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# Finish Line & Beyond

## • Basic Terms and Definitions

• Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines
• Pairs of Angles
• Parallel Lines And A Transversal
• Lines Parallel To The Same Line
• Angle Sum Property of A Triangle

(a) Segment: - A part of line with two end points is called a line-segment.

## A ray is denoted by AB.

We can denote a line-segment AB, a ray AB and length AB and line AB by the
same symbol AB.

(c) Collinear points: - If three or more points lie on the same line, then they
are called
collinear points, otherwise they are called non-collinear points.

(c) Angle: - An angle is formed by two rays originating from the same end point.

The rays making an angle are called the arms of the angle and the end-points are
called the vertex of the angle.

(d)Types of Angles:-

(i) Acute angle: - An angle whose measure lies between 0° and 90°, is
called an acute angle.

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(ii) Right angle: - An angle, whose measure is equal to 90°, is called a right
angle.

(iii) Obtuse angle: - An angle, whose measure lies between 90° and 180°, is
called an obtuse angle.

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## (iv) Straight angle: - The measure of a straight angle is 180°.

(v) Reflex angle: - An angle which is greater than 180° and less than 360°,
is called the reflex angle.

(vi) Complimentary angle: - Two angles, whose sum is 90°, are called
complimentary angle.

(vii) Supplementary angle: - Two angles whose sum is 180º, are called

supplementary angle.

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(viii) Adjacent angle: - Two angles are adjacent, if they have a common
vertex, a
common vertex, common arm and their non-common arms are on
different sides of the common arm.

In the above figure ∠ABD and ∠DBC are adjacent angle. Ray BD is their
common arm and point B is their common vertex. Ray BA and ray BC are non-
common arms.
When the two angles are adjacent, then their sum is always equal to the
angle formed by the two non-common arms.

## Thus, ∠ABC = ∠ABD + ∠DBC .

Here we can observe that ∠ABC and ∠DBC are not adjacent angles, because
their non-common arms BD and AB lie on the same side of the common arm BC.

(ix) Linear pair of angles: - If the sum of two adjacent angles is 180º, then
their non-common lines are in the same straight line and two adjacent
angles form a linear pair of angles.

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In the fig. ∠ABD and ∠CBD form a linear pair of angles because

## (x) Vertically opposite angles: - When two lines AB and CD intersect at a

point O, the vertically opposite angles are formed.

Here are two pairs of vertically opposite angles. One pair is ∠AOD and ∠BOC
and the second pair is ∠AOC and ∠BOD
The vertically opposite angles are always equal.

## So, ∠AOD = ∠BOC and ∠AOC = ∠BOD

(e) Intersecting lines and non-intersecting lines: - Two lines are intersecting
if they have one point in common. We have observed in the above figure that
lines AB and CD are intersecting lines, intersecting at O, their point of
intersection.

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## Parallel lines: - If two lines do not meet at a point if extended to both

directions, such lines are called parallel lines.

P Q

R S
Lines PQ and RS are parallel lines.

## The length of the common perpendiculars at different points on these parallel

lines is same. This equal length is called the distance between two parallel
lines.

Axiom 1. If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of two adjacent angles so formed is
180º.
Conversely if the sum of two adjacent angles is 180º, then a ray stands
on a line
(i.e., the non-common arms form a line).

Axiom 2. If the sum of two adjacent angles is 180º, then the non-common arms of
the angles form a line. It is called Linear Pair Axiom.

(f) Theorem 1. If two lines intersect each other, then the vertically
opposite angles are equal.
Sol. Given: Two lines AB and CD intersect each other at O.
To Prove: -

∠AOC = ∠BOD
and ∠AOD = ∠BOC

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Proof: -

⇒ ∠AOC = ∠BOD

Now, Again

## ⇒ ∠BOC + ∠BOD = ∠AOD + ∠BOD

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⇒ ∠BOC = ∠AOD

Hence Proved.

## Parallel Lines And A Transversal

In the above figure m and n are two parallel lines and l is the transversal, which
intersect the parallel line m and n at points P and Q respectively.

## Here Exterior Angles are: - ∠1 , ∠ 2 , ∠ 7 and ∠8

Interior Angles are: - ∠3 , ∠ 4 , ∠5 and ∠ 6

## (i) ∠1 and ∠5 (ii) ∠ 2 and ∠ 6 (iii) ∠ 4 and ∠8 (iv) ∠3 and ∠ 7

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## If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then each pair of corresponding

angle is equal. (Corresponding Angles Axiom) – Axiom 3.

## Axiom 4. If a transversal intersects two lines such that a pair of

corresponding angles is equal, then the two lines are parallel to each
other.

## Alternate Exterior Angles: - (i) ∠1 and ∠ 7 (ii) ∠ 2 and ∠8

If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then each pair of alternate interior
and exterior angles are equal.

## Alternate Exterior Angles: - (i) ∠1 = ∠7 (ii) ∠ 2 = ∠8

Interior angles on the same side of the transversal line are called the consecutive
interior angles or allied angles or co-interior angles.

## Theorem 2. If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then each pair

of alternate interior angles is equal.

Sol. Given: Let PQ and RS are two parallel lines and AB be the transversal which
intersects them on L and M respectively.

## To Prove: - ∠PLM = ∠SML

And ∠LMR = ∠MLQ

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## Proof: - ∠PLM = ∠RMB ……….equation (i) {corresponding angle}

And ∠RMB = ∠SML ……….equation (ii) {vertically opposite angle are equal}

∠PLM = ∠SML

Similarly,

## ∠LMR = ∠ALP ……….equation (iii) {corresponding angle}

And ∠ALP = ∠MLQ ……….equation (iv) {vertically opposite angle are equal}

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∠LMR = ∠MLQ

Hence Proved.

## Theorem 3. If a transversal intersects two lines such that a pair of alternate

interior angles is equal, then the two lines are parallel.

## Sol. Given: - A transversal AB intersects two lines PQ and RS such that

∠PLM = ∠SML .

To Prove: - PQ║RS

## From equations (i) & (ii),

∠PLM = ∠RMB
But these are corresponding angles.
We know that if a transversal intersects two lines such that a pair of corresponding
angles is equal, then the two lines ate parallel to each other.

## Hence, PQ║RS Proved.

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## Theorem 4. If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then each pair of

interior angles on the same side of the transversal is supplementary.

Solution:

respectively.

## From equations (i) & (ii),

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∠ 2 + ∠3 = 180º

∠1 + ∠ 4 = 180º

## Theorem 5. If a transversal intersects two lines such that a pair of interior

angles on the same side of the transversal is supplementary, then the two
lines are parallel.

Sol.

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∠1 + ∠ 2 = 180º

To Prove: AB║CD

## From equations (i) & (ii),

∠1 + ∠ 2 = ∠1 + ∠3

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⇒ ∠1 + ∠ 2 - ∠1 = ∠3

⇒ ∠ 2 = ∠3

But these are alternate interior angles. We know that if a transversal intersects two
lines such that the pair of alternate interior angles are equal, then the lines are
parallel.

## Hence, AB║CD Proved.

Theorem 6. Lines which are parallel to the same line are parallel to each
other.

Sol.

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Given: - Three lines AB, CD and EF are such that AB║CD, CD║EF.

To Prove: - AB║EF.

Construction: - Let us draw a transversal GH which intersects the lines AB, CD and
EF at P, Q and R respectively.

∠1 = ∠3

## But these are corresponding angles.

We know that if a transversal intersects two lines such that a pair of corresponding
angles is equal, then the two lines ate parallel to each other.

## Angle Sum Property of Triangle: -

Theorem 7. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180º.

Sol.

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Given: - A ∆ ABC.

To Prove: - ∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = 180º.

## By adding equation (i) & (ii),

∠1 + ∠ 2 = ∠ 4 + ∠5 ………..equation (iii)

## Now by adding ∠3 to both sides of equation (iii), we get

∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = ∠ 4 + ∠5 + ∠3

## ∠ 4 + ∠5 + ∠3 = 180º {Linear Pair}

∴ ∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = 180º

Hence Proved.

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## Theorem 8. If a side of a triangle is produced, then the exterior angle so

formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.

Sol.

## Given: - A ∆ ABC in which side BC is produced to D forming exterior angle ∠ACD of

∆ ABC.

To Prove: - ∠ 4 = ∠1 + ∠ 2 .

## From equations (i) & (ii),

∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = ∠3 + ∠ 4

⇒ ∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 - ∠3 = ∠ 4
⇒ ∠1 + ∠ 2 = ∠ 4

Hence, ∠ 4 = ∠1 + ∠ 2 Proved.

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EXERCISE 1

Q1. In the Fig. lines AB and CD intersect at O. If ∠AOC + ∠BOE = 70º AND
∠BOD = 40º, find ∠BOE and reflex ∠COE .

## ⇒ ∠BOE = 70º - 40º

⇒ ∠BOE = 30º

∴ ∠BOE = 30º

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⇒ ∠COE = 110º

## And Reflex ∠COE = 250º

Q2. In the following figure, lines XY and MN intersect at O. If ∠POY = 90º and a : b
=
2 : 3, find c.

## Sol. Given: - ∠POY = 90º

And a : b = 2 : 3.

a 2
∴ =
b 3

2
⇒ a= b ………….equation (i)
3

## Now, ∠POX + ∠POY = 180º

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## ⇒ ∠POX = 180º - 90º

⇒ ∠POX = 90º

⇒ a + b = 90º { ∠POX = a + b}

2
⇒ b + b = 90º
3

2b + 3b
⇒ = 90º
3

⇒ 2b + 3b = 90º ×3
⇒ 5b = 270º

270°
⇒ b=
5
⇒ b = 54º

2
a= b
3

2
⇒ a= x 54º
3

⇒ a = 2 x 18º

⇒ a = 36º

## Now, b + c = 180º {Angles at a common point on a line}

⇒ 54º + c = 180º

⇒ c = 180º- 54º

⇒ c = 126º

So, c = 126º.

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Q3. In the figure, ∠PQR = ∠PRQ , then prove that ∠PQS = ∠PRT .

## ⇒ ∠PQR + ∠PQS - ∠PQR = ∠PRT

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⇒ ∠PQS = ∠PRT

Given: - x+y=w+z

## But, x + y + w + z = 360º {Angles around a point}

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⇒ (x + y) + (w + z) = 360º

## ⇒ (x + y) + (x + y) = 360º {from equation (i)}

⇒ x + y + x + y = 360º

⇒ 2x + 2y = 360º

⇒ 2(x + y) = 360º

360°
⇒ x+y=
2
⇒ x + y = 180º

## Hence, AOB is a straight line. Proved.

Q5. In the given figure, POQ is a line. Ray OR is perpendicular to line PQ. OS is
another ray lying between rays OP and OR.

1
Prove that ∠ROS = ( ∠QOS - ∠POS )
2

P O Q

OR ⊥ PQ

## Ray OS meets line PQ at O.

1
To Prove: - ∠ROS = ( ∠QOS - ∠POS )
2

## Proof: - ∠QOS = ∠ROS + ∠ROQ …………….equation (i)

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## ⇒ ∠QOS - ∠POS = 2 ∠ROS

1
⇒ ( ∠QOS - ∠POS ) = ∠ROS
2

1
⇒ ∠ROS = ( ∠QOS - ∠POS )
2

1
Hence, ∠ROS = ( ∠QOS - ∠POS ) Proved.
2

Q6. It is given that ∠XYZ = 64º and XY is produced to a point P. Draw a figure from
the given information. If ray YQ bisects ∠ZYP , find ∠XYQ and reflex ∠QYP .

Sol.

## ⇒ 64º + ∠ZYP = 180º

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⇒ ∠ZYP = 116º

## Since, YQ bisects ∠ZYP .

1 116°
∴ ∠ZYQ = ∠PYQ = ∠ZYP = = 58°
2 2

## Now reflex ∠QYP = 360º - 58° = 302º.

EXERCISE 2

1. In the following figure find the value of x and y, the show that AB║CD.

## ∠APM + ∠APN = 180° ( Angles on the same side of a line)

⇒ ∠APN = 180° − 50° = 130° = x ----------------------(1)

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## ∠CQN = ∠DQM (Opposite Angles)

Now,
⇒ ∠DQM = 130° = y ------------------------------------(2)

## As we have seen ∠APN = ∠CQN

So by the theorem of corresponding angles on one side of the transversal it is clear
that
AB║CD

2. In the following figure if AB║CD and CD║EF and y:z=3:7, find the value of x

## Now ∠DPO + ∠CPO = 180°

⇒ 3 x + 7 x = 180°
⇒ 10x = 180°
⇒ x = 18°
Putting the value of x in the given ratio we get following values:

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∠DPO = 126°
∠CPO = 54°

## Now it is given that AB║CD,

So, ∠DPO = ∠AOP = 126° = x

## 3. In the following figure if AB║CD , EF ⊥ CD and ∠GED = 126° , find

∠AGE , ∠GEF , and∠FGE

## ∠GEF = ∠GED − ∠FED

⇒ ∠GEF = 126° − 90° = 36°

As AB║CD,
So, ∠EFG =∠FED = 90°
⇒ ∠FGE = 180° − (90° + 36°) = 54°

## Now,∠AGE + ∠FGE = 180° (Angles on the same side of a line)

⇒ ∠AGE = 180° − 54° = 126°

4. In the following figure PQ║ST, values of ∠PQR = 110° and ∠RST = 130° , find the
value of ∠QRS .

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## Now, ∠RST + ∠BRS = 180°

And, ∠PQR + ∠ARQ = 180°

Because, internal angles on the one side of the transversal are complementary
angles.
Hence, ∠BRS = 180° − 130° = 50°
∠ARQ = 180° − 110° = 70°
Now, it is clear that ∠ARQ + ∠QRS + ∠BRS = 180°
⇒ 70° + ∠QRS + 50° = 180°
⇒ ∠QRS = 60°

5. In the following figure AB║CD, ∠APQ = 50° and ∠PRD = 127° , find values of x
and y.

## Answer: ∠BPR + ∠PRD = 180° (Internal Angles on one side of transversal)

⇒ ∠BPR = 180° − 127° = 53°

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## ∠PRD + PRQ = 180°

On the line CD
⇒ ∠PRQ = 180° − 127° = 53°

## ∠APQ + ∠QPR + ∠BPR = 180°

On the line AB,
⇒ ∠QPR = 180° − (50° + 53°) = 77°

## In ΔPQR, ∠PQR + ∠QPR + ∠PRQ = 180° (Sum of angles of a Triangle)

⇒ ∠PQR = 180° − (77° + 53°) = 50°
⇒ x = 50° and y = 77°

6. In the given figure PQ and RS are two mirrors placed parallel to each other. An
incident ray AB strikes the mirror PQ, the reflected ray moves along the path BC and
strikes the mirror RS. The second mirror reflects the ray along CD. Prove that
AB║CD.

Answer: From the theory of reflection in Physics we know that angle of incidence is
equal to angle of reflection.
Here, In the case of mirror PQ, Angle of incidence i = ∠ABP
And angle of reflection r = ∠QBC

## In the case of mirror RS, Angle of incidence i = ∠BCR

And angle of reflection r = ∠SCD

## Required evidence to prove AB║CD

We need to check if ∠ABC = ∠BCD (Alternate angles)

## On line PQ,∠ABP + ∠ABC + ∠QBC = 180°

⇒ i + ∠ABC + r = 180°
⇒ i + i + ∠ABC = 180° ………………………..(1)
Similarly, on line RS it can be observed that
i + i + ∠BCD + 180° ……………………………(2)

## From the question it is given that PQ║RS

Hence, ∠QBC = ∠BCR (Alternate Angles)

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## Hence, values of angles of incidence for both mirrors are same.

Correlating this finding with equations (1) and (2) it is clear that
∠ABC = ∠BCD
So, AB║CD Proved.

## Theorem: The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180º.

Construction: Let us draw a triangle PQR and draw a line XY║QR so that it touches
the vertex P of the triangle. For convenience let us name angles as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

## Proof:∠1 = ∠ 4 (Alternate angles)

∠3 = ∠5 (Alternate angles)
∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = 180°

## Substituting the values of ∠1 and ∠ 2 we get

∠ 4 + ∠ 2 + ∠5 = 180°

## Theorem: If a side of a triangle is produced, then the exterior angle so

formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.

Construction: Let us construct a triangle PQR and extend it base to S. Let us name
angles as 1, 2, 3 and 4 for convenience.

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Required Proof: ∠ 4 = ∠1 + ∠ 2

## Evidence: From earlier theorem we know that,

∠1 + ∠ 2 + ∠3 = 180° (Sum of angles of a triangle) ………………..(1)

On line QS,
∠3 + ∠ 4 = 180° (Angles on the same side of a line) …………………..(2)

## From equation (1) and (2) it is clear,

∠ 4 = ∠1 + ∠ 2

Exercise 3:

1. In the following figure, sides QP and RQ of ΔPQR are produced to points S and T
respectively. If ∠SPR = 135° and ∠PQT = 110° , find the value of ∠PRQ

## Answer: On line QS, ∠QPR + ∠SPR = 180°

⇒ ∠QPR = 180° − 135° = 45°
Similarly on line TR, ∠TQP + PQR = 180°

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## ⇒ ∠PQR = 180° − 110° = 70°

Now we have values of two angles of the given triangle so value of the third angle
can be calculated as follows:
∠PRQ = 180° − (70° + 45°) = 65°

2. In the following figure ∠X = 62° and ∠XYZ = 54° . If YO and ZO are the bisectors
of ∠XYZ and ∠XZY respectively of ΔXYZ, find values of ∠OZY and ∠YOZ

∠XYZ + ∠YXZ + ∠XZY = 180°
⇒ ∠XZY = 180° − (62° + 54°) = 64°

As per the question YO and ZO are bisectors of ∠XYZ and ∠XZY respectively
1
Hence, ∠OYZ = ∠XYZ = 54 ÷ 2 = 27°
2
1
And, ∠OZY = ∠XZY = 64 ÷ 2 = 32°
2

## Now, for ΔOYZ,

∠YOZ = 180° − (∠OYZ + ∠OZY )
=180°-(27°+32°)=121°
Requires answers are 32° and 121°

3. In the following figure AB║DE, ∠BAC = 35° and ∠CDE = 53° , find the value of
∠DCE

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## In ΔDCE, ∠DCE + ∠CDE + ∠CED = 180° (Sum of angles of a triangle)

Hence, ∠DCE = 180° − (53° + 35° ) = 92°

4. In the following figure lines PQ and RS intersect at point T, such that ∠PRT = 40°
, ∠RPT = 95° and ∠TSQ = 75° . Find the value of ∠SQT .

∠PRT + ∠RPT + ∠PTR = 180°
⇒ ∠PTR = 180° − (95° + 40°) = 45°

## As we know opposite angles are equal so ∠PTR = ∠STQ = 45°

Now, in ΔQST,

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## ∠QST + ∠STQ + ∠SQT = 180°

⇒ ∠SQT = 180° − (75° + 45°) = 60°

5. In the following figure, PQ ⊥ PS, PQ║SR, ∠SQR = 28° and ∠QRT = 65° . Find the
values of x and y.

## Answer: On the line ST,

∠QRS + ∠QRT = 180°
⇒ ∠QRS = 180° − 65° = 115°

In ΔQRS,
∠QSR + ∠SQR + ∠QRS = 180°
∠QSR = 180° − (28° + 115°) = 27°

## Now,∠SPQ = ∠PSR (Complementary Angles on the inner side of transversal)

∴ ∠PSQ = 90° − 27° = 63°

In ΔSPQ,
∠PQS = 180° − (∠SPQ + ∠PSQ)
=180°-(90°+63°) = 27°

So, x=27°
Y=63°

## 6. In the following figure, the side QR of ΔPQR is produced to a point S. If the

1
bisectors of ∠PQR and ∠PRS meet at point T, then prove that ∠QTR = ∠QPR
2

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## ∠SRP = ∠QPR + ∠PQR

1 1 1
∴ ∠SRP = ∠QPR + ∠PQR
2 2 2
1 1 1
or, ∠QPR = ∠SRP − ∠PQR …………………………..(1)
2 2 2

In Δ TQR
∠SRT = ∠QTR + ∠TQR
1 1
Or, ∠SRP = ∠QTR + ∠PQR
2 2
1 1
Or, ∠QTR = ∠SRP − ∠PQR ……………………………..(2)
2 2
As RHS of both equations are same So, following can be written:
1
∠QTR = ∠QPR
2