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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Ansoft Corporation
1.20

XY Plot 2

PMSM_CT
Curve Inf o
Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns'

1.00

0.80

0.60 Bradial 0.40 0.20 0.00 -0.20

0.00

0.20

0.40 Norm alizedDis tance

0.60

0.80

1.00

Ansoft Corporation

Cogging Torque

PMSM_CT_Verify
Ansoft Corporation

3.00
Ansoft Corporation
150.00

Core Loss

PMSM_OC_EMF

XY Plot 2

PMSM_OC_EMF

Curve Info

1.20

2.2271

Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient Moving1.Torque Imported Nominal Design

2.00
100.00

1.00

Curve Info CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient

Y1 [NewtonMeter]

1.00
0.5877

0.80 CoreLoss [kW]


0.4354

50.00

0.00

0.1402

0.60

Y1 [V]

0.00

Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient

-1.00

0.40

-50.00

InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient

-2.00
0.20

-100.00

-3.00 0.00
-150.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 Time [ms ] 6.00 8.00 10.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00 Time [s]

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

MX1: 0.6379

0.00 0.00

2.00

4.00

MX2: 5.4031

Time [ms]

6.00

8.00

10.00

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine: Contents

RMxprt
Basic Theory Review Example Add Unique Winding Arrangement Setup Parametric Problem Export Design to Maxwell 2D

Maxwell: Open Circuit Back EMF


Define Material Core Loss Characteristics Set Lamination and Stack Factor Consider Power Loss in Magnets Solve Problem and Review Results

Maxwell: Cogging Torque


Review Maxwell Setup Create Variables Apply Mesh Operations Solve Nominal Problem Setup Optimization Problem Review Pre-Solved Optimization Results

Maxwell: Rated Condition Functional Voltage Source


Modify Rotor Geometry using UDPs Winding Setup Definitions and Variable Definition Choosing Optimal Time Step Solve Problem and Review Results

Drive Design
Create a Machine Model Use the Model in Circuit Simulation

Notes: 1. RMxprt/Maxwell V12 or higher is required 2. Basic knowledge of electric machine is required 3. Basic understanding of Finite Element is required
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Electric Machine Design Suite


A Complete Solution for Modern Electric Machines and Drives Design

Design Requirements
Size/Weight Efficiency Torque Speed Cogging/Ripple Inverter Matching Thermal Stress Manufacturability Cost

Fast Analytical Solution: Narrow the Design Space

Transient Analysis using FEA


Parametric Analysis

Magnetostatic/Eddy Current Analysis using FEA


Parametric Analysis Optimization Parametric Analysis Optimization

Simultaneous Equations: Field Equation: A = J s Circuit Equation: Motion Equation

A V + Hc + v A t
if C duc =0 dt

df

di N f l dA d + R if + L f + uc = us S f a dt dt

m + = Tem + Texternal

IGBT
EMF

D2

IGBT

D3
ECELink

FM_ROT

175

IGBT
IA
A
ROT1

IB

A_PHASE_N1

+ VBC V

ROT2 B_PHASE_N1

IC
A
C_PHASE_N1

EMF

175

IGBT

IGBT
ECE

AM_IGB
ICA:

PP:= ON:= OFF:= THRESH:=4 HYST:=

EQU

theta_elect := PP * ECELink theta := MOD(theta_elect

Phase Curre
1.00 500.0 0 -500.0 -1.00 0

Torqu IA IB IC
400.0

Phase Voltag
To
300.0 200.0 V_A

Von Mises stress

200.0 0

-200.0 10.00 17.27 t -300.0 0 10.00 17.27 t

10.00m

17.27mt

-100.0 0

Drive System using System Level IGBTs and Analytical Motor Model

Thermal and Stress Analysis

EMSSLink1
EMSSLink1
EMF2
175
R5

R3

R1

MASS_ROTB1
IA
E1
A

EMF2

175

R1

MASS_ROTB1
IA
A

R5

R3

RA

0.023
A_PHASE_N1

ROTB1

RA

0.023
A_PHASE_N1

ROTB1

E1
ROTB2

E5

E3

IB

RB
A

0.023

A_PHASE_N2 B_PHASE_N1

E5

E3

IB

ROTB2

RB
A

0.023

A_PHASE_N2 B_PHASE_N1

+
VBC
V

+
VBC
V

IC
A

RC 0.023

B_PHASE_N2 C_PHASE_N1 C_PHASE_N2

IC
A

RC 0.023

B_PHASE_N2 C_PHASE_N1 C_PHASE_N2

EMF1

175
R2
R6

EMF1

175

R4

VGE4

R2
A

R6

R4

VGE4
V
A

AM_IGBT

ICA:

E2

E6

E4

E2

E6

E4

AM_IGBT

ICA:

ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_6:=ON

theta>90 AND theta<150

ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_2:=ON

theta>150 AND theta<210


ctrl_2:=ON ctrl_3:=ON

theta>210 AND theta<270

ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_6:=ON

theta>90 AND theta<150

ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_2:=ON

theta>150 AND theta<210

ctrl_2:=ON ctrl_3:=ON

theta>210 AND theta<270

ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF

ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF

ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF

ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF

ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF

ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF

ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_6:=OFF

ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF

ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF

ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_6:=OFF
ctrl_5:=ON

ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF

ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF

ctrl_4:=ON

theta>30 AND theta<90

ctrl_6:=ON

theta>330 OR theta<30

ctrl_5:=ON

theta>270 AND theta<330

ctrl_3:=ON ctrl_4:=ON

ctrl_5:=ON

ctrl_4:=ON
theta>330 OR theta<30

Drive System Integration with Manufacturers IGBTs


Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Equivalent Circuit Model : High Fidelity Physics Based Model

theta>30 AND theta<90

ctrl_6:=ON

ctrl_5:=ON

theta>270 AND theta<330

ctrl_3:=ON ctrl_4:=ON

Complete Transient FEA -Transient System Co-simulation


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RMxprt: Background ASSM: Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Machine


Rotor speed is controlled by adjusting the frequency of the input voltage Unlike brushless PMDC motors, ASSM does not utilize the position sensors. Rotor can be either inner or outer type Can operate as a generator or as a motor
Motor Mode:
Sinusoidal AC source DC source via a DC to AC inverter

Generator Mode:
Supplies an AC source for electric loads

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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ASSM: Background Input voltage U is the reference phasor, let the angle I lags U be , the power factor angle

I = I
Let the angle I lags E0 be . The d- and the q-axis currents can be obtained respectively as follows:

Id sin I = = I I cos q

= tan

Id Iq

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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ASSM: Background

OM can be used to determine the direction of E0


OM = U I ( R1 + jX 1 + jX aq )
Let the angle E0 lags U be , which is called the torque angle for the motor, then the angle is = For a given torque angle :
Xd R 1 R1 I d U cos E0 I = Xq U sin q

Solving for Id and Iq yields:


Id 1 I = 2 q R1 + X d X q X q (U cos E0 ) + R1U sin R (U cos E ) X U sin 0 d 1

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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ASSM: Background The power factor angle is

= +

The Input electric power is

P UI cos 1 =3

The Output mechanical power is

P2 = P 1 ( Pfw + P Cua + P Fe )

Pfw : Frictional and Wind Loss PCua: Armature Copper Loss PFe : Iron-core Loss

Torque:

T2 =
Efficiency:
=

P2

P2 100% P1

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Base Project Open the RMxprt project located on your desktop by double clicking on

PM_SyncMotor.mxwl

Save the project under a new name:


File > Save As > c:\Training\PM_SyncMotor.mxwl

Select Setup1 under Analysis and click the Right Mouse Button (RMB) and Choose Analyze

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Results Select Setup1, click the RMB and choose Performance

Choose a Solution Set

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Results Select Setup1, click the RMB and choose Performance

Choose a Performance Curve

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement Double click on Stator > Winding Click on Whole-Coiled Select Editor

1 2

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement In the Winding Editor Panel, click the RMB and select Edit Layout

Deselect Constant Pitch Change the Layout as shown

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement View the new winding arrangement by placing the mouse over one of the A phase coils in the drawing window and click the RMB selecting

Connect One Phase Coils.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Performance Solve the problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis and click the Right Mouse Button (RMB) and Choose Analyze Select Setup1, click the RMB and choose Performance

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Add Variables Click on Winding and in the Properties window, next to Conductors Per Slot type in CPS

1 2
Click on Stator and in the Properties window, next to Length type in

Depth

1 2

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Add Variables Click on Rotor and in the Properties window, next to Length type in

Depth

Select menu item RMxprt > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametrics

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Parametric Setup Click on Add and setup the two variables as follows:

1
Current > RMSLineCurrentParameter Power > OutputPowerParameter Misc. > EfficiencyParameter

Click on the Calculations Tab > Setup Calculations and add the following

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Parametric Solution Select ParametricSetup1 under Optimetrics, click the RMB and Analyze

Select ParametricsSetup1, click RMB and select View Analysis Results Select Table and then click on Efficiency Parameter

Efficiency increased from 89% to over 98% while maintaining output power
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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RMxprt: Create Maxwell Design Select Setup1, click the RMB and select Create Maxwell Design

4 1

2 deselect Choose 3

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Base Design

Motion Boundaries Winding Mesh

Material Assignment

Soln. Setup Results

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Excitation Select the PhaseA winding, click the RMB and select Properties Change the Type to Current with a value of zero

Repeat this for PhaseB and PhaseC

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops Select Length_Magnet under Mesh Operations, click the RMB and select Properties

Decrease the size of the element by half. Just type in 3.75/2

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops. Select Length_Main under Mesh Operations, RMB and select Properties

Decrease the size of the element by 4. Just type in 10.96/4

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops. Select SurfApprox_Mag under Mesh Operations, RMB and select

Properties

Decrease the length of the Maximum Surface Deviation to 190 nm. This yields an angular segmentation of = 0.25 deg.

D = r (1 cos( / 2))
r is the inside radius of the stator which is 81mm

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops. Select SurfApprox_Main under Mesh Operations, RMB and select

Properties

Decrease the length of the Maximum Surface Deviation to 190 nm

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops.

Three possible operations:


D

D = Maximum Surface Deviation D = r (1 cos( / 2))

= Maximum Surface Normal Deviation

ri

ro
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

2 * ri 2 = ShapeFactor (2 D ) ro 1 3 * ri = SF (3D) AR=2 ro 1 Aspect Ratio of Cells, AspectRatio = SF not of triangles


P1-26

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mesh Ops. Select Band in the modeler tree, RMB and select Properties

Decrease the SegAngle value to 0.25 degrees

NOTE!: This small value for angular segmentation, 0.25deg, is needed only for very sensitive calculations such as Cogging Torque
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-27

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Mechanical Setup Select Motion Setup1 under Model, RMB to select Properties Select Mechanical Tab and change speed to 1 deg/sec

Select Setup1 under Analysis and RMB to select Properties

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Solution Setup Change to Save Fields tab

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Results Solve the cogging torque problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis, RMB and select Analyze: Once the problem is solved double click on

Results > Torque


Ansoft Corporation
3.00

Torque

Maxwell2DDesign1

Curve Info Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient

2.00

1.00 Moving1.Torque [NewtonMeter]

Click the RMB in the plot and select Export Data. Save the plot on the desktop. Since the speed is held constant at 1.0 deg/sec, the X-Axis represents both time and position, i.e. 10 sec = 10 deg
P1-30

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00 0.00 5.00 Time [s] 10.00 15.00

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Results Select menu item View > Set Solution Context, and choose zero seconds.

In the drawing window hit CTRL+A to select all objects, RMB to select Fields > A >

Flux_Lines

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Results

Double Click on Legend to change plot properties

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Results Select Flux_Lines1 under A under Field Overlays, RMB to select

Animate

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-33

Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Rename Design Rename Maxwell2DDesign1 by selecting its name in the project tree, RMB and select Rename. Change the name to PMSM_CT for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Cogging Torque.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-34

Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque, Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Mag_0 under NdFe30_N and choose Properties

2
In the Value field type in the name PoleEmbrace

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Change the field for the ThickMag to MagnetThickness and accept the default value of 7.5mm

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-36

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Change the field for the Offset to PoleOffset and accept the default value of 0mm.

1
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under InnerRegion under Vacuum and choose Properties

2
In the Value field type in the names: PoleEmbrace MagnetThickness PoleOffset

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-38

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor under M19_26G_SF0.950 and choose Properties

1 2
In the Value field type in the names: PoleEmbrace MagnetThickness PoleOffset

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Select menu item Maxwell 2D > Design Properties and change the value of the variables just defined:

Select the Optimization radio button and Include each variable:

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque, Optimization Variables Modify the variable to see the effect on the geometry

For this exercise, the range for each is: 6.5 mm < MagnetThickness < 9.5 mm 0.6 < PoleEmbrace < 0.9 0 < PoleOffset < 30 mm

PE

MT

Pole Offset
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Air Gap Arc Create an arc in the air gap to be used for post processing purposes, by selecting menu item Draw > Arc > Center Point

Using the mouse select the origin, any point in the air gap along the X axis and any point in the air gap at the 45 degree angle. Any value used if valid, it will be modified in the next step.
Double 3 click to end

1 2
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-42

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Air Gap Arc Select CreateAngularArc under CreatePolyline under Polyline1 under Lines, RMB and select Properties

Change the value for the starting point to 80.8, 0, 0. This will place the arc between the band object and the stator ID

Select Polyline1. In the Properties window change its name to AG_Arc


Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-43

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Select menu item Maxwell 2D > Field > Calculator Perform the following commands to calculate the radial component of the flux density in the air gap
Quantity > B Scal? > Scalar X Function > PHI Trig > cos Multiply * Quantity > B Scal? > Scalar Y Function > PHI Trig > sin Multiply * Add + -- this gives Bx*cos(PHI) + By*sin(PHI) Add > Name: Bradial -- this adds the express to the stack

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-44

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Continue to calculate the average radial component of the air gap flux density
Select Bradial under Named Expressions Copy to Stack Geometry > Line > AG_Arc Integrate Number > Scalar > Value = 1 Geometry > Line > AG_Arc Integrate Divide / -- this give the average radial flux density in the air gap Add > Name: Brad_Avg -- this adds this expression to the stack

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-45

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Continue to calculate the area of the permanent magnet
Number > Scalar > Value = 1 Geometry > Surface > Mag_0 Integrate Number > Scalar > Value = 1e6 -- this converts from m2 to mm2 Multiply * Add > Mag_Area -- this adds this expression to the stack

Select the Maxwell 2D Design PMSM_CT and in the Properties window change the variables back to their default values

Even though the design variables and thus the geometry has changed, once the design variables are set to their previous values, the solution is automatically reloaded; there is no need to solve the problem again.
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-46

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Plot the radial flux density in the air gap by selecting Results, RMB to select Create Field Report > Rectangular Plot

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Brad AG Plot B_rad on the AG_Arc

5 1 2 3 6 10 7 8 9 4

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-48

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Brad AG Plot of B radial in air gap at time zero
Ansoft Corporation
1.20

XY Plot 2

PMSM_CT
Curve Inf o
Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns'

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

Click the RMB in the plot window and select Export Data. Save the plot on the desktop.

Bradial
0.00 -0.20

0.00

0.20

0.40 Norm alizedDis tance

0.60

0.80

1.00

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-49

Optimization: Solution Setup Change the Stop Time of the Simulation from 15 seconds to 3.75 sec. The cogging torque waveform is symmetric after 3.75 deg (equal to 3.75 sec) and to save simulation time we only need to solve up to this point. Select Setup1 under Analysis and RMB to select Properties

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-50

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Select Optimetrics and RMB to select Add > Optimization

Next to Optimizer select Genetic Algorithm

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-51

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Click on Setup

Change the values as shown here

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-52

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Cogging Torque Peak Nominal Value* = 2.2 N-m
Maximum Value** = 5.5 N-m Optimal Goal = 0.2 N-m (subjectively chosen, we want to reduce CT by >10x) Normalize Solution Range: 1 to 10
G1 = 1 + (max(abs(Torque)) 0.2) * 9 / 5.3 Objective: G1 = 1.0
*Note:

The Peak Nominal Value is when:


MagnetThickness = 7.5 mm PoleEmbrace = 0.85 PoleOffset = 0 mm

**Note:

The Maximum Value is determined when these values are a Maximum:


MagnetThickness = 9.5 mm PoleEmbrace = 0.90 PoleOffset = 0 mm

The maximum value of cogging torque may lay outside these parameter values, i.e somewhere else in the solution domain. These values are used just to define a range for the objective.
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-53

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Nominal Bavg Value = 0.76 Tesla
Range*: 0.50 < Bavg < 0.81 Tesla Optimal Goal = 0.76 Tesla (we want to maintain the Air Gap Flux Density) Normalize Range: 1 to 10
G2 = 1 + (Brad_Avg 0.5) * 9 / 0.31 Objective: G2 = 8.55

Magnet Area
Range*: 220 < Mag_area < 510 mm2 Normalize Range: 1 to 10
G3 = 1 + (Mag_area 220) * 9 / 290 Objective: G3 = 1.0

*Note:

The Range was calculated by simulation the minimum and maximum values:
MagnetThickness 6.5 mm and 9.5 mm PoleEmbrace 0.6 and 0.9 PoleOffset .. 0 mm and 30 mm

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup In the Calculation Expression field type in the function as shown below

3 4

5
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-55

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Include Calculation for the average radial component of the flux density in the air gap

1 3

Type in the rest of the expression and then click on Add Calculation

5
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-56

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Include calculation for Magnet Area

Type in the rest of the expression and then click on Add Calculation

4
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup For the calculation expressions for Brad_Avg and Mag_Area click on Calc. Range and select 0ns for time zero

3 2
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup

Set the Goal and Weigh for each objective

Cost1 = (G1 0.2)2 * W1 Cost2 = (G2 0.75)2 * W2 Cost3 = (G3 230)2 * W3 Cost = Cost1+Cost2+Cost3

where G1 = max(abs(Torque)) where G2 = abs(AirGap_Bavg) where G3 = Mag_area

Note: The Cogging Torque and Air Gap Flux Density have equal weight, which is twice that of the magnet area
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-59

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Click on the Variables tab and change the values accordingly:

This problem takes too long to solve during the class. The full solution can be downloaded from Ansofts FTP site:
ftp://ftp.ansoft.com/download/ChinaTraining/PM_SyncMotor_Opt.zip

To solve the problem, select OptimizationSetup1 under Optimetrics, RMB and select Analyze

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-60

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Results

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-61

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Since the field solution was not saved for each variation in the optimization solution, create a second Maxwell 2D design and solve the problem with the optimized design variable values. Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_CT, RMB and select Copy

Select the project name PM_SyncMotor, RMB and select Paste

Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_CT1, RMB and select Rename, and change the design name to PMSM_CT_Verify

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-62

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Select the design PMSM_CT_Verify and in the Properties window change the design variables to the Optimized value

Increase the Stop Time to 7.5 sec and then solve the design:

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

P1-63

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Plot the Cogging Torque
Ansoft Corporation

Cogging Torque

PMSM_CT_Verify
Curve Info Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient

0.50 0.40 0.30 Optimized Design [NewtonMeter] 0.20 0.10 0.00

-0.10 -0.20 -0.30 -0.40 -0.50 0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00 Time [s]

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00
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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify In the plot window RMB to select Import Data and pick the cogging torque plot that was exported earlier.
Ansoft Corporation

Cogging Torque

PMSM_CT_Verify

3.00
Curve Info

2.2271

Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient Moving1.Torque Imported Nominal Design

2.00

Y1 [NewtonMeter]

1.00
0.5877 0.4354

In plot window, RMB and select Marker > Add X Marker Optimized Design Nominal Design

0.00

0.1402

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00 0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00 Time [s]

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

MX1: 0.6379

MX2: 5.4031

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Plot the air gap flux density
Ansoft Corporation

Air Gap Flux Density

PMSM_CT_Verify

1.20

Curve Info Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns'

1.00

0.80

Bradial

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20 0.00

0.20

0.40 0.60 NormalizedDistance

0.80

1.00
P1-66

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Maxwell 2D: AG Flux Density In the plot window RMB to select Import Data and pick the Air Gap flux density plot that was exported earlier.
Ansoft Corporation

Air Gap Flux Density

PMSM_CT_Verify

1.20

Curve Info Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns'

1.00

Bradial Imported Nominal Design

0.80

Bradial

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20 0.00

0.20

0.40 0.60 NormalizedDistance

0.80

1.00
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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Maxwell 2D: AG Flux Density Determine the average air gap flux density.

1 2 3 The target optimized value is 0.76T 4

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Maxwell 2D: Magnet Area Determine the magnet area.

The area of the magnet for the nominal design was 383 mm2

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF Select the design PMSM_CT_Verify, RMB and select Copy

Select the project PM_SyncMotor, RMB and select Paste

Select the new design PMSM_CT_Verify1, RMB and select Rename. Change the name to PMSM_OC_EMF

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF Select MotionSetup1 under Model, RMB to select Properties

Select the Mechanical tab and change the speed to 3600 rpm

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Setup

Calculate the core loss coefficients from multiple core loss curves

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Setup Select the Stator and in the Properties widow click on the material M19_26G_SF0.950 and then select View/Edit Material

1 2 3
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Setup Add the core loss curve for 60Hz

Choose the file 4 M470-65A-60Hz.tab

5
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Setup Add the core loss curve for 100Hz

Choose the file 4 M470-65A-100Hz.tab

5
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Setup Continue to add the following curves:
M470-65A-200Hz.tab M470-65A-600Hz.tab M470-65A-400Hz.tab M470-65A-700Hz.tab M470-65A-1kHz.tab

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Magnet Loss Select Mag_0 and in the Properties next to Materials click on NdFe30_N and then on View/Edit Materials.
Change the conductivity to 625000 S/m

Material properties are global quantities, the affect all designs. Thus when modifying materials that are common to various designs, the solutions to the designs become invalid.

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Magnet Loss Select Mag_0, RMB to select Assign Excitation > Current

By assigning zero current to the magnet it is assured that total current into and out of this magnet is zero. If there were more than one magnet, each one should have a separate excitation of zero amps.
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Magnet Loss Select Excitations, RMB to select Set Eddy Effect

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Core Loss Select Excitations, RMB to select Set Core Loss. Add Core Loss for the Rotor and Stator

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Solution Setup Modify the solution setup by selecting Setup1, RMB and select Properties

The time step is determined by:


1 deg 3600rev 360 deg 1 min 21600 deg * * = = sec 46.3u sec min rev 60 sec

1
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

The frequency is 240 Hz, which gives a period of 4.2 msec. Thus 10 msec is ~2.5 cycles
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Results Solve the transient problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis, RMB to select Analyze After the problem is solved, click on Results, RMB to select Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot

1 3
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

2
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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Results


Ansoft Corporation
150.00

XY Plot 2

PMSM_OC_EMF

100.00

50.00

Y1 [V]

0.00

Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient

-50.00

InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient

-100.00

-150.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 Time [ms] 6.00 8.00 10.00

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Results Click on Results, RMB to select Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot

1 2 3

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Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF, Results


Ansoft Corporation

Core Loss

PMSM_OC_EMF

1.20

1.00

Curve Info CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient

0.80 CoreLoss [kW]

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00 0.00

2.00

4.00

Time [ms]

6.00

8.00

10.00
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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition To solve the problem for the rated condition, select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_OC_EMF, RMB and select Copy Select the project name PM_SyncMotor, RMB and select Paste Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_OC_EMF1, RMB and select Rename, and change the design name to PMSM_Rated

Delete the Mag_0, Rotor, and InnerRegion

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Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select menu item Draw > User Defined Primitive > SysLib > RMxrpt > IPMCore. Modify the Values as shown below.

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Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select the object IPMCore1 and then Edit > Arrange > Rotate

Select Modeler > Boolean > Split

Select Edit > Arrange > Rotate and use -45 degrees about the Z axis Select Modeler > Boolean > Split in the XZ Plane Keeping Fragments on

the Negative Side Select Edit > Arrange > Rotate and use +45 degrees about the Z axis
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Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select IPMCore1 and in the Properties window
Name: Rotor Material: M19_26G_SF0.950

Select Rotor, RMB to select Edit > Copy In the drawing window, RMB to select Edit > Paste Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor1, RMB to select Properties
Change InfoCore to 1

Select Rotor1 and then Maxwell Model > Boolean > Separate Bodies. This will create two magnets. Change the name of the magnets to Mag_0 and Mag_1 and change their color.

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Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select Rotor, RMB to select Edit > Copy In the drawing window, RMB to select Edit > Paste Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor1, RMB to select Properties
Change InfoCore to 2

Select Rotor1 and in the Properties window


Name: Duct Material: Vacuum

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup Select Mag_0 and in the Properties window click on the material M19_26G_SF0.950 and select NdFe30 and then Clone Material(s)

2 1

3
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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup Change the name to NdFe30_NV for North Pole V Core

Cartesian CS with the pole aligned with the X axis

Repeat the same for Mag_1

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup The drawing tree should look like this

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup A local coordinate system needs to be create for each magnet. Zoom into Mag_0. Select the Create Relative CS Icon

4
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

A local CS is create with X and Y axis as shown. Magnetization will be along the X axis
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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup Zoom into Mag_1. Select the Create Relative CS Icon

3 2

4
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

A local CS is create with X and Y axis as shown. Magnetization will be along the X axis
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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Setup Select Mag_0 and in the Properties Window change Orientation to

RelateiveCS1

Select Mag_1 and in the Properties Window change Orientation to

RelateiveCS2

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Mesh Ops. Select Mag_0 and Mag_1, RMB to assign mesh operations

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select Rotor, Mag_0, Mag_1, and Duct. Select Moving1 under Motion, RMB to select Add Selected Object

Select PhaseA under Excitations, RMB to select Properties

163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180)

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select PhaseB and then PhaseC under Excitations, RMB to select

Properties.

VB = 163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180-2*pi/3) VC = 163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180-4*pi/3)

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select Excitation, RMB to select Setup Y Connection

1 2 3

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Solution Setup Select MotionSetup1 under Model, RMB to select Properties and then Data to change the Initial Position, and then Mechanical to set the speed

Select Setup1 under Analysis, RMB and select Properties

This problem takes too long to solve during the class. The full solution can be downloaded from Ansofts FTP site:
ftp://ftp.ansoft.com/download/ChinaTraining/PM_SyncMotor_Rated.zip
Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Results


Ansoft Corporation
3000.00

Winding Currents

PMSM_Rated

Ansoft Corporation
600.00

Torque Quick Report

PMSM_Rated
Curve Info Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient

2000.00
Curve Info Current(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient

500.00

1000.00

400.00

Moving1.Torque [NewtonMeter]
0.00 50.00 Time [ms] 100.00

0.00 Y1 [A]

300.00

-1000.00

200.00

-2000.00

100.00

-3000.00

0.00

-4000.00

-100.00 0.00 50.00 Time [ms] 100.00

Ansoft Corporation
1.90

Core Loss

PMSM_Rated
Curve Info
CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient

1.80

1.70

1.60

CoreLoss [kW]
1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20

85.00

87.50

90.00

92.50 Time [ms]

95.00

97.50

100.00

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Simplorer: Drive Design


1. Create Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Model from RMxprt: Double click on the original RMxprt design, click on menu RMxprt > Analysis Setup > Export , choose Simplorer Model from the list and select a path where you want the model to be saved.

2. View the text of the model: Run Simplorer V7.0.5, in SSC 7.0 Commander window, click on Programs > Editor, open the model file we just created from RMxprt (*.sml).

Note: The model is not simply a linear model you can


typically find from a textbook any more. It has nonlinear effect considered for both main and leakage flux magnetic paths. This model can also be used as both motor and generator.
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Simplorer: Drive Design


3. Use the RMxprt created model in Simplorer as a generator: Open a new Simplorer Schematic, click on the Add Ons tab of the ModelAgent, click on interfaces, drag and drop RMxprt component on the schematic. Double click on the RMxprtLink1 and then click on Import Model (*.sml), browse to the location where the model was saved. Select the model > Open > OK, you should have the model show up like the following graph, with electrical nodes on the left and mechanical nodes on the right.

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Simplorer: Drive Design


4. Build the rest of the schematic like below. Details of each component are shown on the next page.
B6U1

B6U

+
V

VM1 VALUE := 1000*(1+(t>0.02))


C B A ROT2
RMXROT1

C := 1u R_Load R := 1k C1

D5

D3

D1

D6

D4

D2

RMxprtLink1

V_ROT1

DC Link Voltage 92.00 84.00 50.00

Back EMF (A-B

50.00

R_Load.V [V]

VM1.V [V]

-50.00 0 0 20.00m Rotor Position (Deg -3.55f -100.00 RMxprtLink1.Pos 1.00k V_ROT1.OMEGA [rpm] -300.00 -362.00 0 20.00m 40.00m 0 0 20.00m 40.00m 2.00k 40.00m -94.00 0 20.00m 40.00m

Input Speed from Shaft

-200.00

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Simplorer: Drive Design


5. ModelAgent > Add Ons tab > power > Line-commutated Converters > B6 Diode Bridge

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Simplorer: Drive Design


6. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Measurement > Electrical > Voltmeter 7. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Circuit > Passive Elements > Resistor and Capacitor

Note: Select the component and right mouse click


to Flip or Rotate the component. Or you can use quick shortcut F for Flip and R for Rotate.

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Simplorer: Drive Design


8. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Physical Domains > Mechanical > Velocity-Force-Representation > Rotational_V > Angular Velocity Source

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Simplorer: Drive Design


9. Click on Simulation > Parameters, or Alt + F12, or just double mouse click on any empty space on the schematic, define simulation parameters as seen from the picture.

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Simplorer: Drive Design


10. ModelAgent > Displays tab > Displays > 2D View Create plots of R_Load.V, VM1.V, RMxprtLink1.Pos, V_ROT1.OMEGA (rpm).

11. Run the simulation and view the results.


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This completes the one day training course on permanent magnet synchronous machines using Ansofts RMxprt, Maxwell 2D and Simplorer

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