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JRR Tolkiens Lord of the Rings is perhaps the most popular book of the last hundred ears! One of the reasons for this is the sense the stor "i#es of takin" pla$e in a real %orld& %ith a "reat depth of histor & lan"ua"e and $ulture of %hi$h this tale is 'ust a part! Tolkiens %ork has inspired hundreds of authors to $reate their o%n ima"inar %orlds as settin"s for their stories! Some are more su$$essful than others! Fe% $ome $lose to Tolkien in the $reation of a belie#able %orld that $on#in$es the reader it is real! Creativity What are the in"redients that make for a su$$essful in#ented %orld( Myth-Making What elements did Tolkien use to $reate )iddle*earth( Imaginary Lands +f ou %ant to $reate an ima"inar %orld& ho% $an ou make it seem real& at least for a little %hile(

)A,S - JO.RN/0S
If you're going to have a complicated story you must work to a map; otherwise you'll never make a map of it afterwards. +ma"ine ou ha#e to tell the stor of a 'ourne throu"h an unkno%n $ountr ! Ho% $ould ou keep tra$k %here ou are "oin"& %here ou ha#e been& ho% far a%a pla$es are and ho% lon" it mi"ht take to "et there( The easiest %a is to use a map! +f the ne% $ountr is an ima"inar one& ou %ill ha#e to in#ent all the pla$e names! 0ou mi"ht also need to des$ribe the shape of the land1 its ri#ers& hills& mountains& forests and to%ns! What else %ould ou need to kno%( Ho% far north or south a pla$e is has an effe$t on the %eather! +t also affe$ts ho% lon" or short the da s and ni"hts are throu"hout the ear! +n Lord of the Rings Tolkien had to keep tra$k of man $hara$ters s$attered a$ross )iddle*earth! Ha#in" a map helped to %ork out ho% lon" it takes to tra#el bet%een pla$es! When people $an onl tra#el on foot or horseba$k& "oin" an %here takes a lon" time! At times in the stor & $hara$ters noti$e the moon in the sk ! The si"htin" of the moon links different strands in the stor ! Tolkien used a 2345 diar to find the phases of the moon on parti$ular da s! The first editions of Lord of the Rin"s %ere issued %ith a lar"e fold*out map& dra%n b Tolkiens son 6hristopher! This helped readers to understand the pla$es and the distan$es and dire$tions in#ol#ed in the stor ! +t also set a standard for stories of fantas %orlds! No% e#er ne% ima"inar land $omes $omplete %ith map!

S,/A7+N8 - WR+T+N8
The invention of languages is the foundation. The stories were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. Ho% do people talk to one another in the ima"inar %orld( What lan"ua"es do the use( +t is unlikel to be /n"lish9 Tolkien %as a philolo"ist& an e:pert in the histor of lan"ua"es and ho% the $han"e o#er time! His 'ob %as also his passion ; he in#ented ne% lan"ua"es for fun! He spent mu$h of his life makin" his in#entions more $ompli$ated and realisti$& espe$iall the lan"ua"es of the /l#es1 <uen a and Sindarin! He $reated )iddle*earth as a pla$e %here the lan"ua"es %ould be spoken! The in#ention of ne% %ords for e#er da thin"s and ne% ideas has be$ome $ommon in fantas %ritin"! =ut these bits of in#ented spee$h dont often seem as real as Tolkiens! +t takes more than 'ust a handful of ne% %ords to $reate a belie#able ne% lan"ua"e! <uen a and Sindarin alread e:isted before Lord of the Rin"s& and had far more than a fe% %ords and phrases! As %ell as in#entin" ne% lan"ua"es& ou need a %a of %ritin" the %ords do%n! This $ant be usin" our o%n alphabet! 0ou need to make up a ne% %a of %ritin"& as Tolkien did %ith the Ten"%ar >like the top of this pa"e?! Or ou $ould make $han"es to a real one& as he did %ith the Runes >like the bottom of this pa"e?! This means thinkin" about ho% to %rite the sounds of the lan"ua"e! 0ou $ould 'ust s%ap a ne% letter for ea$h of our alphabet letters! =ut %at$h out9 The sounds of /n"lish $an be @uite slipper 9 /len sAla lBmenn omentiel#o A star shines on the hour of our meeting

)ONST/RS - ,/O,L/S
I longed to devise a setting in which the trees might really march to war. What kinds of $reatures inhabit this ne% land( The $ould be mostl the same as in our o%n %orld! Or ma be somethin" $ompletel ne%! +n )iddle*earth humans are not the onl people! The share the %orld %ith /l#es& D%ar#es& /nts& Trolls and Or$s! Hobbits& thou"h in#ented b Tolkien& are of $ourse 'ust a t pe of small human9 The names of man of these $reatures are taken from older folk tales& but Tolkien fitted them to )iddle*earth! The /nts * the tree*shepherds * are his in#ention& thou"h the name is an old %ord for C"iantD! /a$h of these t pes of $reature differs from the others in siEe& appearan$e& lan"ua"e and temperament! /#en %hen the are on the same side& the ma not "et on! Or$s @uarrel %ith or$s& %hile /l#es and D%ar#es ha#e a "rud"e %hi$h has lasted thousands of ears! As %ell as people& there ma be monsters! Some ma be no more than e:tra* s$ar animals like the %ar"s and "iant spiders! Others ma be intelli"ent& e#il& s$hemin" and able to talk9 Dra"ons like Smau" are more than 'ust bi" talkin" liEards! The make plans of their o%n to a$hie#e their %i$ked ends! Tolkien also made up ne% monsters! There are people %ho %ere turned b the po%er of their rin"s into Wraiths1 the =la$k Riders or NaE"FlG the =alro" * a fire demonG Shelob * a "i"anti$ spiderG and the barro%*%i"hts * e#il spirits li#in" in an$ient tombs! Like so mu$h that he de#ised& Tolkiens $reatures ha#e be$ome standard in fantas %ritin"! )an books in$lude el#es& or$s& trolls and d%ar#es #er similar to those in Lord of the Rin"s >sometimes %ith those names& sometimes thinl dis"uised? alon"side the authors ne%l in#ented $reatures!

Gil-galad was an lven-king. !f him the harpers sadly sing" the last whose realm was fair and free #etween the $ountains and the %ea. The e#iden$e of our past is all around us& in the buildin"s& the lands$ape and e#en the lan"ua"e %e speak! ,art of the interest of fantas %orlds is in the feelin" that outside the stor there is e#en more le"end and histor ! Tolkien had alread %ritten a lot of stories set in )iddle*earth before he %rote either the Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings! He $ontinued to %ork on them throu"hout his life! These stories %ere mostl about the histor of the /l#es! The %ere published after his death as The Silmarillion! The $hara$ters in Lord of the Rings kno% some of this an$ient histor & but it is not al%a s e:plained to the reader! The kno% the stor of =eren and Luthien& and the kno% %hat happened to Numenor& but %e do not! Just as in the real %orld& some thin"s are taken for "ranted be$ause e#er one is familiar %ith them! The stories %e learned as $hildren do not need to be e:plained be$ause He#er bod kno%s that! Of $ourse for the $reator of a su$$essful ima"inar %orld& this means a hu"e amount of %ritin" %hi$h ma ne#er appear full in the stor ! =ut there are also thin"s mentioned in Lord of the Rings %e %ill ne#er kno% an thin" more about! +n )oria& Ara"orn sa s 8andalf is Hsurer of findin" his %a home in a blind ni"ht than the $ats of <ueen =eruthiel! =ut %ho %as <ueen =eruthiel& and %hat %as so spe$ial about her $ats( There %ere fi#e %iEards& but %e onl hear of three1 8andalf& Saruman and Rada"ast! What happened to the other t%o %iEards %ho %ent /ast( /#en Tolkien didnt kno% the ans%er to that9

%trider sitting in the corner at the inn was a shock& and I had no more idea who he was than 'rodo. +f ou %ant to "i#e life to our ima"inar %orld& ou %ill need to let people kno% %hat thin"s look like! What do people %ear( 0ou ma be able to tell $ertain thin"s about a person from the %a the dress! The st le of $lothin" %ill be #er different from %hat ou are %earin" no%! Of $ourse the dont ha#e to look like the li#e in the )iddle A"es& but it is #er hard to in#ent $ompletel ne% st les that ha#e ne#er e:isted an %here before! The %a people a$t is also important! For e:ample& %hat do the do %hen the meet stran"ers& or %hen the sit do%n to eat( +n 8ondor the stand and fa$e West in silen$e for a moment before startin" their meal! ,eople a$t differentl in publi$ to the %a the are %ith their families and friends! What are their buildin"s like * inside as %ell as outside( D%ar#es seem to prefer #ast mansions $ar#ed from %hole mountains! Hobbits homes are also under"round& but mu$h $osier! The 7in" of Rohan has a "rand hall de$orated %ith tapestries and a bri"htl painted floor& %hile the el#es of Lorien sleep on platforms in the bran$hes of trees! The different kinds of d%ellin" tell us somethin" about the people %ho li#e in them! +sen"ard has been turned into an industrialised ruin& %hile shado%s hide =arad*dFr& the Dark To%er of Sauron! When ou are $reatin" an ima"inar %orld there are lots of thin"s ou $an $onsider! )an e#er da thin"s are "oin" to look different! These details of dail life mi"ht help to add a sense of realism! What about their furniture( Ho% do ou des$ribe their art and musi$& their means of transport& their $ro$ker & pots and pans& armour and %eapons( =ut most importantl & ho% mu$h detail do people reall need(

(ing of )ngmar long ago& %orcerer& *ingwraith& +ord of the ,a-g.l& a spear of terror in the hand of %auron& shadow of despair. The tale C"re% in the tellin"D! Lord of the Rin"s be"an life as a se@uel to The Hobbit! The link bet%een the t%o %as =ilbos ma"i$ rin"& %hi$h turned out to be the Rulin" Rin"! As Tolkien %rote& the stor took on a life of its o%n& and de#eloped in une:pe$ted dire$tions! +t be$ame darker and its $entral ideas more serious! The stor also be$ame mu$h more $ompli$ated! The Fello%ship splits up& and the stor breaks into se#eral strands! /a$h strand is follo%ed in turn for different o#erlappin" periods of time! This leads to the "reat $liff*han"er at the end of =ook 4& %hen Frodo is $aptured b the Or$s! We dont find out %hat happens ne:t for another 5JJ pa"es! +t needed $areful plannin" b the author to brin" all these threads to"ether a"ain in the end! At the $entre of the stor are the addi$tion of po%er& and the desire to es$ape death and be$ome immortal! Althou"h the rin"s "i#e mortals e:tended life& ou be"in to feel all thin, sort of stretchedlike butter that has been scraped over too much bread =ut the rin"s of po%er are addi$ti#e! 6ontinued use in$reases the hold on the %earer& until the $annot bear to be %ithout them! The desire to use the po%er of the rin" to do "ood is no prote$tion a"ainst the e#il effe$ts! =ut the "ood people are not al%a s $ompletel "ood! Some& like Saruman the %iEard& be$ome badG others lose hope& like DenethorG or "i#e in to temptation& like =oromir! Are those on the bad side al%a s utterl %i$ked( When Sam sa% the dead soldier of Saurons arm & he %ondered Cif he %as reall e#il of heart& or %hat lies and threats had led him on the lon" mar$h from his homeG and if he %ould not reall rather ha#e sta ed there in pea$e!D 8ollum s%a s bet%een "ood and bad& before finall fallin" * and sa#in" the @uest in the pro$ess!

I have something to do #efore the end. I must see it through sir& if you understand. /ast Lothian 6oun$il )useums Ser#i$e %ould like to thank the follo%in" for their help in the produ$tion of this e:hibition1 The Tolkien /stateG South Lanarkshire 6oun$ilG Alan 6hapmanG /%an WilsonG The Tolkien So$iet G John Ho%eG +n"er /delfeldtG Ted NasmithG =attleOrders LtdG /ast Lothian 6oun$il Arts Ser#i$eG /ast Lothian 6oun$il Librar Ser#i$eG =odleian Librar G Omni /le$troni$sG Siobhan )$DadeG SuEanne 8rahamG 8ames Workshop LtdG 6lanranaldG )i$helle =u"lassG Sheila 6alderG Jennifer 8ibsonG /:$ellen$e in /du$ationG ,eter 8ra G Jane =eattieG 7ate )a nardG S$ottish Arts 6oun$ilG Wend Wel$hG )arion 7enn
<uotations taken from Lord of the Rings K The JRR Tolkien Dis$retionar Settlement 23L4& 23LL and The Letters of JRR Tolkien K The JRR Tolkien 6op ri"ht Trust 23M2!

/e're all standing on $ount Tolkien& influenced #y him in some way. >Terr ,rat$hett?