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SACSS - Sec 3E Science (Physics)

Dynamics (Forces)
Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body (b) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body (c) identify forces acting on an object and draw free body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (in at most 2 dimensions) (d) recall and apply the relationship resultant force = mass x acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems (e) explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body (f) add two vectors to determine the resultant by a graphical method

What is a force

What is the !" unit of force ###############

What can a force do?

Free Body Force Diagrams


A free body force diagram shows only the forces acting on a single body. Types of forces Weight What is it? How to draw it Example

$ravitational force acting on a body%

&ertically downwards from the C$ of the body%

'ormal contact force

( force acting perpendicular to 2 surfaces in contact with each other%

)erpendicular to the surface* towards the side of the body%

+riction

( force that opposes the motion or the tendency of motion of a body

,etween the two surfaces* in opposite direction from the motion (or tendency of motion)%

(ir resistance

( force exerted by air on a body to slow down its motion%

-pposite to the direction of motion of the body%

.pthrust

( force that pushes a body upwards in a fluid%

&ertically upwards (for a fully submerged body%)

/ension

( pulling force exerted by a

(long the string and away from the 2

string* spring* chain etc%

object%

Can you draw a free body diagram of the following Forces acting on a body ( force of 20 ' is pushing a box to the right while a force of 1 ' is pulling it to the left% Free Body Diagram

( pendulum bob weighing 2 ' hanging from a string

Forces acting on a body ( car moving with an engine force of 1000 ' experiencing a frictional force of 300 '%

Free Body Diagram

( 3 ' ball falling freely on earth and experiencing an air resistance of 2 '%

Resultant Force (FR) / Net Force


What is resultant force? 4esultant force is the force that acts on an object as a result of 2 or more forces acting on the object% 56 What is the magnitude and direction of the resultant force acting on the objects below 20' 30 ' 23 ' (c) 63' 3

(a)

(b) 60 ' 8'

7'

(d) 3' Fig 1

2' 8'

When there is no resultant force acting on an object (F R = 0), we say that the forces acting on the object is

When there is a resultant force acting on an object, we say that the object has forces acting on it

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"#n object that has no resultant force acting on it $eans that there is no force acting on it " %o you agree with the sentence& '()lain your answer

*ewton+s First ,aw of $otion states that when there is no resultant force acting on an object, the object will continue in its state of or

*ewton+s -econ. ,aw of $otion states that the resultant force acting on an object is the )ro.uct of the object+s an. an. the .irection of the resultant force is the sa$e as the object+s acceleration

Summarising Newton s First and Second !aw" When a resultant force acts on an ob#ect$ the ob#ect will %%%%%%%% and mo&e in the direction of the resultant force' /he acceleration is related to the resultant force by the formula: F ( ma FR ( ma += m= a=

When there is no resultant force acting on an ob#ect$ the ob#ect will either be stationary or mo&e with a constant &elocity' 4esultant force = 0 ma = 0 since m cannot be 0a = 0 the object will either move with a constant velocity or is at rest

52: 60 ' of force is applied to an object with a mass of 2 9g and it starts to move along a smooth floor% :escribe the motion of the object ;ualitatively and ;uantitatively%

52: What is the resultant force acting on a 300 g object accelerating at 3m<s2

58: :etermine the acceleration and the direction of motion of the box below%
/* 22g

10 *

53: (n object experienced a resultant force of 20 ' and starts to accelerate from rest at 0%7 m<s 2% (a) What is the mass of the box (b) What is the velocity of the box 60 s later

57: ( balloon with a mass of 60 g is rising with a constant velocity of 0%2m<s% What is the resultant force acting on it

Friction

4ow to re.uce it&

is a 2in. of is $easure. in What .oes it .o&

Friction
What it cannot .o&

Which .irection .oes it act&

5=: 20 ' of force is used to push a 8 9g object% /he frictional force between the floor and the object is 3'% (i) What is the net force acting on the object (ii) What is the acceleration of the object (iii) What force must be applied to push the box so that it accelerates at 0%8 m<s2

51: ( 3' hori>ontal force applied continuously is sufficient to move a 2 9g object along a rough surface at a uniform velocity of 2 m<s% (i) What is the magnitude of the frictional force (ii) "f the hori>ontal force is increased to 67 '* what is the acceleration produced

5?: ( hori>ontal force of 30 ' is applied to a 1 9g mass and it


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accelerates at 2 m<s2% What is the frictional force acting on the object

)ector *ddition What is 30 g @ 80 g /he answer can be obtained simply by adding 80 g and 30 g to get ?0 g because mass is a scalar% Aowever* the addition of 2 forces cannot be done by simply adding them up% B%g% 80 ' @ 30 ' may not be 660 '% /his is because forces are vectors and both the magnitude and direction of the vector has to be considered% +ow to add &ectors? &ectors are represented by arrows% /he length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector% (B%g% /he arrow representing 60 ' will be twice as long as an arrow representing 3 '%) /he angle in which the arrow is pointing represents the direction of the vector% (,) *dding &ectors that are in the same or o--osite direction /o add two vectors that are acting in the same direction* add the magnitudes of both vectors% /he direction of the resultant vector is the same as that of the two vectors% B%g%
/* 10 *

/o add two vectors are that acting in opposite directions* find the
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difference in their magnitudes% /he direction of the resultant vector is the direction of the vector with a bigger magnitude% B%g%
/* 10 *

(.) *dding &ectors when they are acting at an angle (other than 610o) (a) /riangle Cethod

(b) )arallelogram Cethod

1 What is the resultant force for the following set of forces&


F1 F2 F2 F1

F1 F1 F2

F2

2% Which diagram shows the resultant force of 8 ' and 2 ' vectors
(A)
0* 3N

(C)
0* 3N

(B)

/* 0* 3N /*

(D)

/* 0* 3N /*

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2% Which diagram shows the direction of vectors D and E and their resultant F
(A)
7 Y

(C)

(B)

(D)

8% ( parachute was dropped from a height% (fter a while its vertical velocity becomes constant at 60 m<s% Wind is blowing at the parachute hori>ontally at 20 m<s% :etermine the resultant velocity of the parachute%
20 $9s

10 $9s

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8% /he diagram shows two of the forces (the 100 ' and 300 ' forces) acting on a large stone which is being raised by a man using a lever%
500 * (force .ue to le:er) 30

500 N (weight of stone)

,y means of a scale diagram* determine the resultant force* F* of the two forces%

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