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CODE OF COMMERCE BOOK ONE MERCHANTS AND COMMERCE IN GENERAL TITLE ONE MERCHANTS AND ACTS OF COMMERCE ARTICLE

1. For purposes of this Code !er"h#$ts #re% 1. Those &ho h#'i$( )e(#) "#p#"it* to e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e h#+itu#))* de'ote the!se)'es to it, "d#si# -. The "o!!er"i#) or i$dustri#) "o!p#$ies &hi"h !#* +e "re#ted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith .this Code/ e0isti$( )e(is)#tio$. ARTICLE -. A"ts of "o!!er"e &hether those &ho e0e"ute the! +e !er"h#$ts or $ot #$d &hether spe"ified i$ this Code or $ot shou)d +e (o'er$ed +* the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ it i$ their #+se$"e +* the us#(es of "o!!er"e (e$er#))* o+ser'ed i$ e#"h p)#"e, #$d i$ the #+se$"e of +oth ru)es +* those of the "i'i) )#&. Those #"ts "o$t#i$ed i$ this Code #$d #)) others of #$#)o(ous "h#r#"ter sh#)) +e dee!ed #"ts of "o!!er"e. ARTICLE 1. The )e(#) presu!ptio$ of h#+itu#))* e$(#(i$( i$ "o!!er"e sh#)) e0ist fro! the !o!e$t the perso$ &ho i$te$ds to e$(#(e therei$ #$$ou$"es throu(h "ir"u)#rs $e&sp#pers h#$d+i))s posters e0hi+ited to the pu+)i" or i$ #$* other !#$$er &h#tsoe'er #$ est#+)ish!e$t &hi"h h#s for its o+2e"t so!e "o!!er"i#) oper#tio$. ARTICLE 3. 4erso$s &ho possess the fo))o&i$( 5u#)ifi"#tio$s sh#)) h#'e )e(#) "#p#"it* to h#+itu#))* e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e% 1. H#'i$( "o!p)eted the #(e of t&e$t*6o$e *e#rs. -. Not +ei$( su+2e"t to the #uthorit* of the f#ther or of the !other $or to !#rit#) #uthorit*. 1. H#'i$( the free dispositio$ of their propert*. ARTICLE 7. Those u$der t&e$t*6o$e *e#rs of #(e #$d those i$"#p#"it#ted !#* "o$ti$ue throu(h their (u#rdi#$s the +usi$ess e$(#(ed i$ +* their p#re$ts or their prede"essors. If the (u#rdi#$s do $ot h#'e )e(#) "#p#"it* to tr#de or #re u$der so!e dis5u#)ifi"#tio$s the* sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to #ppoi$t o$e or !ore f#"tors h#'i$( the )e(#) 5u#)ifi"#tio$s &ho sh#)) su+stitute the! i$ "o$du"t of the +usi$ess. ARTICLE 8. 9Repe#)ed: 1 ARTICLE ;. 9Repe#)ed: ARTICLE <. The hus+#$d !#* free)* re'o=e the #uthori>#tio$ i!p)ied)* or e0press)* (r#$ted to his &ife to tr#de st#ti$( the re'o"#tio$ i$ # pu+)i" i$stru!e$t &hi"h sh#)) #)so +e re"orded i$ the "o!!er"i#) re(istr* pu+)ished i$ the offi"i#) periodi"#) of the to&$ if there +e o$e or other&ise i$ th#t of the to&$ if there +e o$e or other&ise i$ th#t of the pro'i$"e #$d #$$ou$"ed to her "orrespo$de$ts +* !e#$s of "ir"u)#rs. The pu+)i"#tio$ !#* #)so +e !#de if the hus+#$d so de!#$ds +* pro")#!#tio$s #$d "o!!o$ "riers. This re'o"#tio$ !#* i$ $o "#se pre2udi"e ri(hts #"5uired +efore its pu+)i"#tio$ i$ the offi"i#) periodi"#). #is#d" ARTICLE ?. 9Repe#)ed: 1 ARTICLE 1@. 9Repe#)ed: 3 ARTICLE 11. 9Repe#)ed: 7 ARTICLE 1-. 9Repe#)ed: 8 ARTICLE 11. The fo))o&i$( !#* $ot e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e $or ho)d offi"e or h#'e #$* dire"t #d!i$istr#ti'e or fi$#$"i#) i$ter'e$tio$ i$ "o!!er"i#) or i$dustri#) "o!p#$ies% 1. Those se$te$"ed to the pe$#)t* of "i'i) i$terdi"tio$ &hi)e the* h#'e $ot ser'ed their se$te$"e or h#'e $ot +ee$ #!$estied or p#rdo$ed. -. Those de")#red +#$=rupt &hi)e the* h#'e $ot o+t#i$ed their dis"h#r(e .or h#'e $ot +ee$ #uthori>ed +* 'irtue of #$ #(ree!e$t #""epted #t # (e$er#) !eeti$( of "reditors #$d #ppro'ed +*

2udi"i#) #uthorit* to "o$ti$ue #t the he#d of the est#+)ish!e$t the #uthorit* +ei$( u$derstood i$ su"h "#se #s )i!ited to th#t e0pressed i$ the #(ree!e$t./ 1. Those &ho o$ #""ou$t of spe"i#) )#&s or pro'isio$s "#$ $ot tr#de. ARTICLE 13. The fo))o&i$( "#$$ot e$(#(e i$ the !er"#$ti)e professio$ i$ perso$ or throu(h #$other $or ho)d offi"e or h#'e #$* dire"t #d!i$istr#ti'e or fi$#$"i#) i$ter'e$tio$ i$ "o!!er"i#) or i$dustri#) #sso"i#tio$s &ithi$ the )i!its of the distri"ts pro'i$"es or to&$s i$ &hi"h the* dis"h#r(e their duties% 1. Austi"es 2ud(es #$d offi"i#)s of the fis"#)sB offi"e i$ #"ti'e ser'i"e. This pro'isio$ sh#)) $ot +e #pp)i"#+)e to the !u$i"ip#) !#*ors 2ud(es #$d prose"uti$( #ttor$e*s $or to those &ho !#* te!por#ri)* dis"h#r(e 2udi"i#) or prose"utio$ duties. -. Ad!i$istr#ti'e e"o$o!i" or !i)it#r* he#ds of distri"ts pro'i$"es or posts. 1. Those e!p)o*ed i$ the "o))e"tio$ #$d #d!i$istr#tio$ of fu$ds of the St#te #ppoi$ted +* the Go'er$!e$t. Those &ho #d!i$ister #$d "o))e"t u$der "o$tr#"t #$d their represe$t#ti'e #re e0"epted. 3. Sto"= #$d "o!!er"i#) +ro=ers of &h#te'er ")#ss the* !#* +e. 7. Those &ho u$der spe"i#) )#&s #$d pro'isio$s "#$$ot tr#de i$ spe"ified territor*. ARTICLE 17. Forei($ers #$d "o!p#$ies "re#ted #+ro#d !#* e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e i$ the 4hi)ippi$es su+2e"t to the )#&s of their "ou$tr* &ith respe"t to their "#p#"it* to "o$tr#"t #$d to the pro'isio$s of this Code #s re(#rd the "re#tio$ of their est#+)ish!e$ts i$ 4hi)ippi$e territor* their !er"#$ti)e oper#tio$s #$d the 2urisdi"tio$ of the "ourts of the $#tio$. The pro'isio$s of the #rti")e sh#)) +e u$derstood to +e &ithout pre2udi"e to &h#t i$ p#rti"u)#r "#ses !#* +e est#+)ished +* tre#ties or #(ree!e$ts &ith other po&ers. "dt#i TITLE TCO COMMERCIAL REGISTRIES ARTICLE 18. I$ #)) the "#pit#)s of pro'i$"es sh#)) +e ope$ed # !er"#$ti)e re(istr* "o!posed of t&o i$depe$de$t +oo=s i$ &hi"h sh#)) +e i$s"ri+ed% 1. I$di'idu#) !er"h#$ts. -. Asso"i#tio$s. I$ the "o#st#) pro'i$"es #$d i$ the i$terior o$es &here it is "o$sidered "o$'e$ie$t +e"#use of the prese$"e of $#'i(#tio$ the re(istr* sh#)) i$")ude # third +oo= for the re(istr#tio$ of 'esse)s. ARTICLE 1;. Re(istr#tio$ i$ the !er"#$ti)e re(istr* sh#)) +e optio$#) for i$di'idu#) !er"h#$ts #$d "o!pu)sor* for #sso"i#tio$s &hi"h #re "re#ted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith this Code or &ith spe"i#) )#&s #$d for 'esse)s. ARTICLE 1<. The u$re(istered !er"h#$t "#$$ot re5uest the i$s"riptio$ of #$* do"u!e$t i$ the !er"#$ti)e re(istr* $or t#=e #d'#$t#(e of its )e(#) effe"ts. ARTICLE 1?. The re(ister sh#)) =eep the +oo=s $e"ess#r* for re(istr#tio$ st#!ped fo)ioed #$d &ith # !e!or#$du! o$ the first p#(e of the $u!+er of p#(es &hi"h e#"h +oo= "o$t#i$s si($ed +* the 2usti"e of the pe#"e. Chere there #re se'er#) 2usti"es of the pe#"e #$* o$e of the! !#* si($ the !e!or#$du!. ARTICLE -@. The re(istr#r sh#)) e$ter i$ "hro$o)o(i"#) order i$ the re(istr* #$d (e$er#) i$de0 #)) the !er"h#$ts #$d "o!p#$ies &hi"h #re re(istered (i'i$( e#"h sheet the "orre)#ti'e $u!+er &hi"h "orrespo$ds to it. ARTICLE -1. O$ the re"ord sheet of e#"h !er"h#$t or "o!p#$* sh#)) +e e$tered% 1. The $#!e fir! $#!e or tit)e. "d -. The ")#ss of "o!!er"e or tr#$s#"tio$s i$ &hi"h e$(#(ed. 1. The d#te o$ &hi"h the tr#$s#"tio$s sh#)) "o!!e$"e or h#'e "o!!e$"ed. 3. The do!i"i)e &ith # spe"ifi"#tio$ of the +r#$"hes &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ est#+)ished &ithout pre2udi"e to the re(istr#tio$ of the +r#$"hes i$ the re(istr* of the pro'i$"e i$ &hi"h the* !#* +e do!i"i)ed. 7. I$stru!e$ts for the "re#tio$ of "o!!er"i#) #sso"i#tio$s &h#te'er their o+2e"t or de$o!i$#tio$

!#* +e #s &e)) #s those for the !odifi"#tio$ res"issio$ or disso)utio$ of su"h #sso"i#tio$s. 8. 9Repe#)ed: ; ;. 9Repe#)ed: < <. 9Repe#)ed: ? ?. .Dot#) i$stru!e$ts/ !#rri#(e sett)e!e$t #$d the tit)e &hi"h pro'e the o&$ership of the p#r#pher$#) propert* of the &i'es of !er"h#$ts. 1@. The issue of sh#res "ertifi"#tes #$d +o$ds of r#i)ro#ds #$d of #)) ")#sses of #sso"i#tio$s +e the* #sso"i#tio$s for pu+)i" &or=s "redit "o!p#$ies or others st#ti$( the series #$d $u!+er of the "ertifi"#tes of e#"h issue their p#rti"ip#tio$ i$terest p#*!e$t #$d pre!iu! shou)d the* h#'e o$e or the other the tot#) #!ou$t of the issue #$d the propert* &or=s ri(hts or !ort(#(es shou)d there +e #$* +* &hi"h their p#*!e$t is se"ured. The issues &hi"h !#* +e !#de +* i$di'idu#)s sh#)) #)so +e re"orded i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of the pre"edi$( p#r#(r#ph. 11. 9Superseded: 1@ 1-. 9Superseded: 11 Forei($ #sso"i#tio$s &hi"h desire to est#+)ish the!se)'es or "re#te +r#$"hes i$ the 4hi)ippi$es sh#)) prese$t #$d re"ord i$ the re(istr* +esides their +*6)#&s #$d the do"u!e$ts re5uired of Fi)ipi$os # "ertifi"#te issued +* the 4hi)ippi$e "o$su) th#t the* #re "o$stituted #$d #uthori>ed i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the )#&s of their respe"ti'e "ou$tries. ARTICLE --. 9Superseded: 1ARTICLE -1. As # (e$er#) ru)e the re(istr#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de +* 'irtue of $ot#ri#) "opies of the do"u!e$ts &hi"h the i$terested p#rt* !#* prese$t. "dt The re(istr#tio$ of $otes +o$ds or order #$d +e#rer i$stru!e$ts &hi"h do $ot "#rr* !ort(#(es of i!!o'#+)e propert* sh#)) +e !#de upo$ prese$t#tio$ of the "ertified !i$utes &here i$ #ppe#rs the reso)utio$ of the perso$ or perso$s &ho !#de the issue #$d the "o$ditio$s re5uisites #$d (u#r#$ties thereof. Che$ these (u#r#$ties "o$sist of !ort(#(e of i!!o'#+)es the "orrespo$di$( i$stru!e$t sh#)) +e prese$ted for #$$ot#tio$ i$ the !er"#$ti)e re(istr*. ARTICLE -3. D$re(istered #rti")es of #sso"i#tio$ sh#)) produ"e effe"t #!o$( the !e!+ers &ho e0e"ute the! +ut the* sh#)) $ot pre2udi"e third perso$ &ho ho&e'er !#* !#=e use thereof i$ so f#r #s f#'or#+)e. ARTICLE -7. A)) the reso)utio$s or #"ts &hi"h effe"t #$ i$"re#se or redu"tio$ i$ the "#pit#) of "o!!er"i#) #sso"i#tio$s &h#te'er their de$o!i$#tio$ !#* +e #$d those &hi"h !odif* or #)ter the "o$ditio$s of re"orded i$stru!e$ts sh#)) #)so +e re"orded i$ the !er"#$ti)e re(istr*. The o!issio$ of this re5uisite sh#)) produ"e the effe"ts !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e. ARTICLE -8. Re(istered do"u!e$ts sh#)) produ"e )e(#) effe"t to the pre2udi"e of third perso$s o$)* fro! the d#te of their re(istr#tio$ #$d "#$$ot +e i$'#)id#ted +* prior or su+se5ue$t u$re(istered do"u!e$ts. ARTICLE -;. .Dot#)/ i$stru!e$ts .#$d those/ referri$( to p#r#pher$#) propert* of the !er"h#$tBs &ife $ot re(istered i$ the !er"#$ti)e re(istr* sh#)) h#'e $o ri(ht of prefere$"e o'er other "redits. I!!o'#+)e propert* #$d re#) ri(hts o'er the! #"5uired +* the &ife prior to the "re#tio$ of the "o$"urre$t "redits sh#)) +e e0"epted. ARTICLE -<. If # !er"h#$t shou)d f#i) to !#=e i$ the re(istr* the i$s"riptio$ of the .dot#) or/ p#r#pher$#) propert* of his &ife the )#tter herse)f !#* re5uest it or it !#* +e do$e for her +* her p#re$ts +* others or u$")es +* "o$s#$(ui$it* #s &e)) #s +* those &ho dis"h#r(e or !#* h#'e dis"h#r(ed the duties of (u#rdi#$s or "ur#tors of the &ife .or &ho "o$stitute or !#* h#'e "o$stituted the do&r*./ ARTICLE -?. 9Repe#)ed: 11 ARTICLE 1@. The !er"#$ti)e re(istr* sh#)) +e pu+)i". The re(istr#r sh#)) fur$ish those &ho !#*

re5uest it #$* d#t# referri$( to &h#t !#* #ppe#r o$ the re(istr#tio$ sheet of e#"h !er"h#$t #sso"i#tio$ or 'esse). Li=e&ise he sh#)) issue true "opies of the &ho)e or p#rt of s#id sheet to #$*o$e &ho !#* #s= for it i$ # si($ed re5uest. ARTICLES 11 #$d 1-. 9Repe#)ed: 13 TITLE THREE BOOKS AND BOOKKEE4ING OF COMMERCE ARTICLE 11. Mer"h#$ts sh#)) $e"ess#ri)* =eep% 1. A +oo= of i$'e$tories #$d +#)#$"es. -. A 2our$#). 1. A )ed(er. 3. A +oo= or +oo=s for "opies of )etters #$d te)e(r#!s. 7. Other +oo=s &hi"h !#* +e re5uired +* spe"i#) )#&s. Asso"i#tio$s #$d "o!p#$ies sh#)) #)so =eep # +oo= or +oo=s of !i$utes i$ &hi"h sh#)) +e e$tered #)) reso)utio$s referri$( to the pro(ress #$d oper#tio$s of the e$tities #ppro'ed #t (e$er#) !eeti$(s or #t those of !#$#(i$( +o#rds. "dt#i ARTICLE 13. The* !#* #)so =eep other +oo=s &hi"h the* !#* dee! "o$'e$ie$t #""ordi$( to the s*ste! of +oo==eepi$( the* !#* #dopt. These +oo=s sh#)) $ot +e su+2e"t to the pro'isio$s of Arti")e 18, +ut the* !#* )e(#)i>e those &hi"h the* !#* "o$sider proper. ARTICLE 17. Mer"h#$ts !#* =eep their +oo=s perso$#))* or throu(h perso$s &ho! the* #uthori>e for the purpose. If # !er"h#$t does $ot =eep his +oo=s perso$#))* #uthori>#tio$ sh#)) +e presu!ed (r#$ted to hi! &ho =eeps the! u$)ess there is proof to the "o$tr#r*. ARTICLE 18. Mer"h#$ts sh#)) prese$t the +oo=s referred to i$ Arti")e 11 +ou$d ru)ed #$d fo)ioed to the 2usti"e of the pe#"e of the !u$i"ip#)it* i$ &hi"h the* h#'e their "o!!er"i#) est#+)ish!e$ts i$ order th#t he !#* put o$ the first p#(e of e#"h o$e # si($ed !e!or#$du! of the $u!+er of p#(es &hi"h the +oo= "o$t#i$s. The se#) of the 2usti"e of the pe#"e )e(#)i>i$( it sh#)) further!ore +e st#!ped o$ #)) the p#(es of e#"h +oo=. ARTICLE 1;. The +oo= of i$'e$tories #$d +#)#$"e sh#)) +e(i$ &ith the i$'e$tor* &hi"h the !er"h#$t !ust prep#re #t the ti!e he st#rts his oper#tio$s #$d sh#)) "o$t#i$% 1. A$ e0#"t st#te!e$t of the !o$e* se"urities "redits $otes re"ei'#+)e !o'#+)e #$d i!!o'#+)e propert* !er"h#$dise #$d (oods of #)) =i$ds #ppr#ised #t their true '#)ue #$d &hi"h "o$stitute his #ssets. -. A$ e0#"t st#te!e$t of the de+ts #$d #)) =i$ds of pe$di$( o+)i(#tio$s shou)d there +e #$* #$d &hi"h for! his )i#+i)ities. 1. He sh#)) deter!i$e i$ proper "#ses the e0#"t differe$"e +et&ee$ the #ssets #$d the )i#+i)ities &hi"h sh#)) +e the "#pit#) &ith &hi"h he +e(i$s his oper#tio$s. The !er"h#$t sh#)) further!ore prep#re #$$u#))* #$d e$ter i$ the s#!e +oo= the (e$er#) +#)#$"e of his +usi$ess &ith the det#i)s !e$tio$ed i$ this #rti")e #$d i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the e$tries i$ the 2our$#) &ithout #$* reser'#tio$s or o!issio$s u$der his si($#ture #$d respo$si+i)it*. ARTICLE 1<. I$ the 2our$#) sh#)) +e e$tered #s the first ite! the resu)t of the i$'e$tor* !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e di'ided i$to o$e or '#rious "o$se"uti'e #""ou$ts #""ordi$( to the s*ste! of +oo==eepi$( #dopted. There#fter #)) his oper#tio$s sh#)) fo))o& d#* +* d#* e#"h e$tr* st#ti$( the "redit #$d de+it of the respe"ti'e #""ou$ts. #is#d" Che$ the oper#tio$s #re $u!erous &h#te'er their i!port#$"e !#* +e or &he$ the* h#'e t#=e$ p)#"e outside the do!i"i)e those referri$( to e#"h #""ou$t #$d &hi"h h#'e t#=e$ p)#"e i$ e#"h d#* !#* +e i$")uded i$ # si$()e e$tr* +ut o+ser'i$( i$ their st#te!e$t if ite!i>ed the s#!e order i$ &hi"h the*

too= p)#"e. Li=e&ise the #!ou$ts &hi"h the !er"h#$t uses for his househo)d e0pe$ses sh#)) +e e$tered o$ the d#te o$ &hi"h the* #re &ithdr#&$ fro! the fu$ds #$d the* sh#)) +e "#rried i$to # spe"i#) #""ou$t to +e ope$ed for th#t purpose i$ the )ed(er. ARTICLE 1?. The #""ou$ts referri$( to e#"h o+2e"t or perso$ i$ p#rti"u)#r sh#)) further!ore +e ope$ed &ith De+it #$d Credit i$ the )ed(er #$d to e#"h of these #""ou$ts sh#)) +e tr#$sferred i$ stri"t order of d#tes the e$tries i$ the 2our$#) referri$( to the!. ARTICLE 3@. I$ the +oo= of !i$utes &hi"h e#"h #sso"i#tio$ sh#)) "#rr* sh#)) +e e$tered 'er+#ti! the reso)utio$s #(reed upo$ #t its !eeti$(s or #t those of its !#$#(ers st#ti$( the d#te of e#"h o$e those prese$t i$ the! the 'otes "#st #$d other !#tters "o$du"i'e to #$ e0#"t =$o&)ed(e of &h#t #s #(reed upo$ #uthe$ti"#ted &ith the si($#tures of the !#$#(ers dire"tors or #d!i$istr#tors "h#r(ed &ith the !#$#(e!e$t of the #sso"i#tio$ or desi($#ted +* the +*6)#&s or re(u)#tio$s +* &hi"h it is (o'er$ed. ARTICLE 31. A)) the )etters &hi"h # !er"h#$t !#* &rite re(#rdi$( his +usi$ess #$d the te)e(r#phi" disp#t"hes &hi"h he !#* se$d sh#)) +e tr#$sferred either +* h#$d or +* #$* !e"h#$i"#) !e#$s to the +oo= for "opies. fu))* #$d su""essi'e)* +* order of d#tes i$")udi$( the su+s"ri+i$( ")#use #$d the si($#tures. ARTICLE 3-. Mer"h#$ts sh#)) "#refu))* =eep i$ +u$d)es #$d i$ proper order the )etters #$d te)e(r#phi" disp#t"hes &hi"h the* !#* re"ei'e re)#ti'e to their tr#$s#"tio$s. ARTICLE 31. Besides "o!p)*i$( &ith #$d fu)fi))i$( the "o$ditio$s #$d for!#)ities pres"ri+ed i$ this tit)e !er"h#$ts !ust =eep their +oo=s &ith ")e#r$ess i$ the order of d#tes &ithout +)#$=s i$terpo)#tio$s er#sures or +)ots #$d &ithout sho&i$( si($s of h#'i$( +ee$ #)tered +* su+stituti$( or te#ri$( out fo)ios or i$ #$* other !#$$er &h#tsoe'er. ARTICLE 33. Mer"h#$ts sh#)) "orre"t the errors or o!issio$s &hi"h the* !#* !#=e i$ e$teri$( i$ their +oo=s i!!edi#te)* upo$ $oti"i$( the! e0p)#i$i$( ")e#r)* i$ &h#t the* "o$sisted #$d &riti$( the e$tr* #s it shou)d h#'e +ee$ &ritte$. If so!e ti!e shou)d h#'e e)#psed si$"e the error &#s "o!!itted or si$"e the o!issio$ &#s i$"urred the* sh#)) !#=e the proper e$tr* of "orre"tio$ #ddi$( o$ the !#r(i$ of the erro$eous e$tr* # !e!or#$du! i$di"#ti$( the "orre"tio$. ARTICLE 37. No 2ud(e or "ourt or #uthorit* !#* o$ his o&$ i$iti#ti'e !#=e #$ i$5uir* to #s"ert#i$ if !er"h#$ts =eep their +oo=s i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of this Code $or !#=e # (e$er#) i$'esti(#tio$ or e0#!i$#tio$ of the +oo==eepi$( i$ the offi"es or "ou$ti$(6houses of !er"h#$ts. ARTICLE 38. Neither !#* the "o!!u$i"#tio$ de)i'er* or (e$er#) e0#!i$#tio$ of the +oo=s "orrespo$de$"e #$d other do"u!e$ts of !er"h#$ts +e de"reed #t the i$st#$"e of # p#rt* e0"ept i$ the "#ses of )i5uid#tio$ u$i'ers#) su""essio$ or +#$=rupt"*. ARTICLE 3;. Outside of the "#ses !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e the e0hi+itio$ of the +oo=s #$d do"u!e$ts of !er"h#$ts !#* +e de"reed #t the i$st#$"e of # p#rt* or #t the i$iti#ti'e of the "ourt o$)* &he$ the perso$ to &ho! the* +e)o$( h#s #$ i$terest or respo$si+i)it* i$ the "#se i$ &hi"h the e0hi+itio$ is !#de. .The e0#!i$#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de i$ the "ou$ti$(6house of the !er"h#$t i$ his prese$"e or i$ th#t of the perso$ &ho! he "o!!issio$s #$d sh#)) +e )i!ited to the poi$ts re)#ted to the 5uestio$ #t issue, these +ei$( the o$)* o$es th#t !#* +e 'erified./ ARTICLE 3<. I$ order to !e#sure the pro+#ti'e for"e of the +oo=s of !er"h#$ts the fo))o&i$( ru)es sh#)) +e o+ser'ed% 1. The +oo=s of !er"h#$ts sh#)) +e e'ide$"e #(#i$st the!se)'es $o proof to the "o$tr#r* +ei$( #d!issi+)e, +ut the #d'erse p#rt* "#$$ot #""ept the e$tries &hi"h !#* +e f#'or#+)e to hi! #$d re2e"t those &hi"h !#* pre2udi"e hi! +ut h#'i$( #""epted this !e#$s of proof he sh#)) +e +ou$d +* the resu)t &hi"h it !#* sho& i$ its e$tiret* t#=i$( i$to e5u#) "o$sider#tio$ #)) the e$tries re)#ti'e to the 5uestio$ i$ )iti(#tio$. -. If there shou)d +e # "o$f)i"t i$ the e$tries of the +oo=s =ept +* t&o !er"h#$t #$d those of o$e

shou)d h#'e +ee$ =ept &ith #)) the for!#)ities !e$tio$ed i$ this tit)e #$d those of the other shou)d suffer fro! #$* defe"t or shou)d )#"= the re5uisites pres"ri+ed +* this Code the e$tries of the +oo=s proper)* =ept sh#)) +e #d!itted #(#i$st those of the defe"ti'e o$e. u$)ess the "o$tr#r* is sho&$ +* !e#$s of other e'ide$"e #d!issi+)e i$ )#&. "dt 1. If o$e of the !er"h#$ts shou)d $ot prese$t his +oo=s or shou)d !#$ifest th#t he does $ot h#'e the! those of his #d'ers#r* =ept &ith #)) the )e(#) for!#)ities sh#)) +e #d!itted #(#i$st hi! u$)ess it is sho&$ th#t the #+se$"e of su"h +oo=s is due to for"e !#2eure #$d #)&#*s s#'i$( proof +* other !e#$s #d!issi+)e i$ suits #(#i$st the e$tries e0hi+ited. 3. If the +oo=s of the !er"h#$ts shou)d h#'e #)) the )e(#) re5uisites #$d shou)d +e "o$tr#di"tor* the "ourt sh#)) de"ide +* the other proofs &ei(hi$( the! #""ordi$( to the (e$er#) ru)es of )#&. ARTICLE 3?. Mer"h#$ts #$d their heirs or su""essors sh#)) =eep the +oo=s te)e(r#!s #$d "orrespo$de$"e of their +usi$ess i$ (e$er#) duri$( #)) the ti!e th#t this !#* )#st #$d for fi'e *e#rs #fter the )i5uid#tio$ of #)) their +usi$ess #$d "o!!er"i#) #ff#irs. Do"u!e$ts &hi"h spe"i#))* "o$"er$ spe"ifi" #"ts or tr#$s#"tio$s !#* +e re$dered use)ess or destro*ed upo$ the )#ps of the pres"ripti'e period of the #"tio$s &hi"h !#* #rise therefro! u$)ess so!e 5uestio$s referri$( dire"t)* or i$dire"t)* to the! shou)d +e pe$di$( i$ &hi"h "#se the* !ust +e =ept u$ti) the "o$")usio$ thereof. TITLE FODR GENERAL 4ROEISIONS RELATING TO COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS ARTICLE 7@. Co!!er"i#) "o$tr#"ts i$ e'er*thi$( re)#ti'e to their re5uisites !odifi"#tio$s e0"eptio$s i$terpret#tio$s #$d e0ti$"tio$ #$d to the "#p#"it* of the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties sh#)) +e (o'er$ed i$ #)) !#tters $ot e0press)* pro'ided for i$ this Code or i$ spe"i#) )#&s +* the (e$er#) ru)es of the "i'i) )#&. ARTICLE 71. Co!!er"i#) "o$tr#"ts sh#)) +e '#)id #$d sh#)) (i'e rise to o+)i(#tio$s #$d "#uses of #"tio$ i$ suits &h#te'er the for! #$d )#$(u#(e i$ &hi"h the* !#* +e e0e"uted the ")#ss to &hi"h the* !#* +e)o$( #$d the #!ou$t the* !#* i$'o)'e pro'ided their e0iste$"e is sho&$ +* #$* !e#$s est#+)ished +* the "i'i) )#&. Ho&e'er the testi!o$* of &it$ess #)o$e sh#)) $ot +e suffi"ie$t to pro'e the e0iste$"e of # "o$tr#"t &hi"h i$'o)'es #$ #!ou$t e0"eedi$( 1 7@@ peset#s u$)ess supported +* so!e other e'ide$"e. ARTICLE 7-. Fro! the pro'isio$s of the pre"edi$( #rti")e sh#)) he e0"epted% 1. Co$tr#"ts &hi"h i$ #""ord#$"e &ith this Code or &ith spe"i#) )#&s !ust +e redu"ed to &riti$( or re5uire for!s or for!#)ities $e"ess#r* for their effi"#"*. "dt#i -. Co$tr#"ts e0e"uted i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* i$ &hi"h the )#& re5uires "ert#i$ i$stru!e$ts for!s or for!#)ities for their '#)idit* #)thou(h 4hi)ippi$e )#& does $ot re5uire the!. I$ either "#se "o$tr#"ts &hi"h do $ot s#tisf* the "ir"u!st#$"es respe"ti'e)* re5uired sh#)) $ot (i'e rise to o+)i(#tio$s or "#uses of #"tio$. ARTICLE 71. Me#$i$( of i))i"it #(ree!e$ts. F I))i"it #(ree!e$ts do $ot (i'e rise to o+)i(#tio$s or "#uses of #"tio$ e'e$ shou)d the* refer to "o!!er"i#) tr#$s#"tio$. ARTICLE 73. Co$tr#"ts e$tered i$to +* "orrespo$de$"e sh#)) +e perfe"ted fro! the !o!e$t #$ #$s&er is !#de #""epti$( the offer or the "o$ditio$s +* &hi"h the )#tter !#* +e !odified. ARTICLE 77. Co$tr#"ts i$ &hi"h #$ #(e$t or +ro=er i$ter'e$es sh#)) +e perfe"ted &he$ the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties sh#)) h#'e #""epted his offer. ARTICLE 78. I$ # "o!!er"i#) "o$tr#"t i$ &hi"h # pe$#)t* for i$de!$ifi"#tio$ #(#i$st the p#rt* f#i)i$( to "o!p)* there&ith is fi0ed the i$2ured p#rt* !#* de!#$d throu(h )e(#) !e#$s the fu)fi))!e$t of the "o$tr#"t or the pe$#)t* stipu)#ted, +ut the re"ourse to o$e of these #"tio$s sh#)) e0ti$(uish the other u$)ess the "o$tr#r* is stipu)#ted. ARTICLE 7;. Co!!er"i#) "o$tr#"ts sh#)) +e e0e"uted #$d "o!p)ied &ith i$ (ood f#ith #""ordi$( to the ter!s i$ &hi"h the* &ere !#de #$d dr#&$ up &ithout e'#di$( throu(h #r+itr#r* i$terpret#tio$s the p)#i$ proper #$d usu#) !e#$i$( of the spo=e$ or &ritte$ &ords or )i!iti$( the effe"ts &hi"h #re

$#tur#))* deri'ed fro! the !#$$er i$ &hi"h the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties !#* h#'e e0pressed their &i)) #$d "o$tr#"ted their o+)i(#tio$s. ARTICLE 7<. If # dis"rep#$"* shou)d #ppe#r +et&ee$ the "opies of # "o$tr#"t &hi"h the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties prese$t #$d i$ its e0e"utio$ #$ #(e$t or +ro=er shou)d h#'e i$ter'e$ed th#t &hi"h #ppe#rs i$ the +oo=s of the )#tter sh#)) pre'#i) pro'ided the* #re =ept i$ #""ord#$"e &ith )#&. ARTICLE 7?. If dou+ts &hi"h "#$$ot +e de"ided i$ #""ord#$"e &ith &h#t is pro'ided i$ Arti")e - of this Code shou)d #rise the 5uestio$ sh#)) +e de"ided i$ f#'or of the de+tor. ARTICLE 8@. I$ #)) "o!put#tio$s of d#*s !o$ths #$d *e#rs it sh#)) +e u$derstood th#t # d#* h#s t&e$t* four hours the !o$ths #s desi($#ted i$ the Gre(ori#$ "#)e$d#r #$d the *e#r h#s three hu$dred si0t*6fi'e d#*s. Bi))s of e0"h#$(e pro!issor* $otes #$d )o#$s &ith respe"t to &hi"h th#t spe"i#))* pro'ided for the! +* this Code sh#)) (o'er$ #re e0"epted. ARTICLE 81. D#*s of (r#"e "ourtes* or others &hi"h u$der #$* $#!e &h#tsoe'er defer the fu)fi))!e$t of "o!!er"i#) o+)i(#tio$s sh#)) $ot +e re"o($i>ed e0"ept those &hi"h the p#rties !#* h#'e pre'ious)* fi0ed i$ the "o$tr#"t or &hi"h #re +#sed o$ # defi$ite pro'isio$ of )#&. ARTICLE 8-. O+)i(#tio$s &hi"h do $ot h#'e # period pre'ious)* fi0ed +* the p#rties or +* the pro'isio$s of this Code sh#)) +e de!#$d#+)e te$ d#*s #fter h#'i$( +ee$ "o$tr#"ted if the* (i'e rise o$)* to #$ ordi$#r* #"tio$ #$d o$ the $e0t d#* if the* i$'o)'e i!!edi#te e0e"utio$. "d ARTICLE 81. The effe"t of def#u)t i$ the perfor!#$"e of "o!!er"i#) o+)i(#tio$s sh#)) "o!!e$"e% 1. I$ "o$tr#"ts &ith # d#* for perfor!#$"e fi0ed +* the &i)) of the p#rties or +* the )#& o$ the d#* fo))o&i$( their !#turit*. -. I$ those &hi"h do $ot h#'e su"h d#* fi0ed fro! the d#* o$ &hi"h the "reditor !#=es # 2udi"i#) de!#$d o$ the de+tor or $otifies hi! of the protest for )oss #$d d#!#(es !#de #(#i$st hi! +efore # 2ud(e $ot#r* or other pu+)i" offi"i#) #uthori>ed to #d!it the s#!e. TITLE FIEE 4LACES AND BDILDINGS FOR COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS ARTICLES 83 to <;. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ repe#)ed. +* the Se"urities A"t.: TITLE SIG COMMERCIAL AGENTS AND THEIR RES4ECTIEE OBLIGATIONS ARTICLES << to 117. 9These #rti")es of the Code of Co!!er"e h#'e +ee$ repe#)ed +* the Se"urities A"t.: BOOK TCO S4ECIAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS TITLE ONE COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATIONS ARTICLES 118 to 17@ 171 to 17? 18@ to 1;3. 9Arti")es 118 to 17@ #$d 18@ to 1;3 h#'e +ee$ repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ #$d superseded +* Tit)e IG o$ 4#rt$ership of Boo= Four of the Ne& Ci'i) Code. Arti")e 171 to 17? o$ so"ied#des #$o$i!#s h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Se"tio$ 1?1 of the Corpor#tio$ L#&.: ARTICLES 1;7 to 1<1. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ i!p)ied)* repe#)ed +* the Corpor#tio$ L#& #$d superseded +* the Ge$er#) B#$=i$( A"t.: ARTICLES 1<3 to 1?-. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ repe#)ed #$d superseded +* the Corpor#tio$ L#& #$d +* the Ne& Corpor#tio$ Code. ARTICLES 1?1 to 1?<. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ repe#)ed #$d superseded +* the C#rehouse Re"eipts L#&.: ARTICLES 1?? to -11. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ i!p)ied)* repe#)ed +* the Corpor#tio$ L#& #$d superseded +* the Ge$er#) B#$=i$( A"t.: ARTICLES -1- to -1;. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ pre'ious)* superseded +* A"t of Co$(ress of M#r"h 3 1?@; #$d A"t No. 1<87. See #)so A"t No. -81- #s #!e$ded +* A"t No. ;-3;. No& the

!#tters therei$ tre#ted #re (o'er$ed +* the Ge$er#) B#$=i$( A"t.: ARTICLES -1< to -1<. 9Arti")es -1< to -1; h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")es --;@ .-/ #$d superseded +* Tit)e IG o$ 4#rt$erships of Boo= Four of the Ne& Ci'i) Code. Arti")e -1< +ei$( # pro'isio$ o$ so"ied#des #$o$i!#s h#s +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* the Corpor#tio$ L#&.: "d#si# TITLE TCO AOINT ACCODNTS ARTICLE -1?. Mer"h#$ts !#* i$terest the!se)'es i$ the tr#$s#"tio$ of other !er"h#$ts "o$tri+uti$( thereto the #!ou$t of "#pit#) the* !#* #(ree upo$ #$d p#rti"ip#ti$( i$ the f#'or#+)e or u$f#'or#+)e resu)ts thereof i$ the proportio$ the* !#* deter!i$e. ARTICLE -3@. Cith re(#rd to their for!#tio$ 2oi$t #""ou$ts sh#)) $ot +e su+2e"ted to #$* for!#)it* #$d !#* +e pri'#te)* "o$tr#"ted or#))* or i$ &riti$( #$d their e0iste$"e !#* +e pro'ed +* #$* of the !e#$s #""epted +* )#& i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of Arti")e 71. ARTICLE -31. I$ the tr#$s#"tio$s tre#ted of i$ the fore(oi$( #rti")es $o "o!!er"i#) $#!e "o!!o$ to #)) the p#rti"ip#$ts "#$ +e #dopted $or "#$ #$* further dire"t "redit +e !#de use of e0"ept th#t of the !er"h#$t &ho tr#$s#"ts #$d !#$#(es the +usi$ess i$ his o&$ $#!e #$d u$der his i$di'idu#) )i#+i)it*. ARTICLE -3-. 4erso$s tr#$s#"ti$( +usi$ess &ith the !er"h#$t "#rr*i$( o$ the 2oi$t +usi$ess sh#)) o$)* h#'e # ri(ht of #"tio$ #(#i$st the )#tter #$d $ot #(#i$st the other perso$s i$terested #$d the )#tter o$ the other h#$d sh#)) h#'e $o ri(ht of #"tio$ #(#i$st the third perso$ &ho !#de the tr#$s#"tio$ &ith the !#$#(er u$)ess s#id !#$#(er for!#))* "edes his ri(hts to the!. ARTICLE -31. The )i5uid#tio$ sh#)) +e effe"ted +* the !#$#(er #$d #fter the tr#$s#"tio$s h#'e +ee$ "o$")uded he sh#)) re$der # proper #""ou$t of its resu)ts. TITLE THREE COMMERCIAL AGENCH ARTICLES -33 to 1@-. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #$d superseded +* Tit)e G o$ A(e$"* of Boo= Four of the s#!e Code.: TITLE FODR COMMERCIAL DE4OSITS ARTICLES 1@1 to 11@. F 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #$d superseded +* Tit)e GI o$ Deposits of Boo= Four of the s#!e Code.: TITLE FIEE COMMERCIAL LOANS ARTICLES 111 to 1-3. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #$d superseded +* Tit)e GI o$ Lo#$s of Boo= Four of the s#!e Code.: TITLE SIG COMMERCIAL 4DRCHASE AND SALE AND BARTER AND TRANSFERS OF NON6 NEGOTIABLE CREDITS SECTION ONE 4DRCHASE AND SALE ARTICLES 1-7 to 137. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #$d superseded +* Tit)e EI o$ S#)es of Boo= Four of the s#!e Code.: SECTION TCO BARTER ARTICLE 138. Co!!er"i#) +#rter sh#)) +e (o'er$ed +* the s#!e ru)es pres"ri+ed i$ this tit)e for pur"h#se #$d s#)e i$ so f#r #s the* #re #pp)i"#+)e to the "ir"u!st#$"es #$d "o$ditio$s of the for!er. SECTION THREE TRANSFERS OF NON6NEGOTIABLE CREDITS ARTICLE 13;. Co!!er"i#) "redits &hi"h #re $either $e(oti#+)e $or p#*#+)e to +e#rer !#* +e tr#$sferred +* the "reditor &ithout re5uiri$( the "o$se$t of the de+tor it +ei$( suffi"ie$t th#t he +e

i$for! of the tr#$sfer. The de+tor sh#)) +e +ou$d to the $e& "reditor +* 'irtue of the $otifi"#tio$ #$d fro! the ti!e it is !#de $o p#*!e$t sh#)) +e "o$sidered '#)id e0"ept th#t !#de to the )#tter. ARTICLE 13<. The #ssi($or sh#)) #$s&er for the )e(#)it* of the "redit #$d the "#p#"it* i$ &hi"h he !#de the tr#$sfer, +ut he sh#)) $ot #$s&er for the so)'e$"* of the de+tor u$)ess there is #$ e0press #(ree!e$t to the effe"t. "dt#i TITLE SEEEN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS FOR TRANS4ORTATION OEERLAND ARTICLE 13?. A "o$tr#"t of tr#$sport#tio$ +* )#$d or &#ter &#*s of #$* =i$d sh#)) +e "o$sidered "o!!er"i#)% 1. Che$ it h#s for its o+2e"t !er"h#$dise or #$* #rti")e of "o!!er"e. -. Che$ &h#te'er its o+2e"t !#* +e the "#rrier is # !er"h#$t or is h#+itu#))* e$(#(ed i$ tr#$sport#tio$ for the pu+)i". ARTICLE 17@. The shipper #s &e)) #s the "#rrier of !er"h#$dise or (oods !#* !utu#))* de!#$d th#t # +i)) of )#di$( +e !#de st#ti$(% 1. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d reside$"e of the shipper. -. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d reside$"e of the "#rrier. 1. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d reside$"e of the perso$ to &ho! or to &hose order the (oods #re to +e se$t or &hether the* #re to +e de)i'ered to the +e#rer of s#id +i)). 3. The des"riptio$ of the (oods &ith # st#te!e$t of their =i$d of their &ei(ht #$d of the e0ter$#) !#r=s or si($s of the p#"=#(es i$ &hi"h the* #re "o$t#i$ed. 7. The "ost of tr#$sport#tio$. 8. The d#te o$ &hi"h ship!e$t is !#de. ;. The p)#"e of de)i'er* to the "#rrier. <. The p)#"e #$d the ti!e #t &hi"h de)i'er* to the "o$si($ee sh#)) +e !#de. ?. The i$de!$it* to +e p#id +* the "#rrier i$ "#se of de)#* if there shou)d +e #$* #(ree!e$t o$ this !#tter. ARTICLE 171. I$ tr#$sport#tio$ !#de +* r#i)ro#ds or other e$terprises su+2e"t to re(u)#tio$ r#te #$d ti!e s"hedu)es it sh#)) +e suffi"ie$t for the +i))s of )#di$( or the de")#r#tio$ of ship!e$t fur$ished +* the shipper to refer &ith respe"t to the "ost ti!e #$d spe"i#) "o$ditio$s of the "#rri#(e to the s"hedu)es #$d re(u)#tio$s the #pp)i"#tio$ of &hi"h he re5uests, #$d if the shipper does $ot deter!i$e the s"hedu)e the "#rrier !ust #pp)* the r#te of those &hi"h #ppe#r to +e the )o&est &ith the "o$ditio$s i$here$t thereto #)&#*s i$")udi$( # st#te!e$t or refere$"e to i$ the +i)) of )#di$( &hi"h he de)i'ers to the shipper. ARTICLE 17-. The +i))s of )#di$( or ti"=ets i$ "#ses of tr#$sport#tio$ of p#sse$(ers !#* +e di'erse so!e for perso$s #$d others for +#((#(e, +ut #)) of the! sh#)) +e#r the $#!e of the "#rrier the d#te of ship!e$t the poi$ts of dep#rture #$d #rri'#) the "ost #$d &ith respe"t to the +#((#(e the $u!+er #$d &ei(ht of the p#"=#(es &ith su"h other !#$ifest#tio$s &hi"h !#* +e "o$sidered $e"ess#r* for their e#s* ide$tifi"#tio$. ARTICLE 171. The )e(#) e'ide$"e of the "o$tr#"t +et&ee$ the shipper #$d the "#rrier sh#)) +e the +i))s of )#di$( +* the "o$te$ts of &hi"h the disputes &hi"h !#* #rise re(#rdi$( their e0e"utio$ #$d perfor!#$"e sh#)) +e de"ided $o e0"eptio$s +ei$( #d!issi+)e other th#$ those of f#)sit* #$d !#teri#) error i$ the dr#fti$(. After the "o$tr#"t h#s +ee$ "o!p)ied &ith the +i)) of )#di$( &hi"h the "#rrier h#s issued sh#)) +e retur$ed to hi! #$d +* 'irtue of the e0"h#$(e of this tit)e &ith the thi$( tr#$sported the respe"ti'e o+)i(#tio$s #$d #"tio$s sh#)) +e "o$sidered "#$"e))ed u$)ess i$ the s#!e #"t the ")#i! &hi"h the p#rties !#* &ish to reser'e +e redu"ed to &riti$( &ith the e0"eptio$ of th#t pro'ided for i$ Arti")e 188. I$ "#se the "o$si($ee upo$ re"ei'i$( the (oods "#$$ot retur$ the +i)) of )#di$( su+s"ri+ed +* the "#rrier +e"#use of its )oss or of #$* other "#use he !ust (i'e the )#tter # re"eipt for the (oods

de)i'ered this re"eipt produ"i$( the s#!e effe"ts #s the retur$ of the +i)) of )#di$(. ARTICLE 173. I$ the #+se$"e of # +i)) of )#di$( disputes sh#)) +e deter!i$ed +* the )e(#) proofs &hi"h the p#rties !#* prese$t i$ support of their respe"ti'e ")#i!s #""ordi$( to the (e$er#) pro'isio$s est#+)ished i$ this Code for "o!!er"i#) "o$tr#"ts. "d ARTICLE 177. The respo$si+i)it* of the "#rrier sh#)) "o!!e$"e fro! the !o!e$t he re"ei'es the !er"h#$dise perso$#))* or throu(h # perso$ "h#r(ed for the purpose #t the p)#"e i$di"#ted for re"ei'i$( the!. ARTICLE 178. C#rriers !#* refuse p#"=#(es &hi"h #ppe#r u$fit for tr#$sport#tio$, #$d if the "#rri#(e is to +e !#de +* r#i)&#* #$d the ship!e$t is i$sisted upo$ the "o!p#$* sh#)) tr#$sport the! +ei$( e0e!pt fro! #)) respo$si+i)it* if its o+2e"tio$s is !#de to #ppe#r i$ the +i)) of )#di$(. ARTICLE 17;. If +* re#so$ of &e))6fou$ded suspi"io$ of f#)sit* i$ the de")#r#tio$ #s to the "o$te$ts of # p#"=#(e the "#rrier shou)d de"ide to e0#!i$e it he sh#)) pro"eed &ith his i$'esti(#tio$ i$ the prese$"e of &it$esses &ith the shipper or "o$si($ee i$ #tte$d#$"e. If the shipper or "o$si($ee &ho h#s to +e "ited does $ot #tte$d the e0#!i$#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de +efore # $ot#r* &ho sh#)) prep#re # !e!or#$du! of the resu)t of the i$'esti(#tio$ for su"h purposes #s !#* +e proper. If the de")#r#tio$ of the shipper shou)d +e true the e0pe$se o""#sio$ed +* the e0#!i$#tio$ #$d th#t of "#refu))* rep#"=i$( the p#"=#(es sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t of the "#rrier #$d i$ # "o$tr#r* "#se for the #""ou$t of the shipper. ARTICLE 17<. If there is $o period fi0ed for the de)i'er* of the (oods the "#rrier sh#)) +e +ou$d to for&#rd the! i$ the first ship!e$t of the s#!e or si!i)#r (oods &hi"h he !#* !#=e poi$t &here he !ust de)i'er the!, #$d shou)d he $ot do so the d#!#(es "#used +* the de)#* shou)d +e for his #""ou$t. ARTICLE 17?. If there is #$ #(ree!e$t +et&ee$ the shipper #$d the "#rrier #s to the ro#d o'er &hi"h the "o$'e*#$"e is to +e !#de the "#rrier !#* $ot "h#$(e the route u$)ess it +e +* re#so$ of for"e !#2eure, #$d shou)d he do so &ithout this "#use he sh#)) +e )i#+)e for #)) the )osses &hi"h the (oods he tr#$sports !#* suffer fro! #$* other "#use +eside p#*i$( the su! &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ stipu)#ted for su"h "#se. Che$ o$ #""ou$t of s#id "#use of for"e !#2eure the "#rrier h#d to t#=e #$other route &hi"h produ"ed #$ i$"re#se i$ tr#$sport#tio$ "h#r(es he sh#)) +e rei!+ursed for su"h i$"re#se upo$ for!#) proof thereof. ARTICLE 18@. The shipper &ithout "h#$(i$( the p)#"e &here the de)i'er* is to +e !#de !#* "h#$(e the "o$si($!e$t of the (oods &hi"h he de)i'ered to the "#rrier pro'ided th#t #t the ti!e of orderi$( the "h#$(e of "o$si($ee the +i)) of )#di$( si($ed +* the "#rrier if o$e h#s +ee$ issued +e retur$ed to hi! i$ e0"h#$(e for #$other &herei$ the $o'#tio$ of the "o$tr#"t #ppe#rs. The e0pe$ses &hi"h this "h#$(e of "o$si($!e$t o""#sio$s sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t of the shipper. ARTICLE 181. The !er"h#$dise sh#)) +e tr#$sported #t the ris= #$d 'e$ture of the shipper if the "o$tr#r* h#s $ot +ee$ e0press)* stipu)#ted. As # "o$se5ue$"e #)) the )osses #$d deterior#tio$s &hi"h the (oods !#* suffer duri$( the tr#$sport#tio$ +* re#so$ of fortuitous e'e$t for"e !#2eure or the i$here$t $#ture #$d defe"t of the (oods sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t #$d ris= of the shipper. "dt#i 4roof of these #""ide$ts is i$"u!+e$t upo$ the "#rrier. ARTICLE 18-. Ne'erthe)ess the "#rrier sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the )osses #$d d#!#(es resu)ti$( fro! the "#uses !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e if it is pro'ed #s #(#i$st hi! th#t the* #rose throu(h his $e()i(e$"e or +* re#so$ of his h#'i$( f#i)ed to t#=e the pre"#utio$s &hi"h us#(e h#s est#+)ished #!o$( "#refu) perso$s u$)ess the shipper h#s "o!!itted fr#ud i$ the +i)) of )#di$( represe$ti$( the (oods to +e of # =i$d or 5u#)it* differe$t fro! &h#t the* re#))* &ere. If $ot&ithst#$di$( the pre"#utio$s referred to i$ this #rti")e the (oods tr#$sported ru$ the ris= of +ei$( )ost o$ #""ou$t of their $#ture or +* re#so$ of u$#'oid#+)e #""ide$t there +ei$( $o ti!e for their o&$ers to dispose of the! the "#rrier !#* pro"eed to se)) the! p)#"i$( the! for this purpose #t the

dispos#) of the 2udi"i#) #uthorit* or of the offi"i#)s desi($#ted +* spe"i#) pro'isio$s. ARTICLE 181. Outside of the "#ses !e$tio$ed i$ the se"o$d p#r#(r#ph of Arti")e 181 the "#rrier sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to de)i'er the (oods shipped i$ the s#!e "o$ditio$ i$ &hi"h #""ordi$( to the +i)) of )#di$( the* &ere fou$d #t the ti!e the* &ere re"ei'ed &ithout #$* d#!#(e or i!p#ir!e$t #$d f#i)i$( to do so to p#* the '#)ue &hi"h those $ot de)i'ered !#* h#'e #t the poi$t #$d #t the ti!e #t &hi"h their de)i'er* shou)d h#'e +ee$ !#de. If those $ot de)i'ered for! p#rt of the (oods tr#$sported the "o$si($ee !#* refuse to re"ei'e the )#tter &he$ he pro'es th#t he "#$$ot !#=e use of the! i$depe$de$t)* of the others. ARTICLE 183. If the effe"t of the d#!#(e referred to i$ Arti")e 181 is !ere)* # di!i$utio$ i$ the '#)ue of the (oods the o+)i(#tio$ of the "#rrier sh#)) +e redu"ed to the p#*!e$t of the #!ou$t &hi"h i$ the 2ud(!e$t of e0perts "o$stitutes su"h differe$"e i$ '#)ue. ARTICLE 187. If i$ "o$se5ue$"e of the d#!#(e the (oods #re re$dered use)ess for s#)e #$d "o$su!ptio$ for the purposes for &hi"h the* #re proper)* desti$ed the "o$si($ee sh#)) $ot +e +ou$d to re"ei'e the! #$d he !#* h#'e the! i$ the h#$ds of the "#rrier de!#$di$( of the )#tter their '#)ue #t the "urre$t pri"e o$ th#t d#*. If #!o$( the d#!#(ed (oods there shou)d +e so!e pie"es i$ (ood "o$ditio$ #$d &ithout #$* defe"t the fore(oi$( pro'isio$ sh#)) +e #pp)i"#+)e &ith respe"t to those d#!#(ed #$d the "o$si($ee sh#)) re"ei'e those &hi"h #re sou$d this se(re(#tio$ to +e !#de +* disti$"t #$d sep#r#te pie"es #$d &ithout di'idi$( # si$()e o+2e"t u$)ess the "o$si($ee pro'es the i!possi+i)it* of "o$'e$ie$t)* !#=i$( use of the! i$ this for!. "dt The s#!e ru)e sh#)) +e #pp)ied to !er"h#$dise i$ +#)es or p#"=#(es sep#r#ti$( those p#r"e)s &hi"h #ppe#r sou$d. ARTICLE 188. Cithi$ the t&e$t*6four hours fo))o&i$( the re"eipt of the !er"h#$dise the ")#i! #(#i$st the "#rrier for d#!#(e or #'er#(e +e fou$d therei$ upo$ ope$i$( the p#"=#(es !#* +e !#de pro'ided th#t the i$di"#tio$s of the d#!#(e or #'er#(e &hi"h (i'es rise to the ")#i! "#$$ot +e #s"ert#i$ed fro! the outside p#rt of su"h p#"=#(es i$ &hi"h "#se the ")#i! sh#)) +e #d!itted o$)* #t the ti!e of re"eipt. After the periods !e$tio$ed h#'e e)#psed or the tr#$sport#tio$ "h#r(es h#'e +ee$ p#id $o ")#i! sh#)) +e #d!itted #(#i$st the "#rrier &ith re(#rd to the "o$ditio$ i$ &hi"h the (oods tr#$sported &ere de)i'ered. ARTICLE 18;. If dou+ts #$d disputes shou)d #rise +et&ee$ the "o$si($ee #$d the "#rrier &ith respe"t to the "o$ditio$ of the (oods tr#$sported #t the ti!e their de)i'er* to the for!er is !#de the (oods sh#)) +e e0#!i$ed +* e0perts #ppoi$ted +* the p#rties #$d i$ "#se of dis#(ree!e$t +* # third o$e #ppoi$ted +* the 2udi"i#) #uthorit* the resu)ts to +e redu"ed to &riti$(, #$d if the i$terested p#rties shou)d $ot #(ree &ith the e0pert opi$io$ #$d the* do $ot sett)e their differe$"es the !er"h#$dise sh#)) +e deposited i$ # s#fe &#rehouse +* order of the 2udi"i#) #uthorit* #$d the* sh#)) e0er"ise their ri(hts i$ the !#$$er th#t !#* +e proper. ARTICLE 18<. The "#rrier !ust de)i'er to the "o$si($ee &ithout #$* de)#* or o+stru"tio$ the (oods &hi"h he !#* h#'e re"ei'ed +* the !ere f#"t of +ei$( $#!ed i$ the +i)) of )#di$( to re"ei'e the!, #$d if he does $ot do so he sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the d#!#(es &hi"h !#* +e "#used there+*. ARTICLE 18?. If the "o$si($ee "#$$ot +e fou$d #t the reside$"e i$di"#ted i$ the +i)) of )#di$( or if he refuses to p#* the tr#$sport#tio$ "h#r(es #$d e0pe$ses or if he refuses to re"ei'e the (oods the !u$i"ip#) 2ud(e &here there is $o$e of the first i$st#$"e sh#)) pro'ide for their deposit #t the dispos#) of the shipper this deposit produ"i$( #)) the effe"ts of de)i'er* &ithout pre2udi"e to third p#rties &ith # +etter ri(ht. ARTICLE 1;@. If # period h#s +ee$ fi0ed for the de)i'er* of the (oods it !ust +e !#de &ithi$ su"h ti!e #$d for f#i)ure to do so the "#rrier sh#)) p#* the i$de!$it* stipu)#ted i$ the +i)) of )#di$( $either the shipper $or the "o$si($ee +ei$( e$tit)ed to #$*thi$( e)se. If $o i$de!$it* h#s +ee$ stipu)#ted #$d the de)#* e0"eeds the ti!e fi0ed i$ the +i)) of )#di$( the "#rrier

sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the d#!#(es &hi"h the de)#* !#* h#'e "#used. ARTICLE 1;1. I$ "#se of de)#* throu(h the f#u)t of the "#rrier referred to i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")es the "o$si($ee !#* )e#'e the (oods tr#$sported i$ the h#$ds of the for!er #d'isi$( hi! thereof i$ &riti$( +efore their #rri'#) #t the poi$t of desti$#tio$. Che$ this #+#$do$!e$t t#=es p)#"e the "#rrier sh#)) p#* the fu)) '#)ue of the (oods #s if the* h#d +ee$ )ost or !is)#id. #is#d" If the #+#$do$!e$t is $ot !#de the i$de!$ifi"#tio$ for )osses #$d d#!#(es +* re#so$ of the de)#* "#$$ot e0"eed the "urre$t pri"e &hi"h the (oods tr#$sported &ou)d h#'e h#d o$ the d#* #$d #t the p)#"e i$ &hi"h the* shou)d h#'e +ee$ de)i'ered, this s#!e ru)e is to +e o+ser'ed i$ #)) other "#ses i$ &hi"h this i$de!$it* !#* +e due. ARTICLE 1;-. The '#)ue of the (oods &hi"h the "#rrier !ust p#* i$ "#ses if )oss or !isp)#"e!e$t sh#)) he deter!i$ed i$ #""ord#$"e &ith th#t de")#red i$ the +i)) of )#di$( the shipper $ot +ei$( #))o&ed to prese$t proof th#t #!o$( the (oods de")#red therei$ there &ere #rti")es of (re#ter '#)ue #$d !o$e*. Horses 'ehi")es 'esse)s e5uip!e$t #$d #)) other pri$"ip#) #$d #""essor* !e#$s of tr#$sport#tio$ sh#)) +e espe"i#))* +ou$d i$ f#'or of the shipper #)thou(h &ith respe"t to r#i)ro#ds s#id )i#+i)it* sh#)) +e su+ordi$#ted to the pro'isio$s of the )#&s of "o$"essio$ &ith respe"t to the propert* #$d to &h#t this Code est#+)ished #s to the !#$$er #$d for! of effe"ti$( sei>ures #$d #tt#"h!e$ts #(#i$st s#id "o!p#$ies. ARTICLE 1;1. The "#rrier &ho !#=es the de)i'er* of the !er"h#$dise to the "o$si($ee +* 'irtue of "o!+i$ed #(ree!e$ts or ser'i"es &ith other "#rriers sh#)) #ssu!e the o+)i(#tio$s of those &ho pre"eded hi! i$ the "o$'e*#$"e reser'i$( his ri(ht to pro"eed #(#i$st the )#tter if he &#s $ot the p#rt* dire"t)* respo$si+)e for the f#u)t &hi"h (#'e rise to the ")#i! of the shipper or "o$si($ee. The "#rrier &ho !#=es the de)i'er* sh#)) )i=e&ise #"5uire #)) the #"tio$s #$d ri(hts of those &ho pre"eded hi! i$ the "o$'e*#$"e. The shipper #$d the "o$si($ee sh#)) h#'e #$ i!!edi#te ri(ht of #"tio$ #(#i$st the "#rrier &ho e0e"uted the tr#$sport#tio$ "o$tr#"t or #(#i$st the other "#rriers &ho !#* h#'e re"ei'ed the (oods tr#$sported &ithout reser'#tio$. Ho&e'er the reser'#tio$ !#de +* the )#tter sh#)) $ot re)ie'e the! fro! the respo$si+i)ities &hi"h the* !#* h#'e i$"urred +* their o&$ #"ts. ARTICLE 1;3. The "o$si($ees to &ho! the ship!e$t &#s !#de !#* $ot defer the p#*!e$t of the e0pe$ses #$d tr#$sport#tio$ "h#r(es of the (oods the* re"ei'e #fter the )#pse of t&e$t*6four hours fo))o&i$( their de)i'er*, #$d i$ "#se of de)#* i$ this p#*!e$t the "#rrier !#* de!#$d the 2udi"i#) s#)e of the (oods tr#$sported i$ #$ #!ou$t $e"ess#r* to "o'er the "ost of tr#$sport#tio$ #$d the e0pe$ses i$"urred. ARTICLE 1;7. The (oods tr#$sported sh#)) +e espe"i#))* +ou$d to #$s&er for the "ost of tr#$sport#tio$ #$d for the e0pe$ses #$d fees i$"urred for the! duri$( their "o$'e*#$"e #$d u$ti) the !o!e$t of their de)i'er*. This spe"i#) ri(ht sh#)) pres"ri+e ei(ht d#*s #fter the de)i'er* h#s +ee$ !#de #$d o$"e pres"ri+ed the "#rrier sh#)) h#'e $o other #"tio$ th#$ th#t "orrespo$di$( to hi! #s #$ ordi$#r* "reditor. ARTICLE 1;8. The prefere$"e of the "#rrier to the p#*!e$t of &h#t is o&ed hi! for the tr#$sport#tio$ #$d e0pe$ses of the (oods de)i'ered to the "o$si($ee sh#)) $ot +e "ut off +* the +#$=rupt"* of the )#tter pro'ided it is ")#i!ed &ithi$ the ei(ht d#*s !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e. ARTICLE 1;;. The "#rrier sh#)) +e )i#+)e for #)) the "o$se5ue$"es &hi"h !#* #rise fro! his f#i)ure to "o!p)* &ith the for!#)ities pres"ri+ed +* the )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s of the pu+)i" #d!i$istr#tio$ duri$( the &ho)e "ourse of the trip #$d upo$ #rri'#) #t the poi$t of desti$#tio$ e0"ept &he$ his f#i)ure #rises fro! h#'i$( +ee$ )ed i$to error +* f#)sehood o$ the p#rt of the shipper i$ the de")#r#tio$ of the !er"h#$dise. If the "#rrier h#s #"ted +* 'irtue of # for!#) order of the shipper or "o$si($ee of the !er"h#$dise +oth

sh#)) +e"o!e respo$si+)e. "d ARTICLE 1;<. A(e$ts for tr#$sport#tio$ sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to =eep # spe"i#) re(istr* &ith the for!#)ities re5uired +* Arti")e 18 i$ &hi"h #)) the (oods the tr#$sport#tio$ of &hi"h is u$dert#=e$ sh#)) +e e$tered i$ "o$se"uti'e order of $u!+er #$d d#tes &ith # st#te!e$t of the "ir"u!st#$"es re5uired i$ Arti")e 17@ #$d others fo))o&i$( for the respe"ti'e +i))s of )#di$(. ARTICLE 1;?. The pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ Arti")es 13? #$d fo))o&i$( sh#)) +e u$derstood #s e5u#))* #pp)i"#+)e to those &ho #)thou(h the* do $ot perso$#))* effe"t the tr#$sport#tio$ of the !er"h#$dise "o$tr#"t to do so throu(h others either #s "o$tr#"tors for # p#rti"u)#r #$d defi$ite oper#tio$ or #s #(e$ts for tr#$sport#tio$s #$d "o$'e*#$"es. I$ either "#se the* sh#)) +e su+ro(#ted i$ the p)#"e of the "#rriers the!se)'es &ith respe"t to the o+)i(#tio$s #$d respo$si+i)it* of the )#tter #s &e)) #s &ith re(#rd to their ri(hts. TITLE EIGHT INSDRANCE CONTRACTS ARTICLES 1<@ to 31<. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Se"tio$ -@3 of the I$sur#$"e A"t #$d #re superseded +* s#id A"t.: TITLE NINE COMMERCIAL GDARANTIES ARTICLES 31? to 33-. 9These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ e0press)* repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ .-/ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #$d #re superseded +* Arti")es -@3; to -@3< of the s#!e Code.: TITLE TEN CONTRACTS FOR BILLS OF EGCHANGE SECTION ONE BILL EGCHANGE ARTICLE 331. A +i)) of e0"h#$(e sh#)) +e "o$sidered # "o!!er"i#) i$stru!e$t .#$d #)) the ri(hts #$d #"tio$s #risi$( therefro! &ithout disti$"tio$ of perso$s sh#)) +e (o'er$ed +* the pro'isio$s of this Code./ ARTICLE 333. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se"s. 1 #$d 1-8 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 337. The ")#uses of I'#)ue o$ #""ou$tI #$d I'#)ue u$derstoodI sh#)) !#=e the pur"h#ser of the dr#ft )i#+)e for the #!ou$t of the s#!e i$ f#'or of the dr#&er i$ order to de!#$d it or "o!pe$s#te hi! i$ the !#$$er #$d #t the ti!e &hi"h +oth !#* h#'e #(reed o$ i$ !#=i$( the e0"h#$(e "o$tr#"t. ARTICLES 338 to 33;. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 1?6-1 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 33<. The dr#&ers "#$$ot refuse to issue to ho)ders of the +i))s of e0"h#$(e se"o$d #$d third +i))s #$d #s !#$* #s the* !#* re5uire o$ the s#!e +i)) pro'ided the re5uest is !#de +efore the +i))s f#)) due e0"epti$( the pro'isio$ of Arti")e 7@@ there +ei$( st#ted i$ #)) of the! th#t the* sh#)) $ot +e "o$sidered '#)id e0"ept i$ "#se p#*!e$t &#s $ot !#de o$ the first +i)) of e0"h#$(e issued or other prior o$es. ARTICLE 33?. I$ the #+se$"e of dup)i"#te "opies of the dr#ft issued +* the dr#&er #$* ho)der !#* (i'e the pur"h#ser # "op* st#ti$( th#t he issues it i$ the #+se$"e of the ori(i$#) &hi"h it is desired to su+stitute. I$ this "op* there !ust +e i$serted )iter#))* #)) the i$dorse!e$ts &hi"h the ori(i$#) "o$t#i$s. ARTICLE 37@. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se"s. 1;.e/ #$d 11@ Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 371. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se"s. 3 #$d ; Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLES 37- to 371. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. <7 <8 #$d 1?3 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: "d#si# ARTICLE 373. The !o$ths for the periods of dr#fts sh#)) +e "o!puted fro! d#te to d#te. If i$ the !o$ths the dr#fts f#))s due there is $o e5ui'#)e$t to th#t of the d#te o$ &hi"h the +i)) &#s dr#&$ it sh#)) +e u$derstood th#t if f#))s due the )#st d#* of the !o$th. ARTICLE 377. 9Repe#)ed:.

SECTION THREE OBLIGATIONS OF DRACERS ARTICLES 378 to 37;. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se". 1-; Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&:. ARTICLE 37<. The e0pe$ses #risi$( fro! the $o$6#""ept#$"e or $o$6p#*!e$t of the dr#ft sh#)) +e p#id +* dr#&er or +* the third perso$ for &hose #""ou$t it &#s !#de .u$)ess he pro'es th#t he supp)ied the fu$ds #t the proper ti!e or th#t he &#s # "reditor i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the fore(oi$( #rti")e or th#t he &#s spe"i#))* #uthori>ed to dr#& for the #!ou$t i$ 5uestio$. I$ #$* of the three "#ses the dr#&er !#* re5uire of the perso$ o+)i(#ted to #""ept #$d to p#* the i$de!$it* $or the e0pe$ses &hi"h he !#* h#'e p#id the ho)der of the dr#ft./ ARTICLES 37? to 38@. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 81 <? 1-3 171 1@- 1@3 #$d 17Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: SECTION FODR INDORSEMENTS OF BILLS OF EGCHANGE ARTICLES 381 to 383. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 1@ 11638 11 #$d 37 #$d 1- Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 387. I$dorse!e$ts si($ed i$ +)#$= #$d those i$ &hi"h the '#)ue is $ot st#ted sh#)) tr#$sfer the o&$ership of the dr#ft #$d sh#)) produ"e the s#!e effe"t #s if I'#)ue re"ei'edI &ere &ritte$ therei$. ARTICLES 388 to 38<. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 3@ #$d 8;, 81 83 88 #$d 8? Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: SECTION FIEE 4RESENTATION OF DRAFTS AND THEIR ACCE4TANCE ARTICLE 38?. Dr#fts &hi"h #re $ot prese$ted for #""ept#$"e or p#*!e$t &ithi$ the period fi0ed sh#)) +e #ffe"ted there+* #s &e)) #s &he$ the* #re $ot protested #t the proper ti!e. ARTICLES 3;@ to 3;;. 9These #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 131 #$d 133 11- 11 #$d 1;."/ Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 3;<. .The #""ept#$"e of the dr#ft !ust t#=e p)#"e or +e refused o$ the s#!e d#* o$ &hi"h the ho)der prese$ts it for this purpose #$d the perso$ of &ho! #""ept#$"e is de!#$ded "#$$ot ret#i$ the dr#ft i$ his possessio$ u$der #$* prete0t &h#tsoe'er./ If the dr#ft prese$ted for #""ept#$"e is to +e p#id i$ # p)#"e other th#$ th#t of the reside$"e of the perso$ #""epti$( the s#!e the do!i"i)e i$ &hi"h p#*!e$t is to +e !#de !ust +e st#ted i$ the dr#ft. The perso$ &ho re"ei'es # dr#ft for #""ept#$"e if it is dr#&$ o$ hi! or to h#'e it #""epted if it is dr#&$ o$ # third perso$ #$d shou)d ret#i$ possessio$ thereof e0pe"ti$( #$other "op* #$d sh#)) #d'ise its #""ept#$"e +* !e#$s of # )etter te)e(r#! or other !e#$s of &riti$( sh#)) +e )i#+)e to the dr#&er #$d i$dorsers thereof i$ the s#!e !#$$er #s if the #""ept#$"e h#d +ee$ p)#"ed o$ the dr#ft i$ 5uestio$ e'e$ thou(h su"h #""ept#$"e h#s $ot t#=e$ p)#"e or e'e$ &he$ he refuses the de)i'er* of the "op* #""epted to the perso$ )e(#))* re5uesti$( it./ ARTICLES 3;? to 3<3. 9These #rti")es #re repe#)ed. See Se"s. 11?613- 18-, 17@ 171 17- #$d 17<, ;@ 17- <1 #$d <-, #$d 111 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 3<7. 4erso$s &ho for&#rd dr#fts fro! o$e p)#"e to #$other too )#te to +e prese$ted or protested #t the proper ti!e sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the "o$se5ue$"es &hi"h !#* #rise +* re#so$ thereof. SECTION SIG GDARANTIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ARTICLE 3<8. The p#*!e$t of # dr#ft !#* +e se"ured +* # &ritte$ o+)i(#tio$ i$depe$de$t of th#t "o$tr#"ted +* the #""eptor #$d i$dorser =$o&$ +* the $#!e of (u#r#$tee 9#'#):. ARTICLE 3<;. If the (u#r#$tee 9#'#): is dr#&$ up i$ (e$er#) ter!s #$d &ithout restri"tio$ the perso$ (i'i$( it sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the p#*!e$t of the dr#ft i$ the s#!e "#ses #$d !#$$er #s the perso$ for &ho! he #ppe#rs #s (u#r#$tor, +ut if the (u#r#$tee 9#'#): is )i!ited #s to # deter!i$ed ti!e "#se #!ou$t or perso$ it sh#)) $ot produ"e further )i#+i)it* th#$ th#t #risi$( fro! the ter!s of the (u#r#$tee

9#'#):. SECTION SEEEN 4AHMENTS ARTICLE 3<<. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se"s. ;@ #$d ;1 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: #is#d" ARTICLE 3<?. Bi))s of E0"h#$(e !ust +e p#id i$ the !o$e* desi($#ted therei$ #$d if th#t "ou)d $ot +e pro"ured i$ its e5ui'#)e$t #""ordi$( to the use #$d "usto!s #t the p)#"e of p#*!e$t. ARTICLE 3?@. The perso$ p#*i$( # +i)) of e0"h#$(e +efore it is due sh#)) $ot +e e0e!pted fro! p#*i$( the #!ou$t of the s#!e if the first p#*!e$t &#s $ot !#de to # )e(iti!#te perso$. ARTICLE 3?1. The p#*!e$t of # +i)) of e0"h#$(e p#*#+)e to +e#rer &hi"h is due sh#)) +e "o$sidered '#)id u$)ess # (#r$ish!e$t of the #!ou$t thereof +* re#so$ of # 2udi"i#) 2ud(!e$t &#s pre'ious)* issued. ARTICLE 3?-. The ho)der of # dr#ft &ho re5uests its p#*!e$t is o+)i(ed to s#tisf* the perso$ p#*i$( it #s to his ide$tit* +* !e#$s of i$stru!e$ts or thou(h reside$ts &ho #re #"5u#i$ted &ith hi! or &ho &i)) (u#r#$tee his ide$tit*. The #+se$"e of this proof sh#)) $ot pre'e$t the deposit of the #!ou$t of the dr#ft o$ the d#* of its prese$t#tio$ i$ #$ est#+)ish!e$t or &ith # perso$ #""epted +* the ho)der #$d p#*or i$ &hi"h "#se the est#+)ish!e$t or perso$ sh#)) ret#i$ the su! deposited i$ his or its possessio$ u$ti) the )e(iti!#te p#*!e$t is !#de. The e0pe$ses #$d ris=s #risi$( fro! this deposit sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t of the ho)der of the dr#ft. ARTICLE 3?1. The ho)der of # dr#ft sh#)) $ot +e o+)i(ed to "o))e"t its #!ou$t +efore it f#))s due, +ut shou)d he #""ept s#id p#*!e$t it sh#)) +e '#)id .e0"ept i$ "#se of the +#$=rupt"* of the p#*or i$ the fiftee$ d#*s fo))o&i$( i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of Arti")e <;?.:/ ARTICLE 3?3. Neither sh#)) the ho)der +e o+)i(ed e'e$ #fter the dr#ft h#s f#))e$ due to re"ei'e p#rt #$d $ot the &ho)e #!ou$t of the s#!e #$d o$)* &ith his "o$se$t !#* # portio$ of its '#)ue +e p#id #$d the +#)#$"e +e )eft st#$di$(. I$ su"h "#se the dr#ft !#* +e protested for the #!ou$t &hi"h h#s +ee$ p#id #$d the ho)der sh#)) ret#i$ possessio$ thereof !#=i$( # !e!or#$du! o$ the s#!e of the #!ou$t "o))e"ted #$d (i'i$( # sep#r#te re"eipt for s#id #!ou$t. ARTICLE 3?7. Dr#fts #""epted !ust $e"ess#ri)* +e p#id o$ the "op* &hi"h "o$t#i$s the #""ept#$"e. If the p#*!e$t is !#de o$ #$* of the other o$es the perso$ &ho !#de the p#*!e$t sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the '#)ue of the dr#ft to the third perso$ &ho is the )e(iti!#te ho)der of the #""ept#$"e. ARTICLE 3?8. The #""eptor "#$$ot +e for"ed to p#* e'e$ thou(h the ho)der of the "op* $ot "o$t#i$i$( the #""ept#$"e +i$ds hi!se)f to (i'e se"urit* to the s#tisf#"tio$ of the for!er, +ut i$ the )#tter "#se the +e#rer !#* de!#$d the deposit #$d for!u)#te the protest i$ the ter!s !e$tio$ed i$ Arti")e 3?<. If the #""eptor 'o)u$t#ri)* #d!its the se"urit* #$d !#=es the p#*!e$t the for!er sh#)) +e )e(#))* "#$"e))ed #s soo$ #s the #""ept#$"e h#s pres"ri+ed &hi"h (i'e rise to the e0e"utio$ of the se"urit*. ARTICLES 3?; to 3??. 9These #re repe#)ed.: ARTICLE 7@@. The re5uest for # "op* to t#=e the p)#"e of the dr#ft )ost !ust +e !#de +* the )#st ho)der fro! the perso$ &ho tr#$sferred it to hi! #$d thus su""essi'e)* fro! o$e to #$other i$dorser u$ti) the dr#&er is re#"hed. No perso$ "#$ refuse to )e$d his $#!e #$d i$terpositio$ to the steps t#=e$ to pro"ure # $e& "op* the o&$er of the dr#ft defr#*i$( the e0pe$ses &hi"h !#* #rise u$ti) it is o+t#i$ed. ARTICLE 7@1. The p#*!e$ts !#de o$ #""ou$t of the '#)ue of # dr#ft +* the perso$ o$ &ho! it is dr#&$ sh#)) redu"e the )i#+i)it* of the dr#&er #$d i$dorsers i$ )i=e proportio$. SECTION EIGHT 4ROTESTS ARTICLE 7@-. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se". 17- Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.:

ARTICLE 7@1. A)) protests o$ #""ou$t of $o$6#""ept#$"e or $o$6p#*!e$t p)#"e the perso$ &ho (#'e rise thereto u$der the o+)i(#tio$ to defr#* the e0pe$ses )osses #$d d#!#(es. ARTICLE 7@3 to 7@<. 9These #re repe#)ed.: ARTICLE 7@?. No #"t or i$stru!e$t "#$ supp)* the o!issio$ #$d #+se$"e of the protest for the preser'#tio$ of the #"tio$ &hi"h !#* +e i$stituted +* the ho)der #(#i$st the perso$s )i#+)e for the )e(#) effe"t of the dr#ft. ARTICLE 71@. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se". 17< Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: "dt#i SECTION NINE INTEREENTION IN ACCE4TANCE AND 4AHMENT ARTICLE 711. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se"s. 1816181 Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: ARTICLE 71-. .The perso$ &ho i$ter'e$es i$ the protest of # +i)) of e0"h#$(e if he #""epts it sh#)) +e )i#+)e for its p#*!e$t i$ the s#!e !#$$er #s if it &ere dr#&$ o$ hi! +ei$( o+)i(ed to (i'e $oti"e of its #""ept#$"e +* the first !#i) to the perso$ for &ho! he i$ter'e$ed/, #$d shou)d he p#* it he sh#)) +e su+ro(#ted to the ri(hts of the ho)der "o!p)*i$( &ith the o+)i(#tio$s pres"ri+ed for the )#tter &ith the fo))o&i$( )i!it#tio$s% 1. If he p#*s s#id dr#ft for the #""ou$t of the dr#&er the )#tter o$)* sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the #!ou$t dis+ursed the i$dorsers +ei$( free. -. If he p#*s it for the #""ou$t of o$e of the )#tter he sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to +ri$( #$ #"tio$ #(#i$st the dr#&er #(#i$st the i$dorser for &hose #""ou$t he i$ter'e$ed #$d #(#i$st the others &ho pre"ede s#id i$dorser i$ the order of their i$dorse!e$ts +ut $ot #(#i$st those &ho !#* +e su+se5ue$t. ARTICLE 711. The i$ter'e$tio$ i$ the #""ept#$"e sh#)) $ot depri'e the ho)der of the dr#ft protested of the ri(ht to de!#$d of the dr#&er or of the i$dorsers the se"urit* for the resu)ts. ARTICLE 713. If the perso$ &ho did $ot #""ept # dr#ft (i'i$( rise to # protest there+* shou)d #ppe#r to p#* it &he$ it f#))s due his p#*!e$t sh#)) +e #""epted i$ prefere$"e to th#t of the perso$ &ho i$ter'e$ed or &ished to i$ter'e$e for the #""ept#$"e or p#*!e$t, +ut the e0pe$ses "#used +* the $o$6 #""ept#$"e of the dr#ft #t the proper ti!e sh#)) +e for his #""ou$t. ARTICLE 717. 9This is repe#)ed. See Se". 1;; Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#&.: SECTION TEN ACTIONS CHICH MAH BE INSTITDTED BH HOLDERS OF BILL OF EGCHANGE ARTICLE 718. I$ def#u)t of the p#*!e$t of # +i)) of e0"h#$(e prese$ted #$d protested #t the proper ti!e #$d i$ the proper !#$$er the ho)der sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht to de!#$d of the #""eptor of the dr#&er or of #$* of the i$dorsers the rei!+urse!e$t for the "osts of protest #$d re6e0"h#$(e, .+ut #fter #$ #"tio$ h#s +ee$ i$stituted #(#i$st o$e of the! it "#$$ot +e +rou(ht #(#i$st the rest e0"ept i$ the "#se of the i$so)'e$"* of the defe$d#$t./ ARTICLE 71;. 9This is repe#)ed:. ARTICLE 71<. If #$ e0e"utio$ h#s +ee$ h#d #(#i$st the propert* of the de+tor for the p#*!e$t or rei!+urse!e$t of # dr#ft #$d the ho)der shou)d h#'e +ee$ #+)e to re#)i>e o$)* # p#rt of his "redit he !#* +ri$( #$ #"tio$ #(#i$st the rest for the +#)#$"e of his #""ou$t u$ti) he is fu))* rei!+ursed i$ the !#$$er est#+)ished i$ Arti")e 718. "dt#i The s#!e sh#)) +e do$e i$ "#se the perso$ pro"eeded #(#i$st is de")#red i$ +#$=rupt"* #$d if #)) the perso$s )i#+)e for the dr#ft #re i$ si!i)#r "ir"u!st#$"es the ")#i!#$t sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to re"o'er fro! e#"h set of #ssets the "orrespo$di$( di'ide$d u$ti) his "redit is tot#))* "#$"e))ed. ARTICLE 71?. .The i$dorser &ho p#*s # protested dr#ft sh#)) su+ro(#te hi!se)f to the ri(hts of the ho)der thereof 'i>.% 1. If the protest &ere for $o$6#""ept#$"e #(#i$st the dr#&er #$d the other i$dorsers &ho pre"ede hi! i$ order for the se"urit* of the '#)ue of the dr#ft or the deposit i$ the #+se$"e of se"urit*. -. If it &ere for $o$6p#*!e$t #(#i$st the s#id dr#&er #""eptor #$d prior i$dorsers for the re"o'er* of the #!ou$t of the dr#ft #$d of #)) the "osts he !#* h#'e p#id./ If the dr#&er #$d the i$dorser +oth shou)d #ppe#r to !#=e the p#*!e$t the dr#&er sh#)) +e preferred,

#$d if the i$dorsers o$)* shou)d #ppe#r the o$e of # prior d#te. ARTICLE 7-@. The dr#&er #s &e)) #s #$* of the i$dorsers of # protested +i)) of e0"h#$(e !#* de!#$d #s soo$ #s the* re"ei'e $oti"e of the protest th#t the ho)der re"ei'e the #!ou$t &ith the )e(iti!#te e0pe$ses #$d de)i'er to the! the dr#ft &ith the protest #$d the #""ou$t of the redr#ft. ARTICLES 7-1 to 7-1. 9These #re repe#)ed.: ARTICLE 7-3. The #!ou$t &hi"h # "reditor re!its or re)e#ses to # de+tor #(#i$st &ho! #$ #"tio$ h#s +ee$ +rou(ht fro! the p#*!e$t or rei!+urse!e$t of # +i)) of e0"h#$(e sh#)) +e u$derstood #s e0te$ded #)so to the rest &ho !#* +e )i#+)e for the effe"ts of the "o))e"tio$. ARTICLE 7-7. The pres"riptio$ of # protested dr#ft sh#)) $ot h#'e #$* effe"t +* re#so$ of $o$6 prese$t#tio$ protest or its $otifi"#tio$ #t the ti!es &hi"h h#'e +ee$ st#ted &ith re(#rd to the dr#&er or i$dorser &ho #fter s#id periods h#'e e)#psed h#s +#)#$"ed the #!ou$t of the dr#ft i$ his #""ou$ts &ith the de+tor or rei!+ursed hi! &ith +o$ds or se"urities +e)o$(i$( to hi!. ARTICLE 7-8. Bi))s of e0"h#$(e protested +* re#so$ of p#*!e$t sh#)) e#r$ i$terest i$ f#'or of the ho)ders thereof. SECTION ELEEEN RE6EGCHANGE AND REDRAFT ARTICLE 7-;. The ho)der of # protested +i)) of e0"h#$(e !#* re"o'er the #!ou$t thereof #$d the "osts of protests #$d re6e0"h#$(e +* dr#&i$( # $e& +i)) #(#i$st the dr#&er or o$e of its i$dorsers #$d #tt#"hi$( to this dr#ft the ori(i$#) o$e #s &e)) #s the "ertified "op* of the protest #$d the #""ou$t of the redr#ft &hi"h sh#)) o$)* "o$t#i$ the fo))o&i$( ")#uses% 1. The #!ou$t of the +i)) of e0"h#$(e protested. -. 4rotest "osts. .1. St#!p t#0 for the redr#ft. 3. E0"h#$(e #""ordi$( to the "usto!s of the p)#"e. 7. Bro=er#(e of the tr#$s#"tio$./ 8. E0pe$se of the "orrespo$de$"e. ;. Loss +* re#so$ of the re6e0"h#$(e. I$ this #""ou$t there sh#)) +e st#ted the $#!e of the perso$ o$ &ho! the redr#ft is !#de. ARTICLE 7-<. A)) the ite!s of the redr#ft sh#)) "o$for! to the us#(es of the p)#"e .#$d the re6 e0"h#$(e to the "urre$t r#te of the d#* of the dr#ft. This &i)) +e pro'e$ +* the offi"i#) 5uot#tio$ o$ e0"h#$(e or +* !e#$s of # "ertifi"#te of #$ offi"i#) #(e$t or +ro=er shou)d there +e o$e #$d i$ their #+se$"e +* th#t of t&o re"orded !er"h#$ts./ ARTICLE 7-?. O$)* o$e #""ou$t or redr#ft "#$ +e !#de for e#"h +i)) of e0"h#$(e &hi"h #""ou$t sh#)) +e p#id +* the i$dorsers of o$e or the other u$ti) it is e0ti$(uished +* !e#$s of the rei!+urse!e$t of the dr#&er. .More th#$ o$e re6e0"h#$(e sh#)) $ot +e "h#r(ed #$d the #!ou$t thereof sh#)) +e (r#du#ted +* i$"re#si$( or redu"i$( the #!ou$t due fro! e#"h perso$ #""ordi$( #s to &hether the p#per o$ the p)#"e to &hi"h the redr#ft is #ddressed is $e(oti#ted i$ th#t of its do!i"i)e &ith # pre!iu! or &ith dis"ou$t &hi"h "ir"u!st#$"e sh#)) +e pro'e$ +* !e#$s of "ertifi"#te or #$ #(e$t +ro=er or !er"h#$t./ "d#si# ARTICLE 71@. The ho)der of # redr#ft "#$$ot de!#$d )e(#) i$terest thereo$ u$ti) #fter the d#* he de!#$ds p#*!e$t of the perso$ &ho is to p#* it i$ the !#$$er pres"ri+ed i$ Arti")e 81 of this Code. TITLE ELEEEN DRAFTS BILLS AND 4ROMISSORH NOTES 4AHABLE TO ORDER AND CHECKS ARTICLES 711 to 788. These #re !#i$)* superseded +* the Ne(oti#+)e I$stru!e$ts L#& 9A"t -@11:. TITLE TCELEE INSTRDMENTS 4AHABLE TO BEARER AND FORGERH ROBBERH THEFT OR LOSS OF THE SAME

ARTICLES 711 to 717. 9These #re repe#)ed:. ARTICLE 718. It !#* +e dr#&$ i$ the s#!e p)#"e it is to +e p#id or i$ # differe$t p)#"e, +ut the !#=er sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to pre'ious)* h#'e the fu$ds o$ deposit &ith the perso$ o$ &ho! it is dr#&$. ARTICLES 71; to 71<. 9These #re repe#)ed:. ARTICLE 71?. 4#*!e$t of # "he"= sh#)) +e de!#$ded of the depositor* o$ prese$t#tio$. .The perso$ to &ho! p#*!e$t is !#de sh#)) st#te i$ his re"eipt his $#!e #$d the d#te of p#*!e$t./ ARTICLE 73@. 9This is repe#)ed.: ARTICLE 731. The !#=er or #$* )e(#) ho)der of # "he"= sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to i$di"#te therei$ th#t it +e p#id to # "ert#i$ +#$=er or i$stitutio$ &hi"h he sh#)) do +* &riti$( #"ross the f#"e the $#!e of s#id +#$=er or i$stitutio$ or o$)* the &ords I#$d "o!p#$*.I The p#*!e$t !#de to # perso$ other th#$ +#$=er or i$stitutio$ sh#)) $ot e0e!pt the perso$ o$ &ho! it is dr#&$ if the p#*!e$t &#s $ot "orre"t)* !#de. ARTICLES 73- to 737. 9These #re repe#)ed:. ARTICLE 738. The ho)der of #$ i$stru!e$t p#*#+)e to +e#rer sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht to "o!p#re it &ith the ori(i$#) &he$e'er he "o$sider it #d'is#+)e. ARTICLE 73;. The fo))o&i$( sh#)) +e i$stru!e$ts of "redit p#*#+)e to +e#rer for the effe"ts of this se"tio$ #""ordi$( to the fo))o&i$( "#ses% 1. I$stru!e$ts of "redit #(#i$st the St#te pro'i$"es or !u$i"ip#)ities )e(#))* issued. -. Those issued +* forei($ "ou$tries the 5uot#tio$ of &hi"h h#s +ee$ #uthori>ed +* the Go'er$!e$t o$ the re"o!!e$d#tio$ of the +o#rd of dire"tors of the #sso"i#tio$s of #(e$ts. 1. I$stru!e$ts of "redit p#*#+)e to +e#rer of forei($ e$terprises est#+)ished i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the )#& of the St#te to &hi"h the* +e)o$(. 3. I$stru!e$ts of "redit p#*#+)e to +e#rer issued i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the )#&s of their #sso"i#tio$ +* $#tio$#) est#+)ish!e$ts #sso"i#tio$s or e$terprises. 7. Those issued +* pri'#te p#rties pro'ided the* #re !ort(#(ed or #re suffi"ie$t)* se"ured. "dt ARTICLE 73<. The dispossessed o&$er $o !#tter for &h#t "#use it !#* +e !#* #pp)* to the 2ud(e or "ourt of "o!pete$t 2urisdi"tio$ #s=i$( th#t the pri$"ip#) i$terest or di'ide$ds due or #+out to +e"o!e due +e $ot p#id # third perso$ #s &e)) #s i$ order to pre'e$t the o&$ership of the i$stru!e$t fro! +ei$( tr#$sferred to #$other perso$ or he !#* re5uest th#t # dup)i"#te he issued hi!. The 2ud(e or "ourt e0er"isi$( 2urisdi"tio$ i$ the distri"t i$ &hi"h the de+tor est#+)ish!e$t or perso$ is situ#ted sh#)) +e of "o!pete$t 2urisdi"tio$. ARTICLE 73?. I$ the "o!p)#i$t !#de to the 2ud(e or "ourt +* the dispossessed o&$er he !ust st#te the $#!e "h#r#"ter $o!i$#) '#)ue $u!+er if it shou)d h#'e o$e #$d the series of the i$stru!e$t, #$d further!ore if it &ere possi+)e the ti!e #$d p)#"e he #"5uired o&$ership #$d the !#$$er of #"5uisitio$ thereof the ti!e #$d p)#"e &here he re"ei'ed the )#st i$terest or di'ide$ds #$d the "ir"u!st#$"es #tte$di$( the dispossessio$. The perso$ dispossessed i$ !#=i$( the "o!p)#i$t sh#)) i$di"#te &ithi$ the distri"t i$ &hi"h the 2ud(e or "ourt of "o!pete$t 2urisdi"tio$ e0er"ises the do!i"i)e &here he is to +e ser'ed &ith #)) $otifi"#tio$s. ARTICLE 77@. If the "o!p)#i$t re)#tes o$)* to the p#*!e$t of the pri$"ip#) or i$terest or di'ide$ds &hi"h #re due or #+out to +e"o!e due the 2ud(e or "ourt &he$ the )e(#)it* of the #"5uisitio$ of the i$stru!e$t h#s +ee$ pro'ed !ust #d!it s#id "o!p)#i$t i!!edi#te)* orderi$(% .1. Th#t the "o!p)#i$t +e i!!edi#te)* pu+)ished i$ the G#"et#s of M#drid #$d M#$i)# i$ the Bo)eti$ ofi"i#) of the pro'i$"e #$d i$ the Di#rio ofi"i#) de A'isos of the p)#"e shou)d there +e o$e fi0i$( # short period &ithi$ &hi"h the ho)der of the i$stru!e$t !#* #ppe#r./ -. Th#t it +e "o!!u$i"#ted to the !#$#(i$( offi"e of the i$stitutio$ &hi"h issued the i$stru!e$t or to the #sso"i#tio$ or pri'#te perso$ fro! &ho! it ori(i$#tes i$ order th#t the p#*!e$t of the pri$"ip#) or i$terest !#* +e suspe$ded. ARTICLE 771. 9This is repe#)ed.: ARTICLE 77-. After o$e *e#r h#s e)#psed si$"e the "o!p)#i$t &ithout #$*+od* "o$tr#di"ti$( it

#$d if i$ the i$ter'#) t&o di'ide$ds h#'e +ee$ distri+uted the "o!p)#i$#$t !#* re5uest the 2ud(e or "ourt for #uthorit* $ot o$)* to re"o'er the i$terest of di'ide$ds due or #+out to +e"o!e due i$ the proportio$ #$d !e#$s of their "o))e"ti+i)it* +ut #)so the pri$"ip#) of the i$stru!e$ts if it is de!#$d#+)e. ARTICLE 771. After #uthori>#tio$ h#s +ee$ (r#$ted +* the 2ud(e or "ourt the perso$ dispossessed !ust +efore re"ei'i$( the i$terest or di'ide$ds or the pri$"ip#) (i'e suffi"ie$t se"urit* to "o'er the #!ou$t of the #$$uities re"o'er#+)e #$d further!ore t&i"e the #!ou$t of the )#st #$$uit* due. After t&o *e#rs h#'e e)#psed fro! the d#te of the #uthori>#tio$ &ithout the "o!p)#i$#$t +ei$( "o$tr#di"ted the (u#r#$t* sh#)) +e "#$"e))ed. If the "o!p)#i$#$t does $ot &ish to or "#$$ot (i'e the se"urit* the de+tor #sso"i#tio$ or pri'#te perso$ !#* re5uest the deposit of the i$terest or di'ide$ds p#st due or of the pri$"ip#) re"o'er#+)e #$d to re"ei'e #fter the t&o *e#rs the #!ou$t deposited if there +e $o o+2e"tio$. ARTICLE 773. If the pri$"ip#) shou)d +e re"o'er#+)e #fter the #uthori>#tio$ it !#* +e de!#$ded u$der se"urit* or the deposit !#* +e re5uired. After fi'e *e#rs h#'e e)#psed &ithout oppositio$ fro! the d#te of the #uthori>#tio$ or te$ *e#rs fro! the d#te it &#s de!#$d#+)e the perso$ dispossessed !#* re"ei'e the se"urities deposited. ARTICLE 777. The so)'e$"* of the (u#r#$t* sh#)) +e p#ssed upo$ +* the 2ud(es #$d "ourts. The "o!p)#i$#$t !#* (i'e se"urit* i$ +o$ds of the St#te re"o'eri$( the! #t the ter!i$#tio$ of the period fi0ed for the (u#r#$t*. ARTICLE 778. If the "o!p)#i$t re)#tes to "oupo$s p#*#+)e to +e#rer sep#r#ted fro! the i$stru!e$t #$d the ")#i! shou)d $ot +e o'erru)ed the ")#i!#$t !#* re"o'er the #!ou$t of the "oupo$s #fter three *e#rs h#'e e)#psed "ou$ted fro! the d#te of the 2udi"i#) de")#r#tio$ #d!itti$( the "o!p)#i$t. ARTICLE 77;. The p#*!e$ts !#de to the perso$ dispossessed i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the ru)es #+o'e est#+)ished e0e!pt the de+tor fro! #)) the )i#+i)it*, #$d # third perso$ &ho "o$siders hi!se)f i$2ured sh#)) o$)* ret#i$ the ri(ht of perso$#) #"tio$ #(#i$st the ")#i!#$t &ho #"ted &ithout 2ust "#use. ARTICLE 77<. If +efore the e0e!ptio$ of the de+tor # third ho)der shou)d #ppe#r &ith the i$stru!e$ts the su+2e"t of the "o!p)#i$t the for!er !ust ret#i$ possessio$ thereof #$d i$for! the 2ud(e or "ourt #$d the first ")#i!#$t #t the s#!e ti!e st#ti$( the $#!e reside$"e or !#$$er i$ &hi"h the third ho)der !#* +e fou$d. "d#si# The #ppe#r#$"e of # third perso$ sh#)) suspe$d the effe"ts of the ")#i! u$ti) it is de"ided +* the 2ud(e or "ourt. ARTICLES 77? to 787. 9These #re repe#)ed:. ARTICLE 788. The fore(oi$( pro'isio$s sh#)) $ot +e #pp)i"#+)e to the +#$= $otes of the Sp#$ish 4hi)ippi$e B#$= 9B#$"o Esp#Jo)6Fi)ipi$o: $or to $otes of the s#!e =i$d issued +* i$stitutio$s su+2e"t to the s#!e ru)e $or to the i$stru!e$ts p#*#+)e to +e#rer issued +* the St#te &hi"h #re (o'er$ed +* spe"i#) )#&s de"rees or re(u)#tio$s. TITLE THIRTEEN LETTERS OF CREDIT ARTICLE 78;. Letters of "redit #re those issued +* o$e !er"h#$t to #$other or for the purpose of #tte$di$( to # "o!!er"i#) tr#$s#"tio$. ARTICLE 78<. The esse$ti#) "o$ditio$s of )etters of "redit sh#)) +e% 1. To +e issued i$ f#'or of # defi$ite perso$ #$d $ot to order. -. To +e )i!ited to # fi0ed #$d spe"ified #!ou$t or to o$e or !ore u$deter!i$ed #!ou$ts +ut &ithi$ # !#0i!u! the )i!its of &hi"h h#s to +e st#ted e0#"t)*. Those &hi"h do $ot h#'e #$* of these )#st "ir"u!st#$"es sh#)) +e "o$sidered #s !ere )etters of re"o!!e$d#tio$. ARTICLE 78?. The dr#&er of # )etter of "redit sh#)) +e )i#+)e to the perso$ o$ &ho! it &#s

issued for the #!ou$t p#id +* 'irtue thereof &ithi$ the !#0i!u! fi0ed therei$. Letters of "redit !#* $ot +e protested e'e$ shou)d the* $ot +e p#id $or sh#)) the +e#rer thereof #"5uire #$* ri(ht of #"tio$ +* re#so$ of su"h $o$6p#*!e$t #(#i$st the perso$ &ho issued it. The perso$ p#*i$( sh#)) h#'e the ri(ht to de!#$d the proof of the ide$tit* of the perso$ i$ &hose f#'or the )etter of "redit &#s issued. ARTICLE 7;@. The dr#&er of # )etter of "redit !#* #$$u) it i$for!i$( the +e#rer #$d the perso$ to &ho! it is #ddressed of su"h re'o"#tio$. ARTICLE 7;1. The +e#rer of # )etter of "redit sh#)) p#* the #!ou$t re"ei'ed to the dr#&er &ithout de)#*. Shou)d he $ot do so #$ #"tio$ i$'o)'i$( e0e"utio$ !#* +e +rou(ht to re"o'er it &ith )e(#) i$terest #$d the "urre$t e0"h#$(e i$ the p)#"e &here p#*!e$t &#s !#de o$ the p)#"e &here it is rep#id. ARTICLE 7;-. If the +e#rer of # )etter of "redit does $ot !#=e use thereof &ithi$ the period #(reed upo$ &ith the dr#&er or i$ def#u)t of # period fi0ed &ithi$ si0 !o$ths "ou$ted fro! its d#te i$ #$* poi$t i$ the 4hi)ippi$es #$d &ith i$ t&e)'e !o$ths #$*&here outside thereof it sh#)) +e 'oid i$ f#"t #$d i$ )#&. MARITIME COMMERCE TITLE ONE EESSELS ARTICLE 7;1. Mer"h#$t 'esse)s "o$stitute propert* &hi"h !#* +e #"5uired #$d tr#$sferred +* #$* of the !e#$s re"o($i>ed +* )#&. The #"5uisitio$ of # 'esse) !ust #ppe#r i$ # &ritte$ i$stru!e$t &hi"h sh#)) $ot produ"e #$* effe"t &ith respe"t to third perso$s if $ot i$s"ri+ed i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s. "d The o&$ership of # 'esse) sh#)) )i=e&ise +e #"5uired +* possessio$ i$ (ood f#ith "o$ti$ued for three *e#rs &ith # 2ust tit)e du)* re"orded. I$ the #+se$"e of #$* of these re5uisites "o$ti$uous possessio$ for te$ *e#rs sh#)) +e $e"ess#r* i$ order to #"5uire o&$ership. A "#pt#i$ !#* $ot #"5uire +* pres"riptio$ the 'esse) of &hi"h he is i$ "o!!#$d. ARTICLE 7;3. Bui)ders of 'esse)s !#* e!p)o* the !#teri#)s #$d fo))o& &ith respe"t to their "o$stru"tio$ #$d ri((i$( the s*ste!s !ost suit#+)e to their i$terests. Ship o&$ers #$d se#!e$ sh#)) +e su+2e"t to &h#t the )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s of the pu+)i" #d!i$istr#tio$ o$ $#'i(#tio$ "usto!s he#)th s#fet* of 'esse)s #$d other si!i)#r !#tters. ARTICLE 7;7. Co6o&$ers of 'esse)s sh#)) h#'e the ri(ht of repur"h#se #$d rede!ptio$ i$ s#)es !#de to str#$(ers +ut the* !#* e0er"ise the s#!e o$)* &ithi$ the $i$e d#*s fo))o&i$( the i$s"riptio$ of the s#)e i$ the re(istr* #$d +* depositi$( the pri"e #t the s#!e ti!e. ARTICLE 7;8. I$ the s#)e of # 'esse) it sh#)) #)&#*s +e u$derstood #s i$")uded the ri((i$( !#sts stores #$d e$(i$e of # stre#!er #ppurte$#$t thereto &hi"h #t the ti!e +e)o$(s to the 'e$dor. The #r!s !u$itio$s of &#r pro'isio$s #$d fue) sh#)) $ot +e "o$sidered #s i$")uded i$ the s#)e. The 'e$dor sh#)) +e u$der the o+)i(#tio$ to de)i'er to the pur"h#ser # "ertified "op* of the re"ord sheet of the 'esse) i$ the re(istr* up to the d#te of the s#)e. ARTICLE 7;;. If the #)ie$#tio$ of the 'esse) shou)d +e !#de &hi)e it is o$ # 'o*#(e the frei(ht#(e &hi"h it e#r$s fro! the ti!e it re"ei'es its )#st "#r(o sh#)) pert#i$ e$tire)* to the pur"h#ser #$d the p#*!e$t of the "re& #$d other perso$s &ho !#=e up its "o!p)e!e$t for the s#!e 'o*#(e sh#)) +e for his #""ou$t. If the s#)e is !#de #fter the 'esse) h#s #rri'ed #t the port of its desti$#tio$ the frei(ht#(e sh#)) pert#i$ to the 'e$dor #$d the p#*!e$t of the "re& #$d other i$di'idu#)s &ho !#=e up its "o!p)e!e$t sh#)) +e for his #""ou$t u$)ess the "o$tr#r* is stipu)#ted i$ either "#se. ARTICLE 7;<. If the 'esse) +ei$( o$ # 'o*#(e or i$ # forei($ port its o&$er or o&$ers shou)d 'o)u$t#ri)* #)ie$#te it either to Fi)ipi$os or to forei($ers do!i"i)ed i$ the "#pit#) or i$ # port of #$other "ou$tr* the +i)) of s#)e sh#)) +e e0e"uted +efore the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es #t the port

&here it ter!i$#tes its 'o*#(e #$d s#id i$stru!e$t sh#)) produ"e $o effe"t &ith respe"t to third perso$s if it is $ot i$s"ri+ed i$ the re(istr* of the "o$su)#te. The "o$su) sh#)) i!!edi#te)* for&#rd # true "op* of the i$stru!e$t of pur"h#se #$d s#)e of the 'esse) to the re(istr* of 'esse)s of the port &here s#id 'esse) is i$s"ri+ed #$d re(istered. I$ e'er* "#se the #)ie$#tio$ of the 'esse) !ust +e !#de to #ppe#r &ith # st#te!e$t of &hether the 'e$dor re"ei'es its pri"e i$ &ho)e or i$ p#rt or &hether he preser'es i$ &ho)e or i$ p#rt #$* ")#i! o$ s#id 'esse). I$ "#se the s#)e is !#de to # Fi)ipi$o this f#"t sh#)) +e st#ted i$ the "ertifi"#te of $#'i(#tio$. #is#d" Che$ # 'esse) +ei$( o$ # 'o*#(e sh#)) +e re$dered use)ess for $#'i(#tio$ the "#pt#i$ sh#)) #pp)* to the "o!pete$t 2ud(e o$ "ourt of the port of #rri'#) shou)d it +e i$ the 4hi)ippi$es, #$d shou)d it +e i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es shou)d there +e o$e or &here there is $o$e to the 2ud(e or "ourt or to the )o"#) #uthorit*, #$d the "o$su) or the 2ud(e or "ourt sh#)) order #$ e0#!i$#tio$ of the 'esse) to +e !#de. If the "o$si($ee or the i$surer shou)d reside #t s#id port or shou)d h#'e represe$t#ti'es there the* !ust +e "ited i$ order th#t the* !#* t#=e p#rt i$ the pro"eedi$(s o$ +eh#)f of &hoe'er !#* +e "o$"er$ed. ARTICLE 7;?. After the d#!#(e to the 'esse) #$d the i!possi+i)it* of her +ei$( rep#ired i$ order to "o$ti$ue the 'o*#(e h#d +ee$ sho&$ its s#)e #t pu+)i" #u"tio$ sh#)) +e ordered su+2e"t to the fo))o&i$( ru)es% 1. The hu)) of the 'esse) its ri((i$( e$(i$es stores #$d other #rti")es sh#)) +e #ppr#ised #fter !#=i$( #$ i$'e$tor* s#id pro"eedi$(s to +e +rou(ht to the $oti"e of the perso$s &ho !#* &ish to t#=e p#rt i$ the #u"tio$. -. The order or de"ree orderi$( the #u"tio$ to +e he)d sh#)) +e posted i$ the usu#) p)#"es #$ #$$ou$"e!e$t thereof to +e i$serted i$ the Offi"i#) G#>ette #$d i$ t&o of the $e&sp#pers of the )#r(est "ir"u)#tio$ of the port &here the #u"tio$ is to +e he)d shou)d there +e #$*. The period &hi"h !#* +e fi0ed for the #u"tio$ sh#)) $ot +e )ess th#$ t&e$t* d#*s. 1. These #$$ou$"e!e$ts sh#)) +e repe#ted e'er* te$ d#*s #$d their pu+)i"#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de to #ppe#r i$ the re"ords. 3. The #u"tio$ sh#)) +e he)d o$ the d#* fi0ed &ith the for!#)ities pres"ri+ed i$ the "o!!o$ )#& for 2udi"i#) s#)es. 7. If the s#)e shou)d t#=e p)#"e &hi)e the 'esse) is i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* the spe"i#) pro'isio$s (o'er$i$( su"h "#ses sh#)) +e o+ser'ed. ARTICLE 7<@. I$ #)) 2udi"i#) s#)es of #$* 'esse) for the p#*!e$t of "reditors the fo))o&i$( sh#)) h#'e prefere$"e i$ the order st#ted 1. The "redit i$ f#'or of the pu+)i" tre#sur* pro'e$ +* !e#$s of #$ offi"i#) "ertifi"#te of "o!pete$t #uthorit*. -. The 2udi"i#) "osts of the pro"eedi$(s #""ordi$( to #$ #ppr#ise!e$t #ppro'ed +* the 2ud(e or "ourt. 1. The pi)ot#(e "h#r(es to$$#(e dues #$d the other se# or port "h#r(es pro'e$ +* !e#$s of proper "ertifi"#tes of the offi"ers i$trusted &ith the "o))e"tio$ thereof. 3. The s#)#ries of the deposit#ries #$d =eepers of the 'esse) #$d #$* other e0pe$ses for its preser'#tio$ fro! the ti!e of #rri'#) #t the port u$ti) the s#)e &hi"h #ppe#r to h#'e +ee$ p#id or +e due +* 'irtue of #$ #""ou$t 'erified #$d #ppro'ed +* the 2ud(e or "ourt. "dt#i 7. The re$t of the &#rehouse &here the ri((i$( #$d stores of the 'esse) h#'e +ee$ t#=e$ "#re of #""ordi$( to "o$tr#"t. 8. The s#)#ries due the "#pt#i$ #$d "re& duri$( its )#st 'o*#(e &hi"h sh#)) +e 'erified +* !e#$s of the )i5uid#tio$ to +e !#de i$ 'ie& of the )ists #$d of the +oo=s of #""ou$t of the 'esse) #ppro'ed +* the "hief of the Bure#u of Mer"h#$t M#ri$e &here there is o$e #$d i$ his #+se$"e +* the "o$su) or 2ud(e or "ourt. ;. The rei!+urse!e$t for the (oods of the frei(ht &hi"h the "#pt#i$ !#* h#'e so)d i$ order to

rep#ir the 'esse) pro'ided th#t the s#)e h#s +ee$ ordered throu(h # 2udi"i#) pro"eedi$(s he)d &ith the for!#)ities re5uired i$ su"h "#ses #$d re"orded i$ the "ertifi"#te of re(istr* of the 'esse). <. The p#rt of the pri"e &hi"h h#s $ot +ee$ p#id to the s#id 'e$dor the u$p#id "redits for !#teri#)s #$d )#+or i$ the "o$stru"tio$ of the 'esse) &he$ it h#s $ot $#'i(#ted #$d those #risi$( fro! the rep#ir #$d e5uip!e$t of the 'esse)s #$d fro! its pro'isio$i$( &ith 'i"tu#)s #$d fue) duri$( the )#st 'o*#(e. I$ order th#t the "redits pro'ided for i$ this su+di'isio$ !#* e$2o* this prefere$"e the* !ust #ppe#r +* "o$tr#"ts re"orded i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s or if the* &ere "o$tr#"ted for the 'esse) &hi)e o$ # 'o*#(e #$d s#id 'esse) h#s $ot retur$ed to the port &here it is re(istered the* !ust +e !#de &ith the #uthori>#tio$ re5uired for su"h "#ses #$d #$$ot#ted i$ the "ertifi"#te of re(istr#tio$ of the 'esse). "dt#i ?. The #!ou$t +orro&ed o$ +otto!r* o$ the hu)) =ee) t#"=)e #$d stores of the 'esse) +efore its dep#rture pro'e$ +* !e#$s of the "o$tr#"t e0e"uted #""ordi$( to )#& #$d re"orded i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s, those +orro&ed duri$( the 'o*#(e &ith the #uthori>#tio$ !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( su+di'isio$ s#tisf*i$( the s#!e re5uisites, #$d the i$sur#$"e pre!iu! pro'e$ +* the i$sur#$"e po)i"* or # "ertifi"#te t#=e$ fro! the +oo=s of the +ro=er. 1@. The i$de!$it* due the shipper for the '#)ue of the (oods shipped &hi"h &ere $ot de)i'ered to the "o$si($ees or for #'er#(es suffered for &hi"h the 'esse) is )i#+)e pro'ided th#t either #ppe#r i$ # 2udi"i#) or #r+itr#tio$ de"isio$. ARTICLE 7<1. If the pro"eeds of the s#)e shou)d $ot +e suffi"ie$t to p#* #)) the "reditors i$")uded i$ o$e $u!+er or (r#de the residue sh#)) +e di'ided #!o$( the! pro r#t#. ARTICLE 7<-. After the +i)) of the 2udi"i#) s#)e #t pu+)i" #u"tio$ h#s +ee$ e0e"uted #$d i$s"ri+ed i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s #)) the other )i#+i)ities of the 'esse) i$ f#'or of the "reditors sh#)) +e "o$sidered e0ti$(uished. But if the s#)e shou)d h#'e +ee$ 'o)u$t#r* #$d shou)d h#'e +ee$ !#de &hi)e the 'esse) &#s o$ # 'o*#(e the "reditors sh#)) preser'e their ri(hts #(#i$st the 'esse) u$ti) it retur$s to the port of her re(istr* #$d three !o$ths #fter the i$s"riptio$ of the s#)e i$ the re(istr* of 'esse) or the #rri'#). ARTICLE 7<1. If &hi)e o$ # 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ shou)d fi$d it $e"ess#r* to "o$tr#"t o$e or !ore of the o+)i(#tio$s !e$tio$ed i$ su+di'isio$s < #$d ? of Arti")e 7<@ he sh#)) #pp)* to the 2ud(e or "ourt if he is i$ 4hi)ippi$e territor* #$d other&ise to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es shou)d there +e o$e #$d i$ his #+se$"e to the 2ud(e or "ourt or proper )o"#) #uthorit* prese$ti$( the "ertifi"#te of the re(istr#tio$ sheet tre#ted of i$ Arti")e 81- #$d the i$stru!e$ts pro'i$( the o+)i(#tio$ "o$tr#"ted. The 2ud(e or "ourt the "o$su) or the )o"#) #uthorit* #s the "#se !#* +e i$ 'ie& of the resu)t of the pro"eedi$(s i$stituted sh#)) !#=e # te!por#r* !e!or#$du! of their resu)t i$ the "ertifi"#te i$ order th#t it !#* +e re"orded i$ the re(istr* &he$ the 'esse) retur$s to the port of its re(istr* or so th#t it "#$ +e #d!itted #s # )e(#) #$d preferred o+)i(#tio$ i$ "#se of s#)e +efore its retur$ +* re#so$ of the s#)e of the 'esse) o$ #""ou$t of # de")#r#tio$ of u$se#&orthi$ess. The o!issio$ of this for!#)it* sh#)) !#=e the "#pt#i$ perso$#))* )i#+)e for the "redits pre2udi"ed o$ his #""ou$t. ARTICLE 7<3. The 'esse)s su+2e"t to )i#+i)it* for the "redits !e$tio$ed i$ Arti")e 7<@ !#* +e #tt#"hed #$d 2udi"i#))* so)d i$ the !#$$er pres"ri+ed i$ Arti")e 7;? i$ the port i$ &hi"h the* !#* +e fou$d #t the i$st#$"e of #$* of the "reditors, +ut if the* shou)d +e )o#ded #$d re#d* to s#i) the #tt#"h!e$t !#* $ot +e effe"ted e0"ept for de+ts "o$tr#"ted to prep#re #$d pro'isio$ the 'esse) for the s#!e 'o*#(e #$d e'e$ the$ the #tt#"h!e$t sh#)) +e disso)'ed if #$* perso$ i$terested i$ its s#i)i$( shou)d (i'e # +o$d for the retur$ of the 'esse) &ithi$ the period fi0ed i$ the "ertifi"#te of $#'i(#tio$ +i$di$( hi!se)f to p#* the i$de+ted$ess i$sof#r #s it !#* +e )e(#) shou)d it f#i) to do so e'e$ if this f#i)ure +e due to fortuitous e'e$t. For de+ts of #$* other =i$d &h#tsoe'er $ot "o!prised &ithi$ the s#id Arti")e 7<@ the 'esse) !#* +e #tt#"hed o$)* i$ the port of her re(istr*. ARTICLE 7<7. For #)) purposes of )#& $ot !odified or restri"ted +* the pro'isio$s of this Code

'esse)s sh#)) "o$ti$ue to +e "o$sidered #s perso$#) propert*. TITLE TCO 4ERSONS CHO TAKE 4ART IN MARITIME COMMERCE SECTION ONE SHI4OCNERS AND SHI4 AGENTS ARTICLE 7<8. The shipo&$er #$d the ship #(e$t sh#)) +e "i'i))* )i#+)e for the #"ts of the "#pt#i$ #$d for the o+)i(#tio$s "o$tr#"ted +* the )#tter to rep#ir e5uip #$d pro'isio$ the 'esse) pro'ided the "reditor pro'es th#t the #!ou$t ")#i!ed &#s i$'ested for the +e$efit of the s#!e. B* ship #(e$t is u$derstood the perso$ e$trusted &ith pro'isio$i$( or represe$ti$( the 'esse) i$ the port i$ &hi"h it !#* +e fou$d. ARTICLE 7<;. The ship #(e$t sh#)) #)so +e "i'i))* )i#+)e for the i$de!$ities i$ f#'or of third perso$s &hi"h !#* #rise fro! the "o$du"t of the "#pt#i$ i$ the "#re of the (oods &hi"h he )o#ded o$ the 'esse), +ut he !#* e0e!pt hi!se)f therefro! +* #+#$do$i$( the 'esse) &ith #)) her e5uip!e$ts #$d the frei(ht it !#* h#'e e#r$ed duri$( the 'o*#(e. ARTICLE 7<<. Neither the shipo&$er $or the ship #(e$t sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the o+)i(#tio$s "o$tr#"ted +* the "#pt#i$ if the )#tter e0"eeds the po&ers #$d pri'i)e(es pert#i$i$( to hi! +* re#so$ of his positio$ or "o$ferred upo$ hi! +* the for!er. Ne'erthe)ess if the #!ou$ts ")#i!ed &ere i$'ested for the +e$efit of the 'esse) the respo$si+i)it* therefor sh#)) de'o)'e upo$ its o&$er or #(e$t. ARTICLE 7<?. If t&o or !ore perso$s shou)d +e p#rt o&$ers of # !er"h#$t 'esse) # p#rt$ership sh#)) +e presu!ed #s est#+)ished +* the "o6o&$ers. This p#rt$ership sh#)) +e (o'er$ed +* the reso)utio$s of the !#2orit* of the !e!+ers. If the p#rt o&$ers shou)d $ot +e !ore th#$ t&o the dis#(ree!e$t of 'ie&s if #$* sh#)) +e de"ided +* the 'ote of the !e!+er h#'i$( the )#r(est i$terest. If the i$terests #re e5u#) it shou)d +e de"ided +* )ot. The perso$ h#'i$( the s!#))est sh#re i$ the o&$ership sh#)) h#'e o$e 'ote, #$d proportio$#te)* the other p#rt o&$ers #s !#$* 'otes #s the* h#'e p#rts e5u#) to the s!#))est o$e. #is#d" A 'esse) !#* $ot +e det#i$ed #tt#"hed or )e'ied upo$ i$ e0e"utio$ i$ its e$tiret* for the pri'#te de+ts of # p#rt o&$er +ut the pro"eedi$(s sh#)) +e )i!ited to the i$terest &hi"h the de+tor !#* h#'e i$ the 'esse) &ithout i$terferi$( &ith the $#'i(#tio$. ARTICLE 7?@. The "o6o&$ers of # 'esse) sh#)) +e "i'i))* )i#+)e i$ the proportio$ of their i$terests i$ the "o!!o$ fu$d for the resu)ts of the #"ts of the "#pt#i$ referred to i$ Arti")e 7<;. E#"h "o6o&$er !#* e0e!pt hi!se)f fro! this )i#+i)it* +* the #+#$do$!e$t +efore # $ot#r* of the p#rt of the 'esse) +e)o$(i$( to hi!. ARTICLE 7?1. A)) the p#rt o&$ers sh#)) +e )i#+)e i$ proportio$ to their respe"ti'e o&$ership for the e0pe$ses for rep#iri$( the 'esse) #$d for other e0pe$ses &hi"h #re i$"urred +* 'irtue of # reso)utio$ of the !#2orit*. The* sh#)) )i=e&ise +e )i#+)e i$ the s#!e proportio$ for the e0pe$ses for the !#i$te$#$"e e5uip!e$t #$d pro'isio$i$( of the 'esse) $e"ess#r* for $#'i(#tio$. ARTICLE 7?-. The reso)utio$ of the !#2orit* &ith re(#rd to the rep#ir e5uip!e$t #$d pro'isio$i$( of the 'esse) i$ the port of dep#rture sh#)) +i$d the !i$orit* u$)ess the !i$orit* !e!+ers re$ou$"e their i$terests &hi"h !ust +e #"5uired +* the other "o6o&$ers #fter # 2udi"i#) #ppr#ise!e$t of the '#)ue of the portio$ or portio$s #ssi($ed. The reso)utio$s of the !#2orit* re)#ti$( to the disso)utio$ of the p#rt$ership #$d s#)e of the 'esse) sh#)) #)so +e +i$di$( o$ the !i$orit*. The s#)e of the 'esse) !ust +e !#de #t pu+)i" #u"tio$ su+2e"t to the pro'isio$s of the )#& of "i'i) pro"edure u$)ess the "o6o&$ers u$#$i!ous)* #(ree other&ise s#*i$( #)&#*s the ri(ht of repur"h#se #$d rede!ptio$ pro'ided for i$ Arti")e 7;7. ARTICLE 7?1. The o&$ers of # 'esse) sh#)) h#'e prefere$"e i$ her "h#rter o'er other perso$s u$der the s#!e "o$ditio$s #$d pri"e. If t&o or !ore of the! shou)d ")#i! this ri(ht the o$e h#'i$( the

(re#ter i$terest sh#)) +e preferred, #$d shou)d the* h#'e e5u#) i$terests the !#tter sh#)) +e de"ided +* )ot. ARTICLE 7?3. The "o6o&$ers sh#)) e)e"t the !#$#(er &ho is to represe$t the! i$ the "#p#"it* of ship #(e$t. The #ppoi$t!e$t of dire"tor or ship #(e$t sh#)) +e re'o"#+)e #t the &i)) of the !e!+ers. ARTICLE 7?7. The ship #(e$t &hether he is #t the s#!e ti!e the o&$er of the 'esse) or # !#$#(er for #$ o&$er or for #$ #sso"i#tio$ of "o6o&$ers !ust h#'e the "#p#"it* to tr#de #$d !ust +e re"orded i$ the !er"h#$tBs re(istr* of the pro'i$"e. The ship #(e$t sh#)) represe$t the o&$ership of the 'esse) #$d !#* i$ his o&$ $#!e #$d i$ su"h "#p#"it* t#=e 2udi"i#) #$d e0tr#2udi"i#) steps i$ !#tters re)#ti$( to "o!!er"e. ARTICLE 7?8. The ship #(e$t !#* dis"h#r(e the duties of "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) su+2e"t i$ e'er* "#se to the pro'isio$ of Arti")e 8@?. If t&o or !ore "o6o&$ers #pp)* for the positio$ of "#pt#i$ the dis#(ree!e$t sh#)) +e de"ided +* # 'ote of the !e!+ers, #$d if the 'ote shou)d resu)t i$ # tie it sh#)) +e de"ided i$ f#'or of the "o6o&$er h#'i$( the )#r(er i$terest i$ the 'esse). If the i$terests of the #pp)i"#$ts shou)d +e e5u#) #$d there shou)d +e # tie the !#tter sh#)) +e de"ided +* )ot. ARTICLE 7?;. The ship #(e$t sh#)) desi($#te #$d "o!e to ter!s &ith the "#pt#i$ #$d sh#)) "o$tr#"t i$ the $#!e of the o&$ers &ho sh#)) +e +ou$d i$ #)) th#t refer to rep#irs det#i)s of e5uip!e$t #r!#!e$t pro'isio$s of food #$d fue) #$d frei(ht of the 'esse) #$d i$ (e$er#) i$ #)) th#t re)#te to the re5uire!e$ts of $#'i(#tio$. ARTICLE 7?<. The ship #(e$t !#* $ot order # $e& 'o*#(e or !#=e "o$tr#"ts for # $e& "h#rter or i$sure the 'esse) &ithout the #uthori>#tio$ of its o&$er or reso)utio$ of the !#2orit* of the "o6 o&$ers u$)ess these po&ers &ere (r#$ted hi! i$ the "ertifi"#te of his #ppoi$t!e$t. "d#si# If he i$sures the 'esse) &ithout #uthori>#tio$ therefore he sh#)) +e su+sidi#ri)* )i#+)e for the so)'e$"* of the i$surer. ARTICLE 7??. The ship #(e$t !#$#(i$( for #$ #sso"i#tio$ sh#)) re$der to his #sso"i#tes #$ #""ou$t of the resu)ts of e#"h 'o*#(e of the 'esse) &ithout pre2udi"e to #)&#*s h#'i$( the +oo=s #$d "orrespo$de$"e re)#ti$( to the 'esse) #$d to its 'o*#(es #t their dispos#). ARTICLE 8@@. After the #""ou$t of the !#$#(i$( #(e$t h#s +ee$ #ppro'ed +* # re)#ti'e !#2orit* the "o6o&$ers sh#)) p#* the e0pe$ses i$ proportio$ to their i$terest &ithout pre2udi"e to the "i'i) or "ri!i$#) #"tio$s &hi"h the !i$orit* !#* dee! fit to i$stitute #fter&#rds. I$ order to e$for"e the p#*!e$t the !#$#(i$( #(e$t sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to #$ e0e"utor* #"tio$ 9I#""io$ e2e"uti'#I: &hi"h sh#)) +e i$stituted +* 'irtue of # reso)utio$ of the !#2orit* #$d &ithout further pro"eedi$(s th#$ the #"=$o&)ed(!e$t of the si($#tures of the perso$s &ho 'oted for the reso)utio$. ARTICLE 8@1. Shou)d there +e #$* profits the "o6o&$ers !#* de!#$d of the !#$#(i$( #(e$t the #!ou$t "orrespo$di$( to their i$terests +* !e#$s of #$ e0e"utor* #"tio$ 9I#""io$ e2e"uti'#I: &ithout #$* other re5uisite th#$ the #"=$o&)ed(!e$t of the si($#tures o$ the i$stru!e$t #ppro'i$( the #""ou$t. ARTICLE 8@-. The ship #(e$t sh#)) i$de!$if* the "#pt#i$ for #)) the e0pe$ses he !#* h#'e i$"urred &ith fu$ds of his o&$ or of others for the +e$efit of the 'esse). ARTICLE 8@1. Before the 'esse) sets out to se# the ship #(e$t !#* #t his dis"retio$ dis"h#r(e the "#pt#i$ #$d !e!+ers of the "re& &hose "o$tr#"ts #re $ot for # defi$ite period or 'o*#(e p#*i$( the! the s#)#ries e#r$ed #""ordi$( to their "o$tr#"ts #$d &ithout #$* i$de!$it* &h#tsoe'er u$)ess there is #$ e0press #$d spe"ifi" #(ree!e$t i$ respe"t thereto. ARTICLE 8@3. If the "#pt#i$ or #$* other !e!+er of the "re& shou)d +e dis"h#r(ed duri$( the 'o*#(e the* sh#)) re"ei'e their s#)#r* u$ti) the* retur$ to the port &here the "o$tr#"t &#s !#de u$)ess there shou)d +e 2ust "#use for the dis"h#r(e #)) i$ #""ord#$"e &ith Arti")e 818 #$d fo))o&i$( of this Code.

ARTICLE 8@7. If the "o$tr#"ts of the "#pt#i$ #$d !e!+ers of the "re& &ith the ship #(e$t shou)d +e for # defi$ite period or 'o*#(e the* !#* $ot +e dis"h#r(ed u$ti) #fter the fu)fi))!e$t of their "o$tr#"ts e0"ept +* re#so$ of i$su+ordi$#tio$ i$ serious !#tters ro++er* theft h#+itu#) dru$=e$$ess or d#!#(e "#used to the 'esse) or to its "#r(o throu(h !#)i"e or !#$ifest or pro'e$ $e()i(e$"e. ARTICLE 8@8. If the "#pt#i$ shou)d +e # "o6o&$er of the 'esse) he !#* $ot +e dis"h#r(ed u$)ess the ship #(e$t retur$s to hi! the #!ou$t of his i$terest therei$ &hi"h i$ the #+se$"e of #(ree!e$t +et&ee$ the p#rties sh#)) +e #ppr#ised +* e0perts #ppoi$ted i$ the !#$$er est#+)ished i$ the )#& of "i'i) pro"edure. ARTICLE 8@;. If the "#pt#i$ &ho is # "o6o&$er shou)d h#'e o+t#i$ed the "o!!#$d of the 'esse) +* 'irtue of # spe"i#) #(ree!e$t "o$t#i$ed i$ the #rti")es of #sso"i#tio$ he !#* $ot +e depri'ed of his offi"e e0"ept for the "#uses !e$tio$ed i$ Arti")e 8@7. ARTICLE 8@<. I$ "#se of the 'o)u$t#r* s#)e of the 'esse) #)) "o$tr#"ts +et&ee$ the ship #(e$t #$d the "#pt#i$ sh#)) ter!i$#te reser'i$( to the )#tter his ri(ht to the i$de!$it* &hi"h !#* pert#i$ to hi! #""ordi$( to the #(ree!e$ts !#de &ith the ship #(e$t. The* 'esse) so)d sh#)) re!#i$ su+2e"t to the se"urit* of the p#*!e$t of s#id i$de!$it* if #fter the #"tio$ #(#i$st the 'e$dor h#s +ee$ i$stituted the )#tter is fou$d to +e i$so)'e$t. SECTION TCO CA4TAINS AND MASTERS OF EESSELS ARTICLE 8@?. C#pt#i$s !#sters or p#tro$s of 'esse)s !ust +e Fi)ipi$os h#'e )e(#) "#p#"it* to "o$tr#"t i$ #""ord#$"e &ith this "ode #$d pro'e the s=i)) "#p#"it* #$d 5u#)ifi"#tio$s $e"ess#r* to "o!!#$d #$d dire"t the 'esse) #s est#+)ished +* !#ri$e or $#'i(#tio$ )#&s ordi$#$"es or re(u)#tio$s #$d !ust $ot +e dis5u#)ified #""ordi$( to the s#!e for the dis"h#r(e of the duties of the positio$. "dt If the o&$er of # 'esse) desires to +e the "#pt#i$ thereof &ithout h#'i$( the )e(#) 5u#)ifi"#tio$s therefor he sh#)) )i!it hi!se)f to the fi$#$"i#) #d!i$istr#tio$ of the 'esse) #$d sh#)) i$trust the $#'i(#tio$ to # perso$ possessi$( the 5u#)ifi"#tio$s re5uired +* s#id ordi$#$"es #$d re(u)#tio$s. ARTICLE 81@. The fo))o&i$( po&ers sh#)) +e i$here$t i$ the positio$ of "#pt#i$ !#ster or p#tro$ of # 'esse)% 1. To #ppoi$t or !#=e "o$tr#"ts &ith the "re& i$ the #+se$"e of the ship #(e$t #$d to propose s#id "re& shou)d s#id #(e$t +e prese$t, +ut the ship #(e$t !#* $ot e!p)o* #$* !e!+er #(#i$st the "#pt#i$Bs e0press refus#). -. To "o!!#$d the "re& #$d dire"t the 'esse) to the port of its desti$#tio$ i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the i$stru"tio$s he !#* h#'e re"ei'ed fro! the ship #(e$t. 1. To i!pose i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the "o$tr#"ts #$d &ith the )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s of the !er"h#$t !#ri$e #$d &he$ o$ +o#rd the 'esse) "orre"tio$#) pu$ish!e$t upo$ those &ho f#i) to "o!p)* &ith his orders or #re &#$ti$( i$ dis"ip)i$e ho)di$( # pre)i!i$#r* he#ri$( o$ the "ri!es "o!!itted o$ +o#rd the 'esse) o$ the se#s &hi"h "ri!es sh#)) +e tur$ed o'er to the #uthorities h#'i$( 2urisdi"tio$ o'er the s#!e #t the first port tou"hed. 3. To !#=e "o$tr#"ts for the "h#rter of the 'esse) i$ the #+se$"e of the ship #(e$t or of its "o$si($ee #"ti$( i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the i$stru"tio$s re"ei'ed #$d prote"ti$( the i$terests of the o&$er &ith ut!ost "#re. 7. To #dopt #)) proper !e#sures to =eep the 'esse) &e)) supp)ied #$d e5uipped pur"h#si$( #)) th#t !#* +e $e"ess#r* for the purpose pro'ided there is $o ti!e to re5uest i$stru"tio$ fro! the ship #(e$t. 8. To order i$ si!i)#r ur(e$t "#ses &hi)e o$ # 'o*#(e the rep#irs o$ the hu)) #$d e$(i$es of the 'esse) #$d i$ its ri((i$( #$d e5uip!e$t &hi"h #re #+so)ute)* $e"ess#r* to e$#+)e it to "o$ti$ue #$d fi$ish its 'o*#(e, +ut if he shou)d #rri'e #t # poi$t &here there is # "o$si($ee of the 'esse) he sh#)) #"t i$ "o$"urre$"e &ith the )#tter. ARTICLE 811. I$ order to "o!p)* &ith the o+)i(#tio$s !e$tio$ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e the "#pt#i$ &he$ he h#s $o fu$ds #$d does $ot e0pe"t to re"ei'e #$* fro! the ship #(e$t sh#)) o+t#i$ the s#!e i$ the su""essi'e order st#ted +e)o&%

1. B* re5uesti$( s#id fu$ds fro! the "o$si($ee of the 'esse) or "orrespo$de$ts of the ship #(e$t. -. B* #pp)*i$( to the "o$si($ees of the "#r(o or to those i$terested therei$. 1. B* dr#&i$( o$ the ship #(e$t. 3. B* +orro&i$( the #!ou$t re5uired +* !e#$s of # )o#$ o$ +otto!r*. 7. B* se))i$( # suffi"ie$t #!ou$t of the "#r(o to "o'er the su! #+so)ute)* i$dispe$s#+)e for the rep#ir of the 'esse) #$d to e$#+)e it to "o$ti$ue its 'o*#(e. "d I$ these t&o )#st "#ses he !ust #pp)* to the 2udi"i#) #uthorit* of the port if i$ the 4hi)ippi$es #$d to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es if i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* #$d &here there is $o$e to the )o"#) #uthorit* pro"eedi$( i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of Arti")e 7<1 #$d &ith the pro'isio$s of the )#& of "i'i) pro"edure. ARTICLE 81-. The fo))o&i$( o+)i(#tio$s sh#)) +e i$here$t i$ the offi"e of "#pt#i$% 1. To h#'e o$ +o#rd +efore st#rti$( o$ # 'o*#(e # det#i)ed i$'e$tor* of the hu)) e$(i$es ri((i$( sp#re6!#sts t#"=)e #$d other e5uip!e$t of the 'esse), the ro*#) or the $#'i(#tio$ "ertifi"#te, the ro)) of the perso$s &ho !#=e up the "re& of the 'esse) #$d the "o$tr#"ts e$tered i$to &ith the!, the )ists of p#sse$(ers, the +i)) of he#)th, the "ertifi"#te of the re(istr* pro'i$( the o&$ership of the 'esse) #$d #)) the o+)i(#tio$s &hi"h e$"u!+er the s#!e up to th#t d#te, the "h#rter p#rties or #uthe$ti"#ted "opies thereof, the i$'oi"es or !#$ifests of the "#r(o #$d the !e!or#$du! of the 'isit or i$spe"tio$ +* e0perts shou)d it h#'e +ee$ !#de #t the port of dep#rture. -. To h#'e # "op* of this "ode o$ +o#rd. 1. To h#'e three fo)ioed #$d st#!ped +oo=s p)#"i$( #t the +e(i$$i$( of e#"h o$e # !e!or#$du! of the $u!+er of fo)ios it "o$t#i$s si($ed +* the !#riti!e #uthorit* #$d i$ his #+se$"e +* the "o!pete$t #uthorit*. I$ the first +oo= &hi"h sh#)) +e "#))ed I)o( +oo= I he sh#)) e$ter d#* +* d#* the "o$ditio$ of the #t!osphere the pre'#i)i$( &i$ds the "ourses t#=e$ the ri((i$( "#rried the po&er of the e$(i$es used i$ $#'i(#tio$ the dist#$"es "o'ered the !#$eu'ers e0e"uted #$d other i$"ide$ts of $#'i(#tio$, he sh#)) #)so e$ter the d#!#(e suffered +* the 'esse) i$ her hu)) e$(i$es ri((i$( #$d t#"=)e $o !#tter &h#t its "#use !#* +e #s &e)) #s the i!p#ir!e$t #$d d#!#(e suffered +* "#r(o #$d the effe"t #$d i!port#$"e of the 2ettiso$ shou)d there +e #$*, #$d i$ "#ses of serious de"isio$s &hi"h re5uire the #d'i"e or # !eeti$( of the offi"ers of the 'esse) or e'e$ of the "re& #$d p#sse$(ers he sh#)) re"ord the de"isio$s #dopted. For the i$for!#tio$ i$di"#ted he sh#)) !#=e use of the +i$$#")e +oo= #$d of the ste#! of e$(i$e +oo= =ept +* the e$(i$eer. I$ the se"o$d +oo= "#))ed the I#""ou$ti$( +oo= I he sh#)) re"ord #)) the #!ou$ts "o))e"ted #$d p#id for the #""ou$t of the 'esse) e$teri$( spe"ifi"#))* #rti")e +* #rti")e the sour"e of the "o))e"tio$ #$d the #!ou$ts spe$t for pro'isio$s rep#irs #"5uisitio$s of e5uip!e$t or (oods fue) food outfits &#(es #$d other e0pe$ses of &h#te'er $#ture the* !#* +e. He sh#)) further!ore e$ter therei$ # )ist of #)) the !e!+ers of the "re& st#ti$( their do!i"i)es their &#(es #$d s#)#ries #$d the #!ou$ts the* !#* h#'e re"ei'ed o$ #""ou$t dire"t)* or +* de)i'er* to their f#!i)ies. I$ the third +oo= "#))ed Ifrei(ht +oo= I he sh#)) re"ord the )o#di$( #$d dis"h#r(e of #)) the (oods st#ti$( their !#r=s #$d p#"=#(es $#!es of the shippers #$d of the "o$si($ees ports of )o#di$( #$d u$)o#di$( #$d the frei(ht#(e the* (i'e. I$ this s#!e +oo= he sh#)) re"ord the $#!es #$d p)#"es of s#i)i$( of the p#sse$(ers the $u!+er of p#"=#(es i$ their +#((#(e #$d the pri"e of p#ss#(e. 3. Before re"ei'i$( "#r(o to !#=e &ith the offi"ers of the "re& #$d t&o e0perts if re5uired +* the shippers #$d p#sse$(ers #$ e0#!i$#tio$ of the 'esse) i$ order to #s"ert#i$ &hether it is &#ter6ti(ht &ith the ri((i$( #$d e$(i$es i$ (ood "o$ditio$ #$d &ith the e5uip!e$t re5uired for (ood $#'i(#tio$ preser'i$( u$der his respo$si+i)it* # "ertifi"#te of the !e!or#$du! of his i$spe"tio$ si($ed +* #)) those &ho !#* h#'e t#=e$ p#rt therei$. The e0perts sh#)) +e #ppoi$ted o$e +* the "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) #$d #$other +* those &ho re5uest its e0#!i$#tio$ #$d i$ "#se of dis#(ree!e$t # third sh#)) +e #ppoi$ted +* the !#ri$e #uthorit* of the port or +* the #uthorit* e0er"isi$( his fu$"tio$s.

7. To re!#i$ "o$st#$t)* o$ +o#rd the 'esse) &ith the "re& &hi)e the "#r(o is +ei$( t#=e$ o$ +o#rd #$d to "#refu))* &#t"h the sto&#(e thereof, $ot to "o$se$t to the )o#di$( of #$* !er"h#$dise or !#tter of # d#$(erous "h#r#"ter su"h #s i$f)#!!#+)e or e0p)osi'e su+st#$"es &ithout the pre"#utio$s &hi"h #re re"o!!e$ded for their p#"=i$( h#$d)i$( #$d iso)#tio$, $ot to per!it the "#rri#(e o$ de"= of #$* "#r(o &hi"h +* re#so$ of its #rr#$(e!e$t 'o)u!e or &ei(ht !#=es the &or= of the s#i)ors diffi"u)t #$d &hi"h !i(ht e$d#$(er the s#fet* of the 'esse), #$d if o$ #""ou$t of the $#ture of the !er"h#$dise the spe"i#) "h#r#"ter of the ship!e$t #$d pri$"ip#))* the f#'or#+)e se#so$ i$ &hi"h it is u$dert#=e$ !er"h#$dise !#* +e "#rried o$ de"= he !ust he#r the opi$io$ of the offi"ers of the 'esse) #$d h#'e the "o$se$t of the shippers #$d of the ship #(e$t. 8. To de!#$d # pi)ot #t the e0pe$se of the 'esse) &he$e'er re5uired +* the $#'i(#tio$ #$d pri$"ip#))* &he$ he h#s to e$ter # port "#$#) or ri'er or h#s to t#=e # ro#dste#d or #$"hori$( p)#"e &ith &hi"h $either he $or the offi"ers #$d "re& #re #"5u#i$ted. ;. To +e o$ de"= o$ re#"hi$( )#$d #$d to t#=e "o!!#$d o$ e$teri$( #$d )e#'i$( ports "#$#)s ro#dste#ds #$d ri'ers u$)ess there is # pi)ot o$ +o#rd dis"h#r(i$( his duties. He sh#)) $ot spe$d the $i(ht #&#* fro! the 'esse) e0"ept for serious "#uses or +* re#so$ of offi"i#) +usi$ess. "dt#i <. To prese$t hi!se)f &he$ !#=i$( # port i$ distress to the !#riti!e #uthorit* if i$ the 4hi)ippi$es #$d to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es if i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* +efore t&e$t*6 four hours h#'e e)#psed #$d to !#=e # st#te!e$t of the $#!e re(istr* #$d port of dep#rture of the 'esse) of its "#r(o #$d the "#use of #rri'#) &hi"h de")#r#tio$ sh#)) +e 'is#ed +* the #uthorit* or the "o$su) if #fter e0#!i$i$( the s#!e it is fou$d to +e #""ept#+)e (i'i$( the "#pt#i$ the proper "ertifi"#te pro'i$( his #rri'#) i$ distress #$d the re#so$s therefor. I$ the #+se$"e of the !#riti!e #uthorit* or of the "o$su) the de")#r#tio$ !ust +e !#de +efore the )o"#) #uthorit*. ?. To t#=e the $e"ess#r* steps +efore the "o!pete$t #uthorit* i$ order to re"ord i$ the "ertifi"#te of the 'esse) i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s the o+)i(#tio$s &hi"h he !#* "o$tr#"t i$ #""ord#$"e &ith Arti")e 7<1. 1@. To p)#"e u$der (ood "#re #$d "ustod* #)) the p#pers #$d +e)o$(i$(s of #$* !e!+ers of the "re& &ho !i(ht die o$ the 'esse) dr#&i$( up # det#i)ed i$'e$tor* i$ the prese$"e of p#sse$(ers or i$ their #+se$"e of !e!+ers of the "re& #s &it$esses. 11. To "o$du"t hi!se)f #""ordi$( to the ru)es #$d pre"epts "o$t#i$ed i$ the i$stru"tio$s of the ship #(e$t +ei$( )i#+)e for #)) th#t &hi"h he !#* do i$ 'io)#tio$ thereof. 1-. To i$for! the ship #(e$t fro! the port #t &hi"h the 'esse) #rri'es of the re#so$ of his #rri'#) t#=i$( #d'#$t#(e of the se!#phore te)e(r#ph !#i) et". #s the "#se !#* +e, to $otif* hi! of the "#r(o he !#* h#'e re"ei'ed st#ti$( the $#!es #$d do!i"i)es of the shippers frei(ht#(e e#r$ed #$d #!ou$ts +orro&ed o$ +otto!r* )o#$, to #d'ise hi! of his dep#rture #$d of #$* oper#tio$ #$d d#te &hi"h !#* +e of i$terest to hi!. 11. To o+ser'e the ru)es &ith respe"t to situ#tio$ )i(hts #$d !#$eu'ers i$ order to #'oid "o))isio$s. 13. To re!#i$ o$ +o#rd i$ "#se the 'esse) is i$ d#$(er u$ti) #)) hope to s#'e it is )ost #$d +efore #+#$do$i$( it to he#r the offi"ers of the "re& #+idi$( +* the de"isio$ of the !#2orit*, #$d if the +o#ts #re to +e t#=e$ to he sh#)) t#=e &ith hi! +efore #$*thi$( e)se the +oo=s #$d p#pers #$d the$ the #rti")es of !ost '#)ue +ei$( o+)i(ed to pro'e i$ "#se of the )oss of the +oo=s #$d p#pers th#t he did #)) he "ou)d to s#'e the!. 17. I$ "#se of &re"= to !#=e the proper protest i$ due for! #t the first port of #rri'#) +efore the "o!pete$t #uthorit* or the 4hi)ippi$e "o$su) &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours spe"if*i$( therei$ #)) the i$"ide$ts of the &re"= i$ #""ord#$"e &ith su+di'isio$ < of this #rti")e. 18. To "o!p)* &ith the o+)i(#tio$s i!posed +* the )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s o$ $#'i(#tio$ "usto!s he#)th #$d others. ARTICLE 811. A "#pt#i$ &ho $#'i(#tes for frei(ht i$ "o!!o$ or o$ sh#res !#* $ot !#=e #$* sep#r#te tr#$s#"tio$ for his o&$ #""ou$t, #$d shou)d he do so the profit &hi"h !#* #""rue sh#)) +e)o$( to the other perso$s i$terested #$d the )osses sh#)) +e +or$e +* hi! e0")usi'e)*.

ARTICLE 813. A "#pt#i$ &ho h#'i$( !#de #$ #(ree!e$t to !#=e # 'o*#(e f#i)s to perfor! his u$dert#=i$( &ithout pre'e$ted +* fortuitous #""ide$t or for"e !#2eure sh#)) i$de!$if* for #)) the )osses &hi"h he !#* "#use &ithout pre2udi"e to the "ri!i$#) pe$#)ties &hi"h !#* +e proper. ARTICLE 817. Cithout the "o$se$t of the #(e$t the "#pt#i$ "#$$ot h#'e hi!se)f su+stituted +* #$other perso$, #$d shou)d he do so +esides +ei$( )i#+)e for #)) the #"ts of the su+stitute #$d +ou$d to the i$de!$ities !e$tio$ed i$ the fore(oi$( #rti")es the "#pt#i$ #s &e)) #s the su+stitute !#* +e dis"h#r(ed +* the ship #(e$t. ARTICLE 818. If the pro'isio$s #$d fue) of the 'esse) shou)d +e "o$su!ed +efore #rri'i$( #t the port of desti$#tio$ the "#pt#i$ sh#)) order &ith the "o$se$t of the offi"ers of the s#!e the #rri'#) #t the $e#rest port to (et # supp)* of either, +ut if there #re perso$s o$ +o#rd &ho h#'e pro'isio$s of their o&$ he !#* for"e the! to de)i'er s#id pro'isio$ for the "o!!o$ "o$su!ptio$ of #)) those &ho !#* +e o$ +o#rd p#*i$( the pri"e thereof #t the s#!e ti!e or #t the )#test #t the first port re#"hed. ARTICLE 81;. The "#pt#i$ !#* $ot "o$tr#"t )o#$s o$ respo$de$ti# se"ured +* the "#r(o, #$d shou)d he do so the "o$tr#"ts sh#)) +e 'oid. Neither !#* he +orro& !o$e* o$ +otto!r* for his o&$ tr#$s#"tio$s e0"ept o$ the portio$ of the 'esse) he o&$s pro'ided $o !o$e* h#s +ee$ pre'ious)* +orro&ed o$ the &ho)e 'esse) #$d there does $ot e0ist #$* other =i$d of )ie$ or o+)i(#tio$ "h#r(e#+)e #(#i$st the 'esse). If he !#* do so he !ust st#te &h#t i$terest he h#s i$ the 'esse). I$ "#se of 'io)#tio$ of this #rti")e the pri$"ip#) i$terest #$d "osts sh#)) +e for the perso$#) #""ou$t of the "#pt#i$ #$d the ship #(e$t !#* further!ore dis"h#r(e hi!. ARTICLE 81<. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e "i'i))* )i#+)e to the ship #(e$t #$d the )#tter to the third perso$s &ho !#* h#'e !#de "o$tr#"ts &ith the for!er, 1. For #)) the d#!#(es suffered +* the 'esse) #$d its "#r(o +* re#so$ of &#$t of s=i)) or $e()i(e$"e o$ his p#rt. If # !isde!e#$or or "ri!e h#s +ee$ "o!!itted he sh#)) +e )i#+)e i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the 4e$#) Code. "d# -. For #)) the thefts "o!!itted +* the "re& reser'i$( his ri(ht of #"tio$ #(#i$st the (ui)t* p#rties. 1. For the )osses fi$es #$d "o$fis"#tio$s i!posed #$ #""ou$t of 'io)#tio$ of "usto!s po)i"e he#)th #$d $#'i(#tio$ )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s. 3. For the )osses #$d d#!#(es "#used +* !uti$ies o$ +o#rd the 'esse) or +* re#so$ of f#u)ts "o!!itted +* the "re& i$ the ser'i"e #$d defe$se of the s#!e if he does $ot pro'e th#t he !#de ti!e)* use of #)) his #uthorit* to pre'e$t or #'oid the!. 7. For those "#used +* the !isuse of the po&ers #$d the $o$6fu)fi))!e$t of the o+)i(#tio$s pert#i$i$( to hi! i$ #""ord#$"e &ith Arti")es 81@ #$d 81-. 8. For those #risi$( +* re#so$ of his (oi$( out of his "ourse or t#=i$( # "ourse &hi"h he shou)d $ot h#'e t#=e$ &ithout suffi"ie$t "#use i$ the opi$io$ of the offi"ers of the 'esse) #t # !eeti$( &ith the shippers or super"#r(oes &ho !#* +e o$ +o#rd. No e0"eptio$s &h#tsoe'er sh#)) e0e!pt hi! fro! this o+)i(#tio$. ;. For those #risi$( +* re#so$ of his 'o)u$t#ri)* e$teri$( # port other th#$ th#t of his desti$#tio$ outside of the "#ses or &ithout the for!#)ities referred to i$ Arti")e 81-. <. For those #risi$( +* re#so$ of $o$6o+ser'#$"e of the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ the re(u)#tio$s o$ situ#tio$ of )i(hts #$d !#$eu'ers for the purpose of pre'e$ti$( "o))isio$s. ARTICLE 81?. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the "#r(o fro! the ti!e it is de)i'ered to hi! #t the do"= or #f)o#t #)o$(side the #t the port of )o#di$( u$ti) he de)i'ers it o$ the shore or o$ the dis"h#r(i$( &h#rf #t the port of u$)o#di$( u$)ess the "o$tr#r* h#s +ee$ e0press)* #(reed upo$. ARTICLE 8-@. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) $ot +e )i#+)e for the d#!#(es "#used to the 'esse) or to the "#r(o +* for"e !#2eure, +ut he sh#)) #)&#*s +e so for those #risi$( throu(h his o&$ f#u)t $o #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r* +ei$( '#)id. Neither sh#)) he +e perso$#))* )i#+)e for the o+)i(#tio$s he !#* h#'e "o$tr#"ted for the rep#ir e5uip!e$t #$d pro'isio$i$( of the 'esse) &hi"h sh#)) de'o)'e upo$ the ship #(e$t u$)ess the for!er

h#s e0press)* +ou$d hi!se)f perso$#))* or h#s si($ed # +i)) of e0"h#$(e or pro!issor* $ote i$ his $#!e. ARTICLE 8-1. A "#pt#i$ &ho +orro&s !o$e* o$ the hu)) e$(i$e ri((i$( or t#"=)e of the 'esse) or p)ed(es or se))s !er"h#$dise or pro'isio$s outside of the "#ses #$d &ithout the for!#)ities pres"ri+ed i$ this Code sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the pri$"ip#) i$terests #$d "osts #$d sh#)) i$de!$if* for the d#!#(es he !#* "#use. He &ho "o!!its fr#ud i$ his #""ou$ts sh#)) p#* the #!ou$t defr#uded #$d sh#)) +e su+2e"t to the pro'isio$s of the 4e$#) Code. ARTICLE 8--. If &hi)e o$ # 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ shou)d )e#r$ of the #ppe#r#$"e of pri'#teers or !e$ of &#r #(#i$st his f)#( he sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to !#=e the $e#rest $eutr#) port i$for! his #(e$t or shippers #$d #&#it #$ o""#sio$ to s#i) u$der "o$'o* or u$ti) the d#$(er is o'er or he h#s re"ei'ed e0press orders fro! the ship #(e$t or the shippers. ARTICLE 8-1. If he shou)d +e #tt#"=ed +* # pri'#teer #$d #fter h#'i$( tried to #'oid the e$"ou$ter #$d h#'i$( resisted the de)i'er* of the effe"ts of the 'esse) or its "#r(o the* shou)d +e for"i+)* t#=e$ #&#* fro! hi! or he shou)d +e o+)i(ed to de)i'er the! he sh#)) !#=e #$ e$tr* thereof i$ his frei(ht +oo= #$d sh#)) pro'e the f#"t +efore the "o!pete$t #uthorit* #t the first port he tou"hes. "d#si# After the for"e !#2eure h#s +ee$ pro'ed he sh#)) +e e0e!pted fro! )i#+i)it*. ARTICLE 8-3. A "#pt#i$ &hose 'esse) h#s (o$e throu(h # hurri"#$e or &ho +e)ie'es th#t the "#r(o h#s suffered d#!#(es or #'er#(es sh#)) !#=e # protest thereo$ +efore the "o!pete$t #uthorit* #t the first port he tou"hes &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours fo))o&i$( his #rri'#) #$d sh#)) r#tif* it &ithi$ the s#!e period &he$ he #rri'es #t his desti$#tio$ i!!edi#te)* pro"eedi$( &ith the proof of the f#"ts #$d he !#* $ot ope$ the h#t"hes u$ti) #fter this h#s +ee$ do$e. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) pro"eed i$ the s#!e !#$$er if the 'esse) h#'i$( +ee$ &re"=ed, he is s#'ed #)o$e or &ith p#rt of his "re& i$ &hi"h "#se he sh#)) #ppe#r +efore the $e#rest #uthorit* #$d !#=e # s&or$ st#te!e$t of f#"ts. The #uthorit* or the "o$su) sh#)) 'erif* the s#id f#"ts re"ei'i$( s&or$ st#te!e$ts of the !e!+ers of the "re& #$d p#sse$(ers &ho !#* h#'e +ee$ s#'ed, #$d t#=i$( su"h other steps #s !#* #ssist i$ #rri'i$( #t the f#"ts he sh#)) !#=e # st#te!e$t of the resu)t of the pro"eedi$(s i$ the )o( +oo= #$d i$ th#t of the s#i)i$( !#te #$d sh#)) de)i'er to the "#pt#i$ the ori(i$#) re"ord of the pro"eedi$(s st#!ped #$d fo)ioed &ith # !e!or#$du! of the fo)ios &hi"h he !ust ru+ri"#te i$ order th#t it !#* +e prese$ted to the 2ud(e or "ourt of the port of desti$#tio$. The st#te!e$t of the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e #""epted if it is i$ #""ord#$"e &ith those of the "re& #$d p#sse$(ers, if the* dis#(ree the )#tter sh#)) +e #""epted #)&#*s s#*i$( proof to the "o$tr#r*. ARTICLE 8-7. The "#pt#i$ u$der his perso$#) respo$si+i)it* #s soo$ #s he #rri'es #t the port of desti$#tio$ shou)d (et the $e"ess#r* per!issio$ fro! the he#)th #$d "usto!s offi"ers #$d perfor! the other for!#)ities re5uired +* the re(u)#tio$s of the #d!i$istr#tio$ de)i'eri$( the "#r(o &ithout #$* def#)"#tio$ to the "o$si($ee #$d i$ # proper "#se the 'esse) ri((i$( #$d frei(ht#(e to the ship #(e$t. If +* re#so$ of the #+se$"e of the "o$si($ee or o$ #""ou$t of the $o$#ppe#r#$"e of # )e(#) ho)der of the +i))s of )#di$( the "#pt#i$ shou)d $ot =$o& to &ho! he is to )e(#))* !#=e the de)i'er* of the "#r(o he sh#)) p)#"e it #t the dispos#) of the proper 2ud(e or "ourt or #uthorit* i$ order th#t he !#* deter!i$e &h#t is proper &ith re(#rd to its deposit preser'#tio$ #$d "ustod*. SECTION THREE OFFICERS AND CREC OF EESSELS ARTICLE 8-8. I$ order to +e # s#i)i$( !#te it sh#)) +e $e"ess#r*% 1. To h#'e the 5u#)ifi"#tio$s re5uired +* the !#ri$e or $#'i(#tio$ )#&s or re(u)#tio$s. -. Not to +e dis5u#)ified i$ #""ord#$"e there&ith for the dis"h#r(e of his duties. ARTICLE 8-;. The s#i)i$( !#te #s the se"o$d "hief of the 'esse) #$d u$)ess the #(e$t orders other&ise sh#)) t#=e the p)#"e of the "#pt#i$ i$ "#ses of #+se$"e si"=$ess or de#th #$d sh#)) the$

#ssu!e #)) his po&ers duties #$d respo$si+i)ities. ARTICLE 8-<. The s#i)i$( !#te !ust pro'ide hi!se)f &ith "h#rts of the se#s i$ &hi"h he &i)) $#'i(#te &ith the #stro$o!i"#) t#+)es #$d i$stru!e$ts for o+ser'#tio$ &hi"h #re i$ use #$d &hi"h #re $e"ess#r* for the dis"h#r(e of his duties +ei$( )i#+)e for the #""ide$ts &hi"h !#* #rise +* re#so$ of his o!issio$ i$ this re(#rd. ARTICLE 8-?. The s#i)i$( !#te sh#)) p#rti"u)#r)* #$d perso$#))* =eep # +oo= fo)ioed #$d st#!ped o$ #)) its p#(es de$o!i$#ted IBi$$#")e Boo=I &ith # !e!or#$du! #t the +e(i$$i$( st#ti$( the $u!+er of fo)ios it "o$t#i$s si($ed +* the "o!pete$t #uthorit* #$d sh#)) e$ter therei$ d#i)* the dist#$"e the "ourse tr#'e))ed the '#ri#tio$s of the $eed)e the )ee&#* the dire"tio$ #$d for"e of the &i$d the "o$ditio$ of the #t!osphere #$d of the se# the ri((i$( set the )#titude #$d )o$(itude o+ser'ed the $u!+er of fur$#"e he#ted the ste#! pressure the $u!+er of re'o)utio$s #$d u$der the tit)e Ii$"ide$ts I the !#$eu'ers !#de the !eeti$( &ith other 'esse)s #$d #)) the det#i)s #$d i$"ide$ts &hi"h. !#* o""ur duri$( the 'o*#(e. ARTICLE 81@. I$ order to "h#$(e the "ourse #$d to t#=e the o$e !ost "o$'e$ie$t for # (ood 'o*#(e of the 'esse) the s#i)i$( !#te sh#)) "o!e to #$ #(ree!e$t &ith the "#pt#i$. If the )#tter shou)d o+2e"t the s#i)i$( !#te sh#)) st#te to hi! the proper o+ser'#tio$s i$ the prese$"e of the other offi"ers of the se#. If the "#pt#i$ shou)d sti)) i$sist o$ his $e(#ti'e de"isio$ the s#i)i$( !#te sh#)) !#=e the proper protest si($ed +* hi! #$d +* o$e other offi"er i$ the )o( +oo= #$d sh#)) o+e* the "#pt#i$ &ho #)o$e sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for the "o$se5ue$"es of his de"isio$. ARTICLE 811. The s#i)i$( !#te sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for #)) the d#!#(es "#used to the 'esse) #$d the "#r(o +* re#so$ of his $e()i(e$"e or &#$t of s=i)) &ithout pre2udi"e to the "ri!i$#) )i#+i)it* &hi"h !#* #rise if # fe)o$* or !isde!e#$or h#s +ee$ "o!!itted. #is#d" ARTICLE 81-. The fo))o&i$( sh#)) +e the o+)i(#tio$s of the se"o$d !#te% 1. To &#t"h o'er the preser'#tio$ of the hu)) #$d ri((i$( of the 'esse) #$d to t#=e "h#r(e of the preser'#tio$ of the t#"=)e #$d e5uip!e$t &hi"h !#=e up her outfit su((esti$( to the "#pt#i$ the rep#irs $e"ess#r* #$d the rep)#"e!e$t of the (oods #$d i!p)e!e$ts &hi"h #re re$dered use)ess #$d #re )ost. -. To t#=e "#re th#t the "#r(o is &e)) #rr#$(ed =eepi$( the 'esse) #)&#*s re#d* for !#$eu'er. 1. To preser'e order dis"ip)i$e #$d (ood ser'i"e #!o$( the "re& re5uesti$( the $e"ess#r* orders #$d I$stru"tio$s of the "#pt#i$ #$d (i'i$( hi! pro!pt i$for!#tio$ of #$* o""urre$"e i$ &hi"h the i$ter'e$tio$ of his #uthorit* !#* +e $e"ess#r*. 3. To #ssi($ to e#"h s#i)or the &or= he is to do o$ +o#rd i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the i$stru"tio$ re"ei'ed #$d to see th#t it is pro!pt)* #$d #""ur#te)* "#rried out. 7. To t#=e "h#r(e u$der i$'e$tor* of the ri((i$( #$d #)) the e5uip!e$t of the 'esse) if it shou)d +e )#id up u$)ess the ship #(e$t h#s ordered other&ise. Cith re(#rd to e$(i$eers the fo))o&i$( ru)es sh#)) (o'er$% 1. I$ order to +e t#=e$ o$ +o#rd #s # !#ri$e e$(i$eer for!i$( p#rt of the "o!p)e!e$t of # !er"h#$t 'esse) it sh#)) +e $e"ess#r* to h#'e the 5u#)ifi"#tio$s &hi"h the )#&s #$d re(u)#tio$s re5uire #$d $ot +e dis5u#)ified i$ #""ord#$"e there&ith for the dis"h#r(e of his duties. E$(i$eers sh#)) +e "o$sidered offi"ers of the 'esse) +ut the* sh#)) h#'e $o #uthorit* or i$ter'e$tio$ e0"ept i$ !#tters referri$( to the !otor #pp#r#tus. -. Che$ there #re t&o or !ore e$(i$eers o$ +o#rd # 'esse) o$e of the! sh#)) +e the "hief #$d the other e$(i$eers #$d #)) the perso$$e) of the e$(i$es sh#)) +e u$der his orders, he sh#)) #)so h#'e "h#r(e of the !otor #pp#r#tus the sp#re p#rts the i$stru!e$ts #$d too)s pert#i$i$( thereto the fue) the )u+ri"#ti$( !#teri#) #$d fi$#))* &h#te'er is e$trusted to #$ e$(i$eer o$ +o#rd # 'esse). 1. He sh#)) =eep the e$(i$es #$d +oi)ers i$ (ood "o$ditio$ #$d st#te of ")e#$)i$ess #$d sh#)) order &h#t !#* +e proper i$ order th#t the* !#* #)&#*s +e re#d* to &or= &ith re(u)#rit* +ei$( )i#+)e for the #""ide$ts or d#!#(es &hi"h his $e()i(e$"e or &#$t of s=i)) !#* "#use to the !otor #pp#r#tus to the 'esse) #$d to the "#r(o &ithout pre2udi"e to the "ri!i$#) )i#+i)it* &hi"h !#* +e proper if there h#s +ee$ # fe)o$* or !isde!e#$or.

3. He sh#)) $ot !#=e #$* "h#$(e i$ the !otor #pp#r#tus or pro"eed to rep#ir the #'er#(es he !#* h#'e $oti"ed i$ the s#!e or "h#$(e the $or!#) speed of its !o'e!e$t &ithout the prior #uthori>#tio$ of the "#pt#i$. to &ho! if he shou)d o+2e"t to their +ei$( !#de he sh#)) st#te the proper o+ser'#tio$s i$ the prese$"e of the other e$(i$eers or offi"ers, #$d if $ot&ithst#$di$( this the "#pt#i$ shou)d i$sist o$ his o+2e"tio$ the "hief e$(i$eer sh#)) !#=e the proper protests e$teri$( the s#!e i$ the e$(i$e +oo= #$d sh#)) o+e* the "#pt#i$ &ho #)o$e sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for the "o$se5ue$"es of his de"isio$. 7. He sh#)) i$for! the "#pt#i$ of #$* #'er#(e &hi"h !#* o""ur i$ the !otor #pp#r#tus #$d sh#)) #d'ise hi! &he$e'er it !#* +e $e"ess#r* to stop the e$(i$es for so!e ti!e or &he$ #$* other i$"ide$t o""urs i$ his dep#rt!e$t of &hi"h the "#pt#i$ shou)d +e i!!edi#te)* i$for!ed +esides fre5ue$t)* #d'isi$( hi! of the "o$su!ptio$ of fue) #$d )u+ri"#ti$( !#teri#). 8. He sh#)) =eep # +oo= or re(istr* "#))ed the Ie$(i$e +oo= I i$ &hi"h sh#)) +e e$tered #)) the d#te referri$( to the &or= of the e$(i$es su"h #s for e0#!p)e the $u!+er of fur$#"es he#ted the '#"uu! i$ the "o$de$ser the te!per#ture the de(ree of s#tur#tio$ of the &#ter i$ the +oi)ers the "o$su!ptio$ of fue) #$d )u+ri"#ti$( !#teri#) #$d u$der the he#di$( of I$ote&orth* o""urre$"es I the #'er#(es #$d !#)#d2ust!e$ts &hi"h o""ur i$ the e$(i$es #$d +oi)ers the "#uses thereof #$d the !e#$s e!p)o*ed to rep#ir the s#!e )i=e&ise the for"e #$d dire"tio$ of the &i$d the ri((i$( set #$d the speed of the 'esse) sh#)) +e st#ted t#=i$( the i$for!#tio$ fro! the Bi$$#")e Boo=. ARTICLE 811. The se"o$d !#te sh#)) t#=e "o!!#$d of the 'esse) i$ "#se of the i$#+i)it* or dis5u#)ifi"#tio$ of the "#pt#i$ #$d the s#i)i$( !#te #ssu!i$( i$ su"h "#se their po&ers #$d respo$si+i)it*. ARTICLE 813. The "#pt#i$ !#* !#=e up the "re& of his 'esse) &ith su"h $u!+er of !e$ #s he !#* "o$sider proper #$d i$ the #+se$"e of Fi)ipi$o s#i)ors he !#* t#=e o$ forei($ers residi$( i$ the "ou$tr* the $u!+er thereof $ot to e0"eed o$e6fifth of the "re&. If i$ forei($ ports the "#pt#i$ shou)d $ot fi$d # suffi"ie$t $u!+er of Fi)ipi$o s#i)ors he !#* "o!p)ete the "re& &ith forei($ers &ith the "o$se$t of the "o$su) or !#ri$e #uthorities. The #(ree!e$t &hi"h the "#pt#i$ !#* !#=e &ith the !e!+ers of the "re& #$d others &ho (o to !#=e up the "o!p)e!e$t of the 'esse) to &hi"h refere$"e is !#de i$ Arti")e 81- !ust +e redu"ed to &riti$( i$ the #""ou$t +oo= &ithout the i$ter'e$tio$ of # $ot#r* pu+)i" or ")er= of "ourt 9Ies"ri+#$oI: si($ed +* the p#rties thereto #$d 'is#ed +* the !#ri$e #uthorit* if the* +e e0e"uted i$ 4hi)ippi$e territor* or +* the "o$su)s or "o$su)#r #(e$ts of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es if e0e"uted #+ro#d st#ti$( therei$ #)) the o+)i(#tio$s &hi"h e#"h o$e "o$tr#"ts #$d #)) the ri(hts he #"5uires s#id #uthorities t#=i$( "#re th#t these o+)i(#tio$s #$d ri(hts #re re"orded i$ # ")e#r #$d defi$ite !#$$er &hi"h (i'e $o roo! for dou+ts or ")#i!s. "d The "#pt#i$ sh#)) t#=e "#re to re#d to the! the #rti")es of this Code &hi"h "o$"er$ the! st#ti$( i$ s#id do"u!e$t th#t the* &ere re#d. If the +oo= "o$t#i$s the re5uisites pres"ri+ed i$ Arti")e 81- #$d there shou)d $ot #ppe#r #$* si($s of #)ter#tio$s i$ its e$tries it sh#)) +e #d!itted #s e'ide$"e i$ 5uestio$s &hi"h !#* #rise +et&ee$ the "#pt#i$ #$d the "re& &ith respe"t to the #(ree!e$ts "o$t#i$ed therei$ #$d the #!ou$ts p#id o$ #""ou$t of the s#!e. E'er* !e!+er of the "re& !#* de!#$d of the "#pt#i$ # "op* si($ed +* the )#tter of the #(ree!e$t #$d of the )i5uid#tio$ of his &#(es #s the* #ppe#r i$ the +oo=. ARTICLE 817. A se#!#$ &ho h#s +ee$ "o$tr#"ted to ser'e o$ # 'esse) !#* $ot res"i$d his "o$tr#"t or f#i) to "o!p)* there&ith e0"ept +* re#so$ of # )e(iti!#te i!pedi!e$t &hi"h !#* h#'e h#ppe$ed to hi!. Neither !#* he tr#$sfer fro! the ser'i"e of o$e 'esse) to #$other &ithout o+t#i$i$( the &ritte$ per!issio$ of the "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) o$ &hi"h he !#* +e. If &ithout o+t#i$i$( s#id per!issio$ the se#!#$ &ho h#s si($ed for o$e 'esse) shou)d si($ for #$other o$e the se"o$d "o$tr#"t sh#)) +e 'oid #$d the "#pt#i$ !#* "hoose +et&ee$ for"i$( hi! to fu)fi)) the ser'i"e to &hi"h he first +ou$d hi!se)f or #t his e0pe$se to )oo= for # perso$ to su+stitute

hi!. Further!ore he sh#)) )ose the &#(es e#r$ed o$ his first "o$tr#"t to the +e$efit of the 'esse) for &hi"h he h#d si($ed. A "#pt#i$ &ho =$o&i$( th#t # se#!#$ is i$ the ser'i"e of #$other 'esse) shou)d h#'e !#de # $e& #(ree!e$t &ith hi! &ithout h#'i$( re5uired of hi! the per!issio$ referred to i$ the pre"edi$( p#r#(r#phs sh#)) +e su+sidi#ri)* respo$si+)e to the "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) to &hi"h the se#!#$ first +e)o$(ed for th#t p#rt of the i$de!$it* referred to i$ the third p#r#(r#ph of this #rti")e &hi"h the se#!#$ !#* $ot +e #+)e to p#*. ARTICLE 818. If there is $o fi0ed period for &hi"h # se#!#$ h#s +ee$ "o$tr#"ted he !#* $ot +e dis"h#r(ed u$ti) the e$d of the retur$ 'o*#(e to the port &here he e$)isted. ARTICLE 81;. Neither !#* the "#pt#i$ dis"h#r(e # se#!#$ duri$( the ti!e of his "o$tr#"t e0"ept for 2ust "#use the fo))o&i$( +ei$( "o$sidered #s su"h% 1. The perpetr#tio$ of # "ri!e &hi"h distur+s order o$ the 'esse). -. Repe#ted i$su+ordi$#tio$ &#$t of dis"ip)i$e or $o$6fu)fi))!e$t of the ser'i"e. 1. Repe#ted i$"#p#"it* #$d $e()i(e$"e i$ the fu)fi))!e$t of the ser'i"e he shou)d re$der. 3. H#+itu#) dru$=e$$ess. 7. A$* o""urre$"e &hi"h i$"#p#"it#tes the se#!#$ to perfor! the &or= e$trusted to hi! &ith the e0"eptio$ of th#t pro'ided i$ Arti")e 833. 8. Desertio$. The "#pt#i$ !#* ho&e'er +efore (etti$( out o$ # 'o*#(e #$d &ithout (i'i$( #$* re#so$ refuse to per!it # se#!#$ &ho! he !#* h#'e e$(#(ed to (o o$ +o#rd #$d )e#'e hi! o$ )#$d i$ &hi"h "#se he &i)) +e o+)i(ed to p#* hi! his &#(es #s if he h#d re$dered ser'i"es. This i$de!$it* sh#)) +e p#id fro! the fu$ds of the 'esse) if the "#pt#i$ shou)d h#'e #"ted for re#so$s of prude$"e #$d i$ the i$terest of the s#fet* #$d (ood ser'i"es of the f#r!er. Shou)d this $ot +e the "#se it sh#)) +e p#id +* the "#pt#i$ perso$#))*. #is#d" After the 'o*#(e h#s +e(u$ duri$( the s#!e #$d u$ti) the "o$")usio$ thereof the "#pt#i$ !#* $ot #+#$do$ #$* !e!+er of his "re& o$ )#$d or o$ se# u$)ess +* re#so$ of so!e "ri!e his i!priso$!e$t #$d de)i'er* to the "o!pete$t #uthorit* i$ the first port tou"hed shou)d +e proper # !#tter o+)i(#tor* for the "#pt#i$. ARTICLE 81<. If #fter the "re& h#s +ee$ e$(#(ed the 'o*#(e is re'o=ed +* the &i)) of the ship #(e$t or of the "h#rterers +efore or #fter the 'esse) h#s put to se# or if the 'esse) is for the s#!e re#so$ (i'e$ # desti$#tio$ differe$t fro! th#t fi0ed i$ the #(ree!e$t &ith the "re& the )#tter sh#)) +e i$de!$ified o$ #""ou$t of the res"issio$ of the "o$tr#"t #""ordi$( to the "#ses fo))o&s% 1. If the re'o"#tio$ of the 'o*#(e shou)d +e de"ided upo$ +efore the dep#rture of the 'esse) fro! the port e#"h s#i)or e$(#(ed sh#)) +e (i'e$ o$e !o$thBs s#)#r* +esides &h#t !#* +e due hi! i$ #""ord#$"e &ith his "o$tr#"t for the ser'i"es re$dered to the 'esse) up to the d#te of the re'o"#tio$. -. If the #(ree!e$t shou)d h#'e +ee$ for # fi0ed #!ou$t for the &ho)e 'o*#(e th#t &hi"h !#* +e due for s#id !o$th #$d d#*s sh#)) +e deter!i$ed i$ proportio$ to the #ppro0i!#te $u!+er of d#*s the 'o*#(e shou)d h#'e )#sted i$ the 2ud(!e$t of e0perts i$ the !#$$er est#+)ished i$ the )#& of Ci'i) 4ro"edure, #$d if the proposed 'o*#(e shou)d +e of su"h short dur#tio$ th#t it is "#)"u)#ted #t #ppro0i!#te)* o$e !o$th the i$de!$it* sh#)) +e fi0ed for fiftee$ d#*s dis"ou$ti$( i$ #)) "#ses the su!s #d'#$"ed. 1. If the re'o"#tio$ shou)d t#=e p)#"e #fter the 'esse) h#s put to se# the se#!e$ e$(#(ed for # fi0ed #!ou$t for the 'o*#(e sh#)) re"ei'e i$ fu)) the s#)#r* &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ offered the! #s if the 'o*#(e h#d ter!i$#ted, #$d those e$(#(ed +* the !o$th sh#)) re"ei'e the #!ou$t "orrespo$di$( to the ti!e the* !i(ht h#'e +ee$ o$ +o#rd #$d to the ti!e the* !#* re5uire to #rri'e #t the port of desti$#tio$ the "#pt#i$ +ei$( o+)i(ed further!ore to p#* the se#!e$ i$ +oth "#ses the p#ss#(e to the s#id port or to the port of s#i)i$( of the 'esse) #s !#* +e "o$'e$ie$t for the!. 3. If the ship #(e$t or the "h#rterers of the 'esse) shou)d (i'e it # desti$#tio$ differe$t fro! th#t

fi0ed i$ the #(ree!e$t #$d the !e!+ers of the "re& shou)d $ot #(ree thereto the* sh#)) +e (i'e$ +* &#* of i$de!$it* h#)f the #!ou$t fi0ed i$ "#se No. 1 +esides &h#t !#* +e o&ed the! for the p#rt of the !o$th)* &#(es "orrespo$di$( to the d#*s &hi"h h#'e e)#psed fro! the d#te of their #(ree!e$ts. If the* #""ept the "h#$(e #$d the 'o*#(e o$ #""ou$t of the (re#ter dist#$"e or of other re#so$s shou)d (i'e rise to #$ i$"re#se of &#(es the )#tter sh#)) +e #d2usted pri'#te)* or throu(h #!i"#+)e #r+itr#tors i$ "#se of dis#(ree!e$t. E'e$ thou(h the 'o*#(e shou)d +e shorte$ed to # $e#rer poi$t this sh#)) $ot (i'e rise to # redu"tio$ i$ the &#(es #(reed upo$. If the re'o"#tio$ or "h#$(e of the 'o*#(e shou)d "o!e fro! the shippers or "h#rterers the #(e$t sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht to de!#$d of the! the i$de!$it* &hi"h !#* +e 2ust)* due. ARTICLE 81?. If the re'o"#tio$ of the 'o*#(e shou)d #rise fro! # 2ust "#use i$depe$de$t of the &i)) of the ship #(e$t #$d "h#rterers #$d the 'esse) shou)d $ot h#'e )eft the port the !e!+ers of the "re& sh#)) h#'e $o other ri(ht th#$ to "o))e"t the &#(es e#r$ed up to the d#* o$ &hi"h the re'o"#tio$ too= p)#"e. ARTICLE 83@. The fo))o&i$( sh#)) +e 2ust "#uses for the re'o"#tio$ of the 'o*#(e. 1. A de")#r#tio$ of &#r or i$terdi"tio$ of "o!!er"e &ith the po&er to &hose territor* the 'esse) &#s +ou$d. -. The +)o"=#de of the port of its desti$#tio$ or the +re#=i$( out of #$ epide!i" #fter the #(ree!e$t. 1. The prohi+itio$ to re"ei'e i$ s#id port the (oods &hi"h !#=e up the "#r(o of the 'esse). 3. The dete$tio$ or e!+#r(o of the s#!e +* order of the (o'er$!e$t or for #$* other re#so$ i$depe$de$t of the &i)) of the ship #(e$t. 7. The i$#+i)it* of the 'esse) to $#'i(#te. "d#si# ARTICLE 831. If #fter # 'o*#(e h#s +ee$ +e(u$ #$* of the first three "#uses !e$tio$ed i$ the fore(oi$( #rti")e shou)d o""ur the s#i)ors sh#)) +e p#id #t the port &hi"h the "#pt#i$ !#* dee! #d'is#+)e to !#=e for the +e$efit of the 'esse) #$d "#r(o #""ordi$( to the ti!e the* !#* h#'e ser'ed thereo$, +ut if the 'esse) is to "o$ti$ue its 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ #$d the "re& !#* !utu#))* de!#$d the e$for"e!e$t of the "o$tr#"t. I$ "#se of the o""urre$"e of the fourth "#use the "re& sh#)) "o$ti$ue to +e p#id h#)f &#(es if the #(ree!e$t is +* !o$th, +ut if the dete$tio$ shou)d e0"eed three !o$ths the "o$tr#"t sh#)) +e res"i$ded #$d the "re& sh#)) +e p#id &h#t the* shou)d h#'e e#r$ed #""ordi$( to the "o$tr#"t if the 'o*#(e h#d +ee$ "o$")uded. A$d if the #(ree!e$t shou)d +e for # fi0ed su! for the 'o*#(e the "o$tr#"t !ust +e "o!p)ied &ithi$ the ter!s #(reed upo$. I$ the fifth "#se the "re& sh#)) h#'e $o other ri(ht th#$ to "o))e"t the &#(es e#r$ed, +ut if the dis#+i)it* of the 'esse) shou)d h#'e +ee$ "#used +* the $e()i(e$"e or )#"= of s=i)) of the "#pt#i$ e$(i$eer or s#i)i$( !#te the* sh#)) i$de!$if* the "re& for the d#!#(es suffered #)&#*s &ithout pre2udi"e to the "ri!i$#) )i#+i)it* &hi"h !#* +e proper. ARTICLE 83-. If the "re& h#'e +ee$ e$(#(ed o$ sh#res the* sh#)) $ot +e e$tit)ed +* re#so$ of the re'o"#tio$ de)#* or (re#ter e0te$sio$ of the 'o*#(e to #$*thi$( +ut the proportio$#te p#rt of the i$de!$it* &hi"h &#* +e p#id i$to the "o!!o$ fu$ds of the 'esse) +* the perso$s )i#+)e for s#id o""urre$"es. ARTICLE 831. If the 'esse) #$d her "#r(o shou)d +e tot#))* )ost +* re#so$ of "#pture or &re"= #)) ri(hts sh#)) +e e0ti$(uished +oth #s re(#rds the "re& to de!#$d #$* &#(es &h#tsoe'er #$d #s re(#rds the ship #(e$t to re"o'er the #d'#$"es !#de. If # portio$ of the 'esse) or of the "#r(o or of +oth shou)d +e s#'ed the "re& e$(#(ed o$ &#(es i$")udi$( the "#pt#i$ sh#)) ret#i$ their ri(hts o$ the s#)'#(e so f#r #s the* (o o$ the re!#i$der of the 'esse) #s &e)) #s o$ the #!ou$t of the frei(ht#(e of the "#r(o s#'ed, +ut s#i)ors &ho #re e$(#(ed o$ sh#res sh#)) $ot h#'e #$* ri(ht &h#tsoe'er o$ the s#)'#(e of the hu)) +ut o$)* o$ the portio$ of the frei(ht#(e s#'ed. If the* shou)d h#'e &or=ed to re"o'er the re!#i$der of the ship&re"=ed 'esse) the* sh#)) +e (i'e$ fro! the #!ou$t of the s#)'#(e #$ #&#rd i$ proportio$ of the efforts !#de #$d to the

ris=s e$"ou$tered i$ order to #""o!p)ish the s#)'#(e. ARTICLE 833. A se#!#$ &ho f#))s si"= sh#)) $ot )ose his ri(ht to &#(es duri$( the 'o*#(e u$)ess the si"=$ess is the resu)t of his o&$ f#u)t. At #$* r#te the "osts of the #tte$d#$"e #$d "ure sh#)) +e defr#*ed fro! the "o!!o$ fu$ds i$ the for! of # )o#$. If the si"=$ess shou)d "o!e fro! #$ i$2ur* re"ei'ed i$ the ser'i"e or defe$se of the 'esse) the se#!#$ sh#)) +e #tte$ded #$d "ured #t the e0pe$se of the "o!!o$ fu$ds dedu"ti$( +efore #$*thi$( e)se fro! the pro"eeds of the frei(ht#(e the "ost of the #tte$d#$"e #$d "ure. ARTICLE 837. If # se#!#$ shou)d die duri$( the 'o*#(e his heirs &i)) +e (i'e$ the &#(es e#r$ed #$d $ot re"ei'ed #""ordi$( to his "o$tr#"t #$d the "#use of his de#th $#!e)* F If he died # $#tur#) de#th #$d &#s e$(#(ed o$ &#(es th#t &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ e#r$ed up to the d#te of his de#th sh#)) +e p#id. If the "o$tr#"t &#s for # fi0ed su! for the &ho)e 'o*#(e h#)f the #!ou$t e#r$ed sh#)) +e p#id if the se#!e$ died o$ the 'o*#(e out #$d the &ho)e #!ou$t if he died o$ the retur$ 'o*#(e. A$d if the "o$tr#"t &#s o$ sh#res #$d de#th o""urred #fter the 'o*#(e &#s +e(u$ the heirs sh#)) +e p#id the e$tire portio$ due the se#!#$, +ut if the )#tter died +efore the dep#rture of the 'esse) fro! the port the heirs sh#)) $ot +e e$tit)ed to ")#i! #$*thi$(. If de#th o""urred i$ the defe$se of the 'esse) the se#!#$ sh#)) +e "o$sidered #s )i'i$( #$d his heirs sh#)) +e p#id #t the e$d of the 'o*#(e the fu)) #!ou$t of &#(es or the i$te(r#) p#rt of the profits &hi"h !#* +e due hi! #s to others of his ")#ss. I$ the s#!e !#$$er the se#!#$ "#ptured &hi)e defe$di$( the 'esse) sh#)) +e "o$sidered prese$t so #s to e$2o* the s#!e +e$efits #s the rest, +ut shou)d he h#'e +ee$ "#ptured o$ #""ou$t of "#re)ess$ess or other #""ide$t $ot re)#ted to the ser'i"e he sh#)) o$)* re"ei'e the &#(es due up to the d#* of his "#pture. ARTICLE 838. The 'esse) &ith her e$(i$es ri((i$( e5uip!e$t #$d frei(ht#(e sh#)) he )i#+)e for the &#(es e#r$ed +* the "re& e$(#(ed per !o$th or for the trip the )i5uid#tio$ #$d p#*!e$t to t#=e p)#"e +et&ee$ o$e 'o*#(e #$d the other. After # $e& 'o*#(e h#s +ee$ u$dert#=e$ "redits of su"h =i$d pert#i$i$( to the pre"edi$( 'o*#(e sh#)) )ose their ri(ht of prefere$"e. ARTICLE 83;. The offi"ers #$d the "re& of the 'esse) sh#)) +e free fro! #)) o+)i(#tio$s if the* dee! it proper i$ the fo))o&i$( "#ses% 1. If +efore +e(i$$i$( the 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ #tte!pts to "h#$(e it or # $#'#) &#r &ith the po&er to &hi"h the 'esse) &#s desti$ed o""urs. -. If # dise#se shou)d +re#= out #$d +e offi"i#))* de")#red #$ epide!i" i$ the port of desti$#tio$. 1. If the 'esse) shou)d "h#$(e o&$er or "#pt#i$. ARTICLE 83<. B* the "o!p)e!e$t of # 'esse) sh#)) +e u$derstood #)) the perso$s o$ +o#rd fro! the "#pt#i$ to the "#+i$ +o* $e"ess#r* for the !#$#(e!e$t !#$eu'ers #$d ser'i"e #$d therefore the "o!p)e!e$t sh#)) i$")ude the "re& the s#i)i$( !#tes e$(i$eers sto=ers #$d other e!p)o*ees o$ +o#rd $ot h#'i$( spe"ifi" desi($#tio$s, +ut it sh#)) $ot i$")ude the p#sse$(ers or the perso$s &ho! the 'esse) is tr#$sporti$(. SECTION FODR SD4ERCARGOES ARTICLE 83?. Super"#r(oes sh#)) dis"h#r(e o$ +o#rd the 'esse) the #d!i$istr#ti'e duties &hi"h the ship #(e$t or the shippers !#* h#'e #ssi($ed to the!, the* sh#)) =eep #$ #""ou$t #$d re"ord of their tr#$s#"tio$s i$ # +oo= &hi"h sh#)) h#'e the s#!e "o$ditio$s #$d re5uisites #s re5uired for the #""ou$ti$( +oo= of the "#pt#i$ #$d the* sh#)) respe"t the )#tter i$ his "#p#"it* #s "hief of the 'esse). "dt#i The po&ers #$d respo$si+i)ities of the "#pt#i$ sh#)) "e#se &he$ there is # super"#r(o &ith re(#rd to th#t p#rt of the #d!i$istr#tio$ )e(iti!#te)* "o$ferred upo$ the )#tter +ut sh#)) "o$ti$ue i$ for"e for #)) #"ts &hi"h #re i$sep#r#+)e fro! his #uthorit* #$d offi"e.

ARTICLE 87@. A)) the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ the se"o$d se"tio$ of Tit)e III Boo= II &ith re(#rd to "#p#"it* !#$$er of !#=i$( "o$tr#"ts #$d )i#+i)ities of f#"tors sh#)) +e #pp)i"#+)e to super"#r(oes. ARTICLE 871. Super"#r(oes !#* $ot &ithout spe"i#) #uthori>#tio$ or #(ree!e$t !#=e #$* tr#$s#"tio$ for their o&$ #""ou$t duri$( the 'o*#(e &ith the e0"eptio$ of the 'e$tures &hi"h i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the "usto! of the port of desti$#tio$ the* #re per!itted to do. Neither sh#)) the* +e per!itted to i$'est i$ the retur$ trip !ore th#$ the profits fro! the 'e$tures u$)ess there is #$ e0press #uthori>#tio$ fro! the pri$"ip#)s. TITLE THREE S4ECIAL CONTRACTS OF MARITIME COMMERCE SECTION ONE CHARTER 4ARTIES 4ART I FORMS AND EFFECTS OF CHARTER 4ARTIES ARTICLE 87-. A "h#rter p#rt* !ust +e dr#&$ i$ dup)i"#te #$d si($ed +* the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties #$d &he$ either does $ot =$o& ho& or is $ot #+)e to do so +* t&o &it$esses #t his re5uest. The "h#rter p#rt* sh#)) "o$t#i$ +esides the "o$ditio$s free)* stipu)#ted the fo))o&i$( "ir"u!st#$"es% 1. The =i$d $#!e #$d to$$#(e of the 'esse). -. Its f)#( #$d port of re(istr*. 1. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d do!i"i)e of the "#pt#i$. 3. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d do!i"i)e of the ship #(e$t if the )#tter shou)d !#=e the "h#rter p#rt*. 7. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d do!i"i)e of the "h#rterer, #$d if he st#tes th#t he is #"ti$( +* "o!!issio$ th#t of the perso$ for &hose #""ou$t he !#=es the "o$tr#"t. 8. The port of )o#di$( #$d u$)o#di$(. ;. The "#p#"it* $u!+er of to$s or the &ei(ht or !e#sure!e$t &hi"h the* respe"ti'e)* +i$d the!se)'es to )o#d #$d to tr#$sport or &hether the "h#rter p#rt* is tot#). <. The frei(ht#(e to +e p#id st#ti$( &hether it is to +e # fi0ed #!ou$t for the 'o*#(e or so !u"h per !o$th or for the sp#"e to +e o""upied or for the &ei(ht or !e#sure of the (oods of &hi"h the "#r(o "o$sists or i$ #$* other !#$$er &h#tsoe'er #(reed upo$. ?. The #!ou$t of pri!#(e to +e p#id to the "#pt#i$. 1@. The d#*s #(reed upo$ for )o#di$( #$d u$)o#di$(. 11. The )#* d#*s #$d e0tr# )#* d#*s to +e #))o&ed #$d the de!urr#(e to +e p#id for e#"h of the!. ARTICLE 871. If the "#r(o shou)d +e re"ei'ed &ithout the "h#rter p#rt* h#'i$( +ee$ si($ed the "o$tr#"t sh#)) +e u$derstood #s e0e"uted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith &h#t #ppe#rs i$ the +i)) of )#di$( the so)e e'ide$"e of tit)e &ith re(#rd to the "#r(o for deter!i$i$( the ri(hts #$d o+)i(#tio$s of the ship #(e$t of the "#pt#i$ #$d of the "h#rterer. "dt ARTICLE 873. The "h#rter p#rties e0e"uted &ith the i$ter'e$tio$ of # +ro=er &ho "ertifies to the #uthe$ti"it* of the si($#tures of the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties +e"#use the* &ere si($ed i$ his prese$"e sh#)) +e fu)) e'ide$"e i$ "ourt, #$d if the* shou)d +e "o$f)i"ti$( th#t &hi"h #""ords &ith o$e &hi"h the +ro=er !ust =eep i$ his re(istr* if =ept i$ #""ord#$"e &ith )#& sh#)) (o'er$. The "o$tr#"ts sh#)) #)so +e #d!itted #s e'ide$"e e'e$ thou(h # +ro=er h#s $ot t#=e$ p#rt therei$ if the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties #"=$o&)ed(e the si($#tures to +e the s#!e #s their o&$. If $o +ro=er h#s i$ter'e$ed i$ the "h#rter p#rt* #$d the si($#tures #re $ot #"=$o&)ed(ed dou+ts sh#)) +e de"ided +* &h#t is pro'ided for i$ the +i)) of )#di$( #$d i$ the #+se$"e thereof +* the proofs su+!itted +* the p#rties. ARTICLE 877. Ch#rter p#rties e0e"uted +* the "#pt#i$ i$ the #+se$"e of the ship #(e$t sh#)) +e '#)id #$d effe"ti'e e'e$ thou(h i$ e0e"uti$( the! he shou)d h#'e #"ted i$ 'io)#tio$ of the orders #$d i$stru"tio$s of the ship #(e$t or shipo&$er, +ut the )#tter sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht of #"tio$ #(#i$st the "#pt#i$ for i$de!$ifi"#tio$ of d#!#(es.

ARTICLE 878. If i$ the "h#rter p#rt* the ti!e i$ &hi"h the )o#di$( #$d u$)o#di$( #re to t#=e p)#"e is $ot st#ted the us#(es of the port &here these #"ts t#=e p)#"e sh#)) +e o+ser'ed. After the stipu)#ted or the "usto!#r* period h#s p#ssed #$d there is $o e0press pro'iso i$ the "h#rter p#rt* fi0i$( the i$de!$it* for the de)#* the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to de!#$d de!urr#(e for the )#* d#*s #$d e0tr# )#* d#*s &hi"h !#* h#'e e)#psed i$ )o#di$( #$d u$)o#di$(. ARTICLE 87;. If duri$( the 'o*#(e the 'esse) shou)d +e re$dered u$se#&orth* the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to "h#rter #t his e0pe$se #$other o$e i$ (ood "o$ditio$ to re"ei'e the "#r(o #$d "#rr* it to its desti$#tio$ for &hi"h purpose he sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to )oo= for # 'esse) $ot o$)* #t the port of #rri'#) +ut #)so i$ the $ei(h+orhood &ithi$ dist#$"e of 17@ =i)o!eters. If the "#pt#i$ throu(h i$do)e$"e or !#)i"e shou)d $ot fur$ish # 'esse) to its desti$#tio$ the shippers #fter re5uiri$( the "#pt#i$ to "h#rter # 'esse) &ithi$ #$ i$e0te$di+)e period !#* "h#rter o$e #$d petitio$ the 2udi"i#) #uthorit* to su!!#ri)* #ppro'e the "h#rter p#rt* &hi"h the* !#* h#'e !#de. The s#!e #uthorit* sh#)) 2udi"i#))* 9Ipor )# 'i# de #ppre!ioI: "o!pe) the "#pt#i$ to "#rr* out for his #""ou$t #$d u$der his respo$si+i)it* the "h#rter !#de +* the shippers. If the "#pt#i$ $ot&ithst#$di$( his di)i(e$"e shou)d $ot fi$d # 'esse) for the "h#rter he sh#)) deposit the "#r(o #t the dispos#) of the shippers to &ho! he sh#)) "o!!u$i"#te the f#"ts o$ the first opportu$it* &hi"h prese$ts itse)f the frei(ht +ei$( #d2usted i$ su"h "#ses +* the dist#$"e "o'ered +* the 'esse) &ith $o ri(ht to #$* i$de!$ifi"#tio$ &h#tsoe'er. ARTICLE 87<. The frei(ht#(e sh#)) #""rue #""ordi$( to the "o$ditio$s stipu)#ted i$ the "o$tr#"t #$d shou)d the* $ot +e e0pressed or shou)d the* +e #!+i(uous the fo))o&i$( ru)es sh#)) +e o+ser'ed% 1. If the 'esse) h#s +ee$ "h#rtered +* !o$ths or +* d#*s the frei(ht#(e sh#)) +e(i$ to ru$ fro! the d#* the )o#di$( of the 'esse) is +e(u$. -. I$ "h#rters !#de for # fi0ed period the frei(ht#(e sh#)) +e(i$ to ru$ fro! th#t 'er* d#*. 1. If the frei(ht#(e is "h#r(ed #""ordi$( to &ei(ht the p#*!e$t sh#)) +e !#de #""ordi$( to (ross &ei(ht i$")udi$( the "o$t#i$ers su"h #s +#rre)s or #$* other o+2e"ts i$ &hi"h the "#r(o is "o$t#i$ed. ARTICLE 87?. The !er"h#$dise so)d +* the "#pt#i$ to p#* for the $e"ess#r* rep#irs to the hu)) !#"hi$er* or e5uip!e$t or for u$#'oid#+)e #$d ur(e$t $eeds sh#)) p#* frei(ht#(e. "dt The pri"e of this !er"h#$dise sh#)) +e fi0ed #""ordi$( to the resu)t of the 'o*#(e $#!e)*% 1. If the 'esse) shou)d #rri'e s#fe)* #t the port of desti$#tio$ the "#pt#i$ sh#)) p#* the pri"e &hi"h the s#)e of !er"h#$dise of the s#!e =i$d +ri$(s #t th#t port. -. If the 'esse) shou)d +e )ost the "#pt#i$ sh#)) p#* the pri"e re#)i>ed fro! s#id !er"h#$dise i$ the s#)e. The s#!e ru)e sh#)) +e o+ser'ed i$ the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e &hi"h sh#)) +e i$ fu)) if the 'esse) #rri'es #t her desti$#tio$ #$d i$ proportio$ to the dist#$"e "o'ered if she shou)d +e )ost +efore #rri'#). ARTICLE 88@. Mer"h#$dise 2ettiso$ed for the "o!!o$ s#fet* sh#)) $ot p#* frei(ht#(e, +ut the #!ou$t of the )#tter sh#)) +e "o$sidered #s (e$er#) #'er#(e "o!puti$( the s#!e i$ proportio$ to the dist#$"e "o'ered &he$ the* &ere 2ettiso$ed. ARTICLE 881. Neither !er"h#$dise )ost +* re#so$ of ship&re"= or str#$di$( $or those sei>ed +* the pir#tes or e$e!ies sh#)) p#* frei(ht#(e. If the frei(ht#(e shou)d h#'e +ee$ p#id i$ #d'#$"e it sh#)) +e retur$ed u$)ess there is #$ #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r*. ARTICLE 88-. If the 'esse) or the !er"h#$dise shou)d +e redee!ed or the effe"ts of the ship&re"= +e s#)'#(ed the frei(ht#(e "orrespo$di$( to the dist#$"e "o'ered +* the 'esse) tr#$sporti$( the "#r(o sh#)) +e p#id, #$d shou)d the 'esse) #fter +ei$( rep#ired tr#$sport s#id !er"h#$dise to the port of desti$#tio$ the fu)) frei(ht#(e sh#)) +e p#id &ithout pre2udi"e to &h#t !#* +e due +* re#so$ of the #'er#(e. ARTICLE 881. Mer"h#$dise &hi"h suffer deterior#tio$ or di!i$utio$s o$ #""ou$t of i$here$t defe"ts or +#d 5u#)it* #$d "o$ditio$ of the p#"=i$( or +e"#use of fortuitous e'e$t sh#)) p#* frei(ht#(e i$ fu)) #$d #s stipu)#ted i$ the "h#rter p#rt*.

ARTICLE 883. The $#tur#) i$"re#se i$ &ei(ht or si>e of the !er"h#$dise )o#ded o$ the 'esse) sh#)) #""rue to the +e$efit of the o&$er #$d sh#)) p#* the proper frei(ht#(e fi0ed i$ the "o$tr#"t for the s#!e. ARTICLE 887. The "#r(o sh#)) +e spe"i#))* )i#+)e for the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e e0pe$ses #$d duties #risi$( therefro! &hi"h !ust +e rei!+ursed +* the shippers #s &e)) #s for the p#rt of the (e$er#) #'er#(e &hi"h !#* "orrespo$d to it, +ut it sh#)) $ot +e )e(#) for the "#pt#i$ to de)#* u$)o#di$( o$ #""ou$t of suspi"io$ th#t this o+)i(#tio$ !#* $ot +e "o!p)ied &ith. Shou)d there +e re#so$s for distrust the 2ud(e or "ourt #t the i$st#$"e of the "#pt#i$ !#* order the deposit of the !er"h#$dise u$ti) he h#s +ee$ p#id i$ fu)). ARTICLE 888. The "#pt#i$ !#* re5uest the s#)e of the "#r(o to the #!ou$t $e"ess#r* to p#* the frei(ht#(e e0pe$ses #$d #'er#(es due hi! reser'i$( the ri(ht to de!#$d the +#)#$"e due hi! therefor if the pro"eeds of the s#)e shou)d $ot suffi"e to "o'er his "redit. ARTICLE 88;. The (oods )o#ded sh#)) +e )i#+)e i$ the first p)#"e for the frei(ht #$d e0pe$ses thereof duri$( t&e$t* d#*s to +e "ou$ted fro! the d#te of their de)i'er* or deposit. Duri$( this period the s#)e of the s#!e !#* +e re5uested e'e$ thou(h there +e other "reditors #$d the +#$=rupt"* of the shipper or "o$si($ee shou)d o""ur. This ri(ht !#* $ot he !#de use of ho&e'er o$ the (oods &hi"h #fter +ei$( de)i'ered &ere tur$ed o'er to # third perso$ &ithout !#)i"e o$ the p#rt of the )#tter #$d for # '#)u#+)e "o$sider#tio$. "d#si# ARTICLE 88<. If the "o$si($ee shou)d $ot +e fou$d or shou)d refuse to re"ei'e the "#r(o the 2ud(e or "ourt #t the i$st#$"e of the "#pt#i$ sh#)) order its deposit #$d the s#)e of &h#t !#* +e $e"ess#r* to p#* the frei(ht#(e #$d other e0pe$ses o$ the s#!e. The s#)e sh#)) )i=e&ise +e #))o&ed &he$ the (oods deposited ru$ the ris= of deterior#ti$( or +* re#so$ of their "o$ditio$ or other "ir"u!st#$"es the e0pe$ses of preser'#tio$ #$d "ustod* shou)d +e disproportio$#te. 4ART RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF SHI4OCNERS ARTICLE 88?. The shipo&$er or the "#pt#i$ sh#)) o+ser'e i$ "h#rter p#rties the "#p#"it* of the 'esse) or th#t e0press)* desi($#ted i$ its re(istr* # differe$"e (re#ter th#$ - per "e$t +et&ee$ th#t st#ted #$d her true "#p#"it* $ot +ei$( per!issi+)e. If the shipo&$er or the "#pt#i$ shou)d "o$tr#"t to "#rr* # (re#ter #!ou$t of "#r(o th#$ the 'esse) "#$ "#rr* i$ 'ie& of her to$$#(e the* sh#)) i$de!$if* the shippers &hose "o$tr#"ts the* do $ot fu)fi)) for the )osses the* !#* h#'e "#used &he$ +* re#so$ of their def#u)t #""ordi$( to the fo))o&i$( "#ses 'i>% If the 'esse) h#s +ee$ "h#rtered +* o$e shipper o$)* #$d there shou)d #ppe#r to +e #$ error or fr#ud i$ her "#p#"it* #$d the "h#rterer shou)d $ot &ish to res"i$d the "o$tr#"t &he$ he h#s # ri(ht to do so the frei(ht#(e sh#)) he redu"ed i$ proportio$ to the "#r(o &hi"h the 'esse) "#$ $ot re"ei'e the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered +ei$( further!ore o+)i(ed to i$de!$if* the "h#rterer for the )osses he !#* h#'e "#used hi!. If o$ the "o$tr#r* there shou)d +e se'er#) "h#rter p#rties #$d +* re#so$ of &#$t of sp#"e #)) the "#r(o "o$tr#"ted for "#$$ot +e )o#ded #$d $o$e of the "h#rterers desires to res"i$d the "o$tr#"t prefere$"e sh#)) +e (i'e$ to the perso$ &ho h#s #)re#d* )o#ded #$d #rr#$(ed the frei(ht i$ the 'esse) #$d the rest sh#)) t#=e the p)#"es "orrespo$di$( to the! i$ the order of the d#tes of their "o$tr#"ts. Shou)d there +e $o priorit* the "h#rterers !#* )o#d if the* &ish i$ proportio$ to the #!ou$ts of &ei(ht or sp#"e for &hi"h e#"h !#* h#'e "o$tr#"ted #$d the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered sh#)) he o+)i(ed to i$de!$if* the! for )osses #$d d#!#(es. ARTICLE 8;@. If the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered #fter re"ei'i$( # p#rt of the frei(ht shou)d $ot fi$d suffi"ie$t to !#=e up #t )e#st three6fifths of the #!ou$t &hi"h the 'esse) !#* ho)d #t the pri"e he !#* h#'e fi0ed he !#* su+stitute for the tr#$sport#tio$ #$other 'esse) i$spe"ted #$d de")#red suit#+)e for the s#!e 'o*#(e the e0pe$ses of tr#$sfer #$d the i$"re#se i$ the pri"e of the "h#rter shou)d there +e #$* +ei$( for his #""ou$t. Shou)d he $ot +e #+)e to !#=e this "h#$(e he sh#))

u$dert#=e the 'o*#(e #t the ti!e #(reed upo$, #$d shou)d $o ti!e h#'e +ee$ fi0ed &ithi$ fiftee$ d#*s fro! the ti!e the )o#di$( +e(#$ u$)ess other&ise stipu)#ted. If the o&$er of the p#rt of the frei(ht #)re#d* )o#ded shou)d pro"ure so!e !ore #t the s#!e pri"e #$d u$der si!i)#r or proportio$#te "o$ditio$s to those #""epted for the frei(ht re"ei'ed the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered or the "#pt#i$ "#$ $ot refuse to #""ept the rest of the "#r(o, #$d shou)d he do so the shipper sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht to de!#$d th#t the 'esse) put to se# &ith the "#r(o &hi"h it !#* h#'e o$ +o#rd. ARTICLE 8;1. After three6fifths of the 'esse) h#s +ee$ )o#ded the perso$ fro! &ho! she is "h#rtered !#* $ot &ithout the "o$se$t of the "h#rterers or shippers su+stitute the 'esse) desi($#ted i$ the "h#rter p#rt* +* #$other o$e u$der the pe$#)t* of !#=i$( hi!se)f there+* )i#+)e for #)) the )osses #$d d#!#(es o""urri$( duri$( the 'o*#(e to the "#r(o of those &ho did $ot "o$se$t to the "h#$(e. ARTICLE 8;-. If the 'esse) h#s +ee$ "h#rtered i$ &ho)e the "#pt#i$ !#* $ot &ithout the "o$se$t of the "h#rterer #""ept "#r(o fro! #$* other perso$, #$d shou)d he do so s#id "h#rterer !#* o+)i(e hi! to u$)o#d it #$d to i$de!$if* hi! for the )osses suffered there+*. ARTICLE 8;1. The perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered sh#)) he )i#+)e for #)) the )osses "#used to the "h#rterer +* re#so$ of the 'o)u$t#r* de)#* of the "#pt#i$ i$ putti$( to se# #""ordi$( to the ru)es pres"ri+ed pro'ided he h#s +ee$ re5uested $ot#ri#))* or 2udi"i#))* to put to se# #t the proper ti!e. ARTICLE 8;3. If the "h#rterer shou)d "#rr* to the 'esse) !ore "#r(o th#$ th#t "o$tr#"ted for the e0"ess !#* +e #d!itted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pri"e stipu)#ted i$ the "o$tr#"t if it "#$ +e &e)) sto&ed &ithout i$2uri$( the other shippers, +ut if i$ order to )o#d it the 'esse) &ou)d +e thro&$ out of tri! the "#pt#i$ !ust refuse it or u$)o#d it #t the e0pe$se of its o&$er. I$ the s#!e !#$$er the "#pt#i$ !#* +efore )e#'i$( the port u$)o#d !er"h#$dise ")#$desti$e)* p)#"ed o$ +o#rd or tr#$sport the! if he "#$ do so &ith the 'esse) i$ tri! de!#$di$( +* &#* of frei(ht#(e the hi(hest pri"e &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ stipu)#ted for s#id 'o*#(e. ARTICLE 8;7. If the 'esse) h#s +ee$ "h#rtered to re"ei'e the "#r(o i$ #$other port the "#pt#i$ sh#)) #ppe#r +efore the "o$si($ee desi($#ted i$ the "h#rter p#rt*, #$d shou)d the )#tter $ot de)i'er the "#r(o to hi! he sh#)) i$for! the "h#rterer #$d &#it his i$stru"tio$s the )#* d#*s #(reed upo$ or those #))o&ed +* "usto! i$ the port +e(i$$i$( to ru$ i$ the !e#$ti!e u$)ess there is #$ e0press #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r*. Shou)d the "#pt#i$ $ot re"ei'e #$ #$s&er &ithi$ the ti!e $e"ess#r* therefor he sh#)) !#=e efforts to fi$d frei(ht, #$d shou)d he $ot fi$d #$* #fter the )#* d#*s #$d e0tr# )#* d#*s h#'e e)#psed he sh#)) !#=e # protest #$d retur$ to the port &here the "h#rter &#s !#de. The "h#rterer sh#)) p#* the frei(ht#(e i$ fu)) dis"ou$ti$( th#t &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ e#r$ed o$ the !er"h#$dise &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ "#rried o$ the 'o*#(e out or o$ the retur$ trip if "#rried for the #""ou$t of third perso$s. The s#!e sh#)) +e do$e if # 'esse) h#'i$( +ee$ "h#rtered for the rou$d trip shou)d $ot +e (i'e$ #$* "#r(o o$ its retur$. ARTICLE 8;8. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) )ose the frei(ht#(e #$d sh#)) i$de!$if* the "h#rterers if the )#tter shou)d pro'e e'e$ #(#i$st the "ertifi"#te of i$spe"tio$ if o$e h#s +ee$ !#de #t the port of dep#rture th#t the 'esse) &#s $ot i$ # "o$ditio$ to $#'i(#te #t the ti!e of re"ei'i$( the "#r(o. ARTICLE 8;;. The "h#rter p#rt* sh#)) su+sist if # de")#r#tio$ of &#r or # +)o"=#de shou)d t#=e p)#"e duri$( the 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ $ot h#'i$( #$* i$stru"tio$s fro! the "h#rterer. I$ su"h "#se the "#pt#i$ !ust pro"eed to the $e#rest s#fe #$d $eutr#) port re5uesti$( #$d #&#iti$( orders fro! the shipper #$d the e0pe$ses #$d s#)#ries p#id duri$( the dete$tio$ sh#)) +e p#id #s (e$er#) #'er#(e. If +* orders of the shipper the "#r(o shou)d +e dis"h#r(ed #t the port of #rri'#) the frei(ht#(e for the 'o*#(e out sh#)) +e p#id i$ fu)). ARTICLE 8;<. If the ti!e $e"ess#r* i$ the opi$io$ of the 2ud(e or "ourt to re"ei'e the orders of the shipper shou)d h#'e e)#pse &ithout the "#pt#i$ h#'i$( re"ei'ed #$* i$stru"tio$s the "#r(o sh#)) +e

deposited #$d it sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e #$d e0pe$ses o$ its #""ou$t duri$( the de)#* &hi"h sh#)) +e p#id fro! the pro"eeds of the p#rt first so)d. 4ART 1 OBLIGATIONS OF CHARTERERS ARTICLE 8;?. The "h#rterer of #$ e$tire 'esse) !#* su+6"h#rter the &ho)e or p#rt thereof o$ su"h ter!s #s he !#* "o$sider !ost "o$'e$ie$t the "#pt#i$ $ot +ei$( #))o&ed to refuse to re"ei'e o$ +o#rd the frei(ht de)i'ered +* the se"o$d "h#rterers pro'ided th#t the "o$ditio$s of the first "h#rter #re $ot "h#$(e #$d th#t the pri"e #(reed upo$ is p#id i$ fu)) to the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered e'e$ thou(h the fu)) "#r(o is $ot e!+#r=ed &ith the )i!it#tio$ est#+)ished i$ the $e0t #rti")e. "dt#i ARTICLE 8<@. A "h#rterer &ho does $ot "o!p)ete the fu)) "#r(o he +ou$d hi!se)f to ship sh#)) p#* the frei(ht#(e of the #!ou$t he f#i)s to ship if the "#pt#i$ does $ot t#=e other frei(ht to "o!p)ete the )o#d of the 'esse) i$ &hi"h "#se the first "h#rterer sh#)) p#* the differe$"e shou)d there +e #$*. ARTICLE 8<1. If the "h#rterer shou)d )o#d (oods differe$t fro! those st#ted #t the ti!e of e0e"uti$( the "h#rter p#rt* &ithout the =$o&)ed(e of the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered or of the "#pt#i$ #$d shou)d there+* (i'e rise to )osses +* re#so$ of "o$fis"#tio$ e!+#r(o dete$tio$ or other "#uses to the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered or to the shippers the perso$ (i'i$( rise thereto sh#)) +e )i#+)e &ith the '#)ue of his ship!e$t #$d further!ore &ith his propert* for the fu)) i$de!$it* to #)) those i$2ured throu(h his f#u)t. ARTICLE 8<-. If the !er"h#$dise shou)d h#'e +ee$ shipped for the purpose of i))i"it "o!!er"e #$d &ere t#=e$ o$ +o#rd &ith the =$o&)ed(e of the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered or of the "#pt#i$ the )#tter 2oi$t)* &ith the o&$er of the s#!e sh#)) +e )i#+)e for #)) the )osses &hi"h !#* +e "#used the other shippers, #$d e'e$ thou(h it !#* h#'e +ee$ stipu)#ted the* "#$ $ot de!#$d #$* i$de!$it* &h#tsoe'er fro! the "h#rterer for the d#!#(ed "#used to the 'esse). ARTICLE 8<1. I$ "#se of !#=i$( # port to rep#ir the hu)) !#"hi$er* or e5uip!e$t of the 'esse) the shippers !ust #&#it u$ti) the 'esse) is rep#ired +ei$( per!itted to u$)o#d it #t their o&$ e0pe$se shou)d the* dee! it proper. If for the +e$efit of the "#r(o su+2e"t to deterior#tio$ the shippers or the "ourt or the "o$su) or the "o!pete$t #uthorit* i$ # forei($ "ou$tr* shou)d order the !er"h#$dise to +e u$)o#ded the e0pe$ses of u$)o#di$( #$d re)o#di$( sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t of the for!er. ARTICLE 8<3. If the "h#rterer &ithout the o""urre$"e of #$* of the "#ses of for"e !#2eure !e$tio$ed i$ the fore(oi$( #rti")e shou)d &ish to u$)o#d his !er"h#$dise +efore #rri'i$( #t the port of desti$#tio$ he sh#)) p#* the fu)) frei(ht#(e the e0pe$ses of the #rri'#) !#de #t his re5uest #$d the )osses #$d d#!#(es "#used the other shippers shou)d there +e #$*. ARTICLE 8<7. I$ "h#rters for tr#$sport#tio$ of (e$er#) frei(ht #$* of the shippers !#* u$)o#d the !er"h#$dise +efore the +e(i$$i$( of the 'o*#(e p#*i$( o$e6h#)f of the frei(ht#(e the e0pe$se of sto&i$( #$d resto&i$( the "#r(o #$d #$* other d#!#(e &hi"h for his re#so$ he !#* "#use the other shippers. ARTICLE 8<8. After the 'esse) h#s +ee$ u$)o#ded #$d the "#r(o p)#"ed #t the dispos#) of the "o$si($ee the )#tter !ust i!!edi#te)* p#* the "#pt#i$ the frei(ht#(e due #$d the other e0pe$ses for &hi"h s#id "#r(o !#* +e )i#+)e. The pri!#(e !ust +e p#id i$ the s#!e proportio$ #$d #t the s#!e ti!e #s the frei(ht#(e #)) the "h#$(es #$d !odifi"#tio$s to &hi"h the )#tter shou)d +e su+2e"t #)so (o'er$i$( the for!er. ARTICLE 8<;. The "h#rterers #$d shippers !#* $ot #+#$do$ !er"h#$dise d#!#(ed o$ #""ou$t of i$here$t defe"t or fortuitous e'e$t for the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e #$d other e0pe$ses. #is#d" The #+#$do$!e$t sh#)) +e proper ho&e'er if the "#r(o shou)d "o$sist of )i5uids #$d the* h#'e )e#=ed out $othi$( re!#i$i$( i$ the "o$t#i$ers +ut o$e6fourth p#rt of their "o$te$ts. 4ART 3 TOTAL OR 4ARTIAL RESCISSION OF CHARTER 4ARTIES

ARTICLE 8<<. A "h#rter p#rt* !#* +e res"i$ded #t the re5uest of the "h#rterer% 1. If +efore )o#di$( the 'esse) he shou)d $ot #(ree &ith th#t st#ted i$ the "ertifi"#te of to$$#(e or if there shou)d +e #$ error i$ the st#te!e$t of the f)#( u$der &hi"h she s#i)s. -. If the 'esse) shou)d $ot +e p)#"ed #t the dispos#) of the "h#rterer &ithi$ the period #$d i$ the !#$$er #(reed upo$. 1. If #fter the 'esse) h#s put to se# she shou)d retur$ to the port of dep#rture o$ #""ou$t of ris= fro! pir#tes e$e!ies or +#d &e#ther #$d the shippers shou)d #(ree to u$)o#d her. I$ the se"o$d #$d third "#ses the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered sh#)) i$de!$if* the "h#rterer for the 'o*#(e out. 3. If the "h#rter shou)d h#'e +ee$ !#de +* the !o$ths the "h#rterers sh#)) p#* the fu)) frei(ht#(e for o$e !o$th if the 'o*#(e is for # port i$ the s#!e &#ters #$d for t&o !o$ths if for # port i$ differe$t &#ters. Fro! o$e port to #$other of the 4hi)ippi$es #$d #d2#"e$t is)#$ds the frei(ht#(e for o$e !o$th o$)* sh#)) +e p#id. 7. If the 'esse) shou)d !#=e # port duri$( the 'o*#(e i$ order to !#=e ur(e$t rep#irs #$d the "h#rterers shou)d prefer to dispose of the !er"h#$dise. Che$ the de)#* does $ot e0"eed thirt* d#*s the shippers sh#)) p#* the fu)) frei(ht#(e for the 'o*#(e out. Shou)d the de)#* e0"eed thirt* d#*s the* sh#)) o$)* p#* the frei(ht#(e i$ proportio$ to the dist#$"e "o'ered +* the 'esse). ARTICLE 8<?. At the re5uest of the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) is "h#rtered the "h#rter p#rt* !#* +e res"i$ded% 1. If the "h#rterer #t the ter!i$#tio$ of the e0tr# )#* d#*s does $ot p)#"e the "#r(o #)o$(side the 'esse). I$ su"h "#se the "h#rterer !ust p#* h#)f the frei(ht stipu)#ted +esides the de!urr#(e due for the )#* d#*s #$d e0tr# )#* d#*s. -. If the perso$ fro! &ho! the 'esse) &#s "h#rtered shou)d se)) it +efore the "h#rterer h#s +e(u$ to )o#d it #$d the pur"h#ser shou)d )o#d it for his o&$ #""ou$t. I$ su"h "#se the 'e$dor sh#)) i$de!$if* the "h#rterer for the )osses he !#* suffer. If the $e& o&$er of the 'esse) shou)d $ot )o#d it for his o&$ #""ou$t the "h#rter p#rt* sh#)) +e respe"ted #$d the 'e$dor sh#)) i$de!$if* the pur"h#ser if the for!er did $ot i$for! hi! of the "h#rter pe$di$( #t the ti!e of !#=i$( the s#)e. ARTICLE 8?@. The "h#rter p#rt* sh#)) +e res"i$ded #$d #)) #"tio$s #risi$( therefro! sh#)) +e e0ti$(uished if +efore the 'esse) puts to se# fro! the port of dep#rture #$* of the fo))o&i$( "#ses shou)d o""ur% 1. A de")#r#tio$ of &#r or i$terdi"tio$ of "o!!er"e &ith the po&er to &hose ports the 'esse) &#s to !#=e its 'o*#(e. -. A "o$ditio$ of +)o"=#de of the port of desti$#tio$ of s#id 'esse) or the +re#=i$( out of #$ epide!i" #fter the "o$tr#"t &#s e0e"uted. 1. The prohi+itio$ to re"ei'e #t the s#id port the !er"h#$dise "o$stituti$( the "#r(o of the 'esse). 3. A$ i$defi$ite dete$tio$ +* re#so$ of #$ e!+#r(o of the 'esse) +* order of the (o'er$!e$t or for #$* other re#so$ i$depe$de$t of the &i)) of the ship #(e$t. 7. The i$#+i)it* of the 'esse) to $#'i(#te &ithout f#u)t of the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t. The u$)o#di$( sh#)) +e !#de for the #""ou$t of the "h#rterer. ARTICLE 8?1. If the 'esse) "#$$ot put to se# o$ #""ou$t of the ")osi$( of the port of dep#rture or #$* other te!por#r* "#use the "h#rter sh#)) re!#i$ i$ for"e &ith $either o$e of the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties h#'i$( # ri(ht to ")#i! d#!#(es. The su+siste$"e #$d &#(es of the "re& sh#)) +e "o$sidered #s (e$er#) #'er#(e. Duri$( the i$terruptio$ the "h#rterer !#* #t the proper ti!e #$d for his o&$ #""ou$t u$)o#d #$d )o#d

the !er"h#$dise p#*i$( de!urr#(e if he de)#*s the re)o#di$( #fter the "#use for the dete$tio$ h#s "e#sed. ARTICLE 8?-. A "h#rter p#rt* sh#)) +e p#rti#))* res"i$ded u$)ess there is #$ #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r* #$d the "#pt#i$ sh#)) o$)* +e e$tit)ed to the frei(ht#(e for the 'o*#(e out if +* re#so$ of # de")#r#tio$ of &#r ")osi$( of ports or i$terdi"tio$ of "o!!er"i#) re)#tio$s duri$( the 'o*#(e the 'esse) shou)d !#=e the port desi($#ted for su"h # "#se i$ the i$stru"tio$s of the "h#rterer. 4ART 7 4ASSENGERS ON SEA EOHAGES ARTICLE 8?1. If the p#ss#(e pri"e h#s $ot +ee$ #(reed upo$ the 2ud(e or "ourt sh#)) su!!#ri)* fi0 it #fter # de")#r#tio$ of e0perts. ARTICLE 8?3. Shou)d the p#sse$(er $ot #rri'e o$ +o#rd #t the ti!e fi0ed or shou)d )e#'e the 'esse) &ithout per!issio$ fro! the "#pt#i$ &he$ the )#tter is re#d* to )e#'e the port the "#pt#i$ !#* "o$ti$ue the 'o*#(e #$d de!#$d the fu)) p#ss#(e pri"e. ARTICLE 8?7. The ri(ht to p#ss#(e if issued to # spe"ified perso$ !#* $ot +e tr#$sferred &ithout the "o$se$t of the "#pt#i$ or of the "o$si($ee. ARTICLE 8?8. If +efore +e(i$$i$( the 'o*#(e the p#sse$(er shou)d die his heirs sh#)) o$)* +e o+)i(ed to p#* h#)f of the f#re #(reed upo$. If the e0pe$ses of su+siste$"e #re i$")uded i$ the pri"e stipu)#ted the 2ud(e or "ourt #fter he#ri$( e0perts if he "o$siders it $e"ess#r* sh#)) fi0 the #!ou$t &hi"h h#s to +e )eft for the +e$efit of the 'esse). Shou)d #$other p#sse$(er +e re"ei'ed i$ the p)#"e of the de"e#sed $o p#*!e$t sh#)) +e !#de +* s#id heirs. ARTICLE 8?;. If +efore the 'o*#(e is +e(u$ it is suspe$ded throu(h the e0")usi'e f#u)t of the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t the p#sse$(ers sh#)) h#'e the ri(ht to # refu$d of their f#res #$d to re"o'er )osses #$d d#!#(es, +ut if the suspe$sio$ is due to fortuitous e'e$ts or to for"e !#2eure or to #$* other "#use i$depe$de$t of the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t the p#sse$(ers sh#)) o$)* +e e$tit)ed to the retur$ of the f#re. "d ARTICLE 8?<. I$ "#se # 'o*#(e #)re#d* +e(u$ shou)d +e i$terrupted the p#sse$(ers sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to p#* the f#re i$ proportio$ to the dist#$"e "o'ered &ithout ri(ht to re"o'er for )osses #$d d#!#(es if the i$terruptio$ is due to fortuitous e'e$t or to for"e !#2eure +ut &ith # ri(ht to i$de!$it* if the i$terruptio$ shou)d h#'e +ee$ "#used +* the "#pt#i$ e0")usi'e)*. If the i$terruptio$ shou)d +e "#used +* the dis#+i)it* of the 'esse) #$d # p#sse$(er shou)d #(ree to #&#it the rep#irs he !#* $ot +e re5uired to p#* #$* i$"re#sed pri"e of p#ss#(e +ut his )i'i$( e0pe$ses duri$( the st#* sh#)) +e for his o&$ #""ou$t. I$ "#se of de)#* i$ the dep#rture of the 'esse) the p#sse$(ers h#'e the ri(ht to re!#i$ o$ +o#rd #$d to +e fur$ished &ith food for the #""ou$t of the 'esse) u$)ess the de)#* is due to fortuitous e'e$ts or to for"e !#2eure. If the de)#* shou)d e0"eed te$ d#*s p#sse$(ers re5uesti$( the s#!e sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to the retur$ of the f#re, #$d if it is due e0")usi'e)* to the f#u)t of the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t the* !#* #)so de!#$d i$de!$it* for )osses #$d d#!#(es. A 'esse) e0")usi'e)* de'oted to the tr#$sport#tio$ of p#sse$(ers !ust t#=e the! dire"t)* to the port or ports of desti$#tio$ $o !#tter &h#t the $u!+er of p#sse$(ers !#* +e !#=i$( #)) the stops i$di"#ted i$ its iti$er#r*. ARTICLE 8??. If the "o$tr#"t is res"i$ded +efore or #fter the "o!!e$"e!e$t of the 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ sh#)) h#'e # ri(ht to ")#i! p#*!e$t of &h#t he !#* h#'e fur$ished the p#sse$(ers. ARTICLE ;@@. I$ #)) !#tters pert#i$i$( to the preser'#tio$ of order #$d dis"ip)i$e o$ +o#rd the 'esse) p#sse$(ers sh#)) +e su+2e"t to the orders of the "#pt#i$ &ithout #$* disti$"tio$ &h#tsoe'er. ARTICLE ;@1. The "o$'e$ie$"e or the i$terest of the p#sse$(ers sh#)) $ot o+)i(#te or e!po&ers the "#pt#i$ to st#$d i$ shore or e$ter p)#"es &hi"h !#* t#=e the 'esse) out of her "ourse or to re!#i$ i$ the ports he !ust or i$ u$der $e"essit* of tou"hi$( for # period )o$(er th#$ th#t re5uired +* the $eeds

of $#'i(#tio$. ARTICLE ;@-. I$ the #+se$"e of #$ #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r* it sh#)) +e u$derstood th#t the su+siste$"e of the p#sse$(ers duri$( the 'o*#(e is i$")uded i$ the pri"e of the p#ss#(e, +ut shou)d it +e for the #""ou$t of the )#tter the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e u$der o+)i(#tio$ i$ "#se of $e"essit* to fur$ish the supp)* of food $e"ess#r* for their suste$#$"e #t # re#so$#+)e pri"e. ARTICLE ;@1. A p#sse$(er sh#)) +e "o$sidered # shipper i$sof#r #s the (oods he "#rries o$ +o#rd #re "o$"er$ed #$d the "#pt#i$ sh#)) $ot +e respo$si+)e for &h#t the for!er !#* =eep u$der his i!!edi#te #$d spe"i#) "ustod* u$)ess the d#!#(e #rises fro! #$ #"t of the "#pt#i$ or of the "re&. ARTICLE ;@3. The "#pt#i$ i$ order to "o))e"t the p#ss#(e6!o$e* #$d e0pe$ses of suste$#$"e !#* ret#i$ the (oods +e)o$(i$( to the p#sse$(er #$d i$ "#se of the s#)e of the s#!e he sh#)) +e (i'e$ prefere$"e o'er other "reditors #"ti$( the s#!e &#* #s i$ the "o))e"tio$ of frei(ht#(e. ARTICLE ;@7. I$ "#se of the de#th of # p#sse$(er duri$( the 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e #uthori>ed &ith re(#rd to the +od* to t#=e the steps re5uired +* the "ir"u!st#$"es #$d sh#)) "#refu))* t#=e "#re of the p#pers #$d (oods &hi"h !#* +e o$ +o#rd +e)o$(i$( to the p#sse$(er o+ser'i$( the pro'isio$s of "#se No. 1@ of Arti")e 81- &ith re(#rd to !e!+ers of the "re&. 4ART 8 BILLS OF LADING ARTICLE ;@8. The "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) #$d the shipper sh#)) h#'e the o+)i(#tio$ of dr#&i$( up the +i)) of )#di$( i$ &hi"h sh#)) +e st#ted% 1. The $#!e re(istr* #$d to$$#(e of the 'esse). -. The $#!e of the "#pt#i$ #$d his do!i"i)e. 1. The port of )o#di$( #$d th#t of u$)o#di$(. 3. The $#!e of the shipper. 7. The $#!e of the "o$si($ee if the +i)) of )#di$( is issued i$ the $#!e of # spe"ified perso$. 8. The 5u#$tit* 5u#)it* $u!+er of p#"=#(es #$d !#r=s of the !er"h#$dise. ;. The frei(ht#(e #$d the pri!#(e stipu)#ted. The +i)) of )#di$( !#* +e issued to +e#rer to order or i$ the $#!e of # spe"ified perso$ #$d !ust +e si($ed &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours #fter the "#r(o h#s +ee$ re"ei'ed o$ +o#rd the shipper +ei$( e$tit)ed to de!#$d the u$)o#di$( #t the e0pe$se of the "#pt#i$ shou)d the )#tter $ot si($ it #$d i$ e'er* "#se the )osses #$d d#!#(es suffered there+*. "d#si# ARTICLE ;@;. Four true "opies of the ori(i$#) +i)) of )#di$( sh#)) +e !#de #$d #)) of the! sh#)) +e si($ed +* the "#pt#i$ #$d the shipper. Of these the shipper sh#)) =eep o$e #$d se$d #$other to the "o$si($ee, the "#pt#i$ sh#)) t#=e t&o o$e for hi!se)f #$d #$other for the ship #(e$t. There !#* #)so +e dr#&$ up #s !#$* "opies of the +i)) of )#di$( #s !#* +e "o$sidered $e"ess#r* +* the perso$ i$terested, +ut &he$ the* #re issued to order or to +e#rer the* sh#)) +e st#ted i$ #)) the "opies +e the* the first four or the su+se5ue$t o$es the desti$#tio$ of e#"h o$e st#ti$( &hether it is for the #(e$t for the "#pt#i$ for the shipper or for the "o$si($ee. If the "op* se$t to the )#tter shou)d h#'e # dup)i"#te this "ir"u!st#$"e #$d the f#"t th#t it is $ot '#)id e0"ept i$ def#u)t of the first o$e !ust +e st#ted therei$. ARTICLE ;@<. Bi))s of )#di$( issued to +e#rer #$d se$t to the "o$si($ee sh#)) +e tr#$sfer#+)e +* #"tu#) de)i'er* of the i$stru!e$t, #$d those issued to order +* 'irtue of #$ i$dorse!e$t. I$ either "#se the perso$ to &ho! the +i)) of )#di$( is tr#$sferred sh#)) #"5uire #)) the ri(hts #$d #"tio$s of the tr#$sferor or i$dorser &ith re(#rd to the !er"h#$dise !e$tio$ed i$ the s#!e. ARTICLE ;@?. A +i)) of )#di$( dr#&$ up i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of this tit)e sh#)) +e proof #s +et&ee$ #)) those i$terested i$ the "#r(o #$d +et&ee$ the )#tter #$d the i$surers proof to the "o$tr#r* +ei$( reser'ed for the )#tter. ARTICLE ;1@. If the +i))s of )#di$( do $ot #(ree #$d $o "h#$(e or er#sure "#$ +e o+ser'ed i$ #$* of the! those possessed +* the shipper or "o$si($ee si($ed +* the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e proof #(#i$st the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t i$ f#'or of the "o$si($ee or shipper, #$d those possessed +* the "#pt#i$ or

ship #(e$t si($ed +* the shipper sh#)) +e proof #(#i$st the shipper or "o$si($ee i$ f#'or of the "#pt#i$ or ship #(e$t. ARTICLE ;11. The )e(iti!#te ho)der of # +i)) of )#di$( &ho f#i)s to prese$t it to the "#pt#i$ of the 'esse) +efore the u$)o#di$( o+)i(i$( the )#tter there+* to u$)o#d it #$d p)#"e it i$ deposit sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for the e0pe$ses of &#rehousi$( #$d other e0pe$ses #risi$( therefro!. ARTICLE ;1-. The "#pt#i$ !#* $ot +* hi!se)f "h#$(e the desti$#tio$ of the !er"h#$dise. I$ #d!itti$( this "h#$(e #t the i$st#$"e of the shipper he !ust first t#=e up the +i)) of )#di$( &hi"h he !#* h#'e issued u$der p#i$ of +ei$( )i#+)e for the "#r(o to the )e(iti!#te ho)der of the s#!e. ARTICLE ;11. If +efore the de)i'er* of the "#r(o # $e& +i)) of )#di$( shou)d +e de!#$ded of the "#pt#i$ o$ the #))e(#tio$ th#t the f#i)ure to prese$t the pre'ious o$es is due to their )oss or to #$* other 2ust "#use he sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to issue it pro'ided th#t se"urit* for the '#)ue of the "#r(o is (i'e$ to his s#tisf#"tio$ +ut &ithout "h#$(i$( the "o$si($!e$t #$d st#ti$( therei$ the "ir"u!st#$"es pres"ri+ed i$ the )#st p#r#(r#ph of Arti")e ;@; u$der pe$#)t* shou)d he $ot so st#te of +ei$( he)d )i#+)e for s#id "#r(o if i!proper)* de)i'ered throu(h his f#u)t. ARTICLE ;13. If +efore the 'esse) puts to se# the "#pt#i$ shou)d die or shou)d "e#se to ho)d his positio$ throu(h #$* "#use the shippers sh#)) h#'e the ri(ht to de!#$d of the $e& "#pt#i$ the r#tifi"#tio$ of the first +i))s of )#di$( #$d the )#tter !ust do so pro'ided th#t #)) the "opies pre'ious)* issued +e prese$ted or retur$ed to hi! #$d it shou)d #ppe#r fro! #)) e0#!i$#tio$ of the "#r(o th#t the* #re "orre"t. The e0pe$ses #risi$( fro! the e0#!i$#tio$ of the "#r(o sh#)) +e defr#*ed +* the ship #(e$t &ithout pre2udi"e to the ri(ht of #"tio$ of the )#tter #(#i$st the first "#pt#i$ if he "e#sed to +e su"h throu(h his o&$ f#u)t. Shou)d s#id e0#!i$#tio$ $ot +e !#de it sh#)) +e u$derstood th#t the $e& "#pt#i$ #""epts the "#r(o #s it #ppe#rs fro! the +i))s of )#di$( issued. ARTICLE ;17. Bi))s of )#di$( &i)) (i'e rise to # !ost su!!#r* #"tio$ or to 2udi"i#) "o!pu)sio$ 9I#""io$ su!#risi!# o de #pre!iosI: #""ordi$( to the "#se for the de)i'er* of the "#r(o #$d the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e #$d the e0pe$ses there+* i$"urred. ARTICLE ;18. If se'er#) perso$s shou)d prese$t +i))s of )#di$( issued to +e#rer or to order i$dorsed i$ their f#'or de!#$di$( the s#!e !er"h#$dise the "#pt#i$ sh#)) prefer i$ !#=i$( de)i'er* the perso$ &ho prese$ts the "op* first issued e0"ept &he$ the )#tter o$e &#s issued o$ proof of the )oss of the first #$d +oth #re prese$ted +* differe$t perso$s. I$ su"h "#se #s &e)) #s &he$ o$)* se"o$d su+se5ue$t "opies issued &ithout this proof #re prese$ted the "#pt#i$ sh#)) #pp)* to the 2ud(e or "ourt so th#t he !#* order the deposit of the !er"h#$dise #$d their de)i'er* throu(h hi! to the proper perso$. ARTICLE ;1;. The de)i'er* of the +i)) of )#di$( sh#)) effe"t the "#$"e))#tio$ of #)) the pro'isio$#) re"eipts of prior d#te (i'e$ +* the "#pt#i$ or his su+ordi$#tes for p#rti#) de)i'eries of the "#r(o &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ !#de. ARTICLE ;1<. After the "#r(o h#s +ee$ de)i'ered the +i)) of )#di$( &hi"h the "#pt#i$ si($ed or #t )e#st the "op* +* re#so$ of &hi"h the de)i'er* is !#de sh#)) +e retur$ed to hi! &ith the re"eipt for the !er"h#$dise !e$tio$ed therei$. The de)#* o$ the p#rt of the "o$si($ee sh#)) !#=e hi! )i#+)e for the d#!#(es &hi"h su"h de)#* !#* "#use the "#pt#i$. SECTION TCO LOANS ON BOTTOMRH AND RES4ONDENTIA ARTICLE ;1?. A )o#$ i$ &hi"h u$der #$* "o$ditio$ &h#te'er the rep#*!e$t of the su! )o#$ed #$d of the pre!iu! stipu)#ted depe$ds upo$ the s#fe #rri'#) i$ port of the (oods o$ &hi"h it is !#de or of the pri"e the* !#* re"ei'e i$ "#se of #""ide$t sh#)) +e "o$sidered # )o#$ o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti#. ARTICLE ;-@. Lo#$s o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti# !#* +e e0e"uted% 1. B* !e#$s of # pu+)i" i$stru!e$t.

-. B* !e#$s of # po)i"* si($ed +* the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties #$d the +ro=er t#=i$( p#rt therei$. "dt 1. B* !e#$s of # pri'#te i$stru!e$t. D$der &hi"he'er of these for!s the "o$tr#"t is e0e"uted it sh#)) +e e$tered i$ the "ertifi"#te of the re(istr* of the 'esse) #$d sh#)) +e re"orded i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s &ithout &hi"h re5uisites the "redits of this =i$d sh#)) $ot h#'e &ith re(#rd to other "redits the prefere$"e &hi"h #""ordi$( to their $#ture the* shou)d h#'e #)thou(h the o+)i(#tio$ sh#)) +e '#)id +et&ee$ the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties. The "o$tr#"ts !#de duri$( # 'o*#(e sh#)) +e (o'er$ed +* the pro'isio$s of Arti")es 7<1 #$d 811 #$d sh#)) +e effe"ti'e &ith re(#rd to third perso$s fro! the d#te of their e0e"utio$ if the* shou)d +e re"orded i$ the re(istr* of 'esse)s of the port of re(istr* of the 'esse) +efore the )#pse of ei(ht d#*s fo))o&i$( its #rri'#). If s#id ei(ht d#*s shou)d e)#pse &ithout the re"ord h#'i$( +ee$ !#de i$ the "orrespo$di$( re(istr* the "o$tr#"ts !#de duri$( the 'o*#(e of # 'esse) sh#)) produ"e $o effe"t &ith re(#rd to third perso$s e0"ept fro! the d#* #$d d#te of their i$s"riptio$. I$ order th#t the po)i"* of the "o$tr#"ts e0e"uted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith No. - !#* h#'e +i$di$( for"e the* !ust "o$for! to the re(istr* of the +ro=er &ho too= p#rt therei$. Cith respe"t to those e0e"uted i$ #""ord#$"e &ith No. 1 the #"=$o&)ed(!e$t of the si($#ture sh#)) +e re5uired. Co$tr#"ts &hi"h #re $ot redu"ed to &riti$( sh#)) $ot (i'e rise to 2udi"i#) #"tio$. ARTICLE ;-1. I$ # "o$tr#"t o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti# the fo))o&i$( !ust +e st#ted% 1. The =i$d $#!e #$d re(istr* of the 'esse). -. The $#!e sur$#!e #$d do!i"i)e of the "#pt#i$. 1. The $#!es sur$#!es #$d do!i"i)es of the perso$ (i'i$( #$d the perso$ re"ei'i$( the )o#$. 3. The #!ou$t of the )o#$ #$d the pre!iu! stipu)#ted. 7. The ti!e for rep#*!e$t. 8. The (oods p)ed(ed to se"ure rep#*!e$t. ;. The 'o*#(e duri$( &hi"h the ris= is ru$. ARTICLE ;--. The "o$tr#"t !#* +e !#de to order i$ &hi"h "#se the* sh#)) +e tr#$sfer#+)e +* i$dorse!e$t #$d the i$dorsee sh#)) #"5uire #)) the ri(hts #$d sh#)) i$"ur #)) the ris=s "orrespo$di$( to the i$dorser. ARTICLE ;-1. Lo#$s !#* +e !#de i$ (oods #$d i$ !er"h#$dise fi0i$( their '#)ue i$ order to deter!i$e the pri$"ip#) of the )o#$. ARTICLE ;-3. The )o#$s !#* +e "o$stituted 2oi$t)* or sep#r#te)*% 1. O$ the hu)) of the 'esse). -. O$ the ri((i$(. 1. O$ the e5uip!e$t pro'isio$s #$d fue). 3. O$ the e$(i$e if the 'esse) is # ste#!er. 7. O$ the !er"h#$dise )o#ded. If the )o#$ i$ "o$stituted o$ the hu)) of the 'esse) the ri((i$( e5uip!e$t #$d other (oods pro'isio$s fue) ste#! e$(i$es #$d the frei(ht#(e e#r$ed duri$( the 'o*#(e o$ &hi"h the )o#$ is !#de sh#)) #)so +e "o$sidered #s i$")uded i$ the )i#+i)it* for the )o#$. "dt#i If the )o#$ is !#de o$ the "#r(o #)) th#t &hi"h "o$stitutes the s#!e sh#)) +e su+2e"t to the rep#*!e$t, #$d if o$ # p#rti"u)#r o+2e"t of the 'esse) or of the "#r(o o$)* the o+2e"t "o$"rete)* #$d spe"ifi"#))* !e$tio$ed sh#)) +e )i#+)e. ARTICLE ;-7. No )o#$s o$ +otto!r* !#* +e !#de o$ the s#)#ries of the "re& or o$ the profits e0pe"ted. ARTICLE ;-8. If the )e$der shou)d pro'e th#t he )o#$ed #$ #!ou$t )#r(er th#$ the '#)ue of the o+2e"t )i#+)e for the +otto!r* )o#$ o$ #""ou$t of fr#udu)e$t !e#sures e!p)o*ed +* the +orro&er the )o#$ sh#)) +e '#)id o$)* for the #!ou$t #t &hi"h s#id o+2e"t is #ppr#ised +* e0perts. The surp)us pri$"ip#) sh#)) +e retur$ed &ith )e(#) i$terests for the e$tire ti!e re5uired for rep#*!e$t. ARTICLE ;-;. If the fu)) #!ou$t of the )o#$ "o$tr#"ted i$ order to )o#d the 'esse) shou)d $ot +e used for the "#r(o the +#)#$"e sh#)) +e retur$ed +efore ")e#ri$(.

The s#!e pro"edure sh#)) +e o+ser'ed &ith re(#rd to the (oods t#=e$ #s )o#$ if the* &ere $ot )o#ded. ARTICLE ;-<. The )o#$ &hi"h the "#pt#i$ t#=es #t the poi$t of reside$"e of the o&$ers of the 'esse) sh#)) o$)* #ffe"t th#t p#rt thereof &hi"h +e)o$(s to the "#pt#i$ if the other o&$ers or their #(e$ts shou)d $ot h#'e (i'e$ their e0press #uthori>#tio$ therefor or shou)d $ot h#'e t#=e$ p#rt i$ the tr#$s#"tio$. If o$e or !ore of the o&$ers shou)d +e re5uested to fur$ish the #!ou$t $e"ess#r* to rep#ir or pro'isio$ the 'esse) #$d the* shou)d $ot do so &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours the i$terest &hi"h the p#rties i$ def#u)t !#* h#'e i$ the 'esse) sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the )o#$ i$ the proper proportio$. Outside of the reside$"e of the o&$ers the "#pt#i$ !#* "o$tr#"t )o#$s i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of Arti")es 7<1 #$d 811. ARTICLE ;-?. Shou)d the (oods o$ &hi"h !o$e* is t#=e$ $ot +e su+2e"ted to ris= the "o$tr#"t sh#)) +e "o$sidered # si!p)e )o#$ &ith the o+)i(#tio$ o$ the p#rt of the +orro&er to retur$ the pri$"ip#) #$d i$terest #t the )e(#) r#te if th#t #(reed upo$ shou)d $ot +e )o&er. ARTICLE ;1@. Lo#$s !#de duri$( the 'o*#(e sh#)) h#'e prefere$"e o'er those !#de +efore the ")e#ri$( of the 'esse) #$d the* sh#)) +e (r#du#ted i$ the i$'erse order of their d#tes. The )o#$s for the )#st 'o*#(e sh#)) h#'e prefere$"e o'er prior o$es. Shou)d se'er#) )o#$s h#'e +ee$ !#de #t the s#!e port of #rri'#) u$der stress #$d for the s#!e purpose #)) of the! sh#)) +e p#id pro r#t#. ARTICLE ;11. The #"tio$s pert#i$i$( to the )e$der sh#)) +e e0ti$(uished +* the #+so)ute )oss of the (oods o$ &hi"h the )o#$ &#s !#de if it #rose fro! #$ #""ide$t of the se# #t the ti!e #$d duri$( the 'o*#(e desi($#ted i$ the "o$tr#"t #$d it is pro'e$ th#t the "#r(o &#s o$ +o#rd, +ut this sh#)) $ot t#=e p)#"e if the )oss &#s "#used +* the i$here$t defe"t of the thi$( or throu(h the f#u)t or !#)i"e of the +orro&er or +#rr#tr* o$ the p#rt of the "#pt#i$ or if it &#s "#used +* d#!#(es suffered +* the 'esse) #s # "o$se5ue$"e of +ei$( e$(#(ed i$ "o$tr#+#$d or if it #rose fro! h#'i$( )o#ded the !er"h#$dise o$ # 'esse) differe$t fro! th#t desi($#ted i$ the "o$tr#"t u$)ess this "h#$(e shou)d h#'e +ee$ !#de +* re#so$ of for"e !#2eure. 4roof of the )oss #s &e)) #s of the e0iste$"e i$ the 'esse) of the (oods de")#red to the )e$der #s the o+2e"t of the )o#$ is i$"u!+e$t upo$ hi! &ho re"ei'ed the )o#$. ARTICLE ;1-. Le$ders o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti# sh#)) suffer i$ proportio$ to their respe"ti'e i$terest the (e$er#) #'er#(e &hi"h !#* t#=e p)#"e i$ the (oods o$ &hi"h the )o#$ is !#de. I$ p#rti"u)#r #'er#(es i$ the #+se$"e of #$ e0press #(ree!e$t +et&ee$ the "o$tr#"ti$( p#rties the )e$der o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti# sh#)) #)so "o$tri+ute i$ proportio$ to his respe"ti'e i$terest shou)d it $ot +e)o$( to the =i$d of ris=s e0"epted i$ the fore(oi$( #rti")e. ARTICLE ;11. Shou)d the period duri$( &hi"h the )e$der sh#)) ru$ the ris= $ot h#'e +ee$ st#ted i$ the "o$tr#"t it sh#)) )#st &ith re(#rd to the 'esse) e$(i$es ri((i$( #$d e5uip!e$t fro! the !o!e$t s#id 'esse) puts to se# u$ti) she drops #$"hor i$ the port of desti$#tio$, #$d &ith re(#rd to the !er"h#$dise fro! the ti!e the* #re )o#ded #t the shore or &h#rf of the port of ship!e$t u$ti) the* #re u$)o#ded i$ the port of "o$si($!e$t. #is#d" ARTICLE ;13. I$ "#se of ship&re"= the #!ou$t )i#+)e for the p#*!e$t of the )o#$ sh#)) +e redu"ed to the pro"eeds of the (oods s#'ed #fter dedu"ti$( the "osts of the s#)'#(e. If the )o#$ shou)d +e o$ the 'esse) or #$* of its p#rts the frei(ht#(e e#r$ed duri$( the 'o*#(e for &hi"h s#id )o#$ &#s "o$tr#"ted sh#)) #)so +e )i#+)e for its p#*!e$t #s f#r #s it !#* re#"h. ARTICLE ;17. If the s#!e 'esse) or "#r(o shou)d +e the o+2e"t of # )o#$ o$ +otto!r* or respo$de$ti# #$d !#ri$e i$sur#$"e the '#)ue of &h#t !#* +e s#'ed i$ "#se of ship&re"= sh#)) +e di'ided +et&ee$ the )e$der #$d the i$surer i$ proportio$ to the )e(iti!#te i$terest of e#"h o$e t#=i$( i$to "o$sider#tio$ for this purpose o$)* the pri$"ip#) &ith respe"t to the )o#$ #$d &ithout pre2udi"e to the ri(ht of prefere$"e of other "reditors i$ #""ord#$"e &ith Arti")e 7<@. ARTICLE ;18. If there shou)d +e de)#* i$ rep#*!e$t of the pri$"ip#) #$d pre!iu!s of the )o#$ o$)* the for!er sh#)) +e#r of )e(#) i$terest.

SECTION THREE MARINE INSDRANCE ARTICLES ;1; to <@7. 9These pro'isio$s #re e0press)* repe#)ed +* Se"tio$ -@3 of A"t No. -3?; other&ise =$o&$ #s IThe I$sur#$"e A"t.I: The $e& )#& of (o'er$i$( i$sur#$"e is 4D No. 81- #s #!e$ded &hi"h too= effe"t o$ De". 1< 1?;3. TITLE FODR RISKS DAMAGES AND ACCIDENTS OF MARITIME COMMERCE SECTION ONE AEERAGES ARTICLE <@8. For the purposes of this "ode the fo))o&i$( sh#)) +e "o$sidered #'er#(es% 1. A)) e0tr#ordi$#r* or #""ide$t#) e0pe$ses &hi"h !#* +e i$"urred duri$( the 'o*#(e i$ order to preser'e the 'esse) the "#r(o or +oth. -. A$* d#!#(es or deterior#tio$s &hi"h the 'esse) !#* suffer fro! the ti!e it puts to se# fro! the port of dep#rture u$ti) it "#sts #$"hor i$ the port of desti$#tio$ #$d those suffered +* the !er"h#$dise fro! the ti!e the* #re )o#ded i$ the port of ship!e$t u$ti) the* #re u$)o#ded i$ the port of their "o$si($!e$t. ARTICLE <@;. The pett* #$d ordi$#r* e0pe$ses i$"ide$t to $#'i(#tio$ su"h #s those of pi)ot#(e of "o#sts #$d ports those of )i(hter#(e #$d to&#(e #$"hor#(e i$spe"tio$ he#)th 5u#r#$ti$e )#>#retto #$d other so6"#))ed port e0pe$ses "osts of +#r(es #$d u$)o#di$( u$ti) the !er"h#$dise is p)#"ed o$ the &h#rf #$d #$* other usu#) e0pe$ses of $#'i(#tio$ sh#)) +e "o$sidered ordi$#r* e0pe$ses to +e defr#*ed +* the shipo&$er u$)ess there is #$ e0press #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r*. ARTICLE <@<. A'er#(es sh#)) +e% 1. Si!p)e or p#rti"u)#r. -. Ge$er#) or (ross. ARTICLE <@?. As # (e$er#) ru)e si!p)e or p#rti"u)#r #'er#(es sh#)) i$")ude #)) the e0pe$ses #$d d#!#(es "#used to the 'esse) or to her "#r(o &hi"h h#'e $ot i$ured to the "o!!o$ +e$efit #$d profit of #)) the perso$s i$terested i$ the 'esse) #$d her "#r(o #$d espe"i#))* the fo))o&i$(% 1. The )osses suffered +* the "#r(o fro! the ti!e of its e!+#r=#tio$ u$ti) it is u$)o#ded either o$ #""ou$t of i$here$t defe"t of the (oods or +* re#so$ of #$ #""ide$t of the se# or for"e !#2eure #$d the e0pe$ses i$"urred to #'oid #$d rep#ir the s#!e. -. The )osses #$d e0pe$ses suffered +* the 'esse) i$ its hu)) ri((i$( #r!s #$d e5uip!e$t for the s#!e "#uses #$d re#so$s fro! the ti!e it puts to se# fro! the port of dep#rture u$ti) it #$"hors #$d )#$ds i$ the port of desti$#tio$. 1. The )osses suffered +* the !er"h#$dise )o#ded o$ de"= e0"ept i$ "o#st&ise $#'i(#tio$ if the !#ri$e ordi$#$"es #))o& it. 3. The &#(es #$d 'i"tu#)s of the "re& &he$ the 'esse) is det#i$ed or e!+#r(oed +* )e(iti!#te order or for"e !#2eure if the "h#rter h#s +ee$ "o$tr#"ted for # fi0ed su! for the 'o*#(e. 7. The $e"ess#r* e0pe$ses o$ #rri'#) #t # port i$ order to !#=e rep#irs or se"ure pro'isio$s. 8. The )o&est '#)ue of the (oods so)d +* the "#pt#i$ i$ #rri'#)s u$der stress for the p#*!e$t of pro'isio$s #$d i$ order to s#'e the "re& or to !eet #$* other $eed of the 'esse) #(#i$st &hi"h the proper #!ou$t sh#)) +e "h#r(ed. ;. The 'i"tu#)s #$d &#(es of the "re& &hi)e the 'esse) is i$ 5u#r#$ti$e. <. The )oss i$f)i"ted upo$ the 'esse) or "#r(o +* re#so$ of #$ i!p#"t or "o))isio$ &ith #$other if it is #""ide$t#) #$d u$#'oid#+)e. If the #""ide$t shou)d o""ur throu(h the f#u)t or $e()i(e$"e of the "#pt#i$ the )#tter sh#)) +e )i#+)e for #)) the )osses "#used. ?. A$* )oss suffered +* the "#r(o throu(h the f#u)t $e()i(e$"e or +#rr#tr* of the "#pt#i$ or of the "re& &ithout pre2udi"e to the ri(ht of the o&$er to re"o'er the "orrespo$di$( i$de!$it* fro! the "#pt#i$ the 'esse) #$d the frei(ht#(e.

ARTICLE <1@. The o&$er of the (oods &hi"h (#'e rise to the e0pe$se or suffered the d#!#(e sh#)) +e#r the si!p)e or p#rti"u)#r #'er#(es. "d ARTICLE <11. As # (e$er#) ru)e (e$er#) or (ross #'er#(es sh#)) i$")ude #)) the d#!#(es #$d e0pe$ses &hi"h #re de)i+er#te)* "#used i$ order to s#'e the 'esse) its "#r(o or +oth #t the s#!e ti!e fro! # re#) #$d =$o&$ ris= #$d p#rti"u)#r)* the fo))o&i$(% 1. The (oods or "#sh i$'ested i$ the rede!ptio$ of the 'esse) or of the "#r(o "#ptured +* e$e!ies pri'#teers or pir#tes #$d the pro'isio$s &#(es #$d e0pe$ses of the 'esse) det#i$ed duri$( the ti!e the sett)e!e$t or rede!ptio$ is +ei$( !#de. -. The (oods 2ettiso$ed to )i(hte$ the 'esse) &hether the* +e)o$( to the "#r(o to the 'esse) or to the "re& #$d the d#!#(e suffered throu(h s#id #"t +* the (oods &hi"h #re =ept o$ +o#rd. 1. The "#+)es #$d !#sts &hi"h #re "ut or re$dered use)ess the #$"hors #$d the "h#i$s &hi"h #re #+#$do$ed i$ order to s#'e the "#r(o the 'esse) or +oth. 3. The e0pe$ses of re!o'i$( or tr#$sferri$( # portio$ of the "#r(o i$ order to )i(hte$ the 'esse) #$d p)#"e it i$ "o$ditio$ to e$ter # port or ro#dste#d #$d the d#!#(e resu)ti$( therefro! to the (oods re!o'ed or tr#$sferred. 7. The d#!#(e suffered +* the (oods of the "#r(o +* the ope$i$( !#de i$ the 'esse) i$ order to dr#i$ it #$d pre'e$t its si$=i$(. 8. The e0pe$ses "#used i$ order to f)o#t # 'esse) i$te$tio$#))* str#$ded for the purpose of s#*i$( it. ;. The d#!#(e "#used to the 'esse) &hi"h h#d to +e ope$ed s"utt)ed or +ro=e$ i$ order to s#'e the "#r(o. <. The e0pe$ses for the tre#t!e$t #$d su+siste$"e of the !e!+ers of the "re& &ho !#* h#'e +ee$ &ou$ded or "ripp)ed i$ defe$di$( or s#*i$( the 'esse). ?. The &#(es of #$* !e!+er of the "re& he)d #s host#(e +* e$e!ies pri'#teers or pir#tes #$d the $e"ess#r* e0pe$ses &hi"h he !#* i$"ur i$ his i!priso$!e$t u$ti) he is retur$ed to the 'esse) or to his do!i"i)e shou)d he prefer it. 1@. The &#(es #$d 'i"tu#)s of the "re& of # 'esse) "h#rtered +* the !o$th duri$( the ti!e th#t it is e!+#r(oed or det#i$ed +* for"e !#2eure or +* order of the (o'er$!e$t or i$ order to rep#ir the d#!#(e "#used for the "o!!o$ +e$efit. 11. The depre"i#tio$ resu)ti$( i$ the '#)ue of the (oods so)d #t #rri'#) u$der stress i$ order to rep#ir the 'esse) +* re#so$ of (ross #'er#(e. 1-. The e0pe$ses of the )i5uid#tio$ of the #'er#(e. ARTICLE <1-. I$ order to s#tisf* the #!ou$t of the (ross or (e$er#) #'er#(es #)) the perso$s h#'i$( #$ i$terest i$ the 'esse) #$d "#r(o therei$ #t the ti!e of the o""urre$"e of the #'er#(e sh#)) "o$tri+ute. ARTICLE <11. I$ order to i$"ur the e0pe$ses #$d "#use the d#!#(es "orrespo$di$( to (ross #'er#(e there !ust +e # reso)utio$ of the "#pt#i$ #dopted #fter de)i+er#tio$ &ith the s#i)i$( !#te #$d other offi"ers of the 'esse) #$d #fter he#ri$( the perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o &ho !#* +e prese$t. If the )#tter sh#)) o+2e"t #$d the "#pt#i$ #$d offi"ers or # !#2orit* of the! or the "#pt#i$ if opposed to the !#2orit* shou)d "o$sider "ert#i$ !e#sures $e"ess#r* the* !#* +e e0e"uted u$der his respo$si+i)it* &ithout pre2udi"e to the ri(ht of the shippers to pro"eed #(#i$st the "#pt#i$ +efore the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt if the* "#$ pro'e th#t he #"ted &ith !#)i"e )#"= of s=i)) or $e()i(e$"e. If the perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o +ei$( o$ +o#rd the 'esse) h#'e $ot +ee$ he#rd the* sh#)) $ot "o$tri+ute to the (ross #'er#(e their sh#re +ei$( "h#r(e#+)e #(#i$st the "#pt#i$ u$)ess the ur(e$"* of the "#se shou)d +e su"h th#t the ti!e $e"ess#r* for pre'ious de)i+er#tio$s &#s &#$ti$(. ARTICLE <13. The reso)utio$ #dopted to "#use the d#!#(es &hi"h "o$stitute (e$er#) #'er#(e !ust $e"ess#ri)* +e e$tered i$ the )o( +oo= st#ti$( the !oti'es #$d re#so$s for the disse$t shou)d there +e #$* #$d the irresisti+)e #$d ur(e$t "#uses &hi"h i!pe))ed the "#pt#i$ if he #"ted of his o&$ #""ord. I$ the first "#se the !i$utes sh#)) +e si($ed +* #)) the perso$s prese$t &ho "ou)d do so +efore t#=i$(

#"tio$ if possi+)e, #$d if $ot #t the first opportu$it*. I$ the se"o$d "#se it sh#)) +e si($ed +* the "#pt#i$ #$d +* the offi"ers of the 'esse). I$ the !i$utes #$d #fter the reso)utio$ sh#)) +e st#ted i$ det#i) #)) the (oods 2ettiso$ed #$d !e$tio$ sh#)) +e !#de of the i$2uries "#used to those =ept o$ +o#rd. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to de)i'er o$e "op* of these !i$utes to the !#riti!e 2udi"i#) #uthorit* of the first port he !#* !#=e &ithi$ t&e$t*6 four hours #fter his #rri'#) #$d to r#tif* it i!!edi#te)* u$der o#th. ARTICLE <17. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) dire"t the 2ettiso$ #$d sh#)) order the (oods "#st o'er+o#rd i$ the fo))o&i$( order% 1. Those &hi"h #re o$ de"= +e(i$$i$( &ith those &hi"h e!+#rr#ss the !#$eu'er or d#!#(e of the 'esse) preferri$( if possi+)e the he#'iest o$es &ith the )e#st uti)it* #$d '#)ue. "d# -. Those &hi"h #re +e)o& the upper de"= #)&#*s +e(i$$i$( &ith those of the (re#test &ei(ht #$d s!#))est '#)ue to the #!ou$t #$d $u!+er #+so)ute)* i$dispe$s#+)e. ARTICLE <18. I$ order th#t the (oods 2ettiso$ed !#* +e i$")uded i$ the (ross #'er#(e #$d the o&$ers thereof +e e$tit)ed to i$de!$it* it sh#)) +e $e"ess#r* i$sof#r #s the "#r(o is "o$"er$ed th#t their e0iste$"e o$ +o#rd +e pro'e$ +* !e#$s of the +i)) of )#di$(, #$d &ith re(#rd to those +e)o$(i$( to the 'esse) +* !e#$s of the i$'e$tor* prep#red +efore the dep#rture i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the first p#r#(r#ph of Arti")e <1-. ARTICLE <1;. If i$ )i(hte$i$( # 'esse) o$ #""ou$t of # stor! i$ order to f#"i)it#te its e$tr* i$to # port or ro#dste#d p#rt of the "#r(o shou)d +e tr#$sferred to )i(hters or +#r(es #$d +e )ost the o&$er of s#id p#rt sh#)) +e e$tit)ed to i$de!$it* #s if the )oss h#d ori(i$#ted fro! # (ross #'er#(e the #!ou$t thereof +ei$( distri+uted +et&ee$ the 'esse) #$d "#r(o fro! &hi"h it "#!e. If o$ the "o$tr#r* the !er"h#$dise tr#$sferred shou)d +e s#'ed #$d the 'esse) shou)d +e )ost $o )i#+i)it* !#* +e de!#$ded of the s#)'#(e. ARTICLE <1<. If #s # $e"ess#r* !e#sure to e0ti$(uish # fire i$ # port ro#dste#d "ree= or +#* it shou)d +e de"ided to si$= #$* 'esse) this )oss sh#)) +e "o$sidered (ross #'er#(e to &hi"h the 'esse)s s#'ed sh#)) "o$tri+ute. SECTION TCO ARRIEALS DNDER STRESS ARTICLE <1?. If duri$( the 'o*#(e the "#pt#i$ shou)d +e)ie'e th#t the 'esse) "#$ $ot "o$ti$ue the trip to the port of desti$#tio$ o$ #""ou$t of the )#"= of pro'isio$s &e))6fou$ded fe#r of sei>ure pri'#teers or pir#tes or +* re#so$ of #$* #""ide$t of the se# dis#+)i$( it to $#'i(#te he sh#)) #sse!+)e the offi"ers #$d sh#)) su!!o$ the perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o &ho !#* +e prese$t #$d &ho !#* #tte$d the !eeti$( &ithout the ri(ht to 'ote, #$d if #fter e0#!i$i$( the "ir"u!st#$"es of the "#se the re#so$ shou)d +e "o$sidered &e))6fou$ded the #rri'#) #t the $e#rest #$d !ost "o$'e$ie$t port sh#)) +e #(reed upo$ dr#fti$( #$d e$teri$( the proper !i$utes &hi"h sh#)) +e si($ed +* #)) i$ the )o( +oo=. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) h#'e the de"idi$( 'ote #$d the perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o !#* !#=e the o+2e"tio$s #$d protests the* !#* dee! proper &hi"h sh#)) +e e$tered i$ the !i$utes i$ order th#t the* !#* !#=e use thereof i$ the !#$$er the* !#* "o$sider #d'is#+)e. ARTICLE <-@. A$ #rri'#) sh#)) $ot +e "o$sidered )#&fu) i$ the fo))o&i$( "#ses% 1. If the )#"= of pro'isio$s shou)d #rise fro! the f#i)ure to t#=e the $e"ess#r* pro'isio$s for the 'o*#(e #""ordi$( to us#(e #$d "usto!s or if the* shou)d h#'e +ee$ re$dered use)ess or )ost throu(h +#d sto&#(e or $e()i(e$"e i$ their "#re. -. If the ris= of e$e!ies pri'#teers or pir#tes shou)d $ot h#'e +ee$ &e)) =$o&$ !#$ifest #$d +#sed o$ positi'e #$d pro'#+)e f#"ts. 1. If the defe"t of the 'esse) shou)d h#'e #rise$ fro! the f#"t th#t it &#s $ot rep#ired ri((ed e5uipped #$d prep#red i$ # !#$$er suit#+)e for the 'o*#(e or fro! so!e erro$eous order of the "#pt#i$. 3. Che$ !#)i"e $e()i(e$"e &#$t of foresi(ht or )#"= of s=i)) o$ the p#rt of the "#pt#i$ e0ists i$ the #"t "#usi$( the d#!#(e.

ARTICLE <-1. The e0pe$ses of #$ #rri'#) u$der stress sh#)) #)&#*s +e for the #""ou$t of the shipo&$er or #(e$t +ut the* sh#)) $ot +e )i#+)e for the d#!#(es &hi"h !#* +e "#used the shippers +* re#so$ of the #rri'#) pro'ided the )#tter is )e(iti!#te. Other&ise the ship #(e$t #$d the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e 2oi$t)* )i#+)e. ARTICLE <--. If i$ order to !#=e rep#irs to the 'esse) or +e"#use there is d#$(er th#t the "#r(o !#* suffer d#!#(e it shou)d +e $e"ess#r* to u$)o#d the "#pt#i$ !ust re5uest #uthori>#tio$ fro! the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt for the re!o'#) #$d "#rr* it out &ith the =$o&)ed(e of the perso$ i$terested i$ the "#r(o or his represe$t#ti'e shou)d there +e #$*. I$ # forei($ port it sh#)) +e the dut* of the 4hi)ippi$e Co$su) &here there is o$e to (i'e the #uthori>#tio$. I$ the first "#se the e0pe$ses sh#)) +e for the #""ou$t of the ship #(e$t or o&$er #$d i$ the se"o$d the* sh#)) +e "h#r(e#+)e #(#i$st the o&$ers of the !er"h#$dise for &hose +e$efit the #"t &#s perfor!ed. If the u$)o#di$( shou)d t#=e p)#"e for +oth re#so$s the e0pe$ses sh#)) +e di'ided proportio$#te)* +et&ee$ the '#)ue of the 'esse) #$d th#t of the "#r(o. ARTICLE <-1. The "ustod* #$d preser'#tio$ of the "#r(o &hi"h h#s +ee$ u$)o#ded sh#)) +e i$trusted to the "#pt#i$ &ho sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for the s#!e e0"ept i$ "#ses of for"e !#2eure. ARTICLE <-3. If the e$tire "#r(o or p#rt thereof shou)d #ppe#r to +e d#!#(ed or there shou)d +e i!!i$e$t d#$(er of its +ei$( d#!#(ed the "#pt#i$ !#* re5uest of the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt or of the "o$su) i$ # proper "#se the s#)e of #)) or of p#rt of the for!er #$d the perso$ t#=i$( "o($i>#$"e of the !#tter sh#)) #uthori>e it #fter #$ e0#!i$#tio$ #$d de")#r#tio$ of e0perts #d'ertise!e$ts #$d other for!#)ities re5uired +* the "#se #$d #$ e$tr* i$ the +oo= i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of Arti")e 8-3. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) i$ # proper "#se 2ustif* the )e(#)it* of his "o$du"t u$der the pe$#)t* of #$s&eri$( to the shipper for the pri"e the !er"h#$dise &ou)d h#'e +rou(ht if the* h#d #rri'ed i$ (ood "o$ditio$ #t the port of desti$#tio$. ARTICLE <-7. The "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e respo$si+)e for the d#!#(es "#used +* his de)#* if #fter the "#use of the #rri'#) u$der stress h#s "e#sed he shou)d $ot "o$ti$ue the 'o*#(e. If the "#use of #rri'#) shou)d h#'e +ee$ the fe#r of e$e!ies pri'#teers or pir#tes # de)i+er#tio$ #$d reso)utio$ i$ # !eeti$( of the offi"ers of the 'esse) #$d perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o &ho !#* +e prese$t i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ Arti")e <1? sh#)) pre"ede the dep#rture. SECTION THREE COLLISIONS ARTICLE <-8. If # 'esse) shou)d "o))ide &ith #$other throu(h or the f#u)t $e()i(e$"e or )#"= of s=i)) of the "#pt#i$ s#i)i$( !#te or #$* other !e!+er of the "o!p)e!e$t the o&$er of the 'esse) #t f#u)t sh#)) i$de!$if* the )osses #$d d#!#(es suffered #fter #$ e0pert #ppr#is#). #is#d" ARTICLE <-;. If the "o))isio$ is i!put#+)e to +oth 'esse)s e#"h o$e sh#)) suffer its o&$ d#!#(es #$d +oth sh#)) +e so)id#ri)* respo$si+)e for the )osses #$d d#!#(es o""#sio$ed to their "#r(oes. ARTICLE <-<. The pro'isio$s of the pre"edi$( #rti")e #re #pp)i"#+)e to the use i$ &hi"h it "#$$ot +e deter!i$ed &hi"h of the t&o 'esse)s h#s "#used the "o))isio$. ARTICLE <-?. I$ the "#ses #+o'e !e$tio$ed the "i'i) #"tio$ of the o&$er #(#i$st the perso$ "#usi$( the i$2ur* #s &e)) #s the "ri!i$#) )i#+i)ities &hi"h !#* +e proper #re reser'ed. ARTICLE <1@. If # 'esse) shou)d "o))ide &ith #$other throu(h fortuitous e'e$t or for"e !#2eure e#"h 'esse) #$d its "#r(o sh#)) +e#r its o&$ d#!#(es. ARTICLE <11. If # 'esse) shou)d +e for"ed +* # third 'esse) to "o))ide &ith #$other the o&$er of the third 'esse) sh#)) i$de!$if* the )osses #$d d#!#(es "#used the "#pt#i$ thereof +ei$( "i'i))* )i#+)e to s#id o&$er. ARTICLE <1-. If +* re#so$ of # stor! or other "#use of for"e !#2eure # 'esse) &hi"h is proper)*

#$"hored #$d !oored shou)d "o))ide &ith those $e#r+* "#usi$( the! d#!#(es the i$2ur* o""#sio$ed sh#)) +e "o$sidered #s p#rti"u)#r #'er#(e of the 'esse) ru$ i$to. ARTICLE <11. A 'esse) &hi"h upo$ +ei$( ru$ i$to si$=s i!!edi#te)* #s &e)) #s th#t &hi"h h#'i$( +ee$ o+)i(ed to !#=e # port to rep#ir the d#!#(es "#used +* the "o))isio$ is )ost duri$( the 'o*#(e or is o+)i(ed to +e str#$ded i$ order to +e s#'ed sh#)) +e presu!ed #s )ost +* re#so$ of "o))isio$. ARTICLE <13. If the 'esse)s "o))idi$( &ith e#"h other shou)d h#'e pi)ots o$ +o#rd dis"h#r(i$( their duties #t the ti!e of the "o))isio$ their prese$"e sh#)) $ot e0e!pt the "#pt#i$s fro! the )i#+i)ities the* i$"ur +ut the )#tter sh#)) h#'e the ri(ht to +e i$de!$ified +* the pi)ots &ithout pre2udi"e to the "ri!i$#) )i#+i)it* &hi"h the )#tter !#* i$"ur. ARTICLE <17. The #"tio$ for the re"o'er* of )osses #$d d#!#(es #risi$( fro! "o))isio$s "#$$ot +e #d!itted if # protest or de")#r#tio$ is $ot prese$ted &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours +efore the "o!pete$t #uthorit* of the poi$t &here the "o))isio$ too= p)#"e or th#t of the first port of #rri'#) of the 'esse) if i$ 4hi)ippi$e territor* #$d to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es if it o""urred i$ # forei($ "ou$tr*. ARTICLE <18. Cith respe"t to d#!#(es "#used to perso$s or to the "#r(o the #+se$"e of protest !#* $ot pre2udi"e the perso$s i$terested &ho &ere $ot o$ +o#rd or &ere $ot i$ # "o$ditio$ to !#=e =$o&$ their &ishes. ARTICLE <1;. The "i'i) )i#+i)it* i$"urred +* the shipo&$ers i$ the "#se pres"ri+ed i$ this se"tio$ sh#)) +e u$derstood #s )i!ited to the '#)ue of the 'esse) &ith #)) its #ppurte$#$"es #$d frei(ht#(e e#r$ed duri$( the 'o*#(e. ARTICLE <1<. Che$ the '#)ue of the 'esse) #$d her #ppurte$#$"es shou)d $ot +e suffi"ie$t to "o'er #)) the )i#+i)ities the i$de!$it* due +* re#so$ of the de#th or i$2ur* of perso$s sh#)) h#'e prefere$"e. ARTICLE <1?. If the "o))isio$ shou)d t#=e p)#"e +et&ee$ 4hi)ippi$e 'esse)s i$ forei($ &#ters or if h#'i$( t#=e$ p)#"e i$ the ope$ se#s #$d the 'esse)s shou)d !#=e # forei($ port the Co$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es i$ s#id port sh#)) ho)d # su!!#r* i$'esti(#tio$ of the #""ide$t for&#rdi$( the pro"eedi$(s to the Se"ret#r* of the Dep#rt!e$t of Forei($ Aff#irs for "o$ti$u#tio$ #$d "o$")usio$. #is#d" SECTION FODR SHI4CRECKS ARTICLE <3@. The )osses #$d deterior#tio$s suffered +* # 'esse) #$d her "#r(o +* re#so$ of ship&re"= or str#$di$( sh#)) +e i$di'idu#))* for the #""ou$t of the o&$ers the p#rt &hi"h !#* +e s#'ed +e)o$(i$( to the! i$ the s#!e proportio$. ARTICLE <31. If the &re"= or str#$di$( shou)d +e "#used +* the !#)i"e $e()i(e$"e or )#"= of s=i)) of the "#pt#i$ or +e"#use the 'esse) put to se# &#s i$suffi"ie$t)* rep#ired #$d e5uipped the ship #(e$t or the shippers !#* de!#$d i$de!$it* of the "#pt#i$ for the d#!#(es "#used to the 'esse) or to the "#r(o +* the #""ide$t i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ Arti")es 81@ 81- 813 #$d 8-1. ARTICLE <3-. The (oods s#'ed fro! the &re"= sh#)) +e spe"i#))* +ou$d for the p#*!e$t of the e0pe$ses of the respe"ti'e s#)'#(e #$d the #!ou$t thereof !ust +e p#id +* the o&$ers of the for!er +efore the* #re de)i'ered to the! #$d &ith prefere$"e o'er #$* other o+)i(#tio$ if the !er"h#$dise shou)d +e so)d. ARTICLE <31. If se'er#) 'esse)s s#i) u$der "o$'o* #$d #$* of the! shou)d +e &re"=ed the "#r(o s#'ed sh#)) +e distri+uted #!o$( the rest i$ proportio$ to the #!ou$t &hi"h e#"h o$e is #+)e to t#=e. If #$* "#pt#i$ shou)d refuse &ithout suffi"ie$t "#use to re"ei'e &h#t !#* "orrespo$d to hi! the "#pt#i$ of the &re"=ed 'esse) sh#)) e$ter # protest #(#i$st hi! +efore t&o se# offi"i#)s of the )osses #$d d#!#(es resu)ti$( therefro! r#tif*i$( the protest &ithi$ t&e$t*6four hours #fter #rri'#) #t the first

port #$d i$")udi$( it i$ the pro"eedi$(s he !ust i$stitute i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s "o$t#i$ed i$ Arti")e 81-. If it is $ot possi+)e to tr#$sfer to the other 'esse)s the e$tire "#r(o of the 'esse) &re"=ed the (oods of the hi(hest '#)ue #$d s!#))est 'o)u!e sh#)) +e s#'ed first the desi($#tio$ thereof to +e !#de +* the "#pt#i$ &ith the "o$"urre$"e of the offi"ers of his 'esse). ARTICLE <33. A "#pt#i$ &ho !#* h#'e t#=e$ o$ +o#rd the (oods s#'ed fro! the &re"= sh#)) "o$ti$ue his "ourse to the port of desti$#tio$ #$d o$ #rri'#) sh#)) deposit the s#!e &ith 2udi"i#) the i$ter'e$tio$ #t the dispos#) of their )e(iti!#te o&$ers. I$ "#se he "h#$(es his "ourse if he "#$ u$)o#d the! #t the port of &hi"h the* &ere "o$si($ed the "#pt#i$ !#* !#=e s#id port if the shippers or super"#r(oes prese$t #$d the offi"ers #$d p#sse$(ers of the 'esse) "o$se$t thereto, +ut he !#* $ot do so e'e$ &ith s#id "o$se$t i$ ti!e of &#r or &he$ the port is diffi"u)t #$d d#$(erous to !#=e. The o&$ers of the "#r(o sh#)) defr#* #)) the e0pe$ses of this #rri'#) #s &e)) #s the p#*!e$t of the frei(ht#(e &hi"h #fter t#=i$( i$to "o$sider#tio$ the "ir"u!st#$"es of the "#se !#* +e fi0ed +* #(ree!e$t or +* # 2udi"i#) de"isio$. ARTICLE <37. If o$ the 'esse) there shou)d +e $o perso$ i$terested i$ the "#r(o &ho "#$ p#* the e0pe$ses #$d frei(ht#(e "orrespo$di$( to the s#)'#(e the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt !#* order the s#)e of the p#rt $e"ess#r* to "o'er the s#!e. This sh#)) #)so +e do$e &he$ its preser'#tio$ is d#$(erous or &he$ i$ # period of o$e *e#r it shou)d $ot h#'e +ee$ possi+)e to #s"ert#i$ &ho #re its )e(iti!#te o&$ers. I$ +oth "#ses the pro"eedi$(s sh#)) +e &ith the pu+)i"it* #$d for!#)ities pres"ri+ed i$ Arti")e 7;? #$d the $et pro"eeds of the s#)e sh#)) +e s#fe)* deposited i$ the dis"retio$ of the 2ud(e or "ourt so th#t the* !#* +e de)i'ered to the )e(iti!#te o&$er thereof. TITLE FIEE 4ROOF AND LIKDIDATION OF AEERAGES SECTION ONE 4ROEISIONS COMMON TO ALL KINDS OF AEERAGES ARTICLE <38. Those i$terested i$ the proof #$d )i5uid#tio$ of #'er#(es !#* !utu#))* #(ree #$d +i$d the!se)'es #t #$* ti!e &ith re(#rd to the )i#+i)it* )i5uid#tio$ #$d p#*!e$t thereof. "dt I$ the #+se$"e of #(ree!e$ts the fo))o&i$( ru)es sh#)) +e o+ser'ed% 1. The proof of the #'er#(e sh#)) t#=e p)#"e i$ the port &here the rep#irs #re !#de shou)d #$* +e $e"ess#r* or i$ the port of u$)o#di$(. -. The )i5uid#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de i$ the port of u$)o#di$( if it is # 4hi)ippi$e port. 1. If the #'er#(e o""urred outside of the 2urisdi"tio$#) &#ters of the 4hi)ippi$es or the "#r(o h#s +ee$ so)d i$ # forei($ port +* re#so$ of #$ #rri'#) u$der stress the )i5uid#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de i$ the port of #rri'#). 3. If the #'er#(e h#s o""urred $e#r the port of desti$#tio$ so th#t s#id port "#$ +e !#de the pro"eedi$(s !e$tio$ed i$ Ru)es 1 #$d - sh#)) +e he)d there. ARTICLE <3;. I$ the "#se &here the )i5uid#tio$ of the #'er#(es is !#de pri'#te)* +* 'irtue of #(ree!e$t #s &e)) #s &he$ # 2udi"i#) #uthorit* i$ter'e$ed #t the re5uest of #$* of the p#rties i$terested &ho do $ot #(ree thereto #)) of the! sh#)) +e "ited #$d he#rd shou)d the* $ot h#'e re$ou$"ed this ri(ht. Shou)d the* $ot +e prese$t or shou)d the h#'e $o )e(#) represe$t#ti'e the )i5uid#tio$ sh#)) +e !#de +* the Co$su) i$ # forei($ port #$d &here there is $o$e +* the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt #""ordi$( to the )#&s of the "ou$tr* #$d for the #""ou$t of the proper p#rt*. Che$ the represe$t#ti'e is # perso$ &e)) =$o&$ i$ the p)#"e &here the )i5uid#tio$ is !#de his i$ter'e$tio$ sh#)) +e #d!itted #$d sh#)) produ"e )e(#) effe"ts e'e$ thou(h he +e #uthori>ed o$)* +* # )etter of the ship #(e$t the shipper or the i$surer. ARTICLE <3<. C)#i!s for #'er#(es sh#)) $ot +e #d!itted if the* do $ot e0"eed 7 per "e$t of the

i$terest &hi"h the ")#i!#$t !#* h#'e i$ the 'esse) or i$ the "#r(o if it +e (ross #'er#(e #$d 1 per "e$t of the (oods d#!#(ed if p#rti"u)#r #'er#(e dedu"ti$( i$ +oth "#ses the e0pe$ses of #ppr#is#) u$)ess there is #$ #(ree!e$t to the "ou$tr*. ARTICLE <3?. The d#!#(es #'er#(es )o#$s o$ +otto!r* #$d respo$de$ti# #$d their pre!iu!s #$d #$* other )osses sh#)) $ot e#r$ i$terest +* re#so$ of de)#* u$ti) #fter the )#pse of the period of three6d#*s to +e "ou$ted fro! the d#* o$ &hi"h the )i5uid#tio$ !#* h#'e +ee$ "o$")uded #$d "o!!u$i"#ted to the perso$s i$terested i$ the 'esse) i$ the "#r(o or i$ +oth #t the s#!e ti!e. ARTICLE <7@. If +* re#so$ of o$e or !ore #""ide$ts of the se# p#rti"u)#r #$d (ross #'er#(es of the 'esse) of the "#r(o or of +oth shou)d t#=e p)#"e o$ the s#!e 'o*#(e the e0pe$ses #$d d#!#(es "orrespo$di$( to e#"h #'er#(e sh#)) +e deter!i$ed sep#r#te)* i$ the port &here the rep#irs #re !#de or &here the !er"h#$dise #re dis"h#r(ed so)d or uti)i>ed. For this purpose the "#pt#i$s sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to de!#$d of the e0pert #ppr#isers #$d of the "o$tr#"tors !#=i$( the rep#irs #s &e)) #s of those #ppr#isi$( #$d t#=i$( p#rt i$ the u$)o#di$( rep#ir s#)e or uti)i>#tio$ of the !er"h#$dise th#t i$ their #ppr#ise!e$ts or esti!#tes #$d #""ou$ts the* set do&$ sep#r#te)* #$d #""ur#te)* the e0pe$ses #$d d#!#(es pert#i$i$( to e#"h #'er#(e #$d i$ those of e#"h #'er#(e those "orrespo$di$( to the 'esse) #$d to the "#r(o #)so st#ti$( sep#r#te)* &hether or $ot there #re d#!#(es pro"eedi$( fro! i$here$t defe"t of the thi$( #$d $ot fro! #""ide$t of the se#, #$d i$ "#se there shou)d +e e0pe$ses "o!!o$ to the differe$t #'er#(es #$d to the 'esse) #$d its "#r(o the #!ou$t "orrespo$di$( to e#"h !ust +e esti!#ted #$d st#ted disti$"t)*. SECTION TCO LIKDIDATION OF GROSS AEERAGES ARTICLE <71. At the i$st#$"e of the "#pt#i$ the #d2ust!e$t )i5uid#tio$ #$d distri+utio$ of (ross #'er#(es sh#)) +e he)d pri'#te)* &ith the "o$se$t of #)) the p#rties i$ i$terest. For this purpose &ithi$ fort*6ei(ht hours fo))o&i$( the #rri'#) of the 'esse) #t the port the "#pt#i$ sh#)) "o$'e$e #)) the perso$ i$terested i$ order th#t the* !#* de"ide #s to &hether the #d2ust!e$t or )i5uid#tio$ of the (ross #'er#(e is to +e !#de +* e0perts #$d )i5uid#tors #ppoi$ted +* the!se)'es i$ &hi"h "#se it sh#)) so do$e if the i$terested p#rties #(ree. If #$ #(ree!e$t is $ot possi+)e the "#pt#i$ sh#)) #pp)* to the "o!pete$t 2ud(e or "ourt &ho sh#)) +e the o$e i$ the port &here these pro"eedi$(s #re to +e he)d i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of this "ode or to the "o$su) of the Repu+)i" of the 4hi)ippi$es shou)d there +e o$e #$d shou)d there +e $o$e to the )o"#) #uthorit* &he$ the* #re to +e he)d i$ # forei($ port. "dt#i ARTICLE <7-. If the "#pt#i$ does $ot "o!p)* &ith the pro'isio$s of the pre"edi$( #rti")e the ship #(e$t or the shippers sh#)) de!#$d the )i5uid#tio$ &ithout pre2udi"e to the #"tio$ the* !#* +ri$( to de!#$d i$de!$it* fro! hi!. ARTICLE <71. After the e0perts h#'e +ee$ #ppoi$ted +* the perso$s i$terested or +* the "ourt #$d #fter the #""ept#$"e the* sh#)) pro"eed to the e0#!i$#tio$ of the 'esse) #$d of the rep#irs re5uired #$d to the #ppr#is#) of their "ost sep#r#ti$( these )osses #$d d#!#(es fro! those #risi$( fro! the i$here$t defe"t of the thi$(s. The e0perts sh#)) #)so de")#re &hether the rep#irs !#* +e !#de i!!edi#te)* or &hether it is $e"ess#r* to u$)o#d the 'esse) i$ order to e0#!i$e #$d rep#ir it. Cith re(#rd to the !er"h#$dise if the #'er#(e shou)d +e 'isi+)e #t # !ere ()#$"e the e0#!i$#tio$ thereof !ust +e !#de +efore the* #re de)i'ered. Shou)d it $ot +e 'isi+)e #t the ti!e of u$)o#di$( s#id e0#!i$#tio$ !#* +e !#de #fter the de)i'er* pro'ided th#t it is do$e &ithi$ fort*6ei(ht hours fro! the u$)o#di$( #$d &ithout pre2udi"e to the other proofs &hi"h the e0perts !#* dee! proper. ARTICLE <73. The '#)u#tio$ of the o+2e"ts &hi"h #re to "o$tri+ute to the (ross #'er#(e #$d th#t of those &hi"h "o$stitute the #'er#(e sh#)) +e su+2e"t to the fo))o&i$( ru)es% 1. The !er"h#$dise s#'ed &hi"h #re to "o$tri+ute to the p#*!e$t of the (ross #'er#(e sh#)) +e '#)ued #t the "urre$t pri"e #t the port of u$)o#di$( dedu"ti$( the frei(ht#(e "usto!s duties #$d e0pe$ses of u$)o#di$( #s !#* #ppe#r fro! # !#teri#) i$spe"tio$ of the s#!e &ithout t#=i$( the +i))s

of )#di$( i$to "o$sider#tio$ u$)ess there is #$ #(ree!e$t to the "o$tr#r*. -. If the )i5uid#tio$ is to +e !#de i$ the port of dep#rture the '#)ue of the !er"h#$dise )o#ded sh#)) +e deter!i$ed +* the pur"h#se pri"e i$")udi$( the e0pe$ses u$ti) the* #re p)#"ed o$ +o#rd the i$sur#$"e pre!iu! e0")uded. 1. If the !er"h#$dise shou)d +e d#!#(ed the* sh#)) +e #ppr#ised #t their true '#)ue. 3. If the 'o*#(e h#'i$( +ee$ i$terrupted the !er"h#$dise shou)d h#'e +ee$ so)d i$ # forei($ port #$d the #'er#(e "#$$ot +e esti!#ted the '#)ue of the !er"h#$dise i$ the port of #rri'#) or the $et pro"eeds o+t#i$ed #t the s#)e thereof sh#)) +e t#=e$ #s the "o$tri+uti$( "#pit#). 7. Mer"h#$dise )ost &hi"h "o$stitute the (ross #'er#(e sh#)) +e #ppr#ised #t the '#)ue &hi"h !er"h#$dise of its =i$d !#* h#'e i$ the port of u$)o#di$( pro'ided th#t its =i$d #$d 5u#)it* #ppe#r i$ the +i)) of )#di$(, #$d shou)d the* $ot #ppe#r the '#)ue sh#)) +e th#t st#ted i$ the i$'oi"es of the pur"h#se issued i$ the port of ship!e$t #ddi$( thereto the e0pe$ses #$d frei(ht#(e su+se5ue$t)* #risi$(. "d 8. The !#sts "ut do&$ the s#i)s "#+)es #$d other e5uip!e$t of the 'esse) re$dered use)ess for the purpose of s#*i$( it sh#)) +e #ppr#ised #t the "urre$t '#)ue dedu"ti$( o$e6third +* re#so$ of the differe$"e +et&ee$ $e& #$d o)d. This dedu"tio$ sh#)) $ot +e !#de &ith respe"t to #$"hors #$d "h#i$s. ;. The 'esse) sh#)) +e #ppr#ised #t its true '#)ue i$ the "o$ditio$ i$ &hi"h it is fou$d. <. The frei(ht#(e sh#)) represe$t 7@ per "e$t +* &#* of "o$tri+uti$( "#pit#). ARTICLE <77. The !er"h#$dise )o#ded o$ the upper de"= of the 'esse) sh#)) "o$tri+ute to the (ross #'er#(e shou)d the* +e s#'ed, +ut there sh#)) +e $o ri(ht to i$de!$it* if the* shou)d +e )ost +* re#so$ of h#'i$( +ee$ 2ettiso$ed for "o!!o$ s#fet* e0"ept &he$ the !#ri$e ordi$#$"es #))o& their ship!e$t i$ this !#$$er i$ "o#st&ise $#'i(#tio$. The s#!e sh#)) t#=e p)#"e &ith th#t &hi"h is o$ +o#rd #$d is $ot i$")uded i$ the +i))s of )#di$( or i$'e$tories #""ordi$( to the "#ses. I$ #$* "#se the shipo&$er #$d the "#pt#i$ sh#)) +e )i#+)e to the shippers for the d#!#(es fro! the 2ettiso$ if the stor#(e o$ the upper de"= &#s !#de &ithout the "o$se$t of the )#tter. ARTICLE <78. 4ro'isio$s #$d !u$itio$s of &#r &hi"h the 'esse) !#* h#'e o$ +o#rd #$d the ")othi$( used +* the "#pt#i$ offi"ers #$d "re& sh#)) $ot "o$tri+ute to the (ross #'er#(e. The ")othi$( used +* the shipper super"#r(oes #$d p#sse$(er &ho !#* +e o$ +o#rd #t the ti!e of the 2ettiso$ sh#)) #)so +e #""epted. Neither sh#)) the (oods 2ettiso$ed "o$tri+ute to the p#*!e$t of the (ross #'er#(es &hi"h !#* o""ur to the !er"h#$dise s#'ed to # differe$t #$d su+se5ue$t ris=. ARTICLE <7;. After the #ppr#ise!e$t of the (oods s#'ed #$d of those )ost &hi"h "o$stitute the (ross #'er#(e h#s +ee$ "o$")uded +* the e0perts the rep#irs if #$* !#de o$ the 'esse) #$d i$ this "#se the #""ou$ts of the s#!e #ppro'ed +* the perso$s i$terested or +* the 2ud(e or "ourt the e$tire re"ord sh#)) +e tur$ o'er to the )i5uid#tor #ppoi$ted i$ order th#t he !#* pro"eed &ith the distri+utio$ of the #'er#(e. ARTICLE <7<. I$ order to effe"t the )i5uid#tio$ the )i5uid#tor sh#)) e0#!i$e the protest of the "#pt#i$ "o!p#ri$( it if $e"ess#r* &ith the )o( +oo= #$d #)) the "o$tr#"ts &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ !#de #!o$( the perso$s i$terested i$ the #'er#(e the #ppr#ise!e$ts e0pert e0#!i$#tio$s #$d #""ou$ts of rep#irs !#de. If #s # resu)t of this e0#!i$#tio$ he shou)d fi$d #$* defe"t i$ the pro"edure &hi"h !i(ht i$2ure the ri(hts of the perso$ i$terested or #ffe"t the )i#+i)it* of the "#pt#i$ he sh#)) "#)) #tte$tio$ thereof i$ order th#t it !#* +e "orre"ted if possi+)e #$d other&ise he sh#)) i$")ude it i$ the e0ordi#) of the )i5uid#tio$. I!!edi#te)* there#fter he sh#)) pro"eed &ith the distri+utio$ of the #!ou$t of the #'er#(e for &hi"h purpose he sh#)) fi0% 1. The "o$tri+uti$( "#pit#) &hi"h he sh#)) deter!i$e +* the '#)ue of the "#r(o i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the ru)es est#+)ished i$ Arti")e <73.

-. Th#t of the 'esse) i$ her #"tu#) "o$ditio$ #""ordi$( to the st#te!e$t of e0perts. 1. The 7@ per "e$t of the #!ou$t of the frei(ht#(e dedu"ti$( the re!#i$i$( 7@ per "e$t for &#(es #$d !#i$te$#$"e of the "re&. After the #!ou$t of the (ross #'er#(e h#s +ee$ deter!i$ed i$ #""ord#$"e &ith the pro'isio$s of this Code it sh#)) +e distri+uted pro r#t# #!o$( the (oods &hi"h #re to "o'er the s#!e. "d#si# ARTICLE <7?. The i$surers of the 'esse) of the frei(ht#(e #$d of the "#r(o sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to p#* for the i$de!$ifi"#tio$ of the (ross #'er#(e i$sof#r #s is re5uired of e#"h o$e of the o+2e"ts respe"ti'e)*. ARTICLE <8@. If $ot&ithst#$di$( the 2ettiso$ of !er"h#$dise +re#=#(e of !#sts ropes #$d e5uip!e$t the 'esse) sh#)) +e )ost ru$$i$( the s#!e ris= $o "o$tri+utio$ &h#tsoe'er +* 2ettiso$ of (ross #'er#(e sh#)) +e proper. The o&$ers of the (oods s#'ed sh#)) $ot +e )i#+)e for the i$de!$ifi"#tio$ of those 2ettiso$ed )ost or d#!#(ed. ARTICLE <81. If #fter the 'esse) h#s +ee$ s#'ed fro! the ris= &hi"h (#'e rise to the 2ettiso$ it shou)d +e )ost throu(h #$other #""ide$t t#=i$( p)#"e duri$( the 'o*#(e the (oods s#'ed #$d e0isti$( fro! the first ris= sh#)) "o$ti$ue )i#+)e to "o$tri+utio$ +* re#so$ of the (ross #'er#(e #""ordi$( to their '#)ue i$ the "o$ditio$ i$ &hi"h the* !#* +e fou$d dedu"ti$( the e0pe$ses i$"urred i$ s#'i$( the!. ARTICLE <8-. If i$ spite of h#'i$( s#'ed the 'esse) #$d the "#r(o i$ "o$se5ue$"e of the "utti$( do&$ of !#sts or of #$* other d#!#(e de)i+er#te)* do$e to the 'esse) for s#id purpose the !er"h#$dise shou)d su+se5ue$t)* +e )ost or sto)e$ the "#pt#i$ "#$ $ot de!#$d of the shippers or "o$si($ees th#t the* "o$tri+ute to the i$de!$it* for the #'er#(e u$)ess the )oss shou)d o""ur +* re#so$ of #$ #"t of the o&$er or "o$si($ee hi!se)f. ARTICLE <81. If the o&$er of the 2ettiso$ed (oods shou)d re"o'er the! #fter h#'i$( re"ei'ed the i$de!$it* for (ross #'er#(e he sh#)) +e o+)i(ed to retur$ to the "#pt#i$ #$d to the other perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o the #!ou$t he !#* h#'e re"ei'ed dedu"ti$( the #!ou$t of the d#!#(e "#used +* the 2ettiso$ #$d of the e0pe$ses i$"urred i$ their re"o'er*. I$ this "#se the #!ou$t retur$ed sh#)) +e distri+uted #!o$( the 'esse) #$d the perso$s i$terested i$ the "#r(o i$ the s#!e proportio$ i$ &hi"h the* "o$tri+uted to the p#*!e$t of the #'er#(e. ARTICLE <83. If the o&$er of the (oods 2ettiso$ed shou)d re"o'er the! &ithout h#'i$( de!#$ded #$* i$de!$it* he sh#)) $ot +e o+)i(ed to "o$tri+ute to the p#*!e$t of the (ross #'er#(e &hi"h !#* h#'e +ee$ suffered +* the rest of the "#r(o #fter the 2ettiso$. ARTICLE <87. The distri+utio$ of the (ross #'er#(e sh#)) $ot +e fi$#) u$ti) it h#s +ee$ #(reed to or i$ the #+se$"e thereof u$ti) it h#s +ee$ #ppro'ed +* the 2ud(e or "ourt #fter #$ e0#!i$#tio$ of the )i5uid#tio$ #$d # he#ri$( of the perso$s i$terested &ho !#* +e prese$t or of their represe$t#ti'es. ARTICLE <88. After the )i5uid#tio$ h#s +ee$ #ppro'ed it sh#)) +e the dut* of the "#pt#i$ to "o))e"t the #!ou$t of the "o$tri+utio$s #$d he sh#)) +e )i#+)e to the o&$ers of the (oods #'er#(ed for the d#!#(es the* !#* suffer throu(h his de)#* or $e()i(e$"e. ARTICLE <8;. If the perso$ "o$tri+uti$( shou)d $ot p#* the #!ou$t of the "o$tri+utio$ #t the e$d of the third d#* #fter h#'i$( +ee$ re5uired to do so the (oods s#'ed sh#)) +e pro"eeded #(#i$st i$ the re5uest of the "#pt#i$ u$ti) p#*!e$t h#s +ee$ !#de fro! their pro"eeds. ARTICLE <8<. If the perso$ i$terested i$ re"ei'i$( the (oods s#'ed shou)d $ot (i'e se"urit* suffi"ie$t to #$s&er for the #!ou$t "orrespo$di$( to the (ross #'er#(e the "#pt#i$ !#* defer the de)i'er* thereof u$ti) p#*!e$t h#s +ee$ !#de. #is#d" SECTION THREE LIKDIDATION OF ORDINARH AEERAGES ARTICLE <8?. The e0perts &ho! the "ourt or the perso$ i$terested !#* #ppoi$t #s the "#se !#* +e sh#)) pro"eed &ith the e0#!i$#tio$ #$d #ppr#ise!e$t of the #'er#(es i$ the !#$$er pres"ri+ed i$ Arti")es <71 #$d <73 Ru)es - to ; i$sof#r #s the* #re #pp)i"#+)e. Foot$otes

1. IArt. 8. The !#rried &o!#$ o'er t&e$t*6o$e *e#rs of #(e "#$ e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e &ith the #uthori>#tio$ of her hus+#$d st#ted i$ # pu+)i" i$stru!e$t &hi"h sh#)) +e i$s"ri+ed i$ the "o!!er"i#) re(istr*.I A$ opi$io$ h#s +ee$ e0pressed th#t this pro'isio$ is sti)) #pp)i"#+)e &here the hus+#$d o+2e"ts to the &ifeBs e$(#(i$( i$ "o!!er"e #$d the f#!i)* "ou$"i) or the "ourt sust#i$s hi!. Further!ore #""ordi$( to this opi$io$ shou)d the hus+#$d there#fter "h#$(e his !i$d his "o$se$t !ust +e (i'e$ i$ #""ord#$"e &ith this #rti")e. -. IArt. ;. The !#rried &o!#$ &ho &ith the =$o&)ed(e of her hus+#$d e$(#(es i$ "o!!er"e sh#)) #)so +e presu!ed #uthori>ed to tr#de.I 9See f$. 17 supr#.: 1. IArt. ?. The &o!#$ &ho upo$ "o$tr#"ti$( !#rri#(e shou)d +e e$(#(ed i$ "o!!er"e sh#)) $eed the #uthori>#tio$ of her hus+#$d to "o$ti$ue the s#!e. IThis #uthori>#tio$ sh#)) +e presu!ed (r#$ted so )o$( #s the hus+#$d does $ot !#=e =$o&$ i$ the for! pres"ri+ed i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e the dis"o$ti$u#$"e +* his &ife of the pr#"ti"e of "o!!er"e. 9See f$. -7 u$der Art. 8 supr#.: 3. IArt. 1@. Shou)d the &ife e$(#(ed i$ "o!!er"e i$ the "#ses !e$tio$ed i$ Arti")es 8 ; #$d ? of this Code #)) her dot#) #$d p#r#pher$#) propert* #$d #)) the propert* ri(hts &hi"h +oth spouses !#* h#'e i$ the "o$2u(#) "o!!u$it* or p#rt$ership sh#)) +e so)id#rit* )i#+)e for the resu)ts of her "o!!er"i#) #"ti'it* the &ife h#'i$( the po&er to #)ie$#te #$d !ort(#(e her o&$ pri'#te propert* #s &e)) #s th#t o&$ed i$ "o!!o$. IThe pri'#te propert* of the hus+#$d !#* #)so +e #)ie$#ted #$d !ort(#(ed +* the &ife if the #uthorit* (r#$ted +* hi! shou)d h#'e +ee$ or +e e0te$ded to su"h propert*.I It is +e)ie'ed th#t this #rti")e is $o )o$(er i$ for"e. Its pro'isio$s #re +#sed o$ the "o$se$t (i'e$ +* the hus+#$d #s re5uired u$der Arti")e 8 of this Code. At prese$t ho&e'er Arti")e 11; of the Ne& Ci'i) Code #uthori>es the &ife to e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e &ithout the "o$se$t of the hus+#$d #s th#t #uthorit* is (i'e$ +* the )#& itse)f. S#id Code h#s thus pr#"ti"#))* e5u#)i>ed the )e(#) positio$s of the hus+#$d #$d the &ife re)#ti'e to their "#p#"it* to e$(#(e i$ +usi$ess. It &ou)d therefore +e 2ust #$d e5uit#+)e to tre#t the! e5u#))* i$ respe"t to the effe"ts of their "o!!er"i#) tr#$s#"tio$s. A""ordi$()* #t prese$t #s to &h#t propert* is )i#+)e for the #"ts of "o!!er"e do$e +* the &ife sh#)) +e (o'er$ed +* the pro'isio$s of the Ne& Ci'i) Code o$ the su+2e"t. 9See Tit)e EI of Boo= 1.: The "o$2u(#) p#rt$ership sh#)) +e )i#+)e for #)) de+ts #$d o+)i(#tio$s "o$tr#"ted +* the hus+#$d for the +e$efit of the "o$2u(#) p#rt$ership #$d those "o$tr#"ted +* the &ife #)so for the s#!e purpose i$ the "#ses &here she !#* )e(#))* +i$d the p#rt$ership 94#r. 1 Art. 181 NCC:. 7. IArt. 11. The !#rried &o!#$ o'er t&e$t*6o$e *e#rs of #(e !#* )i=e&ise e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e i$ #$* of the fo))o&i$( "#ses% I1. Che$ she )i'es sep#r#te fro! her hus+#$d +* re#so$ of # fi$#) de"ree of di'or"e. I-. Che$ her hus+#$d is u$der (u#rdi#$ship. I1. Che$ her hus+#$d is #+se$t his &here#+outs +ei$( u$=$o&$ #$d his retur$ $ot e0pe"ted. I3. Che$ her hus+#$d is ser'i$( the pe$#)t* of "i'i) i$terdi"tio$.I 9See f$. 11 u$der Art. 8 supr#:. 8. IArt. 1-. I$ the "#ses referred to i$ the pre"edi$( #rti")e o$)* the pri'#te propert* of &ife #$d th#t of the "o!!u$it* of "o$2u(#) p#rt$ership #"5uired throu(h her "o!!er"i#) tr#$s#"tio$s sh#)) +e )i#+)e for the resu)ts thereof the &ife h#'i$( the po&er to #)ie$#te #$d !ort(#(e o$e or the other. "d IChe$ the #+se$"e of the hus+#$d is )e(#))* de")#red the &ife sh#)) further!ore h#'e the po&ers (r#$ted to her i$ su"h "#se +* the "i'i) )#&.I 9See f$. 11 u$der Art. 8 supr#:. ;. 4#r. 8. IGe$er#) po&ers of #ttor$e* #$d the re'o"#tio$ of the s#!e shou)d there +e #$* (i'e$ to !#$#(ers f#"tors e!p)o*ees #$d #$* other #(e$tsI. <. 4#r. ; IThe #uthori>#tio$ of the hus+#$d for his &ife to e$(#(e i$ "o!!er"e #$d the )e(#) or 2udi"i#) #uthorit* of the &ife to #d!i$ister her propert* o$ #""ou$t of the #+se$"e or i$"#p#"it* of the

hus+#$d.I ?. 4#r. <. IThe re'o"#tio$ of the per!issio$ (i'e$ to the &ife to tr#de.I 1@. I4#r. 11. IThe issues of +#$= $otes st#ti$( the d#te ")#ss series 5u#$tit* #$d '#)ue of e#"h issue.I 11. I4#r. 1-. IThe tit)es of i$dustri#) propert* p#te$ts #$d tr#de!#r=s i$ the for! #$d !#$$er est#+)ished +* )#&.I 1-. This #rti")e h#s +ee$ superseded +* Se"s. 11;@ #$d 11;1 of the Re'ised Ad!i$istr#ti'e Code. 11. Art. -?. D$re(istered po&ers of #ttor$e* sh#)) (i'e rise to #"tio$s +et&ee$ the pri$"ip#) #$d the #(e$t +ut the* "#$$ot +e used to the pre2udi"e of third perso$s &ho ho&e'er !#* re)* thereo$ i$ so f#r #s the* !#* +e f#'or#+)e.I This #rti")e h#s +ee$ repe#)ed +* Arti")e --;@ of the Ne& Ci'i) Code &hi"h h#s repe#)ed #)) pro'isio$s of the Code of Co!!er"e o$ #(e$"*. 13. These #rti")es h#'e +ee$ i!p)ied)* repe#)ed +* Co!!o$&e#)th A"ts No. <1 #$d -<; #$d +* Se". 88 of the Re'ised Ad!i$istr#ti'e Code. 1. See 4D No. 1 #$d I$te(r#ted Reor(#$i>#tio$ 4)#$ 9Art. III Ch#pter 1 4#rt G: #ppe$di0 i$fr#. -. But See Se". 1; 4D 17-1 Ship Mort(#(e De"ree of 1?;< &hi"h too= effe"t Au$e 11 1?;< i$fr# #$d # differe$t )ist of preferred ")#i!s #$d Se" - 4D -13 Appe$di0 i$fr# repe#)i$( or !odif*i$( Arts 7<@ #$d 7<3. C o p * r i ( h t 1 ? ? 3 6 1 ? ? ? C D T e " h $ o ) o ( i e s A s i # I $ ".

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