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Session No. 13 Course Title: Disaster Response Operations and Management Session Title: Sheltering Time: 50 minutes Ob e!

ti"es: 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 S!ope: During this session! the professor points out why sheltering is necessary after disaster. "e/she identifies what emergency managers and others may e#pect in terms of sheltering behavior. $he session concludes with a description of issues to be considered and the processes related to opening and managing shelters. Session Re#uirements: 1. nstructor %eading& 'merican %ed (ross. 1))*. Shelter Operations Participants Workbook. 'merican +ational %ed (ross! ,alls (hurch! -irginia. '%( 3.*/011'. 1olin! %obert and 2ois 3tanford. 1))1. 43helter! "ousing and %ecovery& ' (omparison of U.3. Disasters.5 Disasters 16 718& 24034. Uncover the necessity for refuge when disaster strikes and the different types of sheltering/housing. Discuss how people behave in regards to the sheltering function. Describe the issues that must be considered when opening shelters. dentify the process of opening and maintaining shelters.

1rown! 3ylvia %.! 'nn 9. :urt;! :ames <. $urley and =li;abeth >ulit;. 1)//. 43heltering and %esponse to =vacuation During "urricane =lana.5 Journal of Emergency Nursing 14 718& 2302*. "ermann! 3tephen 2. 1))4. 43heltering in <lace -ersus =vacuating.5 9-1-1 aga!ine 73eptember/?ctober8& 4/04). "udson! :ames =. 1)//. 43helter0 n0<lace& <rotective 3heltering in a "a;ardous @aterials ncident.5 "a!ar# onthy 12013. "unt! :ames. 1)/). 4(iti;en 3heltering for a 3afe "aven ,rom the "a; @at 3torm.5 $merican %ire Journal 7:une8& 2/04.. @c=ntire! David '. 2..*. 4%esponding with nitial @easures.5 Disaster &esponse an# &eco'ery( Strategies an# )actics for &esilience. +ew Aork& 9iley. @ileti! Dennis 3.! :ohn ". 3orensen and <aul 9. ?B1rien. 1))2. 4$oward an =#planation of @ass (are 3helter Use in =vacuations.5 *nternational Journal of ass Emergencies an# Disasters 1. 718& 26042. Cuarantelli! =.2. 1)/2. 4>eneral and <articular ?bservations on 3heltering and "ousing in 'merican Disasters.5 Disasters * 748& 2DD02/1. Cuarantelli! =.2. 1)/2. Sheltering an# "ousing $fter a+or ,ommunity Disasters( ,ase Stu#ies an# -eneral Obser'ations. ,inal %eport for the ,ederal =mergency @anagement 'gency! 9ashington! D.(. %oth! :im. 1))*. 43torm Eing @ountain $echnology Dedicated to 3heltering ,irefighters.5 $merican %ire Journal 7December8& 12016. 2. 3tudent %eadings& @c=ntire! David '. 2..*. 4%esponding with nitial @easures.5 Disaster &esponse an# &eco'ery( Strategies an# )actics for &esilience. +ew Aork& 9iley. Cuarantelli! =.2. 1))6. 4<atterns of 3heltering and "ousing in U3 Disasters.5 Disaster Pre'ention an# anagement 4 738& 43063. 3. "andouts& $ypes of 3heltering/"ousing -ariables that nfluence 3heltering 1ehavior 3heltering in <lace 3helter <rocesses

Remar$s: 1. 2. 3. t may be wise to review the lessons from the two prior sessions as warning! evacuation and sheltering are not mutually e#clusive phenomena. $he professor might want to start the session by asking the students what happens to all of the people that evacuate before! during or after disaster. $he professor should be cogni;ant that special or vulnerable populations issues are highly relevant to the sheltering function 7Fust as they are to warning and other emergency management tasks8. "owever! the topic of special populations will be addressed at a latter point in the course. t is important to reiterate during this session that those affected by disaster will not be the only ones needing emergency or temporary shelters. =mergency responders! search and rescue teams! state officials! and ,=@' employees may also need a place to stay and rest 7pending the si;e! severity! location and duration of the disaster8. $he professor should be careful to note why sheltering in place may be preferred over evacuation! as well as the factors that influence decisions regarding sheltering in place. 'n e#cellent study regarding sheltering issues is the sending of individuals to the 3uperdome after "urricane Eatrina. $his clearly shows the importance of a safe! well0staffed and supplied shelter. ' guest lecturer with e#perience in sheltering is recommended for this session. 2ocal emergency managers may have e#perience in planning for sheltering or providing this function in an actual disaster. =mployees and volunteers of the 'merican %ed (ross will also have many stories to tell about sheltering as this organi;ation is responsible for mass care under the ,ederal %esponse <lan. ?ther possible agencies include the 3alvation 'rmy or the Department of "ousing and Urban Development. %n!o"er the ne!essit& 'or re'uge (hen disaster stri$es and the di''erent t&pes o' sheltering)housing.

4.

6.

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D.

Ob e!ti"e 13.1 Re#uirements:

*resent the 'ollo(ing in'ormation as a dis!ussion)le!ture. . +s people re!ei"e (arnings and begin to e"a!uate! they will subseGuently be 'a!ed (ith an important de!ision& (here (ill the& go 'or sa'et& and rest,

Sheltering! or the lo!ation or relo!ation o' e"a!uees and others to pla!es o' re'uge! is a function that is 're#uentl& re#uired in man& disasters. '. +s$ the students to re'le!t on the prior session. nvite them to list the types of e"ents that re#uired e"a!uation. $hen re#uest that they dis!uss (h& sheltering is ne!essar& as (ell. %eferring to the following chart may be helpful for this e#ercise& -"ent 1. .otel /ire Need 'or Shelter O!!upants (ill re#uire another pla!e to sta& that is not e0posed to 'ire1 (ater damage 7as firefighters e#tinguish the fire8! or smo$e damage and other dangerous !hemi!als that result from fires. <eople residing in nearby neighborhoods might re#uire re'uge i' the in!ident o!!urs at night or i' the potential 'or asph&0iation or e0plosion is present o"er multiple da&s. <eople will need temporary housing until (aters re!ede and the isolation from floods 7e.g. road closures8 is eliminated. $hose along the coast or in the proFected path will need lodging in a sa'e area until the threat posed by storm surge or high winds has subsided. Tenants and o(ners must leave buildings affected by earthGuakes or other disasters

2.

Transportation a!!ident

3.

/lash 'lood

4.

+pproa!hing hurri!ane

6.

Stru!tural damage

until the& are repaired and habitable. . +s people (ill see$ and need sheltering1 it is important that those in"ol"ed in emergen!& management be a(are that there are di''erent patterns o' sheltering)housing. n a very important study! 2uarantelli 71))68 has identified 'our ideal t&pes 7or e#amples in pure form8 along with their attendant !hara!teristi!s& '. -mergen!& sheltering. 1. 34e use this term to re'er to a!tual or potential disaster "i!tims see$ing #uarters outside o' their o(n permanent homes 'or short periods5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. =#amples include locations such as schools! churches! armories and stadiums that are spontaneously designated as shelters because people congregate in those areas 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. s the 'irst pla!e people go to seek shelterH usually lasts one night only 7until more a more desirable shelter can be located8. 3Does not usuall& raise the #uestion o' (here and ho( the displa!ed disaster "i!tims (ill be 'ed5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468.

2. 3. 1.

Temporar& sheltering. 1. 3This re'ers to beha"ior in"ol"ing more than ust ta$ing shelter else(here during the emergen!& period6 it re'ers to peoples7 temporar& displa!ement into other #uarters1 (ith an e0pe!ted short sta&5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. 3Their temporar& sta&1 (hether in a se!ond home1 'riend7s house1 motel1 or publi! 'a!ilit&1 . . . 8is9 'or more than ust the height o' the emergen!& period5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. :n"ol"es 'eeding and possibl& other 'un!tions on a modi'ied basis ;e.g. !lothing must be ta$en to the <aundromat 'or !leaning6 bathing is allo(ed on a rotating basis or not at all=.

2.

3.

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Temporar& housing. 1. n this case! 3the e"a!uees $no( that the li"ing arrangements e0!eed a mere emergen!& or temporar& basis and e0tend 'or months1 i' not &ears5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468.

2. 3.

3The e"a!uees ma& o!!up& mobile homes1 rented apartments1 tents1 or (hate"er5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. 3. . . the important point is that unli$e temporar& sheltering1 household routines must be established5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. n other words! the new living arrangements allow for some functions such as sleeping! food storage and preparation! dishwashing! waste disposal! bathing! etc.

D.

*ermanent housing. 1. 2. s seen as a long standing solution to the housing problem that was created by the disaster. 3:n"ol"es disaster "i!tims returning either to their repaired or rebuilt original homes or mo"ing into ne( #uarters in the !ommunit&5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 468. s similar to temporary sheltering in that household routines are re>established.

3. .

t should be noted that some people ma& not obtain permanent housing after a disaster. n addition! the popula!e does not enter ea!h t&pe o' shelter or housing at the same time. '. 3Sheltering and .ousing phases a'ter a disaster do not usuall& de"elop in a neat linear 'ashion. :n a gi"en situation1 some disaster "i!tims ma& be entering the permanent housing phase (hile others are still in the emergen!& phase. /urthermore1 in an& gi"en phase there ma& be se"eral mo"es as a household goes 'rom one temporar& housing situation to another5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 6.0618. Dis!uss ho( people beha"e in regards to the sheltering 'un!tion.

Ob e!ti"e 13.? Re#uirements:

*resent the 'ollo(ing as a dis!ussion& . t is !ommonl& belie"ed that massi"e numbers o' people (ill re#uire sheltering. $he reality is that most people (ill not use publi! shelters at all or (ill use them onl& as a last resort. '. 3The ma orit& o' people (ho e"a!uate their homes do not use publi! o"ernight shelters5 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 2D8.

1. 2. 1.

-stimates o' shelter use 'rom "arious studies range 'rom 0@ to o"er A0@ 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 2D8. 3-"en those that go to mass shelters sta& as brie'l& as possible5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8.

3:n t&pi!al disasters in +meri!an so!iet& those (ho ha"e to lea"e an impa!ted area pre'er o"er(helmingl& to sta& (ith 'riends and relati"es although the& (ill1 i' there is no other !hoi!e1 use mass shelters to obtain 'ood5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4/8. Nonetheless1 3 . . . be!ause shelter see$ing is o' a "er& temporar& nature1 disaster "i!tims (ill a!!ept !onditions una!!eptable under other !ir!umstan!es. /or e0ample1 "i!tims (ill be (illing to sta& in publi! or #uasi publi! #uarters 'or a 'e( hours e"en though the& might not (ant to sleep o"ernight5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. "urricane Eatrina is an e0!eption to the limited need for shelters in other disasters. $he nature of the disaster reGuired that hundreds o' thousands be sheltered during and a'ter the e"ent. $his was still only a portion of the population however.

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D.

$here are some beha"ioral patterns that are !ommon to most sheltering operations. '. 3Some lo!ations be!ome identi'ied as shelters simpl& be!ause threatened or impa!ted indi"iduals and households !ongregate at a parti!ular pla!e5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4/8. n other words! some shelters will 3spring up5 automati!all& and (ithout prior intention as people try to find a safe place to rela# and ride out the disaster event.

1.

' noteworthy literature re"ie( and anal&sis by @ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien reveals other e0pe!tations regarding sheltering& 1. 2. 3. Shelter use in !ities (ill be higher than in rural areas 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 3.8. 3helter use is highest 'or hurri!anes 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 3.8. 3helters are more li$el& to be used (hen publi!iBed 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 338.

4.

$he larger the si;e of the disaster! the larger the relative number o' people see$ing shelters 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 338. <eople will be more li$el& to see$ shelter i' the disaster stri$es at night 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 318. Those 'rom lo(er so!io>e!onomi! groups (ill be more li$el& to use shelters 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 328. Older people are more li$el& to use publi! shelters than younger people 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 338.

6. *. D. (.

Mileti1 Sorensen and O7Crien ha"e !lassi'ied these 'a!tors into three general areas with two variables each 71))2! 3*8. 1. Chara!teristi!s o' -mergen!& *reparedness a. b. 2. *rior planning for shelter use and publi!iBing. -''e!ti"eness o' (arning message.

Chara!teristi!s o' the -"ent a. b. Time and duration of the evacuation. Spa!e 7si;e of the evacuated area or proportion of the community that is evacuated8.

3.

Chara!teristi!s o' the -"a!uees a. b. So!io>e!onomi! status of evacuees. +ge of evacuees.

D.

@ileti and his colleagues conclude that not e"er& "ariable has the same degree o' impa!t on shelter use. 1. 3:t (ould appear that onl& !hara!teristi!s o' e"a!uees determine o"ernight shelter use rates5 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 3)8. 3pecifically& a. 3:t (ould appear that people (ho la!$ 'inan!ial resour!es and the aged are the ones most li$el& to see$

shelter in a publi! e"a!uation !enter5 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 3)8. b. 3:t ma& (ell be that (hen an e"a!uating population is !omprised o' persons that disproportionatel& o"er> represent the old and the less a''luent that shelter use rates !an be e0pe!ted to rise be&ond the mean shelter use rate o' 13 per!ent o' e"a!uees5 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 4.8.

Ob e!ti"e 13.3 Re#uirements:

Des!ribe the issues that must be !onsidered (hen opening shelters.

*resent the 'ollo(ing as a le!ture& . $here are a number o' !riti!al issues to !onsider regarding the sheltering function& '. t is necessary to remember that sheltering in pla!e ma& be more ad"antageous than an e"a!uation to another area or shelter. 1. 2. 4-"a!uations are labor intensi"e and time !onsuming5 7"unt 1)/)! 2/8. 44hen !on'ronted (ith a large1 dangerous airborne haBardous materials release1 the most !ommon rea!tion o' 'irst responders is to e"a!uate the a''e!ted population. .o(e"er1 in !ertain situations1 this ma& not be the (isest !ourse o' a!tion5 7"unt 1)/)! 2/8. a. b. 4 . . . e"a!uation itsel' entails signi'i!ant ris$ to the people being e"a!uated5 7"udson 1)//! 128. 4*rote!ti"e sheltering as a prelude to e"a!uation1 or in pla!e o' e"a!uation1 (ill limit the e0posure o' !itiBens to the haBardous material in"ol"ed1 (ill eliminate or redu!e the haBards o' e"a!uation1 (ill allo( emergen!& a!!ess to spe!ial !are !ases in the area and (ill redu!e the high !osts o' e"a!uation to !itiBens1 go"ernment and industr&5 7"udson 1)//! 128.

3.

Sheltering in pla!e utiliBes 3"arious stru!tures to prote!t their o!!upants 'rom a to0i! en"ironment5 7"unt 1)/)! 2/8.

a.

4*rote!ti"e sheltering assumes that the people in"ol"ed (ill mo"e to the most prote!ted area or areas in the building or group o' buildings1 the& (ill listen to the -mergen!& Croad!ast S&stem and (ill prepare to e"a!uate i' ne!essar&5 7"udson 1)//! 138.

4.

4Stru!tures ma& be a sa'e ha"en 'or a gi"en period o' time i' the& !an be $ept tightl&>!losed enough to $eep interior !on!entrations belo( to0i! le"els5 7"unt 1)/)! 2)8. a. "owever! 4some haBardous materials are hea"ier than air. + basement shelter in this !ase !ould be 'atal5 7"udson 1)//! 128.

6.

4The de!ision bet(een sheltering in pla!e and e"a!uation must be made (ith respe!t to 8the9 in!ident1 !hemi!al and site1 (ith good udgment thro(n in5 7"unt 1)/)! 2)8. a. :ames "unt states se"eral 'a!tors in'luen!e the de!ision& 4+!tual or impending release The material itsel' ;t&pe)ph&si!al properties)!hemi!al properties= <o!ation o' release .ealth)to0i!ologi!al e''e!ts +tmospheri! !onditions ;(ind dire!tion1 speed1 stabilit&1 (eather1 temperature1 dispersion patterns= Time o' da& Numbers and t&pe o' population at ris$ -stimated duration o' release -mergen!& response resour!es and response time Noti'i!ation s&stems

1.

<ead time and -lapsed time ne!essar& 'or e"a!uation -"a!uation routes and terrain +bilit& to shelter in pla!e +de#ua!& o' shelters rele"ant to !on!entration o' the release and duration5 7"unt 1)/)H 2)8

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4Sheltering should be !onsidered (hen& a. b. c. d. e. Dou are dealing (ith an unsuspe!ted release o' short duration ;no time to e"a!uate= Material is too to0i! or 'lammable to mo"e people through Some instru!tion !an be gi"en to1 and understood b&1 shelterees. Stru!tures !an be reasonabl& e0pe!ted to (ithstand e0!essi"e in'iltration 8o' the !hemi!al95 7"unt 1)/)! 2)8. 4+ ma or reason 'or !onsidering prote!ti"e sheltering as a response a!tion is its speed o' implementation. The lead time 'or a haBardous materials in!ident ma& "ar& 'rom Bero to thirt& minutes. This brie' time 're#uentl& does not allo( 'or a sa'e e"a!uation5 7"udson 1)//! 128.

D.

:t is probabl& ne!essar& to a"oid sheltering in pla!e i' the shelter permits in'iltration or (hen !hemi!als ma& ignite or e0plode. a. b. 4Most stru!tures (ill allo( in'iltration and e0'iltration o' gasses5 7"unt 1)/)! 2)8. 4. . . (ith 'lammable !louds1 there is a high probabilit& o' ignition1 (ith resultant 'ireball5 7"unt 1)/)! 2)8.

1.

4 . . . planning 'or an& $ind o' sheltering and housing to this da& still does not ha"e high priorit& in most +meri!an !ommunities5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4*8. $herefore! those involved in disaster response should be aware that sheltering operations might be ad ho! in nature.

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3. . . there !an be !atastrophi! disasters (here e0tensi"el& inhabited areas are so de"astated that there are 'e( houses and apartments inta!t (hi!h the disaster sur"i"ors !an go to a'ter impa!t5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 618. .omelessness and (eather ma& a''e!t shelter use! although this has not been sufficiently studied 7@ileti! 3orensen and ?B1rien 1))2! 4.8. $here are a number o' organiBations that parti!ipate in sheltering operations. 1. n addition to go"ernment emergen!& management agen!ies! many religious groups are involved in sheltering and housing 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 6.8. 4There is little !onsensus on (hi!h !ommunit& organiBations should be in"ol"ed 8in sheltering95 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4*8. 'ccording to a Congressional mandate! the +meri!an Red Cross has been given the responsibilit& 'or sheltering in the /ederal Response *lan. a. b. "owever! 4 . . . this is not al(a&s $no(n or a!!epted5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4*8. ,or instance! the Sal"ation +rm& is o''i!iall& in !harge o' mass !are in the state o' Te0as 7'lthough it is not uncommon that the 'merican %ed (ross is involved in most disasters8.

D. =.

2. 3.

,.

=mergency managers must give special consideration to the pros and !ons o' ha"ing the go"ernment in !harge o' sheltering operations or "oluntar& organiBations 7such as the 'merican %ed (ross or 3alvation 'rmy8. 1. <utting the lo!al go"ernment in charge may ensure that sheltering takes place in accordance with municipal and leader priorities in mind. "owever! the lo!al go"ernment (ill alread& be burdened heavily after a disaster and sheltering responsibilities (ill onl& add to the man& 'un!tions that it o"ersees. Eoluntar& organiBations ha"e e0pertise in sheltering functions and (ill redu!e the demands pla!ed upon the lo!al go"ernment. +onetheless! the +meri!an Red Cross and Sal"ation +rm& have their own method of providing sheltering which ma& not meet !ommunit& ob e!ti"es 7e.g. location of shelter or time of closing8.

2.

12

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9ithout official involvement in the sheltering function! 4there o'ten is the possibilit& that e"a!uees ma& assume the immediate danger is o"er (hen it is not5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. 1. =mergency managers must ensure that they are rela&ing important in'ormation to ea!h shelter location and organi;er.

". . :.

4The problem o' pro"iding emergen!& medi!al ser"i!es at mass shelters is 're#uentl& noted5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. 44hen multiple mass shelters are in operation there !an be an une"en distribution o' supplies and)or "olunteers5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. 4O'ten "olunteers in mass shelters are not onl& ine0perien!ed but are generall& una(are o' established agen!& poli!ies or appropriate pro!edures5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. 1. t is therefore ad"isable that emergency management officials !ondu!t brie' training sessions before shelters open.

E.

4Shelter management is a de'inite problem in almost all !ases1 (ith se!urit& a per!ei"ed although not ne!essaril& a real problem5 7Cuarantelli 1)/2! 2D/8. Demographi! patterns and household !omposition are !hanging! which will have an impact upon shelter use and operations 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4D8 1. 2. 3. $he population is getting older. "omes increasingly !omprised o' one parent1 unmarried !ouples1 !ouples (ithout !hildren1 homose0ual !ouples! etc. $hese patterns and compositions increase the need 'or medi!al !are at shelters and sensiti"it& 'or di"ersit&.

2.

@.

t is not ad"isable to use trailers or mobile homes for sheltering. 1. 2. $hese types of shelters are generally not sa'e pla!es to sta& in times of hurricanes or tornadoes. 3ome people do not a!!ept mobile homes 7because of the stigmatism associated with them8! but prefer rental assistance instead 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 4)8.

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3. +.

Trailers ma& pose long term problems1 in that people ma& use them permanentl& 71olin and 3anford 1))1! 318.

$he de!ision o' (here to open shelters must in!lude a !onsideration o' multiple haBards. 1. 3helters should be opened in geographi! areas that are not "ulnerable to haBards 7e.g. inland! out of the flood plain! away from the fault line! or a space that has been cleared of vegetation8. 'll too often! shelters will be opened up in !hur!hes and s!hools which may not be lo!ated in sa'e areas. .urri!ane Fatrina illustrated the dangers associated with placing people in the 3uperdome for shelter 7as the roo' (as damaged b& (ind and as it (as surrounded b& 'lood (aters8.

2. 3.

?.

$hose providing sheltering must not negle!t emergen!& (or$ers (ho (ill also need sheltering after a disaster. 1. 'fter the @arch 2/! 2... ,ort 9orth tornado! sear!h and res!ue teams sta&ed at the poli!e and 'ire training 'a!ilities and at the /ort 4orth Con"ention Center. =mergency workers obtained lodging at the Ga"its Con"ention Center a'ter the 4orld Trade Center terrorist atta!$. Tent !ities (ere ere!ted in -astern Te0as 'or the /orest Ser"i!e a'ter the Spa!e Shuttle Columbia a!!ident during re0entry.

2. 3. <.

Relationships among the people in shelters !an be tense or difficult at times. 1. 2. Disaster "i!tims ma& not 'ollo( shelter rules and ma& disobe& sta''. Some disaster "i!tims ma& not get along (ith other indi"iduals or groups sta&ing in the shelter 7e.g. those of other races! cultures or neighborhoods8. $his may result in arguments and e"en "iolen!e.

3. C.

Shelters ma& remain open long a'ter a disaster stri$es 7and longer than anticipated by their operators8.

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Most disaster "i!tims 7especially those from the middle class8 (ill desire to lea"e shelters as soon as possible. 3ome people will ta$e ad"antage o' the 'ree housing and 'ood for e#tended periods of time. 3ome people ma& remain in shelters be!ause the& don7t ha"e resour!es to pa& rent1 or the& ha"e no(here else to go. One shelter in Miami remained opened 'or a substantial period a'ter .urri!ane +ndre(6 appro0imatel& A00 people (ere slo( to lea"e e"en three or 'our months a'ter the disaster.

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2uarantelli identi'ies ;1HH51 AI>AJ1 51= a number o' other problems associated with sheltering and housing& la!$ o' pre>impa!t housing in"entories inade#uate or ine''i!ient use o' sur"i"ing !ommunit& resour!es ine''e!ti"e !oordination and in'ormation 'lo( in!onsistent and rapidl& !hanging poli!ies grie"an!e b& disaster "i!tims about housing is "er& li$el&

3. 3 . . . go"ernmental organiBations and relie' groups ma& !on!urrentl& be dealing (ith segments o' the population at di''erent points in the sheltering and housing a!ti"ities a'ter a ma or disasters. Sheltering a!ti"ities ma& o"erlap (ith housing a!ti"ities and some permanent housing ma& o!!ur be'ore some emergen!& sheltering is 'inished5 7Cuarantelli 1))6! 618. $. t is imperative that shelters be well stocked with supplies. @any people died unnecessarily after "urricane Eatrina because the shelter was not adeGuately stocked with food and water. :denti'& the pro!ess o' opening and maintaining shelters.

Ob e!ti"e 13.A Re#uirements:

*resent the 'ollo(ing as a le!ture& . $he pro!ess o' sheltering is t&pi!al for most disasters. t includes& 16

'.

+ssessing demand by e0amining the number o' people needing shelter 7including evacuees! victims and emergency workers8 and !omparing it to a"ailable shelters and housing sto!$. :denti'&ing potential shelters and de"eloping additional shelter agreements 7if not already in place8. =nsuring shelter is lo!ated in a sa'e area and has ele!tri!it&1 ade#uate (ater suppl&1 restrooms1 par$ing1 etc. Opening1 sta''ing and publi!iBing the shelters. *ro"iding su''i!ient 'ood1 !ots and blan$ets as needed. *ro"iding in'ormation1 medi!al !are1 site se!urit& as needed. Do!umenting the names and numbers o' those using shelters . +ote& this is use'ul to properl& assess damages1 re#uest 'ederal disaster assistan!e1 obtain reimbursement 'or e0penses1 rela& in'ormation to !on!erned 'amil& members1 etc.

1. (. D. =. ,. >.

". .

-nsuring that temporar& shelters do not be!ome permanent shelters b& pro"iding longer term assistan!e to those that reGuire it. Closing do(n shelters (hen demand de!reases1 danger subsides and re!o"er& pro!eeds.

2uestions to be as$ed: 1. ?. 3. A. 5. I. J. K. 4h& are shelters needed, 4ho uses shelters, +re there other people that utiliBe shelters besides disaster "i!tims, 4hat !an emergen!& managers e0pe!t in terms o' people7s sheltering beha"ior, 4h& is sheltering in pla!e ad"isable and (hat 'a!tors go into the de!ision to shelter in pla!e "ersus e"a!uate, 4hat issues and problems should those managing shelters be a(are o', 4hat is the t&pi!al pro!ess 'or running shelters, 4hat lessons (ere learned about sheltering a'ter .urri!ane Fatrina,

1*

T&pes o' Sheltering ;2uarantelli 1HH5=


-mergen!& Sheltering Temporar& Sheltering Temporar& .ousing *ermanent .ousing

1D

Eariables that :n'luen!e Shelter Ceha"ior ;Mileti1 Sorensen and O7Crien 1HH?=
1. Chara!teristi!s o' -mergen!& *reparedness a. b. ?. *rior planning 'or shelter use and publi!iBing. -''e!ti"eness o' (arning message.

Chara!teristi!s o' the -"ent a. b. Time and duration o' the e"a!uation. Spa!e ;siBe o' the e"a!uated area or proportion o' the !ommunit& that is e"a!uated=.

3.

Chara!teristi!s o' the -"a!uees a. b. So!io>e!onomi! status o' e"a!uees. +ge o' e"a!uees.

1/

/a!tors to Consider 'or Sheltering in *la!e ;.unt 1HKH=


+!tual or impending release The material itsel' ;t&pe)ph&si!al properties)!hemi!al properties= <o!ation o' release .ealth)to0i!ologi!al e''e!ts +tmospheri! !onditions ;(ind dire!tion1 speed1 stabilit&1 (eather1 temperature1 dispersion patterns= Time o' da& Numbers and t&pe o' population at ris$ -stimated duration o' release -mergen!& response resour!es and response time Noti'i!ation s&stems <ead time and -lapsed time ne!essar& 'or e"a!uation -"a!uation routes and terrain +bilit& to shelter in pla!e +de#ua!& o' shelters rele"ant to !on!entration o' the release and duration

1)

Shelter *ro!esses
+ssess demand :denti'& potential shelters De"elop additional shelter agreement -nsure sa'et&1 sanitation1 se!urit&1 et!. Open1 sta'' and publi!iBe shelter *ro"ide ser"i!es as needed Do!ument names o' disaster "i!tims -nsure shelter is used temporaril& Close do(n (hen demand de!reases

2.