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A LAND OF SHADOWS

JRR Tolkiens Lord of the Rings is perhaps the most popular book of the last hundred ears! One of the reasons for this is the sense the stor "i#es of takin" pla$e in a real %orld& %ith a "reat depth of histor & lan"ua"e and $ulture of %hi$h this tale is 'ust a part! Tolkiens %ork has inspired hundreds of authors to $reate their o%n ima"inar %orlds as settin"s for their stories! Some are more su$$essful than others! Fe% $ome $lose to Tolkien in the $reation of a belie#able %orld that $on#in$es the reader it is real! Creativity What are the in"redients that make for a su$$essful in#ented %orld( Myth-Making What elements did Tolkien use to $reate )iddle*earth( Imaginary Lands +f ou %ant to $reate an ima"inar %orld& ho% $an ou make it seem real& at least for a little %hile(

)A,S - JO.RN/0S
If you're going to have a complicated story you must work to a map; otherwise you'll never make a map of it afterwards. +ma"ine ou ha#e to tell the stor of a 'ourne throu"h an unkno%n $ountr ! Ho% $ould ou keep tra$k %here ou are "oin"& %here ou ha#e been& ho% far a%a pla$es are and ho% lon" it mi"ht take to "et there( The easiest %a is to use a map! +f the ne% $ountr is an ima"inar one& ou %ill ha#e to in#ent all the pla$e names! 0ou mi"ht also need to des$ribe the shape of the land1 its ri#ers& hills& mountains& forests and to%ns! What else %ould ou need to kno%( Ho% far north or south a pla$e is has an effe$t on the %eather! +t also affe$ts ho% lon" or short the da s and ni"hts are throu"hout the ear! +n Lord of the Rings Tolkien had to keep tra$k of man $hara$ters s$attered a$ross )iddle*earth! Ha#in" a map helped to %ork out ho% lon" it takes to tra#el bet%een pla$es! When people $an onl tra#el on foot or horseba$k& "oin" an %here takes a lon" time! At times in the stor & $hara$ters noti$e the moon in the sk ! The si"htin" of the moon links different strands in the stor ! Tolkien used a 2345 diar to find the phases of the moon on parti$ular da s! The first editions of Lord of the Rin"s %ere issued %ith a lar"e fold*out map& dra%n b Tolkiens son 6hristopher! This helped readers to understand the pla$es and the distan$es and dire$tions in#ol#ed in the stor ! +t also set a standard for stories of fantas %orlds! No% e#er ne% ima"inar land $omes $omplete %ith map!

S,/A7+N8 - WR+T+N8
The invention of languages is the foundation. The stories were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. Ho% do people talk to one another in the ima"inar %orld( What lan"ua"es do the use( +t is unlikel to be /n"lish9 Tolkien %as a philolo"ist& an e:pert in the histor of lan"ua"es and ho% the $han"e o#er time! His 'ob %as also his passion ; he in#ented ne% lan"ua"es for fun! He spent mu$h of his life makin" his in#entions more $ompli$ated and realisti$& espe$iall the lan"ua"es of the /l#es1 <uen a and Sindarin! He $reated )iddle*earth as a pla$e %here the lan"ua"es %ould be spoken! The in#ention of ne% %ords for e#er da thin"s and ne% ideas has be$ome $ommon in fantas %ritin"! =ut these bits of in#ented spee$h dont often seem as real as Tolkiens! +t takes more than 'ust a handful of ne% %ords to $reate a belie#able ne% lan"ua"e! <uen a and Sindarin alread e:isted before Lord of the Rin"s& and had far more than a fe% %ords and phrases! As %ell as in#entin" ne% lan"ua"es& ou need a %a of %ritin" the %ords do%n! This $ant be usin" our o%n alphabet! 0ou need to make up a ne% %a of %ritin"& as Tolkien did %ith the Ten"%ar >like the top of this pa"e?! Or ou $ould make $han"es to a real one& as he did %ith the Runes >like the bottom of this pa"e?! This means thinkin" about ho% to %rite the sounds of the lan"ua"e! 0ou $ould 'ust s%ap a ne% letter for ea$h of our alphabet letters! =ut %at$h out9 The sounds of /n"lish $an be @uite slipper 9 /len sAla lBmenn omentiel#o A star shines on the hour of our meeting

)ONST/RS - ,/O,L/S
I longed to devise a setting in which the trees might really march to war. What kinds of $reatures inhabit this ne% land( The $ould be mostl the same as in our o%n %orld! Or ma be somethin" $ompletel ne%! +n )iddle*earth humans are not the onl people! The share the %orld %ith /l#es& D%ar#es& /nts& Trolls and Or$s! Hobbits& thou"h in#ented b Tolkien& are of $ourse 'ust a t pe of small human9 The names of man of these $reatures are taken from older folk tales& but Tolkien fitted them to )iddle*earth! The /nts * the tree*shepherds * are his in#ention& thou"h the name is an old %ord for C"iantD! /a$h of these t pes of $reature differs from the others in siEe& appearan$e& lan"ua"e and temperament! /#en %hen the are on the same side& the ma not "et on! Or$s @uarrel %ith or$s& %hile /l#es and D%ar#es ha#e a "rud"e %hi$h has lasted thousands of ears! As %ell as people& there ma be monsters! Some ma be no more than e:tra* s$ar animals like the %ar"s and "iant spiders! Others ma be intelli"ent& e#il& s$hemin" and able to talk9 Dra"ons like Smau" are more than 'ust bi" talkin" liEards! The make plans of their o%n to a$hie#e their %i$ked ends! Tolkien also made up ne% monsters! There are people %ho %ere turned b the po%er of their rin"s into Wraiths1 the =la$k Riders or NaE"FlG the =alro" * a fire demonG Shelob * a "i"anti$ spiderG and the barro%*%i"hts * e#il spirits li#in" in an$ient tombs! Like so mu$h that he de#ised& Tolkiens $reatures ha#e be$ome standard in fantas %ritin"! )an books in$lude el#es& or$s& trolls and d%ar#es #er similar to those in Lord of the Rin"s >sometimes %ith those names& sometimes thinl dis"uised? alon"side the authors ne%l in#ented $reatures!

)0THS - H+STOR+/S
Gil-galad was an lven-king. !f him the harpers sadly sing" the last whose realm was fair and free #etween the $ountains and the %ea. The e#iden$e of our past is all around us& in the buildin"s& the lands$ape and e#en the lan"ua"e %e speak! ,art of the interest of fantas %orlds is in the feelin" that outside the stor there is e#en more le"end and histor ! Tolkien had alread %ritten a lot of stories set in )iddle*earth before he %rote either the Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings! He $ontinued to %ork on them throu"hout his life! These stories %ere mostl about the histor of the /l#es! The %ere published after his death as The Silmarillion! The $hara$ters in Lord of the Rings kno% some of this an$ient histor & but it is not al%a s e:plained to the reader! The kno% the stor of =eren and Luthien& and the kno% %hat happened to Numenor& but %e do not! Just as in the real %orld& some thin"s are taken for "ranted be$ause e#er one is familiar %ith them! The stories %e learned as $hildren do not need to be e:plained be$ause He#er bod kno%s that! Of $ourse for the $reator of a su$$essful ima"inar %orld& this means a hu"e amount of %ritin" %hi$h ma ne#er appear full in the stor ! =ut there are also thin"s mentioned in Lord of the Rings %e %ill ne#er kno% an thin" more about! +n )oria& Ara"orn sa s 8andalf is Hsurer of findin" his %a home in a blind ni"ht than the $ats of <ueen =eruthiel! =ut %ho %as <ueen =eruthiel& and %hat %as so spe$ial about her $ats( There %ere fi#e %iEards& but %e onl hear of three1 8andalf& Saruman and Rada"ast! What happened to the other t%o %iEards %ho %ent /ast( /#en Tolkien didnt kno% the ans%er to that9

I+STAS - I+S+ONS
%trider sitting in the corner at the inn was a shock& and I had no more idea who he was than 'rodo. +f ou %ant to "i#e life to our ima"inar %orld& ou %ill need to let people kno% %hat thin"s look like! What do people %ear( 0ou ma be able to tell $ertain thin"s about a person from the %a the dress! The st le of $lothin" %ill be #er different from %hat ou are %earin" no%! Of $ourse the dont ha#e to look like the li#e in the )iddle A"es& but it is #er hard to in#ent $ompletel ne% st les that ha#e ne#er e:isted an %here before! The %a people a$t is also important! For e:ample& %hat do the do %hen the meet stran"ers& or %hen the sit do%n to eat( +n 8ondor the stand and fa$e West in silen$e for a moment before startin" their meal! ,eople a$t differentl in publi$ to the %a the are %ith their families and friends! What are their buildin"s like * inside as %ell as outside( D%ar#es seem to prefer #ast mansions $ar#ed from %hole mountains! Hobbits homes are also under"round& but mu$h $osier! The 7in" of Rohan has a "rand hall de$orated %ith tapestries and a bri"htl painted floor& %hile the el#es of Lorien sleep on platforms in the bran$hes of trees! The different kinds of d%ellin" tell us somethin" about the people %ho li#e in them! +sen"ard has been turned into an industrialised ruin& %hile shado%s hide =arad*dFr& the Dark To%er of Sauron! When ou are $reatin" an ima"inar %orld there are lots of thin"s ou $an $onsider! )an e#er da thin"s are "oin" to look different! These details of dail life mi"ht help to add a sense of realism! What about their furniture( Ho% do ou des$ribe their art and musi$& their means of transport& their $ro$ker & pots and pans& armour and %eapons( =ut most importantl & ho% mu$h detail do people reall need(

,LANN+N8 - ,LOTT+N8
(ing of )ngmar long ago& %orcerer& *ingwraith& +ord of the ,a-g.l& a spear of terror in the hand of %auron& shadow of despair. The tale C"re% in the tellin"D! Lord of the Rin"s be"an life as a se@uel to The Hobbit! The link bet%een the t%o %as =ilbos ma"i$ rin"& %hi$h turned out to be the Rulin" Rin"! As Tolkien %rote& the stor took on a life of its o%n& and de#eloped in une:pe$ted dire$tions! +t be$ame darker and its $entral ideas more serious! The stor also be$ame mu$h more $ompli$ated! The Fello%ship splits up& and the stor breaks into se#eral strands! /a$h strand is follo%ed in turn for different o#erlappin" periods of time! This leads to the "reat $liff*han"er at the end of =ook 4& %hen Frodo is $aptured b the Or$s! We dont find out %hat happens ne:t for another 5JJ pa"es! +t needed $areful plannin" b the author to brin" all these threads to"ether a"ain in the end! At the $entre of the stor are the addi$tion of po%er& and the desire to es$ape death and be$ome immortal! Althou"h the rin"s "i#e mortals e:tended life& ou be"in to feel all thin, sort of stretchedlike butter that has been scraped over too much bread =ut the rin"s of po%er are addi$ti#e! 6ontinued use in$reases the hold on the %earer& until the $annot bear to be %ithout them! The desire to use the po%er of the rin" to do "ood is no prote$tion a"ainst the e#il effe$ts! =ut the "ood people are not al%a s $ompletel "ood! Some& like Saruman the %iEard& be$ome badG others lose hope& like DenethorG or "i#e in to temptation& like =oromir! Are those on the bad side al%a s utterl %i$ked( When Sam sa% the dead soldier of Saurons arm & he %ondered Cif he %as reall e#il of heart& or %hat lies and threats had led him on the lon" mar$h from his homeG and if he %ould not reall rather ha#e sta ed there in pea$e!D 8ollum s%a s bet%een "ood and bad& before finall fallin" * and sa#in" the @uest in the pro$ess!

SO LON8 - FAR/W/LL
I have something to do #efore the end. I must see it through sir& if you understand. /ast Lothian 6oun$il )useums Ser#i$e %ould like to thank the follo%in" for their help in the produ$tion of this e:hibition1 The Tolkien /stateG South Lanarkshire 6oun$ilG Alan 6hapmanG /%an WilsonG The Tolkien So$iet G John Ho%eG +n"er /delfeldtG Ted NasmithG =attleOrders LtdG /ast Lothian 6oun$il Arts Ser#i$eG /ast Lothian 6oun$il Librar Ser#i$eG =odleian Librar G Omni /le$troni$sG Siobhan )$DadeG SuEanne 8rahamG 8ames Workshop LtdG 6lanranaldG )i$helle =u"lassG Sheila 6alderG Jennifer 8ibsonG /:$ellen$e in /du$ationG ,eter 8ra G Jane =eattieG 7ate )a nardG S$ottish Arts 6oun$ilG Wend Wel$hG )arion 7enn
<uotations taken from Lord of the Rings K The JRR Tolkien Dis$retionar Settlement 23L4& 23LL and The Letters of JRR Tolkien K The JRR Tolkien 6op ri"ht Trust 23M2!

/e're all standing on $ount Tolkien& influenced #y him in some way. >Terr ,rat$hett?