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What is an abstract? An abstract is a concise summary of a completed research project or paper. A wellwritten abstract will make the reader want to learn more about your research, read your paper, or attend your presentation. Abstracts also serve as a summary of the research so the paper can be categorized and searched by subject and keywords. How long is an abstract? Generally, abstracts are limited to 2 to ! words, but the e"act word limit will be stated by the publication, conference, or organization re#uesting the abstract.

Components of an abstract
$. oti!ation or Statement of "roblem# %hy do we care about the problem& %hat practical, theoretical, scientific, or artistic gap is your research filling& 2. etho$s or Approach' %hat did you actually do to get your results& (id you analyze three plays, interview $2) students, write a memoir, invent a more powerful photovoltaic cell, or translate a book& (id you approach your subject using a specific theoretical framework, technical procedure, or methodology& !% Res&lts or "ro$&ct' As a result of completing the above procedure or investigation, what did you learn, create, or invent& *. Concl&sions or Implications' %hat are the larger implications of your findings, especially for the problem or gap identified in +tep $& There is no single format for writing a s&ccessf&l abstract' ,he emphasis placed on each component will depend on your field or discipline. -n some, cases, the methods will re#uire more emphasis and e"planation, while in other cases, the results and implications will re#uire more e"planation and emphasis. .ou are not re#uired to follow the order of the four components above. See the following pages for e(amples of s&ccessf&l abstracts from !ario&s fiel$s%

Tips for writing an abstract

$. -t takes lots of revision to write a good abstract/ 0"pect to spend some time preparing your abstract before submitting it. 2. 1ind the main point of your paper or research and phrase it in a way that can be understood by an educated non-e"pert. !. .ou may repeat sentences from your paper in your abstract. -n some cases, your paper2s introductory paragraphs may be suitable for the abstract, but they will have to be condensed and rewritten to fit the purposes of the abstract. *. 3emember to use keywords important to your field of research or to use words that indicate your field 4biochemical engineering, for e"ample, or the history of 5yzantine art6. ). .our abstract should not be so detailed that it re#uires #uotations, citations, or footnotes. 3emember, it2s a summary/ 7. -f you are finding it difficult to summarize your paper or research concisely, write several paragraphs initially then cut and condense it to one paragraph. 8. -f you are finding it difficult to meet the word limit, seek the help of an outsider reader 4a friend or writing tutor6 to help you cut e"cess words.

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Sample Abstracts
,he following abstracts written by ,ufts 9niversity undergraduates demonstrate different ways writers can summarize their research in various fields in the arts, sciences, humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. $. -nterdisciplinary research in literature, history, and political science 2. :sychology !. 5iology *. ;athematics ). American +tudies 4;edia +tudies, ;usic, and American :olitics6 7. -nterdisciplinary research in American <istory and =ommunity <ealth 8. 5io-;edical 0ngineering >. <istory ?. American +tudies @ ;edia +tudies $ . -nternational 3elations @ =ommunity <ealth $$. =reative :roject' Art <istory, ;useum +tudies, @ (ocumentary

$. +ample abstract for interdisciplinary research in literature, history, and political science' This abstract foregrounds the historical, political, and social context to highlight the
significance of the study. The last two sentences of the abstract describe the authors methods, findings, and purpose.

El Colectivo de Escritores Jvenes: Cultural Resistance to the Chilean Dictatorship Mie Inouye, International Letters and Visual Studies & Political Science (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" Professor #ina $erassi%#a!arro &et'een (9)* and (990, Chile e+,erienced a -ilitary dictatorshi, unli.e any ,re!ious or su/se0uent ,olitical re1i-e in its history2 3ith the a/ru,t transition to dictatorshi, on Se,te-/er ((, (9)* ca-e a corres,ondin1 cultural transfor-ation2 lon1 'ith the 'ider cultural chan1es that too. ,lace after (9)*, Chile4s literary scene 'as drastically altered due to the ,olicy of censorshi,, the -ilitary inter!ention of uni!ersities, the realities of ,olitical e+ile and i-,rison-ent and the dis-antlin1 of the state%run ,u/lishin1 house2 Parado+ically, des,ite the -any i-,edi-ents to 'ritin1 and ,u/lishin1, Chilean 'riters of the 1eneration of the ei1hties attest to the fact that there had ne!er /een -ore literary ,roduction2 5he Collecti!e of 6oun1 3riters (Colecti!o de 7scritores 89!enes), 'hich for-ed in Santia1o in the early ei1hties and united 'riters 'ho 'ere /e1innin1 their literary careers under e-er1ency ,olitical conditions, is one e+a-,le of the ty,e of cultural -o!e-ent that flourished under the dictatorshi,2 5his 1rou, o,erated /ased on the o/:ecti!es of 1eneratin1 cultural acti!ity, ,ro-otin1 solidarity a-on1 increasin1ly isolated 'riters, creatin1 a s,ace for de-ocracy 'ithin the dictatorshi,, and resistin1 the dictatorshi, fro- its -e-/ers4 ,ositions as 'riters2 ;ra'in1 fro- a series of inter!ie's 'ith for-er -e-/ers of the collecti!e, I ,resent the 1rou,4s history and e+a-ine its relationshi, to cultural and social -o!e-ents that unfolded ,ost%(9)*2 I also tell the stories of the 1eneration of 'riters that /e1an their careers durin1 the dictatorshi, and analy<e their 'ritin1 in relation to the uni0ue set of ,olitical circu-stances that acco-,anied their de!elo,-ent as 'riters2

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2. :sychology' This abstract is a good example of how to explain the significance of findings
that did not match the researchers hypothesis.

Can nonverbal behavior in popular media influence social category learning? Molly Loren<o, Psycholo1y, Multi-edia rts Minor (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" #alini -/ady Social cate1ories (e212, race, 1ender, and nationality) ha!e tre-endous social conse0uences for indi!iduals 'ithin those cate1ories2 5his study in!esti1ates 'hether ar/itrary cate1ories, li.e shirt color, can /e learned and inte1rated as a -eanin1ful social cate1ory2 It 'as hy,othesi<ed that ,eo,le 'ill /e -ore li.ely to -a.e distinctions of shirt color only if they are e+,osed to re,eated instances in 'hich one shirt color is non!er/ally fa!ored o!er another2 Partici,ants !ie'ed screen shots of ,o,ular tele!ision sho's to induce non!er/al fa!orin1 of one of t'o shirt colors, or neither in the control condition, and all 'ere then 1i!en a -e-ory tas. usin1 a ='ho said 'hat> ,aradi1- to -easure if shirt color 'as esta/lished as a ne' social cate1ory2 I e+,ected confusions in ='ho said 'hat> to occur -ore fre0uently 'ithin a shirt color than /et'een shirt colors and that this confusion should /e -ore ,re!alent in the e+,eri-ental conditions than in the control condition2 Contrary to hy,otheses, the nu-/er of 'ithin and /et'een cate1ory errors did not de,end on the e+,eri-ental condition, F (2, ?0) @ 2202, p @ 2(A2 5hus, the shirt color 'as not ,rocessed as a social cate1ory2 5he results reinforce the -ystery of 'hy certain social cate1ories li.e race ha!e 1reater conse0uences than others (e212, ear si<e or shirt color)2

!. 5iology' Even though this abstract uses language specific to biology, an educated reader
can understand the significance of this study by reading the first and last sentences.

A Morphological and enetic Analysis of Polistes versicolor: the !aper "asp #nvading the al$pagos #slands Christo,her Perrone, &iolo1y and Psycholo1y (Class of 20(0)
Research d!isor" ;r2 Phili, Star.s Polistes versicolor, a 'as, nati!e to 7cuador, has only recently in!aded the $alB,a1os Islands2 5his in!asion -ay ha!e ,ut us in ,osition to e+,lore e!olution as it occurs, /ut only if 'e collect data as the in!asion ,ro1resses2 3ith ,reli-inary e!idence su11estin1 P. versicolor /ody characteristics !ary 'ith ele!ation, 'e 1athered ecolo1ical, -or,holo1ical, and 1enetic data durin1 the early ,hase of this in!asion2 Indi!iduals (n @ )(A) fro- the 7cuador -ainland and si+ different island re1ions 'ere collected /y Phili, Star.s and Cran. Sullo'ay in 200) and 200D2 Eead, 'in1, and le1 -easure-ents 'ere 1athered2 ;# 'as e+tracted and catalo1ed for each ani-al, PCR 'as ,erfor-ed on -ainland and select island indi!iduals, and loci 'ere e+a-ined /y ,olyacryla-ide 1el electro,horesis2 3e found si1nificant -or,holo1ical differences in relation to ele!ation2 ;ata su11ests that lar1er heads, s-aller 'in1s, and s-aller le1s are seen at hi1her ele!ations2 Ei1hly ,oly-or,hic loci ha!e also /een isolated for -ainland indi!iduals2 Preli-inary 1enetic data su11ests that island%s,ecific reductions in 1enetic di!ersity -ay ha!e occurred and such li-ited !ariation su,,orts -or,holo1ical ,lasticity2 5hese data 'ill ser!e as a reference in -or,holo1ical and 1enetic analyses o!er ti-e to deci,her 'hether ,lasticity or e!olution is dri!in1 such differences2

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*. ;athematics' Although you may have to be a mathematician to understand the details of

this abstract, it contains a good example of how to reference other scholars in an abstract.

%hree %ypes of Randomness da- 82 Rac<.o's.i, Mathe-atics & Co-,uter Science (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" Professor &en:a-in Eescott 5hree ty,es of rando-ness are inte1ral to the stren1th of ,u/lic%.ey cry,to1ra,hy2 3ith the techni0ues of llender et al2, 'e ,resent an analysis of ho' the a/ility to 0uic.ly distin1uish Fol-o1oro! rando-ness allo's for a ,ro/a/ilistic attac. on t'o of the con:ectured hard ,ro/le-s underlyin1 ,u/lic%.ey cry,to1ra,hy" the discrete lo1arith- and factorin12 S,ecifically, Fol-o1oro! rando- strin1s are ,ertinent to in!ertin1 one%'ay functions and distin1uishin1 ,seudorando-ness fro- true unifor- rando-ness2 5his -ethod ,ro!ides a lens that -ore shar,ly cate1ori<es the hardness of the discrete lo1arith- and factorin1 in the hierarchy of 'ell%.no'n co-,le+ity classes2 Gsin1 this a,,roach, 'e esta/lish relationshi,s /et'een ,ro!a/ly secure ,u/lic%.ey cry,to1ra,hy, Fol-o1oro! co-,le+ity, and the essential cry,to1ra,hic ,ri-iti!es2

). American +tudies 4;edia +tudies, ;usic, and American :olitics6' This abstract
foregrounds the original contribution the author is making to an emerging field of study.

&ive and Direct: the %heoretical and 'ualitative #mpact of &ive (ation on Contemporary !opular Music !erformance Mi.ey $oralni., -erican Studies (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" ;e/orah Pacini Eernande< 5he Rea1an ad-inistration initiated an era of s'ee,in1 -edia dere1ulations that cul-inated in the 5eleco--unications ct of (99?, considered /y -any to /e the -ost i-,ortant ,iece of -edia ,olicy in GS history2 In the 'a.e of this /road le1islati!e a1enda, a handful of lar1e cor,orate entities, the lar1est /ein1 California%/ased Li!e #ation, ha!e co-e to directly o'n -ost of this country4s li!e -usic ,ro-otional a,,aratuses2 3hile the e+istin1 literature on -edia dere1ulation and consolidation does not yet e+tend far enou1h to sufficiently address li!e ,o,ular -usic, the field4s do-inatin1 fra-e'or.s 'ould su11est that /y cor,orati<in1 and co--odifyin1 a -edia ,roduct, dere1ulation 'ould ha!e a decidedly ne1ati!e i-,act on ,o,ular -usic ,erfor-ance2 My research, the first that deals entirely 'ith conte-,orary ,o,ular -usic ,erfor-ance, refutes that su11estion2 &ased on inter!ie's 'ith ei1ht ,o,ular -usic ,erfor-ers on their e+,eriences 'ith Li!e #ation !enues and ,ro-oters, -y research characteri<es the 1oals that ,o,ular -usicians associate 'ith their ,erfor-ances and arri!es at a sur,risin1 consensusH that ,erfor-ers across the ,o,ular -usic s,ectru- feel li.e Li!e #ation does not co-,ro-ise and actually enhances their a/ility to achie!e their ,erfor-ance 1oals2 My research e+,ands the /ody of -edia dere1ulation theory to include ,o,ular ,erfor-ance, and -y findin1s /rea. frothe ideolo1ies that do-inate the field, su11estin1 that li!e -usic re0uires a ne' fra-e'or. and ulti-ately a ne' field of research2

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7. -nterdisciplinary +tudy in American <istory and =ommunity <ealth' This abstract

foregrounds the historical and social context of the study before describing the authors analysis and findings in the last two sentences.

!articipation) !o*er) and !lace: Roots of the Community +ealth Center Movement Morissa So/elson, -erican Studies & Co--unity Eealth (Class of 2009)
Research d!isors" Professors 7dith &al/ach and Fe!in Ir'in 5he 5ufts%;elta Eealth Center, esta/lished in the Mississi,,i ;elta in (9?I, 'as the forerunner of a -o!e-ent that chan1ed the 'ay 'e thin. a/out health and health care2 It furthered national a'areness of the failure of traditional health syste-s to reach -ar1inali<ed ,o,ulations, and sho'ed the effecti!eness of /rid1in1 ,u/lic health and clinical inter!entions at a 1rassroots le!el2 It de-onstrated 'hy race, class, and ,o'er are i-,ortant deter-inants of health, and 'hy co--unity is a critical locus for health care deli!ery and social chan1e2 Rather than ,atholo1i<e ,oor ,eo,le, it hi1hli1hted their assets, stren1ths, and 'ays of .no'in1, and ,rioriti<ed their acti!e in!ol!e-ent2 5he ,ro:ect not only -ana1ed to initiate an e-,o'er-ent%/ased and co-,rehensi!e a,,roach to health care, /ut it did so in the conte+t of so-e of the -ost entrenched race, class, and status se1re1ation in the country2 5hrou1h analysis of the stories and archi!es of health and ci!il ri1hts ,ioneers, this thesis analy<es the ,artici,atory a,,roach they too. to ,ro-otin1 health and co--unity e-,o'er-ent at one of the nation4s first health centers in Mound &ayou, Mississi,,i2 I use an e-,o'er-ent do-ains fra-e'or. in order to understand the a,,lication of this ,artici,atory -odel, sources and i-,acts of o,,osition to the center, and the 'ays in 'hich these dyna-ics can infor- conte-,orary health e0uity and refor- efforts2

8. 5io-;edical 0ngineering' This abstract frames the complexity of the bio-medical research
with a purpose and significance that any reader can understand.

&ight ,cattering ,pectroscopic Characteri-ation of +ealthy and Cancerous "hite .lood Cells ustin Esiao, Mechanical 7n1ineerin1 (Class of 2009)
Leu.e-ia is uncontrolled ,roliferation of i--ature 'hite /lood cells2 5he con!entional -ethod of dia1nosis re0uires in!asi!e and -edically e+tensi!e /io,sies and /lood sa-,lin1s of 1reat disco-fort to the ,atients2 Since leu.e-ia is the -ost ,re!alent ty,e of cancer in children, 'here /lood dra'in1 is ,articularly ,ainful and difficult, a non%in!asi!e screenin1 -odality could i-,ro!e si1nificantly the detection and -onitorin1 of these ,atients2 Cor this reason, 'e ,erfor-ed an initial set of studies to assess the ,otential of li1ht scatterin1 s,ectrosco,y to deter-ine 'hether uni0ue li1ht scatterin1 si1natures can differentiate leu.e-ic fro- healthy 'hite /lood cells2 3e ac0uired an1le%de,endent and 'a!elen1th%de,endent li1ht scatterin1 -a,s of the sa-,les in the /ac.scatterin1 1eo-etry2 S,ecifically, 'e ac0uired ,olari<ed li1ht scatterin1 -a,s fro- isolated cell ,o,ulations alon1 the ,arallel and ,er,endicular ,olari<ations and co-,uted the differential li1ht scatterin1 -a,s, re,resentin1 -ostly sin1ly /ac.scattered li1ht2 Cro- these LSS -a,s, the 'a!elen1th%de,endence of the /iolo1ical sa-,les, characteri<ed /y a ,o'er la' e+,onent !alue, 'as used to 0uantitati!ely differentiate /et'een the healthy ly-,hocytes, 1ranulocytes and the leu.e-ia cells2 5herefore, these initial findin1s ,ro!ide the /asis for detection of leu.e-ia in in vivo flo' cyto-etry and de-onstrate the ,otential of a non% in!asi!e leu.e-ia screenin1 test2

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>. <istory' ecause this study is a narrative of an historical event, the abstract focuses on the
historical context. The second to last sentence summari!es the authors analysis. This abstract also provides a good example of when its acceptable to use a "uotation.

Constructed /topia and the 0Culture of Deception1: the +arvard E2pansion to*ards the Charles River) 345673486 &en:a-in 82 Sac.s (Class of 20(0)
Research d!isor" Celi,e CernBnde<% r-esto 8une ((, (99) &oston $lo/e article on Ear!ard4s e+,ansion into llston, re!ealed Ear!ard4s =secret land ,urchases, -ostly alon1 3estern !enue Jin llstonK, too. ,lace /y ,ro+y o!er se!eral years 'ithout the .no'led1e of a/utters or city officials2 5he uni!ersityLs desire to /uy lo' a,,arently out'ei1hed its o/li1ation to esta/lish trust 'ith its nei1h/ors2> lthou1h contro!ersial at the ti-e, the ,ractice of secretly /uyin1 land 'as not ne' to Ear!ard2 &et'een (902 and (9*2, Ear!ard e-,loyed this tactic in order to construct a series of lar1e residential houses alon1 the Charles Ri!er, a'ay fro- the traditional encla!e of Ear!ard 6ard2 In ,articular, /oth the Gni!ersity and the Ear!ard Ri!erside ssociates acti!ely e-,loyed the stra'-an a,,roach to 1ain the necessary land" the utili<ation of ,ro+y real estate a1ents to decei!e a ,ro,erty o'ner into /elie!in1 that they 'ere sellin1 their land to an indi!idual 'ith no Ear!ard affiliation, 'hen in reality they 'ere sellin1 their land to the Gni!ersity2 Cearful of a ,reci,itous loss of ta+ inco-e and influence, the city of Ca-/rid1e and the Massachusetts State Le1islature /oth atte-,ted to inter!ene in Ear!ard4s land 1ra/, /ut 'ith ulti-ately little success2 5his narrati!e adds a ne' ,ers,ecti!e u,on the Ear!ard ad-inistration of //ott La'rence Lo'ell, sheddin1 li1ht on his anti%Se-itic /eliefs, discri-ination a1ainst reli1ious, ethnic, and i--i1rant 1rou,s, and the continuation of ad-issions ,olicies that ,laced class and ,ercei!ed social ran. a/o!e -erit2 5his 'or. is currently under re!ie' /y the New England Quarterly for ,ossi/le ,u/lication2

?. American +tudies @ ;edia +tudies' This abstract explains the significance of the title of
the paper.

%he 9ie* from the #sland: +o* Al Ja-eera English Constructs an #magined America Michael Snyder, -erican Studies (Class of 2009)
Research d!isors" Sarah So/iera: and 8eanne ;illon In ra/ic, the 'ord = l 8a<eera> -eans =the island> or =the ,eninsula2> It4s also the na-e of the first international ne's station /ased out of the Middle 7ast, ri!alin1 -edia 1iants li.e C## International and &&C 3orld2 ;es,ite its success and its launchin1 of an 7n1lish%lan1ua1e ne's station in 200?, l 8a<eera has co-e under fire /y GS ,olitical officials for its /iased re,ortin1 and = -erica%hatin1> a1enda2 My ,a,er in!esti1ates these clai-s of anti% -ericanis- /y a,,lyin1 a critical lens to'ards one l 8a<eera 7n1lish ne's -a1a<ine ,ro1ra- called =Inside GS ,> launched in the run u, to the 200D GS Presidential elections2 5hrou1h an analysis of tele!ision -edia techni0ues, such as narration, inter!ie's, cine-ato1ra,hy, editin1, -usic and sound, and 1ra,hics ,roduction, I ar1ue that =Inside GS > crafts a si-,lified narrati!e that ,its the hard'or.in1 and !irtuous -erican ,eo,le a1ainst the 1reedy and ,o'er%hun1ry elite, 'ho are a/stracted in the for- of the GS 1o!ern-ent, the -ilitary, and /i1 /usiness2 Considerin1 the /inary nature of this inter,retation, I ar1ue that the la/el =anti% -erican> does not accurately reflect the :ournalistic a1enda of =Inside GS > nor account for the alternati!e :ournalistic lens that truly distin1uishes =the Vie' fro- the Island2>

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$ . -nternational 3elations @ =ommunity <ealth' This abstract summari!es the authors

analysis of a marketing strategy gleaned from internal tobacco-industry documents.

%he %obacco #ndustry and #slam: .A%1s Mar:eting of ;&ight< Cigarettes During Ramadan Re/ecca &usch, Co--unity Eealth & International Relations, ra/ic Minor (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" Professor 7dith &al/ach 5he to/acco industry has historically atte-,ted to influence consu-er /rand choice and attract ne' s-o.ers throu1h -ar.etin1 strate1ies tar1eted at s,ecific ,o,ulations2 5he Musli- 'orld has ,osed a uni0ue challen1e to the industry /ecause of Isla-ic rulin1s a1ainst s-o.in12 S-o.in1 has /een ruled /y -any Isla-ic reli1ious leaders as haram (,rohi/ited) due to (() health ris.s associated 'ith s-o.in1, (2) to/acco4s cate1ori<ation as a dru1 and (*) the e+tra!a1ant cost of ci1arettes2 In res,onse to this ,ercei!ed threat a1ainst ci1arettes sales, the to/acco industry has de!ised a nu-/er of strate1ies to influence Isla-ic -ar.ets2 Internal industry docu-ents outline a &ritish -erican 5o/acco (& 5) strate1y to ,ro-ote lo' tarMnicotine (=li1ht>) ci1arettes durin1 Ra-adan in order to encoura1e s-o.ers to s'itch to & 5 ci1arettes durin1 this ,eriod of reli1ious cleansin12 5his -ar.etin1 sche-e, alon1 'ith a nu-/er of other reli1iously lin.ed & 5 strate1ies, ha!e ,ur,osefully enforced -isconce,tions a/out the health /enefits 1ained froli1ht ci1arettes at the e+,ense of /oth reli1ious ,ractice and consu-er health2 5hese strate1ies continue to ,ro-ote li1ht ci1arettes internationally des,ite ,roof fro- industry docu-ents that & 5 is a'are of the failure of li1ht ci1arette desi1n to -eanin1fully reduce health ris.s or e+,osure to tar and nicotine2 Fno'led1e of these -ar.etin1 strate1ies is i-,ortant in su,,ortin1 to/acco control efforts 'ithin Isla-ic ,o,ulations2 5o/acco control ad!ocates can hel, indi!iduals to /e -ore resistant to industry -essa1es /y -a.in1 consu-ers a'are of the to/acco industry4s attitudes to'ards Isla- and the -isleadin1 -ar.etin1 strate1ies the industry uses to tar1et the-2

$$. =reative :roject' Art <istory, ;useum +tudies, @ (ocumentary' #n addition to

explaining the historical, social, and artistic context of the pro$ect, this abstract presents the authors personal motivation for creating her documentary.

%he Closing of the +arvard /niversity Art Museums: A Documentary =ilm and Research !ro>ect Sarah Co'an, rt Eistory (Class of 2009)
Research d!isor" Professor 7ric Rosen/er1 5his su--er, on 8une *0, 200D, the Ear!ard Gni!ersity rt Museu-s closed for a lar1e scale reno!ation ,ro:ect, 'hich is ,redicted to ta.e a -ini-u- of fi!e years2 s a for-er e-,loyee of the -useu- and an art history student 'ho re1ularly attended these -useu-s in -y educational career, these chan1es and closin1s 'ere alar-in12 In the 'ee.s surroundin1 the closin1s I fil-ed the -useu-s and inter!ie'ed e-,loyees, !isitors, and co--unity -e-/ers re1ardin1 their i-,ressions and o,inions of the closin1s2 5he result is an ele1iac -e-orial of a -useu- on the /rin. of chan1e, and a ti-ely study of the i-,ortance of uni!ersity -useu-s as an educational resource in a co--unity2 I 'ill discuss -y first%hand research, the !irtues to -a.in1 a docu-entary a/out a sin1ular e!ent, and -y Senior Eonors 5hesis, 'hich -a.es a connection /et'een the closin1s and the 'ider history of -useu- studies and art history2 5he ,resentation 'ill include cli,s fro- -y fil-2