Designed for large diameter and long hole raiseboring applications, the Robbins 123R is a very powerful raise drill. The 123R is designed for large diameter raises, ranging from 3.1 m up to 6.0 m (10-20 ft), making it the preferred choice for raising shafts in mining or civil engineering applications.

5,700 mm (224 in) 5,800 mm (228 in) 4,050 (160 in) 4,050 (160 in) 2,300 mm (91 in) 2,500 mm (99 in) 2,300 mm (91 in) 2,500 mm (99 in)

25,400 kg (56,000 lb) 25,400 kg (56,000 lb) 90 - 60 (45) 90 - 60 (45)

Features and benets


The hydraulic or VF drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A gearbox incorporated in a barrel allows the drive train to be disassembled into smaller components without losing the preload of the main bearings. This saves time during maintenance and transportation. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. A simple in-line drive system provides balanced thrust loads to improve cutting action. A sliding fork worktable wrench, in combination with the semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches.

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

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ROBBINS raIse drIll specIfIcatIoN

191RH
Main specications
Raise diameter Nominal Range* Raise length Nominal Maximum* Drill pipe Diameter Length, s/s** Pilot hole Diameter Torque and force Reaming torque Reaming thrust Installed power Main drive Dimensions Height extended 5.0 m (17 ft) 4.5 - 6.0 m (15 -20 ft) 1,000 m (3,280 ft) 1,400 m (4,590 ft) 375 mm (14-3/4 in) 1,524 mm (5 ft) 381 mm (15 in) 814 kNm (600,375 lbf ft) 11,600 kN (2,607,800 lbf) 950 kW (1,290 hp) Hydraulic 6,500 mm (256 in) 4,600 mm (181 in) 2,300 mm (91 in) 2,700 mm (106 in) 45,000 kg (99,200 lb) 90 - 60 (45)

D W

Height retracted Width Depth Weight Derrick Dip adjustment from horizontal

Designed for large diameter and long hole raiseboring applications, the Robbins 191RH is the most powerful raise drill in the Atlas Copco Raiseboring series. The 191RH is designed to meet the requirements for very long, large raises, ranging from 4.5 m to 6.0 m (15-20 ft) to a depth of 1,400 m (4,500 ft)

* Depending on machine version and rock conditions ** Shoulder to shoulder

Features and benets


The hydraulic drive features variable speed and good torque limiting control. The well proven RCS system adds reliability and user friendliness. A gearbox incorporated in a barrel allows the drive train to be disassembled into smaller components without losing the preload of the main bearings. This saves time during maintenance and transportation. Rigid crosshead guide columns provide efficient torque reaction, extending the service life of the thrust cylinders. A simple in-line drive system provides balanced thrust loads to improve cutting action. A sliding fork worktable wrench, in combination with the semi-automatic drivehead wrench, eliminates the need to handle heavy wrenches.

Visit www.raiseboring.com for more information 90 RAiseboRing

Secoroc pIlot bIts

Raise your productivity with pilot bits from Atlas Copco Secoroc

As part of its ongoing commitment to the mining and construction industries, Atlas Copco Secoroc provides a complete range of pilot bits. Bits designed to meet the most demanding perform ance and service life expectations. Whatever rock conditions youre working in, we have the bits to meet the challenge.

Lower cost per metre drilled


Our industry leadership is the direct result of unwavering dedication to lowering your overall drilling cost. As part of this effort, our pilot bits not only give you outstanding service life, the range of different designs provides a selection of cutting structures for different rock formations to be drilled. Furthermore, you can rest assured that both the manufacturing processes and products are certified in accordance with API and ISO 9001 technology quality standards.

At your service wherever you are


No matter how great our products are theyre only a start. To secure your investment, you need technical support. Thanks to Atlas Copco Secorocs global presence, qualified support is never more than a phone call away. We have skilled personnel on hand across the world to offer assistance, advice, training, service and maintenance whenever and wherever you need it.

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Secoroc pIlot bIts

The right bit for the job

For any raise bore piloting operation accurancy, bit selection and carbide wear rate are all key in keeping costs down and efciency up. Missing the target area and numerous trips to change bits are just two common, potentially costly problems.

Select your bit carefully


Before starting on a raise project, collect as much information about the site as possible. Find out about the typical formations, their compressive strengths and abrasive qualities. Then pick your bit. The right one is the one that ultimately yields the lowest cost per metre drilled. As youll discover, with Secoroc you cant go wrong.

Pilot bit manufacturer comparison Atlas Copco


Secoroc MH Secoroc H Secoroc VH

BMHT
BI -V BI -X BI -XX

Smith
Q7JS Q9JS

Sandvik
SCM SCH

Security
M84F M87F H100F

A guide to our pilot bits and the equivalent products from other manufacturers.

Selection guide

Soft/Medium hard rock

Hard rock

Very hard rock

Secoroc MH

Secoroc H

Secoroc VH

10,000 psi 70 MPa

30,000 psi 210 MPa

50,000 psi 350 MPa

70,000 psi 480 MPa

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Secoroc pIlot bIts

Pilot bits three designs to cover your needs

Secoroc MH extra long life in medium hard and abrasive formations


Conical-shaped carbide buttons and very little cone offset allow this bit to drill for long hours in formations of high compressive strength, including hard limestone, dolomite and shale. Heavy cutter set for full bottom hole coverage.

Secoroc VH very hard formation drilling


Tough ovoid carbide buttons, zero offset and full b ottom hole coverage combine to allow long hours of drilling in weighty, hard rock appli cations. Positioned to cover the bottom of the h ole, the nose and inner row buttons are ovoid- shaped with low projection.

Secoroc H for hard rock formations


Tough, fracture-resistant, ovoid and ogive-shaped carbide buttons and reduced offset make this bit ideal for heavyweight, hard rock appli cations. Good load distribution thanks to heavy cutter set and full bottom hole coverage.

Size
7 7/8" 9" 9 /8"
7

Prod No.
91000924 91000361 91000296 91000297 91000290 91000313 91000269 91000314 91000294 91000370 91000383 91001026

Product Code
117-3200-73-RB-07 117-3228-73-RB-07 118-3250-73-RB-07 118-3250-83-RB-07 118-3279-61-RB-07 118-3279-83-RB-07 118-3311-73-RB-07 118-3311-83-RB-07 118-3349-63-RB-05 118-3349-73-RB-05 132-3381-73-RB-05 132-3445-73-RB-05

Product
Bullseye H Bullseye H Bullseye H Bullseye VH Bullseye MH Bullseye VH Bullseye H Bullseye VH Bullseye MH Bullseye H Bullseye H Bullseye H

Formation
Hard Hard Hard Very Hard Medium Hard Very Hard Hard Very Hard Medium Hard Hard Hard Hard

IADC
7-3-7 7-3-7 7-3-7 8-3-7 6-1-7 8-3-7 7-3-7 8-3-7 6-3-5 7-3-5 7-3-5 7-3-5

Pin Conn.
4 1/2" API Reg 4 1/2" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 6 5/8" API Reg 7 5/8" API Reg 7 5/8" API Reg

9 7/8" 11" 11" 12 1/4" 12 /4"


1

13 3/4" 13 /4"
3

15" 17 /2"
1

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Secoroc pIlot bIts

A pilot study in bit design


Tungsten carbide buttons in different designs

Bearing type Bit sizes: 12" o-ring sealed journal bearing Bit sizes: 13"-15" o-ring sealed roller bearing

Gauge bevel protection at top

Lug/shirttail protection hardfacing on shirttail

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12 ways to get the most out of your pilot bits


1 Use a bit gauge to check that the gauge diameter is within recommended tolerances. 2 If the pilot bit is used, check that the carbide buttons are in good condition and the cones are free to turn without excessive play. Furthermore, make sure that all ushing passages are clear. 3 Make sure that the design of the pilot bit complies with the geological formation youre drilling in as well as the ushing uid used. 4 If ushing with compressed air, check that nozzles are installed and of the correct size. 5 If ushing with water, check that nozzles have been removed from ushing passages. 6 Clean up and inspect the threads and mating shoulders of the pilot bit and drill string component. Liberally coat with lubricant approved by the bit manufacturer. 7 To avoid damaging the threads of the pilot bit and drill string component, thread the bit by hand onto the drill string component before installing the component in the oating box of the machine. 8 Do not over torque the pilot bit during makeup. Recommended torques given by API manufacturers should be followed. Slow rotation speed during makeup is advised. 9 During bit breakout, raise the pilot bit and drill string component high enough to allow the bit to drop into the bit breaker box. 10 Do not drop the pilot bit with the drill string weight attached. 11 After removing the pilot bit and bit reamer stabilizer from the drill string after breakthrough, lubricate the cones of the bit with light oil prior to storage. 12 Any time the pilot hole is open, make sure you dont drop anything in it. But if you do, be sure to remove the object before you resume drilling.

Operating parameters Size (in) Design Makeup torque range


16,270-21,015 nm 12,000-15,500 lbf ft 16,270-21,015 nm 12,000-15,500 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 37,963-43,386 nm 28,000-32,000 lbf ft 35,000-45,000 lbf ft 48,400-62,200 nm

Weight-on-bit
10,630-21,260 kg 23,625-47,250 lb 12,150-24,300 kg 27,000-54,000 lb 13,330-26,660 kg 29,625-59,250 lb 13,330-26,660 kg 29,625-59,250 lb 14,850-29,700 kg 33,000-66,000 lb 14,850-29,700 kg 33,000-66,000 lb 16,540-33,075 kg 36,750-73,500 lb 16,540-33,075 kg 36,750-73,500 lb 18,560-37,125 kg 41,250-82,500 lb 18,560-37,125 kg 41,250-82,500 lb 20,250-40,500 kg 45,000-90,000 lb

Bit weight
30 kg 67 lb 35 kg 76 lb 64 kg 140 lb 64 kg 140 lb 77 kg 170 lb 77 kg 170 lb 101 kg 224 lb 101 kg 224 lb 130 kg 285 lb 130 kg 285 lb 168 kg 370 lb

Rotary speed (rev/min)


50-90 50-90 50-90 40-80 50-120 40-80 50-90 40-80 50-120 40-80 50-90

7 7/8 Secoroc H 9 Secoroc H 9 7/8 Secoroc H 9 7/8 Secoroc VH 11 Secoroc MH 11 Secoroc VH 12 1/4 Secoroc H 12 1/4 Secoroc VH 13 3/4 Secoroc MH 13 3/4 Secoroc VH 15 Secoroc H

The recommended weight-on-bit and rotary speed operational specications are shown above. The rule of thumb for best rock engagement is: the greater the weight-on-bit the lower the rotary speed, the larger the bit the lower the rotary speed.

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ROBBINS

Drill string components


8 pipe using 9 pilot hole size
Raise drill string description OD* in 8.000 8.500 8.500 8.500 9.000 9.000 9.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 9.000 9.000 8.500 8.500 OD* mm 203.2 215.9 215.9 215.9 228.6 228.6 228.6 203.2 203.2 203.2 203.2 228.6 228.6 215.9 215.9 20 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5 508 749 749 749 749 749 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 S/S* in 48 12 21 48 48 48 48 S/S* mm 1,220 305 533 1,220 1,220 1,220 1,220 Box connection DI22 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 4.500 6.750 4.500 Pin connection DI22 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 4.500 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Wrench at (in) 7 7 7 7 Wrench at (mm) 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 Weight lb 385 170 297 513 480 480 620 44 58 161 390 390 400 305 395 77 135 234 218 218 280 20 26 73 178 178 180 139 180 Weight kg

Raise drill rod, integral Raise drill starter sub (short) Raise drill starter (short) Raise drill starter (long) Raise drill stabilizer, 6 rib, T.C.I. Raise drill stabilizer, 6 rib, hardface Raise drill stabilizer, model 60, DI22 pin x reg box Lifting bail, 6" DI22 box, 20,000 lb capacity Lifting bail, 6" DI22 pin, 20,000 lb capacity Saver sub Drill pipe, standard strength Stabilizer, 6 ribs Stabilizer, bit reamer Starter pipe, long Starter bit sub

8 pipe using 978 pilot hole size


Raise drill string description OD* in 8.000 8.500 8.500 8.500 9.875 9.875 8.000 8.000 OD* mm 203.2 215.9 215.9 215.9 250.8 250.8 203.2 203.2 S/S* in 48 12 21 48 37 48 S/S* mm 1,220 305 533 1,219 940 1,220 Box connection DI22 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 Pin connection DI22 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.625 6.750 Wrench at (in) 7 7 7 7 7 7 Wrench at (mm) 175 175 175 175 175 175 Weight lb 385 170 206 470 510 475 44 58 Weight kg 175 78 94 214 230 215 20 26

Raise drill rod, integral, 8" OD pin x box Raise drill starter sub (short), 8" OD box Raise drill starter (short), 8" OD Raise drill starter (long), 8" OD Raise drill stabilizer, model 60, DI22 pin x reg box Raise drill stabilizer, 6 rib, hardface, 9.875H.S x box Lifting bail, 6" DI22 box, 20,000 lb capacity Lifting bail, 6" DI22 pin, 20,000 lb capacity

*OD = outer diameter *S/S = shoulder to shoulder

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DRILL STRING COMPONENTS

10 pipe using 11 pilot hole size


Raise drill string description OD* in 9.500 9.500 9.500 10.000 10.000 11.000 11.000 10.000 10.000 8.250 11.000 10.000 9.370 11.000 9.500 OD* mm 241.3 241.3 241.3 254 254 279.4 279.4 254 254 209.6 279.4 254 238 279.4 241.3 9.5 23 29.5 29.5 16.75 48 241 584 749 749 425 1,220 6.625 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 6.625 S/S* in 20 12 60 60 60 60 60 S/S* mm 508 305 1,525 1,525 1,525 1,525 1,525 Box connection DI22 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 6.250 8.250 8 8 8 8 8 8 200 200 200 200 200 Pin connection DI22 8.250 6.625 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.250 6.625 Wrench at (in) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Wrench at (mm) 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 Weight lb 220 200 550 550 860 1150 1025 73 66 440 1023 440 422 341 792 Weight kg 100 91 250 250 390 522 465 33 30 200 465 200 192 155 360

Raise drill starter (short) Raise drill bit sub Raise drill starter Raise drill rod, standard strength Raise drill rod, high strength Raise drill stabilizer, 6 rib, hardface Raise drill stabilizer, model 60, DI-22 pin x , reg box Lifting bail, 8" DI-22 box, 30,000 lb capacity Lifting bail, 8" DI22 pin, 30,000 lb capacity Bit sub DI-22 pin x reg box Saver sub, 6 ribs Drill pipe, STD Starter pipe, long Bit sub, 6 ribs mod Starter sub

11 pipe using 12 pilot hole size


Raise drill string description OD* in 11.000 11.000 11.000 11.000 11.250 11.250 11.250 12.250 12.250 12.250 12.250 11.250 11.250 11.000 OD* mm 279.4 279.4 279 279.4 285.8 285.8 285.8 311.2 311.2 311.2 311.2 285.8 285.8 279.4 9.250 S/S* in 30 36.5 48 60 60 60 29.5 30 36 60 26 29.5 S/S* mm 760 927 1,219 1,525 1,525 1,525 749 762 914 1,524 660 749 Box connection DI22 9.250 9.250 6.625 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 Pin connection DI22 9.250 6.625 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 6.625 9.250 9.250 Wrench at (in) 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Wrench at (mm) 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 Weight lb 800 850 1060 1400 1060 775 775 655 985 1500 728 572 93 213 Weight kg 364 386 482 636 484 350 350 297 467 680 331 260 42 97

Starter pipe, short Raise drill starter sub Starter sub Raise drill starter (long) Raise drill rod, integral, standard strength Raise drill rod, integral, high strength Drill pipe, standard strength Stabilizer, 6 ribs Stabilizer, 6 ribs Stabilizer, 6 ribs Stabilizer, bit reamer Starter pipe, short Lifting bail, pin Lifting bail, box

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DRILL STRING COMPONENTS

1278 pipe using 13 pilot hole size


Raise drill string description OD* in 12.875 12.875 12.750 12.750 13.750 13.750 13.750 13.750 12.875 12.875 OD* mm 327 327 323.9 323.9 349.3 349.3 349.3 349.3 327 327 S/S* in 60 60 30 53.75 48 60 25 36 S/S* mm 1,525 1,525 760 1,365 1,220 1,525 635 914 Box connection DI22 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 Pin connection DI22 10.500 10.500 10.500 6.625 6.625 10.500 10.500 10.500 Wrench at (in) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Wrench at (mm) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 Weight lb 1400 1550 878 1725 1500 1605 655 942 139 149 Weight kg 635 705 399 784 682 730 297 428 64 68

Raise drill rod Starter pipe (long) Starter pipe (short) Starter sub, DI22 pin x 6 API box Raise drill stabilizer, model 60, DI22 pin x 6-reg box Raise drill stabilizer, 16 rib, hardfaced, Robbins wrench squares Saver sub Saver sub Lifting bail, 10" DI22 box, 70,000 lb capacity Lifting bail, 10" DI22 pin, 70,000 lb capacity

1278 pipe using 15 pilot hole size


Raise drill string description OD* in 12.875 12.750 12.750 12.750 15.000 15.000 12.875 12.875 OD* mm 327 323.9 323.9 323.9 381 381 327 327 S/S* in 60 60 30 53.75 48 60 S/S* mm 1,525 1,525 760 1,365 1,220 1,525 Box connection DI22 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 10.500 Pin connection DI22 10.500 10.500 10.500 6.625 7.625 10.500 Wrench at (in) 10 10 10 10 10 10 Wrench at (mm) 250 250 250 250 250 250 Weight lb 1400 1550 878 1725 1200 1750 139 149 Weight kg 636 705 399 784 545 795 64 68

Raise drill rod Starter pipe (long) Starter pipe (short) Starter sub, assembly DI22 pin x 6 reg Ibox Raise drill stabilizer, Model 60, DI22 pin x reg box Raise drill stabilizer, 6 rib, hardfaced Lifting bail, 10" DI22 box, 70,000 lb capacity Lifting bail, 10" DI22 pin, 70,000 lb capacity

1378 pipe
Raise drill string description OD* in 13.880 OD* mm 352 S/S* in 60 S/S* mm 1,525 Box connection DI22 11ST Pin connection DI22 11ST Wrench at (in) 11 Wrench at (mm) 279 Weight lb 1685 Weight kg 764

Raise drill rod

*OD = outer diameter *S/S = shoulder to shoulder

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powerING tHe raIse drIll

Power packs
Main drive pack
On a hydraulic driven machine the hydrostatic drive provides hydraulic power to the hydraulic motor(s). It consists of a fully enclosed, skid equipped mounting frame with an oil pan, a hydraulic reservoir and a 3-phase motor equipped with strip heaters driving one variable displacement pump. Mounted in the pack are return line filters, heat exchanger, breather and manifold assembly. The power pack may also be equipped with a built-in fire suppression system. The electrical cabinet is accessed separately on one side of the unit. It contains most of the electrical control components such as circuit breakers, earth fault relay, under/over voltage relay and control transformer. On an electric driven machine (AC, DC or VF) the main drive pack contains the power and control distribution hardware and circuitry for the entire raiseboring system. The cabinet is fully enclosed and may incorporate heaters for humidity control. A simple and reliable softstart provides the control for the AC motor. The latest digital DC drives ensure the best possible performance of the DC motor. State of the art VF drives are available upon request. Included are also components such as circuit breakers, earth fault relay, under/over voltage relay and control transformer. RAiseboRing

Thrust pack
The thrust pack provides hydraulic power to the derrick assembly auxiliary components. It consists of a fully enclosed, skid equipped, mounting frame with an oil pan, a hydraulic reservoir and a 3-phase motor equipped with strip heaters driving two variable displacement pumps, one for the fast traverse circuit and one for the high thrust system. It also drives one gear pump for the auxiliary and cooling circuits.

Features and benets


Compact and lightweight enclosure for protection in underground environment. Lifting lugs and fork lift provisions for easy lifting and positioning. Thanks to the use of integrated technology, the number of components and wiring in the cabinet can be kept to a minimum. Modern proportional valves in the hydraulic system allow for safe and smooth operation. Service lights inside the units are turned on automatically when doors are opened.

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powerING tHe raIse drIll

L W

Specications
Depending on machine specification and type of drive, the number of power packs and the dimensions of the power packs may vary. Most Robbins raise drills use two packs. One for the main drive system for rotation and one for thrust. Each unit is built to withstand the harsh environment in underground mining and uses standard Atlas Copco components.

Power pack
34RH Low 34RH Wide 44RH 53RH 53RH-EX 73RH 73RAC 73RVF 83RH 91RH 97RL 123RH 123RVF 191RH Single pack Single pack Single pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack Thrust pack Drive pack x 3

Length
metric
3,300 mm 3,300 mm 3,300 mm 3,300 mm 2,800 mm 2,200 mm 2,800 mm 2,200 mm 2,800 mm 2,200 mm 1,900 mm 2,200 mm TBA 2,200 mm 3,000 mm 2,200 mm 3,300 mm 2,400 mm 2,550 mm 2,400 mm 3,300 mm 2,400 mm TBA 2,400 mm 3,500 mm

Height
metric
1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,300 mm 1,450 mm TBA 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,500 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm TBA 1,450 mm 1,450 mm 1,450 mm

Width
metric
1,550 mm 1,550 mm 1,550 mm 1,550 mm 1,500 mm 1,300 mm 1,500 mm 1,300 mm 1,500 mm 1,300 mm 800 mm 1,300 mm TBA 1,300 mm 1,600 mm 1,300 mm 1,600 mm 1,300 mm 1,300 mm 1,300 mm 1,600 mm 1,300 mm TBA 1,300 mm 2,000 mm 1,300 mm 59 inch 52 inch 59 inch 52 inch 32 inch 52 inch TBA 52 inch 63 inch 52 inch 63 inch 52 inch 52 inch 52 inch 63 inch 52 inch TBA 52 inch 79 inch 52 inch

Weight
metric
5,500 kg 5,500 kg 5,500 kg 5,500 kg 4,250 kg 2,400 kg 4,250 kg 2,400 kg 4,250 kg 2,400 kg 900 kg 2,400 kg TBA 2,400 kg 4,800 kg 2,400 kg 8,700 kg 3,300 kg 1,800 kg 3,300 kg 8,700 kg 3,300 kg TBA 3,300 kg 7 ,500 kg 3,300 kg

imperial
130 inch 130 inch 130 inch 130 inch 111 inch 87 inch 111 inch 87 inch 111 inch 87 inch 75 inch 87 inch TBA 87 inch 119 inch 87 inch 130 inch 95 inch 101 inch 95 inch 130 inch 95 inch TBA 95 inch 138 inch 95 inch

imperial
57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 52 inch 57 inch TBA 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch 59 inch 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch TBA 57 inch 57 inch 57 inch

imperial
61 inch 61 inch 61 inch 61 inch 59 inch

imperial
12,125 lb 12,000 lb 12,000 lb 12,000 lb 9,400 lb 5,300 lb 9,400 lb 5,300 lb 9,400 lb 5,300 lb 2,000 lb 5,300 lb TBA 5,300 lb 10,600 lb 5,300 lb 11,000 lb 7 ,300 lb 4,000 lb 7 ,300 lb 11,000 lb 7 ,300 lb TBA 7 ,300 lb 16,500 lb 7 ,300 lb

34RH Standard Single pack

Thrust pack x 3 2,400 mm

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DrIll pIpe HaNdlING eqUIpmeNt

Pipeloader

Ground loading pipeloader on a Robbins 34RH C.

For drill pipe handling a pipeloader is used. This device is manually controlled and hydraulically operated. It is designed for placing and removing drill string components into and out of the derrick during the boring operation. The drill pipe handling equipment can be mounted on either side of the derrick main frame. The pipeloader picks the drill pipe up from the side of the derrick and swings it into position to be mated with the drill string and oat box. The drill pipe is held frictionally by jaws plates mounted on a moveable arm. The pipeloader is remotely controlled by the operator, either from a handheld control pendant or the operating panel.

Side loading pipeloader.

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RaIse borer traNsporters

Transporters
Transporters are used for getting the derrick to and from the boring site. Additionally the transporters are equipped with hydraulic cylinders for derrick erection during system setup and derrick take-down after completion of the raise. Atlas Copco offers different types of transporters to suit different needs.

Diesel crawler
The diesel powered crawler is equipped with integrally suspended twin crawler tracks, separately powered by hydraulic motors. The diesel engine drives two hydraulic pumps, one for the tracks, and one for the fan/erection. The track drives are driven by a variable displacement pump and controlled by two proportional valves, each valve controlling a dual displacement motor, which in turn are mounted to planetary-type final drive units. These final drive units are mounted inside of the rear track drive sprockets. The diesel engine also provides power to the erection system, making the crawler an independent unit. Controls are either radio remote or via an umbilical cord. The high and low speed in combination with proportional controls makes the crawler easy to control and the powerful diesel engine ensures adequate manoeuvrability.

Diesel crawler

Air crawler
The air crawler is equipped with twin crawler tracks, integrally suspended and separately powered by a hydraulic motor in each track with dual displacement, mounted to planetary-type final drive units The hydraulic pump is driven by an air motor. In order to operate, the crawler must be supplied with compressed air at max. 6 bar (90 PSI) and minimum 15 m3/min (500 ft3/min) air supply. The air motor also drives a hydraulic pump for powering the erection system. There is also an airdriven 24 V generator on the crawler for supply of its electric circuits. The erection system comprises two proportionally controlled hydraulic cylinders. Controls are either radio remote or via an umbilical cord.

Air crawler

Sled
The sled is the simplest form of transporter. Skids are provided on the sled to enable the derrick to be transported and positioned by use of an independent mine transport source. The hydraulic erection cylinders of the sled must be connected to the hydraulic system of the raiseboring machine for derrick erection and derrick take-down. An optional electrical powered power pack can be supplied.

Sled

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ANcIllarY Tools

Tools

Makeup and breakout tool (MBT)


This assembly consists of mechanical clamps attached to a hydraulic ram and a hand- or air operated hydraulic pump. The ram is connected to the pump by a exible hose for convenience. This tool is used primarily for removal of the bit reamer-stabilizer/pilot bit from the drill string after a breakthrough. This tool is also used to tighten the reamer to the drill string to assure proper torqeing of the connection. See picture above.

Starter bushing
The starter bushing is used during pilot hole start up, together with the starter sub and starter pipe to initiate an accurately aligned pilot hole. The starter bushing is installed at the machine worktable when drilling of the pilot hole begins. The inner diameter of the bushing is machined to provide a snug interaction with the outer diameter of the starter sub and starter pipe. The reason for this is to decrease the pilot hole deviation. See picture above.

Blooie assembly
The blooie system provides a controlled exit for return bailing uid and cuttings owing from the pilot hole during drilling. This system consists of three major components: the outlet housing, the lower housing, and the blooie seal. The outlet housing of the blooie system, which houses the blooie seal, bolts to the underside of the machine worktable and provides a ange on its bottom end to which the lower housing can be fastened. The lower housing, which is grouted firmly into the concrete and/or bedrock below the raiseboring machine, is available in extended lengths to accommodate for increased distances to the concrete pad or bedrock resulting when boring angled raises. During pilot hole drilling, the drill string is routed through both housings and the blooie seal and into the pilot hole. The blooie system provides a controlled exit for the bailing uid and cuttings by effectively sealing the drill string in the outlet housing.

Accumulator charging kit


This kit is used to charge the pipeloader clamp accumulator and the drive motor accumulators with dry nitrogen. Included in the kit is a special fitting compatible with those commonly found on dry nitrogen bottles and a regulator or pressure reducing valve with gauge assembly. The outlet hose of the regulator connects to the charging nozzle on the accumulator. The regulator is used to adjust the charging pressure.

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Raiseborer system upgrade kits

Robbins 73RH C with RCS control panel.

There are over 250 Robbins raiseboring systems, built before 2000, in operation for which Atlas Copco can provide service support. We know that the derrick of the machine will normally last in excess of 25 years in operation, but predicting the efficiency of other components is not so straightforward. The capacities of these com-ponents with regards to information read-out, control, thrust, power and torque are greatly reduced as the equipment ages. A large number of these raise drills in the field have worn out or malfunctioning systems, whilst others are in need of upgraded capacities with regard to information readout, thrust, torque and power. With this in mind, Atlas Copco Rock Drilling Equipment has developed a number of upgrade kits that, depending on the model and customer needs, can include upgrading of the rig control system (RCS), hydraulic drive (or electric drive replacement), drive pack, thrust pack, electrical pack, control console and pipe handling. These upgrade assemblies are designed in accordance with the state-of-the-art technology featuring standard Atlas Copco components and the well-proven CAN-bus control system. As customers will expect, all kit components are to Atlas Copco standard, and are easily available worldwide through all Atlas Copco Customer Centers.

Features and benets


More compact and lightweight enclosures Less components and wiring in the cabinet due to integrated technology, translating into a more reliable operating system New systems allow simple replacement of the hydraulic system with modern proportional valves, etc. Easy-to-read control features permit safer and faster production Can be easily upgraded or customized later due to the modern RCS Proven Atlas Copco panel features a compact, watertight enclosure. It is identical to those in the Atlas Copco underground equipment Programmable controls make future software upgrades easy Improved motor control and performance with program mable soft-start system for optimum results Soft-start facility has built-in parameters (e.g. motor voltage and current) and built-in diagnostics Modern technology will increase system performance and availability of parts, as well as reducing maintenance costs

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RCS mounted on a moveable trolley for better view and position of the operating controls.

RCS is a common platform for all Atlas Copco mining and construction products.

Objectives and approach


The main reasons for upgrading are to modernize the technology used, increase the systems performance, reduce maintenance costs, and increase the availability of parts due to the fact that all machines presently produced will share similar parts. In-depth knowledge of the existing equipment is a must since the exact components on the equipment have to be categorized and identified in order to prepare an upgrade. Atlas Copco Raiseboring department will help in every way possible to conclude, together with the Customer Center, what can be done for the customers machine. The available upgrade kits are as follows: can also be included and operated via a joystick on the panel. This improves performance and availability as well as reducing cost.

Power pack upgrade


The hydraulic power pack provides hydraulic power to the derrick assembly and auxiliary components. It consists of a skid-mounted frame with an oil pan, hydraulic oil reservoir, and a 3-phase electric motor equipped with strip heaters. It drives two variable-displacement piston pumps, one for the fast traverse circuit and one for the feed system. It also drives one gear pump for the auxiliary and cooling circuits. Installed with the power pack are the return-line filter, heat exchanger, breather and manifold assembly. The manifold has provision for mounting directional control valves, relief valves and quick-disconnect couplers used in the hydraulic system. A combined level gauge and thermometer is mounted on the reservoir. The skid-mounted frame has lifting lugs. It can either be fully enclosed and equipped with gull-wing doors, or available in a basic open layout (i.e. non-enclosed). The thrust pack can also be equipped with a built-in fire suppression system.

RCS upgrade
The new Rig Control System (RCS) follows a well-proven Atlas Copco standard featuring CAN-bus. It is totally enclosed in a waterproofed envelope designed for outdoor and underground use under severe conditions. All components involved have been developed and long-term tested in extreme conditions. The control is fully electrical, eliminating the need for pressure hoses and gauges at the console. Optional functions include hydraulic oil level, oil temperature and filter monitoring. Function of the pipehandling system

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Electrical power unit.

Electrical cabinet upgrade


The electrical cabinet contains most of the electrical control components, such as a manually operated main circuit breaker, earth-fault relay, under/over voltage relay, control transformer, CAN-bus master module and control relays. A running time meter and an optional multimeter, showing current, voltage and power consumption, are mounted on the cabinet. Several fault-indicating lights and a power-on light are mounted outside the cabinet. This cabinet is the nerve centre for all wiring to the machine assemblies and components. A heater inside the cabinet may be provided for humidity control during lengthy idle periods. The cabinet is equipped with service lights inside that turn on automatically when the doors are opened. It is equipped with a service receptacle for connecting additional equipment, such as water pumps or welding machines, and has lifting lugs and fork-lift apertures to facilitate hoisting and positioning.

Hydraulic drive upgrade


This is the top-of-the-range upgrade for DC electricaldrive machines. The complete upgrade kit is made up of RCS control, a new hydraulic power pack, twin hydraulic drive motors and a new electrical power pack. These are bound to increase the machines useful operating life. The twin hydraulic drive motors for rig rotation and the hydraulic thrust pack also provides sufficient power to the motor, electrical cabinet and RCS control to give the necessary rig performance. 106

Hydraulic power unit.

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Complete rig set up in operation.

Pipe loader upgrade


The pipe loader kit is a hydraulically powered unit, remotely controlled by the operator from a handheld electrical control station. It enables drill string components to be precisely placed into the derrick, greatly reducing the risk of damaging the threaded connection. Using the pipe loader, drill string components are picked up from ground-level storage and positioned in the derrick. Conversely the pipe loader can return these components to storage on the ground. These added capabilities eliminate the need for a drill pipe hosting system at the derrick. Operator fatigue and time required for handling are also reduced, thus increasing efficiency.

Ground pipe loader.

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MARKET MATERIAL

Conversion table
This unit Times Equals This unit Times Equals Length mm (millimetre)........................ x 0.001 (10-3)............ = m cm (centimetre). ....................... x 0.01. ...................... = m dm (decimetre)......................... x 0.1......................... = m km (kilometre)........................... x 1 000 (103)............. = m in (inch)...................................... x 25.4....................... = mm ft (feet)....................................... x 0.305..................... = m yd (yard).................................... x 0.914. .................... = m mile............................................ x 1609...................... = m Power J/s (joule/second). .................... x 1. ............................= W Nm/s (newton metre/second)... x 1. ............................= W kW (kilowatts). .......................... x 1 000..................... = W hk (metric horse power)........... x 735.5..................... = W hp (horsepower UK, US). ........ x 745.7. .................... = W ft.lbf/s......................................... x 1.36........................ = W Btu/h.......................................... x 0.29....................... = W Volume l (litre)........................................ x 0.001..................... = m3 ml (millilitre). ............................ x 0.001..................... = l dm3 (cubic decimetre).............. x 1.0.......................... = l cm3 (cubic decimetre). ............. x 1.0.......................... = ml mm3 (cubic millimetre) . .......... x 0.001..................... = ml in3 (cubic inch). ......................... x 16.39..................... = ml ft3 (cubic feet)............................ x 28.316................... = l Imperial gallon.......................... x 4.546..................... = l US gallon. ................................. x 3.785..................... = l Ounce (Imp. uid oz)................ x 28.41..................... = ml Ounce (US fluid oz).................. x 29.57..................... = ml Pint (US liquid). ........................ x 0.4732................... = l Quart (US liquid). ..................... x 0.9463................... = l yd3 (cubic yard)......................... x 0.7646. .................. = m3 Force kN (kilonewton). ....................... x 1 000..................... = N kp (kilopond)............................. x 9.81....................... = N kgf (kilogramme force)............. x 9.81....................... = N Ibf (pound force)....................... x 4.45....................... = N Torque (moment of force) kpm (kilopondmetre)................ x 9.81....................... = Nm Ibf in (poundforce inch) ........... x 0.11........................ = Nm Ibf ft (poundforce foot)............. x 1.36........................ = Nm Equals Divided This by unit Mass (commonly but incorrectly called weight) g (gramme) ............................... x 0.001................... = kg t (tonnes, metric) ...................... x 1 000................... = kg grain . ......................................... x 0.0648................. = g oz (ounce) .................................. x 28.35................... = g ozt (troy ounce) ......................... x 31.10.................... = g lb (pound) .................................. x 0.4536................. = kg ton (long, US) . .......................... x 1 016. .................. = kg ton (UK) ..................................... x 1 016. .................. = kg ton (short) . ................................ x 907...................... = kg Speed (velocity) km/h (kilo metre/hour). ............. x 0.2777................. = m/s m/s (metre/sec) ......................... x 3.6....................... = km/h mile/h ......................................... x 0.45..................... = m/s mile/h ......................................... x 1.61...................... = km/h ft/s (foot/second) ....................... x 18.29................... = m/min ft/min (foot/minute) .................. x 0.3048................. = m/min Frequency blow/min ................................... x 0.017. .................. = Hz kHz (kiloHertz) ........................... x 1 000................... = Hz rev/min . ..................................... x 0.01667. .............. = r/s degree/second . ......................... x 0.1667................. = r/min Pressure bar .............................................. x 100...................... = kPa 5 bar .............................................. x 100 000 (10 )....... = Pa 2 kp/cm ........................................ x 0.98 . .................... = bar atm (atmosphere) ..................... x 1.01 ...................... = bar 2 psi (pounds/in ) ......................... x 6.895 . .................. = kPa psi . ............................................. x 0.06895 . .............. = bar Area mm2 (square mm). ................... x 0.000001 (10-6).... = m2 cm2 (square cm)........................ x 0.0001 (10-4)........ = m2 in2 (square inches).................... x 645...................... = mm2 ft2 (square feet). ........................ x 0.0929................. = m2 yd2 (square yard)...................... x 0.8361................. = m2 Acre . ......................................... x 4 047................... = m2 Square mile............................... x 2.590................... = km2 ha (hectare)............................... x 10 000................. = m2

Equals Divided This by unit

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Committed to your superior productivity.


Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB www.atlascopco.com

Printed matter no. 9851 2575 01

Service and support. Two words Atlas Copco has built a reputation on since 1873. 24 hours a day, 7 days a week we pro-actively support the mining industry with solutions that work before its too late. Anytime, anywhere in the world our network of sales companies, mining experts and service program makes sure your machines and tools are ready to work. After all, machines have to be online to make money.