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Indian cuisine

India cuisine or Indian food encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate and occupations, these cuisines vary significantly from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious and cultural choices and traditions. The development of these cuisines have been shaped by Dharma beliefs, and in particular by vegetarianism, which is a growing dietary trend in Indian society. There has also been Central Asian influence on North Indian cuisine from the years of Mughal and Turkic Delhi Sultanate rule. Indian cuisine has been and is still evolving, as a result of the nation's cultural interactions with other societies. Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations and colonialism have also played a role in introducing certain foods to the country. For instance, potato, a staple of Indian diet was brought to India by the Portuguese, who also introduced chili and breadfruit. Indian cuisine has also shaped the history of international relations; the spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery. Spices were bought from India and traded around Europe and Asia. It has also influenced other cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean.

Indian cuisine reflects a 5000-year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the subcontinent, leading to diversity of flavors and regional cuisines found in modern-day India. Later, Mughal, British, and Portuguese influence added to the already diverse Indian Cuisine

Ingredient in Indian food

Staple foods of Indian cuisine include pearl millet (bajra), rice, whole-wheat flour (atta), and a variety of lentils, especially mayor (most often red lentils), toor (pigeon pea), urad (black gram), and moong (mung bean). Lentils may be used whole, dehuskedfor example, dhuli moong or dhuli urador split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively. Some pulses, such as channa (chickpea), Rajma or kidney beans, lobiya are very common, especially in the northern regions. Channa and mung are also processed into flour (besan). Many Indian dishes are cooked in vegetable oil, but peanut oil is popular in northern and western India, mustard oil in eastern India, and coconut oil along the western coast, especially in Kerala. Gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south since it imparts a fragrant nutty aroma. In recent decades, sunflower and soybean oils have become popular across India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is another popular cooking medium. Butter-based ghee, or desi ghee, is used frequently, though less than in the past. The most important and frequently used spices and flavourings in Indian cuisine are whole or powdered chilli pepper (mirch) (introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century), black mustard seed (sarso), cardamom (elaichi), cumin (jeera), turmeric (haldi), asafoetida (hing), ginger (adrak), coriander (dhania), and garlic (lehsun). One popular spice mix is garam masala, a powder that typically includes five or more

dried spices, especially cardamom, cinnamon (dalchini), and clove. Each culinary region has a distinctive garam masala blendindividual chefs may also have their own. Goda masala is a comparable, though sweet, spice mix popular in Maharashtra. Some leaves commonly used for flavouring include bay (tejpat), coriander, fenugreek, and mint leaves. The use of curry leaves and roots for flavouring is typical of Gujarati and South Indian cuisine. Sweet dishes are often seasoned with cardamom, saffron, nutmeg, and rose petal essences.

Cuisine based on the region in India

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Pesarattu, a popular Andhra dish, served with kobbari pachadi (chutney made using coconut) Seafood plays a major role in the cuisine of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Since the indigenous Andamanese traditionally had very little contact with the outside world, raw fish and fruits have long been a staple diet for them. Immigration from other regions of India, however, has resulted in variations in the cuisine. Andhra Pradesh Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is a blend of Telugu cuisine along with Hyderabadi cuisine (also known as Nizami cuisine). The food is rich in spices, for which it is popular among south Indian cuisine. Rice is the staple food of Andhra people. Starch is consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or broths. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods are both popular. Seafood is common in the coastal region of the state. Hyderabadi cuisine includes popular delicacies such as Biryani, Hyderabadi Haleem, Baghara baingan and kheema.Various pickles are part of local cuisine, popular among those are avakaya (a pickle made from raw mango) and gongura (a pickle made from red sorrel leaves). Yogurt is a common addition to meals, as a way of tempering spiciness. Breakfast items like dosa, vada are influenced by spices native to Andhra Pradesh. Goa The area has a tropical climate and the spices and flavors here are intense. Use of kokum is a distinct feature of the region's cuisine. Goan cuisine is mostly seafood based; the staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish (Vison or Visvan) is the most common delicacy, and others include pomfret, shark, tuna, and mackerel; these are often served with coconut milk. Shellfish, including crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid and mussels are commonly eaten. The cuisine of Goa is influenced by its Hindu origins, four hundred years of Portuguese colonialism, and modern techniques.Bread is eaten with most of the meals. Frequent tourism in the area gives Goa food an international aspect. Brahmins belonging to Pancha Dravida are strict vegetarians. Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years. Its first major influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists. The cuisine was later influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of Kashmir by Timor from the area of modern Uzbekistan. Subsequently influences have included the cuisines of Central Asia, Persia, and the North Indian plains. The most notable ingredient in

Kashmiri cuisine is mutton, of which there are over 30 varieties. Wazwan is a multicourse meal in the Kashmiri Muslim tradition, of which, the preparation is considered an art. Kerala Kerala cuisine blends indigenous dishes with foreign ones adapted to local tastes. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala, so grated coconut and coconut milk are commonly used for thickening and flavouring. Kerala's long coastline and numerous rivers have led to a strong fishing industry in the region, making seafood a common part of the meal. Rice is grown in abundance; along with tapioca. It is the main starch ingredient used in Kerala's food. Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years, the region makes frequent use of black pepper, cardamom, clove, ginger, and cinnamon. Most of Kerala's Hindus, except its Brahmin community, eat fish, beef and non-vegetarian foods; common among these are chicken, beef, pork catering to Kerala's large minorities of Muslims and Christians. In most Kerala households, a typical meal consists of rice, fish, and vegetables. Kerala also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, puttu, and pathiri. Thalassery biryani is the only biryani variant of (Malabar origin) Kerala. The dish has considerable difference when compared to the other biryani variants. Punjab Tandoori chicken is a popular grilled dish. The cuisine of Punjab is known for its diverse range of dishes. Home-cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly. Restaurant-style Punjabi cooking uses large amounts of ghee, butter and cream, while home-cooked equivalents center around whole wheat, rice, and other ingredients flavoured with masala. Regional differences also exist in Punjabi cuisine. For example, people of Amritsar prefer stuffed paratha and dairy products. Ambur Punjabi of Amritsar created the famous lentil and bean sprout curry which swept the nation with its zesty flavor and texture. Certain dishes are exclusive to Punjab, such as makke di roti and sarson da saag. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Much of this food was made to meet the demands of traditional Punjabi lifestyle, with high calorie counts to support rural workers. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality, especially with non-vegetarian dishes. Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine, such as tandoori foods, naan, pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer, are derived from Punjabi styles. Tamil Nadu Dosa served with chutney and sambar Tamil food is characterised by its use of rice, legumes, and lentils, along with distinct aromas and flavours achieved by the blending of spices such as curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili pepper, cinnamon, clove, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rose water. Tamil food is characterised by tiffins, which is a light food taken for breakfast or dinner and meals which are usually taken during lunch. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil kari, meaning something similar to "sauce".The regions of Madurai, Karaikudi, and Chettinad are famous for their spicy non-vegetarian dishes.Dosa and idli are some of the popular dishes and are eaten with chutney and sambar.Fish is also very popular.

Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) with naan, daal, raita, shahi paneer, and salad.Traditionally, Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of Awadhi and Mughlai cuisine, though a vast majority of the state is vegetarian, preferring dal, roti, sabzi, and rice. Pooris and kachoris are eaten on special occasions. Chaat, samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in India, originate from Uttar Pradesh. Famous dishes include kebabs, dum biryani, and various mutton recipes. Sheer Qorma, Ghewar, Gulab Jamun, Kheer, Ras Malai are some of the popular desserts in this region. The city of Lucknow, which is the capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh in Central-South Asia and Northern India, and the cooking patterns of the city are similar to those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and Northern India as well. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Persia, Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad; and the city is known for Nawabi foods. The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today.Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs, kormas, biryani, kaliya, naharikulchas, zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis, and warqi parathas. The richness of Awadh cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron. Mughlai cuisine is a style of cooking developed in the Indian subcontinent by the imperial kitchens of the Mughal Empire. It represents the cooking styles used in North India (especially Uttar Pradesh. The cuisine is strongly influenced by the Persian cuisine of Iran, and has in turn strongly similarities to the regional cuisines of Kashmir and the Punjab region. The tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices. A Mughlai course is an elaborate buffet of main course dishes with a variety of accompaniments. Desserts Many Indian sweets are fried foods made with sugar, milk or condensed milk. Ingredients vary by region. In the eastern part of India, for example, most sweets are based on milk products. See sections or articles on specific regional cuisines for their preferred types of sweets. Some common Indian sweets and desserts include: Barfi : A sweet made of dried milk with ground cashews or pistachios, often served with a thin layer of edible silver foil as decoration. Chikk i: A sweet made out of peanuts and molasses. Gulab jamun : A dessert consisting of fried milk balls soaked in sweet syrup, such as rose syrup or honey. Jalebi : Dough fried in a coil shape dipped in sugar syrup, often taken with milk, tea, yogurt, or lassi. Mysore pak : A sweet dish of Karnataka, made of generous amounts of ghee (clarified butter), sugar and gram flour. Kulfi : An Indian ice cream in a variety of flavours such as mango, saffron, or cardamom. Kheer : A sweet rice pudding, usually made with rice and milk Malpoa : A type of pancake, made of wheat or rice flour, deep fried and dipped in sugar syrup. Rasgulla : A popular sweetmeat, produced by boiling small balls of casein in sugar syrup. Sandesh : A sweet made from cheese, kneaded with fine ground sugar and molasses. Shrikhand : A creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt, often served with dried fruits such as mangoes.

Kaju Katli : Similar to barfi, mainly comprises cashew powder along with ghee, cardamom powder and sugar. Rabri : Rabri is a sweet, condensed milk based dish made by boiling the milk on low heat for a long time until it becomes dense and changes its color to pinkish. Sugar, spices and nuts are added for flavour. It is chilled and served as dessert.

Malaysian Indian cuisine

Malaysian Indian cuisine of the ethnic Indians in Malaysia is similar to its roots in India, especially South India although there are many notable foods with influences from North India too. Before the meal it is customary to wash hands as cutlery is often not used while eating, with the exception of a serving spoon for each respective dish. This cuisine consists of curries which uses a lot of spices, coconut milk, and curry leaves. Some of the most popular curries include chicken curry, fish curry, and squid curry. Mamak culture Mamak (Indian Muslims) dishes have developed a distinctly Malaysian style. Available throughout the country, the omnipresent Mamak stalls or restaurants are particularly popular among the locals as they offer a wide range of food and some outlets are open 24 hours a day. A type of Indian Muslim meal served buffet-style at specialist Mamak eateries is called nasi kandar (analogous to the Indonesian nasi padang), white rice or briyani rice served with other dishes of curry either with chicken, fish, beef, or mutton, and usually accompanied with pickled vegetable and papadums. People of all races, religions and ages frequent mamak stalls to gossip or catch a late-night football game while enjoying a cup of hot teh tarik. No other eatery has quite as much cultural significance in Malaysia, save for the kopi tiam. Type of food found in Malaysian Indian cuisine Food Banana leaf rice In banana leaf rice, white rice (or parboiled rice in authentic South Indian restaurants) is served on a banana leaf with an assortment of vegetables, curried meat or fish, pickles, and/or papadum. To show your appreciation after a satisfying meal, fold the banana leaf towards you to signify that the meal was good. Folding the opposite direction signifies that the meal was not satisfying Roti Canai Roti Canai is a type of Indian-influenced flatbread found in Malaysia. It is known as roti prata in Southern Malaysia and Singapore, and is similar to the Indian Kerala porotta. In Tamil it known as Parotta. Tandori chicken, marinated meat, usually chicken in a mixture of spices and yoghurt and cooked in a clay oven Pasembur Pasembur is a Malaysian Indian salad consisting of cucumber (shredded), potatoes, bean curd, turnip, bean sprouts, prawn fritters, spicy fried crab, fried octopus or other seafoods and served with a sweet

and spicy nut sauce. The term Pasembur is peculiar to Northern Peninsular Malaysia. It is especially associated with Penang where Pasembur can be had along Gurney Drive. Nasi lemak, The Malaysian Indian version is similar to the original version. However, many Malaysian Indians are Hindus, and do not eat beef. Therefore, beef is not included while preparing the Malaysian Indian version of nasi lemak. There also vegetarian nasi lemak in which the dried anchovies is substituted with vegetarian mock anchovies

Chapatti Chapatti is a type of bread originated from Punjab. It is made from a dough of Atta flour (whole grain durum wheat), water and salt by rolling the dough out into discs of approximately twelve centimeters in diameter and browning the discs on both sides on a very hot, dry tava or frying pan. Chapatti are usually eaten with vegetable curry dishes, and pieces of the chapatti are used to wrap around and pick up each bite of the cooked dish. Fish head curry Fish head curry is an Indian dish with some Chinese and Malay influences. The head of a Red snapper is stewed in curry consisting of varying amounts of coconut milk and tamarind juice with vegetables (lady's fingers). Thosai Thosai rice and lentil pancake. Commonly served as a "masala" version that includes spiced potatoes and served with different types of sambar. Naan Naan, bread is a leavened, oven-baked flatbread. It is usually eaten with an array of sauces such as Chutney and curries such as Dhal curry. Some examples of Naan bread include Garlic Naan, Butter Naan, Garlic Butter Naan, Cheese Naan, Garlic Cheese Naan. Idli Idli is made from lentils (specifically black lentils) and rice into patties, usually two to three inches in diameter, using a mold and steamed. Most often eaten at breakfast or as a snack, idli are usually served in pairs with chutney, sambar, or other accompaniments. paneer Paneer is a dish that uses cheese. Unlike other types of cheese, it does not use rennet as the coagulation agent. This makes it completely lacto-vegetarian. Some of the usual types of Paneer include Paneer Tikka, Paneer Butter Masala and Palak Paneer (Spinach).

Putu mayam Putu mayam (string hoppers / idiyappam) is a sweet dish of rice noodles with coconut and jaggery as main ingredients. It is served with grated coconut and jaggery, or, unrefined block sugar. In some areas, gula melaka (coconut palm sugar) is the favourite sweetener. Putu piring is a version of putu mayam in which the rice flour dough is used to form a small cake around a filling of coconut and brown sugar. The homemade version in Malaysian Indian homes tend to be eaten as a savoury accompaniment to curried dishes or dal. Murtabak murtabak is a dish of savoury stuffed roti, usually including minced mutton, garlic, onion, and folded with an omelette, and is eaten with curry sauce Nasi biryani Nasi biryani, a flavored rice dish cooked or served with mutton, chicken, vegetable or fish curry. Basmati rice is used. Alternatively, dump biryani is a version more akin to the traditional South Asian dish, which is a variant that bakes the spiced meat with the rice. Nasi kandar Nasi Kandar It is a meal of steamed rice which can be plain or mildly flavored, and served with a variety of curries and side dishes. Roti tissue The of the most creative looking Malaysian Indian food, sometimes known as Roti Helikopter (Helicopter bread). Roti Tissue is a much thinner version of traditional Roti canai, almost as thin as a piece of 4050 cm round-shaped tissue

Drinks and beverages

Teh tarik Teh tarik literally meaning "pulled tea", is a well-loved drink amongst Malaysians. Tea is sweetened using condensed milk, and is prepared using outstretched hands to pour piping hot tea from a mug into a waiting glass, repetitively. The higher the "pull", the thicker the froth. The "pulling" of tea also has the effect of cooling down the tea. Teh tarik is an art form in itself and watching the tea streaming back and forth into the containers can be quite captivating Mango lassi mango lassi is a cold drink consisting of sweetened kesar mango pulp mixed with yogurt, cream, or ice cream. It is served in a tall glass with a straw, often with ground pistachio nuts sprinkled on top Chennai filter coffee, sweet milky coffee made from dark roasted coffee beans (70%-80%) and chicory (20%-30%)

Kallu Also known as Toddy. Is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, and coconut palms

Indian Snacks are very popular in Malayis. Usually it prepeared during festive season like Deepavali and Christmas. Murukku Murukku is a savory snack consisting of a deep-fried spiral of bean-based batter. Murukku is typically made from a mixture of and rice flour, salt, and flavorings such as chili, asafetida, and other spices. Murukku is traditionally enjoyed as a treat on Deepavali. Pakora Pakora is a spicy Indian snack that consists of a core food (like soaked potato or fried onions), similar to potato fritters, with several variants. It is usually used as a topping on various Indian meals but has become popular to eat alone as a snack Banana chip Banana chip are deep-fried and/or dried slices of bananas (fruits of herbaceous plants of the genus Musa of the soft, sweet "dessert banana" variety). They can be covered with sugar or honey and have a sweet taste, or they can be fried in oil and spices and have a salty and/or spicy taste Bonda Bonda is a typical South Indian snack that has various sweet and spicy versions of it at different regions. Gulab jamunGulab jamun is a dessert often eaten at festivals or major celebrations such as marriages and Deepavali Laddu Laddu is a ball-shaped sweet popular. It is often served at festive or religious occasions.