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QUADRILATERALS

1. Sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360°.

2. A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two congruent triangles.

3. In a parallelogram,

(i) opposite sides are equal


(ii) opposite angles are equal
(iii) diagonals bisect each other

4. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram, if

(i) opposite sides are equal or


(ii) opposite angles are equal or
(iii) diagonals bisect each other or
(iv) a pair of opposite sides is equal and parallel

5. Diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other and are equal and vice-versa.

6. Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles and vice-versa.

7. Diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angles and are equal, and vice-
versa.

8. The line-segment joining the mid-points of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to
the third side and is half of it.

9. A line through the mid-point of a side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects
the third side.

10. The quadrilateral formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateral,
in order, is a parallelogram.

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EXERCISE 1

1. The angles of quadrilateral are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 9 : 13. Find all the angles of the
quadrilateral.

Answer: As you know angle sum of a quadrilateral = 360°


SO, 3 x + 5 x + 9 x + 13 x = 360°
⇒ 30x = 360°
⇒ x = 12°
Hence, angles are: 36°, 60°, 108°, 156°

2. If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal, then show that it is a rectangle.

Answer: In the following parallelogram both diagonals are equal:

A D

B C

So, ∆ABC ≅ ∆ADC ≅ ∆ABD ≅ ∆BCD


Hence, ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D =90°
As all are right angles so the parallelogram is a rectangle.

3. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then
it is a rhombus.

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D B
O

Answer: In the given quadrilateral ABCD diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at
right angle. We have to prove that AB=BC=CD=AD

In ∆AOB & ∆AOD


DO=OB (O is the midpoint)
AO=AO (common side)
∠AOB = ∠AOD (Right angle)
So, ∆AOB ≅ ∆AOD
So, AB=AD
Similarly AB=BC=CD=AD can be proved which means that ABCD is a rhombus.

4. Show that the diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right
angles.

Answer: In the figure given above let us assume that ∠DAB = 90°
So, ∠DAO = ∠BAO = 45°
Hence, ∆AOD
DO=AO (Sides opposite equal angles are equal)
Similarly AO=OB=OC can be proved
This gives the proof of diagonals of square being equal.

5. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other at
right angles, then it is a square.

Answer: Using the same figure,


If DO=AO
Then ∠DAO = ∠BAO = 45° (Angles opposite to equal sides are equal)
So, all angles of the quadrilateral are right angles making it a square.

6. Diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD bisects ∠ A . Show that

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(i) it bisects ∠ C also,


(ii) ABCD is a rhombus.

D C

A B

Answer: ABCD is a parallelogram where diagonal AC bisects ∠DAB

In ∆ADC & ∆ABC


∠DAC = ∠BAC (diagonal is bisecting the angle)
AC=AC (Common side)
AD=BC (parallel sides are equal in a parallelogram)
Hence, ∆ADC ≅ ∆ABC
So, ∠DCA = ∠BCA
This proves that AC bisects ∠DCB as well
Now let us assume another diagonal DB intersecting AC on O.
As it is a parallelogram so DB will bisect AC and vice versa
In ∆AOD & ∆BOD
∠DAO = ∠DCO (opposite angles are equal in parallelogram so their halves will be
equal)
AO=CO
DO=DO
Hence, ∆AOD ≅ ∆BOD
So, ∠DOA = ∠DOB = 90°
As diagonals are intersecting at right angles so it is a rhombus

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D C

A B

7. In parallelogram ABCD, two points P and Q are taken on diagonal BD such that DP
= BQ. Show that:
(i) ∆ APD ≅ ∆ CQB
(ii) AP = CQ
(iii) ∆ AQB ≅ ∆ CPD
(iv) AQ = CP
(v) APCQ is a parallelogram

Answer: In ∆APD & ∆CQB


DP=BQ (given)
AD=BC (opposite sides are equal)
∠DAP = ∠BCQ (opposite angles’ halves are equal)
Hence, ∆APD ≅ ∆CQB
So, AP=CQ Proved

In ∆AQB & ∆CPD


AB=CD (Opposite sides are equal)
DP=BQ (given)
∠BAQ = ∠DCP ( opposite angles’ halves are equal)
Hence, ∆AQB ≅ ∆CPD
So, AQ=CP Proved
∠DPA = ∠BQC (corresponding angles of congruent triangles APD & CQB)
In∆DQP & ∆BQP
∠DPQ = ∠BQP (from previous proof)
DP=BQ (given)
PQ=PQ (common Side)
So, ∆DQP ≈ ∆BQP
So, ∠QDP = ∠QBP

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With equal opposite angles and equal opposite sides it is proved that APCQ is a paral-
lelogram

8. ABCD is a parallelogram and AP and CQ are perpendiculars from vertices A and C


on diagonal BD. Show that
(i) ∆ APB ≅ ∆ CQD
(ii) AP = CQ

D C
P

Q
A B

∆APB & ∆CQD


Answer: In
∠ABP = ∠CDQ (alternate angles of transversal DB)
AB=CD
∠APB = ∠CQD (right angles)
Hence, ∆APB ≅ ∆CQD
So, AP=CQ

9. In ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF, AB = DE, AB || DE, BC = EF and BC || EF. Vertices A, B and


C are joined to vertices D, E and F respectively. Show that

D
B
C

E F

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(i) quadrilateral ABED is a parallelogram


(ii) quadrilateral BEFC is a parallelogram
(iii) AD || CF and AD = CF
(iv) quadrilateral ACFD is a parallelogram
(v) AC = DF
(vi) ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ DEF.

Answer: In ∠ABC & ∆DEF


AB=DE (given)
BC=EF (given)
∠ABC = ∠DEF (AB||DE & BC||EF)
Hence, ∠ABC ≅ ∆DEF

In quadrilateral ABED
AB= ED
AB||ED
So, ABED is a parallelogram (opposite sides are equal and parallel)
So, BE||AD ------------ (1)
Similarly quadrilateral ACFD can be proven to be a parallelogram
So, BE||CF ------------ (2)
From equations (1) & (2)
It is proved that
AD||CF
So, AD=CF
Similarly AC=DF and AC||DF can be proved

10. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || CD and AD = BC. Show that


(i) ∠ A = ∠ B
(ii) ∠ C = ∠ D
(iii) ∆ ABC ≅ ∆ BAD
(iv) diagonal AC = diagonal BD
[Hint : Extend AB and draw a line through C parallel to DA intersecting AB produced
at E.]

A B E

D C

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Answer: In ∆BCE
EC=AD (Opposite sides are equal in parallelogram)
AD=BC (given)
So, BC=EC
⇒ ∠CBE = ∠CEB
∠CBE + ∠CBA = 180° (angles on the same side of a straight line)
∠CEB + ∠DAB = 180° (adjacent angles of parallelogram are complementary)
Substituting ∠CBE = ∠CEB it is clear that ∠DBA = ∠CBA

Now, ∠DAB + ∠CDA = 180° (adjacent angles of parallelogram)


And, ∠CBA + ∠DCB = 180° ( adjacent angles of a parallelogram)
As ∠DBA = ∠CBA , so it is clear that ∠CDA = ∠DCB

In ∆ABC & ∆BAD


AB=AB (common side)
AD=BC (given)
∠DBA = ∠CBA
∆ABC ≅ ∆BAD
Hence,

EXERCISE 2
1. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R and S are mid-points of the sides AB, BC,
CD and DA. AC is a diagonal. Show that :
1
(i) SR || AC and SR = AC
2
(ii) PQ = SR
(iii) PQRS is a parallelogram.

T
D
R

C
S

Q
A
P
B

Answer: Let us extend the line SR to T so that CT is parallel to AS


In ∆DSR & ∆CRT
DR=RC (R is the mid point of side DC)
∠DRS = ∠TRS (Opposite angles)

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∠DSR = ∠RTC (alternate angle of transversal ST when DA||CT)


Hence, ∆DSR ≅ ∆CRT
So, SR=RT
ST=AC (Opposite sides of parallelogram)
1
So, SR= AC
2
As SR is touching the mid points of DA and DC so as per mid point theorem SR||AC

Similarly AC||PQ can be proven which will prove that PQRS is a parallelogram.

2. ABCD is a rhombus and P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD
and DA respectively. Show that the quadrilateral PQRS is a rectangle.

S R

A C

P Q

Answer: Following the method used in the previous question it can be proved that
PQRS is a parallelogram. To prove it to be a rectangle we need to prove that
∠S = ∠R = ∠Q = ∠P = 90°
In ∆DSR, ∆CRQ, ∆BQP & ∆APS
DS=CR=BQ=AP=DR=CQ=BP=AS (All sides of rhombus are equal and PQRS are mid-
points)
∠DSR = ∠DRS = ∠CRQ = ∠CQR = ∠BQP = ∠BPQ = ∠APS = ∠ASP
So, ∆DSR ≅ ∆CRQ ≅ ∆BQP ≅ ∆APS
So, ∠SDR = ∠RCQ = ∠QBP = ∠PAS = 90°
Hence, ∠DSR + ∠DRS = 90°
Or, ∠DSR = ∠DRS = ∠CRQ = ∠CQR = ∠BQP = ∠BPQ = ∠APS = ∠ASP = 45°
As, ∠ASP + ∠PSR + ∠DSR = 180°
⇒ ∠PSR = 180° − (45° + 45°) = 90°
Similarly ∠S = ∠R = ∠Q = ∠P = 90°
Hence, PQRS is a rectangle.

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3. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC, BD is a diagonal and E is the mid-point of


AD. A line is drawn through E parallel to AB intersecting BC at F. Show that F is the
mid-point of BC.

D C

E G F

A B

Answer: In ∆ADB
DG=GB
A parallel line to the base originating from mid point of second side will intersect at
the midpoint of the third side.
AB||DC
AB||EF
So, EF||DC
So, In ∆ABD
EG||AB
E is the mid point of AD
So, G is the mid point of DB
Now, in ∆DCB
GF||DC
G is the mid point of BD
So, F will be mid point of BC ( Mid point theorem)

4. In a parallelogram ABCD, E and F are the mid-points of sides AB and CD respect-


ively. Show that the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.

Answer: In ∆ADE & ∆CBF


AD=BC (Opposite sides are equal in parallelogram)
BF=DE (Half of opposite sides of parallelogram)
∠ADE = ∠CBF (Opposite angles are equal)
So, ∆ADE ≅ ∆CBF
Hence, AE=CF
In quadrilateral AECF
EC||AF & EC=AF
AE=CF
So, AE||CF
So, AECF is a parallelogram.

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D C
E

A F B

In ∆DQC
PE||QC (proved earlier by proving AE||CF)
E is the mid point of DC
So, P is the mid point of DQ
So, DP=PQ

∆APB
FQ||AP
F is the mid point of AB
So, PQ=QB
So, DP=PQ=QB proved

5. Show that the line segments joining the mid-points of the opposite sides of a
quadrilateral bisect each other.

Answer: ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R, & S are mid points of AB, BC, CD
& AD
In ∆ACD
SR is touching mid points of CD and AD
So, SR||AC
Similarly following can be proved
PQ||AC
QR||BD
PS||BD
So, PQRS is a parallelogram.
PR and QS are diagonals of the parallelogram PQRS, so they will bisect each other.

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D
R

C
S

A
P B

6. ABC is a triangle right angled at C. A line through the mid-point M of hypotenuse


AB and parallel to BC intersects AC at D. Show that
(i) D is the mid-point of AC (ii) MD ⊥ AC
1
(iii) CM = MA = AB
2

C A
D

Answer: DM||BC
M is the mid point of AB

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So, D is the mid point of AC (Mid point theorem)


∠ACD = ∠MDA = 90° (alternate angle to transversal MD)
Now in ∆CDM & ∆ADM
CD=AD
MD=MD
∠MDC = ∠MDA
So, ∆CDM ≅ ∆ADM (SAS Theorem)
So, MC=MA
1
MA= AB
2
1
So, MC=MA= AB
2

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