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QUADRILATERALS

3. In a parallelogram,

(ii) opposite angles are equal

(iii) diagonals bisect each other

4. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram, if

(ii) opposite angles are equal or

(iii) diagonals bisect each other or

(iv) a pair of opposite sides is equal and parallel

5. Diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other and are equal and vice-versa.

7. Diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angles and are equal, and vice-

versa.

8. The line-segment joining the mid-points of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to

the third side and is half of it.

9. A line through the mid-point of a side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects

the third side.

10. The quadrilateral formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateral,

in order, is a parallelogram.

Finish Line & Beyond

EXERCISE 1

1. The angles of quadrilateral are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 9 : 13. Find all the angles of the

quadrilateral.

SO, 3 x + 5 x + 9 x + 13 x = 360°

⇒ 30x = 360°

⇒ x = 12°

Hence, angles are: 36°, 60°, 108°, 156°

A D

B C

Hence, ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D =90°

As all are right angles so the parallelogram is a rectangle.

3. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then

it is a rhombus.

Finish Line & Beyond

D B

O

Answer: In the given quadrilateral ABCD diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at

right angle. We have to prove that AB=BC=CD=AD

DO=OB (O is the midpoint)

AO=AO (common side)

∠AOB = ∠AOD (Right angle)

So, ∆AOB ≅ ∆AOD

So, AB=AD

Similarly AB=BC=CD=AD can be proved which means that ABCD is a rhombus.

4. Show that the diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right

angles.

Answer: In the figure given above let us assume that ∠DAB = 90°

So, ∠DAO = ∠BAO = 45°

Hence, ∆AOD

DO=AO (Sides opposite equal angles are equal)

Similarly AO=OB=OC can be proved

This gives the proof of diagonals of square being equal.

5. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other at

right angles, then it is a square.

If DO=AO

Then ∠DAO = ∠BAO = 45° (Angles opposite to equal sides are equal)

So, all angles of the quadrilateral are right angles making it a square.

Finish Line & Beyond

(ii) ABCD is a rhombus.

D C

A B

∠DAC = ∠BAC (diagonal is bisecting the angle)

AC=AC (Common side)

AD=BC (parallel sides are equal in a parallelogram)

Hence, ∆ADC ≅ ∆ABC

So, ∠DCA = ∠BCA

This proves that AC bisects ∠DCB as well

Now let us assume another diagonal DB intersecting AC on O.

As it is a parallelogram so DB will bisect AC and vice versa

In ∆AOD & ∆BOD

∠DAO = ∠DCO (opposite angles are equal in parallelogram so their halves will be

equal)

AO=CO

DO=DO

Hence, ∆AOD ≅ ∆BOD

So, ∠DOA = ∠DOB = 90°

As diagonals are intersecting at right angles so it is a rhombus

Finish Line & Beyond

D C

A B

7. In parallelogram ABCD, two points P and Q are taken on diagonal BD such that DP

= BQ. Show that:

(i) ∆ APD ≅ ∆ CQB

(ii) AP = CQ

(iii) ∆ AQB ≅ ∆ CPD

(iv) AQ = CP

(v) APCQ is a parallelogram

DP=BQ (given)

AD=BC (opposite sides are equal)

∠DAP = ∠BCQ (opposite angles’ halves are equal)

Hence, ∆APD ≅ ∆CQB

So, AP=CQ Proved

AB=CD (Opposite sides are equal)

DP=BQ (given)

∠BAQ = ∠DCP ( opposite angles’ halves are equal)

Hence, ∆AQB ≅ ∆CPD

So, AQ=CP Proved

∠DPA = ∠BQC (corresponding angles of congruent triangles APD & CQB)

In∆DQP & ∆BQP

∠DPQ = ∠BQP (from previous proof)

DP=BQ (given)

PQ=PQ (common Side)

So, ∆DQP ≈ ∆BQP

So, ∠QDP = ∠QBP

Finish Line & Beyond

With equal opposite angles and equal opposite sides it is proved that APCQ is a paral-

lelogram

on diagonal BD. Show that

(i) ∆ APB ≅ ∆ CQD

(ii) AP = CQ

D C

P

Q

A B

Answer: In

∠ABP = ∠CDQ (alternate angles of transversal DB)

AB=CD

∠APB = ∠CQD (right angles)

Hence, ∆APB ≅ ∆CQD

So, AP=CQ

C are joined to vertices D, E and F respectively. Show that

D

B

C

E F

Finish Line & Beyond

(ii) quadrilateral BEFC is a parallelogram

(iii) AD || CF and AD = CF

(iv) quadrilateral ACFD is a parallelogram

(v) AC = DF

(vi) ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF.

AB=DE (given)

BC=EF (given)

∠ABC = ∠DEF (AB||DE & BC||EF)

Hence, ∠ABC ≅ ∆DEF

In quadrilateral ABED

AB= ED

AB||ED

So, ABED is a parallelogram (opposite sides are equal and parallel)

So, BE||AD ------------ (1)

Similarly quadrilateral ACFD can be proven to be a parallelogram

So, BE||CF ------------ (2)

From equations (1) & (2)

It is proved that

AD||CF

So, AD=CF

Similarly AC=DF and AC||DF can be proved

(i) ∠ A = ∠ B

(ii) ∠ C = ∠ D

(iii) ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ BAD

(iv) diagonal AC = diagonal BD

[Hint : Extend AB and draw a line through C parallel to DA intersecting AB produced

at E.]

A B E

D C

Finish Line & Beyond

Answer: In ∆BCE

EC=AD (Opposite sides are equal in parallelogram)

AD=BC (given)

So, BC=EC

⇒ ∠CBE = ∠CEB

∠CBE + ∠CBA = 180° (angles on the same side of a straight line)

∠CEB + ∠DAB = 180° (adjacent angles of parallelogram are complementary)

Substituting ∠CBE = ∠CEB it is clear that ∠DBA = ∠CBA

And, ∠CBA + ∠DCB = 180° ( adjacent angles of a parallelogram)

As ∠DBA = ∠CBA , so it is clear that ∠CDA = ∠DCB

AB=AB (common side)

AD=BC (given)

∠DBA = ∠CBA

∆ABC ≅ ∆BAD

Hence,

EXERCISE 2

1. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R and S are mid-points of the sides AB, BC,

CD and DA. AC is a diagonal. Show that :

1

(i) SR || AC and SR = AC

2

(ii) PQ = SR

(iii) PQRS is a parallelogram.

T

D

R

C

S

Q

A

P

B

In ∆DSR & ∆CRT

DR=RC (R is the mid point of side DC)

∠DRS = ∠TRS (Opposite angles)

Finish Line & Beyond

Hence, ∆DSR ≅ ∆CRT

So, SR=RT

ST=AC (Opposite sides of parallelogram)

1

So, SR= AC

2

As SR is touching the mid points of DA and DC so as per mid point theorem SR||AC

Similarly AC||PQ can be proven which will prove that PQRS is a parallelogram.

2. ABCD is a rhombus and P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD

and DA respectively. Show that the quadrilateral PQRS is a rectangle.

S R

A C

P Q

Answer: Following the method used in the previous question it can be proved that

PQRS is a parallelogram. To prove it to be a rectangle we need to prove that

∠S = ∠R = ∠Q = ∠P = 90°

In ∆DSR, ∆CRQ, ∆BQP & ∆APS

DS=CR=BQ=AP=DR=CQ=BP=AS (All sides of rhombus are equal and PQRS are mid-

points)

∠DSR = ∠DRS = ∠CRQ = ∠CQR = ∠BQP = ∠BPQ = ∠APS = ∠ASP

So, ∆DSR ≅ ∆CRQ ≅ ∆BQP ≅ ∆APS

So, ∠SDR = ∠RCQ = ∠QBP = ∠PAS = 90°

Hence, ∠DSR + ∠DRS = 90°

Or, ∠DSR = ∠DRS = ∠CRQ = ∠CQR = ∠BQP = ∠BPQ = ∠APS = ∠ASP = 45°

As, ∠ASP + ∠PSR + ∠DSR = 180°

⇒ ∠PSR = 180° − (45° + 45°) = 90°

Similarly ∠S = ∠R = ∠Q = ∠P = 90°

Hence, PQRS is a rectangle.

Finish Line & Beyond

AD. A line is drawn through E parallel to AB intersecting BC at F. Show that F is the

mid-point of BC.

D C

E G F

A B

Answer: In ∆ADB

DG=GB

A parallel line to the base originating from mid point of second side will intersect at

the midpoint of the third side.

AB||DC

AB||EF

So, EF||DC

So, In ∆ABD

EG||AB

E is the mid point of AD

So, G is the mid point of DB

Now, in ∆DCB

GF||DC

G is the mid point of BD

So, F will be mid point of BC ( Mid point theorem)

ively. Show that the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.

AD=BC (Opposite sides are equal in parallelogram)

BF=DE (Half of opposite sides of parallelogram)

∠ADE = ∠CBF (Opposite angles are equal)

So, ∆ADE ≅ ∆CBF

Hence, AE=CF

In quadrilateral AECF

EC||AF & EC=AF

AE=CF

So, AE||CF

So, AECF is a parallelogram.

Finish Line & Beyond

D C

E

A F B

In ∆DQC

PE||QC (proved earlier by proving AE||CF)

E is the mid point of DC

So, P is the mid point of DQ

So, DP=PQ

∆APB

FQ||AP

F is the mid point of AB

So, PQ=QB

So, DP=PQ=QB proved

5. Show that the line segments joining the mid-points of the opposite sides of a

quadrilateral bisect each other.

Answer: ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R, & S are mid points of AB, BC, CD

& AD

In ∆ACD

SR is touching mid points of CD and AD

So, SR||AC

Similarly following can be proved

PQ||AC

QR||BD

PS||BD

So, PQRS is a parallelogram.

PR and QS are diagonals of the parallelogram PQRS, so they will bisect each other.

Finish Line & Beyond

D

R

C

S

A

P B

AB and parallel to BC intersects AC at D. Show that

(i) D is the mid-point of AC (ii) MD ⊥ AC

1

(iii) CM = MA = AB

2

C A

D

Answer: DM||BC

M is the mid point of AB

Finish Line & Beyond

∠ACD = ∠MDA = 90° (alternate angle to transversal MD)

Now in ∆CDM & ∆ADM

CD=AD

MD=MD

∠MDC = ∠MDA

So, ∆CDM ≅ ∆ADM (SAS Theorem)

So, MC=MA

1

MA= AB

2

1

So, MC=MA= AB

2

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