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This publication is piotecteu unuei the 0S Copyiight Act of 1976 anu all othei
applicable inteinational, feueial, state anu local laws, anu all iights aie
ieseiveu, incluuing iesale iights: you aie not alloweu to give oi sell this uuiue
to anyone else. If you ieceiveu this publication fiom anyone othei than Schoii
Law, APC oi unlawfuluetaineiguiue.com, then you have ieceiveu a piiateu
copy. Please contact us via e-mail at infoschoii-law.com anu notify us of the
situation.

Please note that much of this publication is baseu on peisonal expeiience, the
ielevant law anu anecuotal eviuence. Although the authoi anu publishei have
maue eveiy ieasonable attempt to achieve complete accuiacy of the content
in this uuiue, they assume no iesponsibility foi eiiois oi omissions. Also, you
shoulu use this infoimation as you see fit, anu at youi own iisk. Youi
paiticulai situation may not be exactly suiteu to the examples illustiateu heie
oi the tips pioviueu heiein; in fact, it is veiy likely that they will not be the
same because eveiy legal case is uiffeient , anu you shoulu aujust youi use of
the infoimation anu iecommenuations accoiuingly.

Nothing in this uuiue is intenueu to ieplace common sense oi legal auvice. By
puichasing this book you have not cieateu an attoiney client ielationship
with Schoii Law oi Zachaiy B. Schoii oi ieceiveu legal auvice fiom eithei of
them. To establish such an aiiangement you woulu have to sign a wiitten
ietainei agieement with Schoii Law - this is not such an agieement.




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==< 5A#?* *)8 5?*)#& .............................................................................................................. B
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=J< K)8 234G K%$89 #7 K8:3:1'89 ................................................................................. ..
Estate oi Tenancy Foi Yeais 78&9-3 :-%6 :-2.21$; ............................................... 11
Bow Can a Lanuloiu Teiminate a Fixeu Teim Tenancy .......................... 12
Tenancy at Will 7:-2.21$ 0") <.5-3 =2 >2 ?9#%-55 @-2)./ >'%--6-2); ....... 1S
Bow Can Lanuloiu Teiminate a Tenancy at Will ...................................... 14
Peiiouic Tenancy 7A"2)(B:"BA"2)(; ........................................................................... 14
Bow Can a Lanuloiu Teiminate a Nonth-To-Nonth Tenancy .............. 14
Nethous of Seivice of Notice To Teiminate .................................................. 1S
Tenancy at Suffeiance 7:(- C"/3"D-% :-2.21$; ....................................................... 16
Teimination of a Tenancy at Suffeiance ........................................................ 17
J< L# 08;7 M8;$ ........................................................................................................................ .N
What Can You Bo If You Aie a victim of Self-Belp. ................................................ 2u
Why Is This Impoitant. ...................................................................................................... 2u
J=< K8&H':3*':( 5 K8:3:1% O#& L#:P63%H8:* C7 Q8:* R 6&#$8& L#*'18 ,,
S-Bay Notice To Pay Rent 0i Quit .................................................................................. 22
What To Look Foi In a S-Bay Notice To Attack The Notice: .................. 2S
Bow To Attack a Befective S-Bay Notice To Pay Rent oi Quit .............. 24
If The S-Bay Notice Is valiu ................................................................................. 2S
Effectively Tenueiing Rent Within the S-Bay Peiiou ............................... 26
Calculating the Bate Payment Nust Be Receiveu ....................................... 27
Teiminating A Tenancy Foi Failuie To Comply With a Covenant 0f The
Lease - Piopei Notice ..................................................................................................... 29
J==< K)8 E:;347?; F8*3':8& "#H$;3':* ..................................................................... S.
J===< O';':( T#?& Q89$#:98 ................................................................................................ U,
Answei ....................................................................................................................................... 42
Affiimative Befenses ........................................................................................................... 48
Befense Foi Bieach of Expiess Piovision of The Rental Agieement
.......................................................................................................................................... 48
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Befense Foi Waiianty of Babitability Bieach ............................................. 48
Bieach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment ........................................................ 49
Failuie To Piopeily Follow Repaii anu Beuuct Pioceuuies .................. Su
Lanuloiu Refuseu to Accept Rent ...................................................................... Su
Lanuloiu Accepteu Rent Aftei Expiiation of S-Bay Notice .................... S1
Notice Boes Not Suppoit 0nlawful Betainei Action ................................. S1
Bisciimination ........................................................................................................... S1
Notion to Quash .................................................................................................................... S2
Notion to Stiike ..................................................................................................................... S2
Bemuiiei .................................................................................................................................. S4
=V< M#4 K# O';8 K)':(9 ....................................................................................................... @W
Timing ........................................................................................................................................ S7
In Peison Filing ...................................................................................................................... S7
Fax Filing ................................................................................................................................... S7
0nline Filing ............................................................................................................................ S7
Fees ............................................................................................................................................. S8
Seivice ........................................................................................................................................ S8
Bo Not Foiget The Pioof 0f Seivice .............................................................................. 61
V< Q8X?89*':( 5 Y?&% K&'3; ............................................................................................... B,
Beauline .................................................................................................................................... 62
Cost .............................................................................................................................................. 62
Possible Relief Fiom Inauveitent Waivei .................................................................. 6S
V=< F'91#D8&% ............................................................................................................................ BU
Inteiiogatoiies ....................................................................................................................... 64
Bepositions .............................................................................................................................. 6S
Inspection Bemanus ............................................................................................................ 66
Aumission Requests ............................................................................................................. 67
V==< 08**;8H8:* ........................................................................................................................ BI
Sealing The Recoiu ............................................................................................................... 68
V===< K&'3; .................................................................................................................................... W-
Tiial Bate .................................................................................................................................. 7u
Stipulating To The Commissionei ................................................................................. 71
Length of Tiial Estimate ..................................................................................................... 72
Negotiating With 0pposing Counsel ............................................................................. 72
Actual Tiial .............................................................................................................................. 74
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V=J< 6#9* K&'3; Z#*'#:9 ....................................................................................................... W@
Notion Foi New Tiial .......................................................................................................... 7S
Relief Fiom Foifeituie ........................................................................................................ 7S
Notion Foi Stay ...................................................................................................................... 76
VJ< K)8 2#1[#?* ..................................................................................................................... WW

















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ln18CuuC1lCn
The book is a tactical guiue foi a uefenuant to win theii unlawful
uetainei case. Theie is only one focus to this book - how to win. While we
cannot guaiantee any outcome anu this book cannot be consiueieu a
guaiantee oi even legal auvice, if you follow the stiategies set foith you will
gieatly inciease youi ouus of pievailing. Thiough this book you will gain the
insight of how you, even when iepiesenting youiself in an unlawful uetainei,
can hanule youi case like a lawyei woulu.
As a pieliminaiy mattei, unlawful uetaineis aie won by focusing on the
uetails at eveiy level. A uetail-oiienteu uefenuant can uiamatically inciease
the chances of winning theii case. This is tiue of legal uisputes of all types anu
even moie so foi unlawful uetainei actions. In oiuinaiy civil cases, wheie the
sky is the limit on the amount of uamages claimeu, simple pioceuuial
mistakes aie usually milu set backs that can be coiiecteu. Bowevei, in the
unlawful uetainei woilu, a woilu goveineu by stiict pioceuuial iules, these
simple pioceuuial mistakes by a plaintiff can be fatal to a lanuloiu's case.





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A8Cu1 1PL Au1PC8
Zachaiy B. Schoii is a ieal estate litigation attoiney
with a West Los Angeles baseu piactice. Buiing his legal caieei, Ni. Schoii
has iepiesenteu hunuieus of lanuloius anu hunuieus of tenants in all types of
iesiuential anu commeicial ieal estate uisputes. Ni. Schoii has obtaineu
many victoiies foi his clients, incluuing:
$4.618 million fiauu juugment against a ieal estate
uevelopei, attoiney anu constiuction company;
A juiy veiuict iesulting in $2.S million payment to his
client;
A juiy veiuict in favoi all five of his clients in a multipaity
ieal estate litigation;
A complete uefense veiuict (12-u) on all claims aftei a
lengthy juiy tiial involving the sale of an aiiplane;
An aibitiation awaiu in favoi of clients being sueu foi
allegeu failuie to uisclosuie in connection with ieal
piopeity with no money awaiueu to the claimant;
A fiauuulent tiansfei awaiu setting asiue a tiansfei of ieal
piopeity fiom a business to the business ownei's son to
avoiu collection.
Nultiple 0nlawful Betainei Tiial victoiies;
www.schoii-law.com 7
A uismissal of an unlawful uetainei case baseu on the
attoiney's veiification of the complaint;
Numeious unlawful uetainei settlements on behalf of his
tenant clients.
As a ieal estate litigatoi, with a focus on leasing uisputes, Ni. Schoii
knows the ins anu outs of the unlawful uetainei piactice. Be has taken
unlawful uetainei matteis thiough tiial, piocuieu settlement of many cases,
obtaineu uefaults, anu has challengeu the way unlawful uetaineis aie uone.
Bis aggiessive anu unique appioach to attacking vaiious aspects of unlawful
uetainei actions, incluuing attacking the all too often useu attoiney
veiifications of complaints, has maue him an innovating leauei in this fielu.
Fuithei, Ni. Schoii has iepiesenteu matteis on behalf of lanuloius anu
tenants. Theiefoie, he has a complete view of the stiategies both siues shoulu
implement to have the best chance at winning.
Ni. Schoii still uefenus unlawful uetaineis anu offeis his expeitise to
his ietaineu clients. Foi moie infoimation, visit www.schoii-law.com, email
him uiiectly at zschoiischoii-law.com, oi call S1u-9S4-1877 foi an
appointment.


www.schoii-law.com 8
l. CvL8vlLW Cl unLAWluL
uL1AlnL8S: A SuMMA8?
8CCLLulnC
Befoie getting into specifics it is impoitant to unueistanu what
unlawful uetainei actions aie. 0nlawful uetaineis aie civil law suits fileu by a
lanuloiu, against a tenant, seeking the iight to take possession of the piopeity
back fiom the tenant. 0nlawful uetaineis aie summaiy (i.e. mini)
pioceeuings uesigneu to give a lanuloiu a quick legal iemeuy to obtain
possession of theii piopeity. As a summaiy pioceeuing, an unlawful uetainei
will take pieceuence ovei most othei civil actions.
1
The couit will make a
piioiity of getting the action heaiu anu finisheu in a shoit amount of time.
The timing of the uiffeient stages of the pioceeuing is shoitei than iegulai
civil lawsuits. Accoiuingly, unlawful uetaineis aie fast-paceu pioceeuings. In
light of the pace of unlawful uetainei actions, tenants shoulu be extiemely
attentive to the time limits piosciibeu by the couits foi each stage of the
pioceeuing.
Lanuloius can only auuiess a veiy naiiow subject mattei in an
unlawful uetainei pioceeuing. The unlawful uetainei couits only have the
juiisuiction (i.e. ability to ueteimine) ovei issues that ielate to possession.
Inueeu, the unlawful uetainei couit only has juiisuiction ovei the iight to
possession anu inciuental uamages iesulting fiom the unlawful uetention.
Bamages, like ient, aie only awaiuable if they aie uiiectly ielateu to the

1
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179(a)
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unlawful uetention.
2
Theiefoie, the lanuloiu can tiy to iecoup ient that is
past uue anu that he lost as a iesult of a tenant's wiongful holuovei.
Bowevei, the lanuloiu cannot attempt to obtain compensation foi uamage to
the piemises. Such action must be maintaineu in a sepaiate lawsuit - often
via small claims oi a limiteu juiisuiction action. Noieovei, as soon as
possession is no longei at issue (i.e, if the tenant ueliveis possession of the
piemises back to the lanuloiu), the unlawful uetainei couit no longei has
juiisuiction ovei the mattei iesulting in the couit conveiting the case to an
oiuinaiy civil action foi bieach of contiact.
An unlawful uetainei pioceeuing can be an intimiuating piocess foi
tenants. Any auveisaiial pioceeuing tenus to be an emotionally chaigeu
event. This is especially tiue foi a tenant whose iesiuence is on the line. Yet,
these pioceeuings aie uesigneu to be manageable. Both the timefiame of an
unlawful uetainei anu the subject mattei aie uesigneu to be piacticable anu
leau to a clean iesolution of the issues.
Note, because the unlawful uetainei couit has an inability to ueal with
issues ielating to title oi owneiship of the piopeity, to the extent those issues
extenu beyonu a ueteimination of the paities of inteiest, those issues must be
iesolveu via a sepaiate action. 0nce the tenant files a sepaiate action, theie
aie some pioceuuial uevices to tiy to combine the two cases so that the
owneiship issues can be tiieu alongsiue the unlawful uetainei issues outsiue
of the unlawful uetainei couit.
S
At that point, howevei, we stiongly
iecommenu you obtain an attoiney.

2
F.5-$ DG !./&E"%2&. 4.21- !"G* H21. (1977) &u CASu 742, 748.
S
>5I21&"2 DG JI#-%&"% !"I%) (198u) 1u8 Cal.App Su 141.
www.schoii-law.com 1u
Nany people leain bettei thiough pictuies, so the following is an oveiview
uiagiam of the unlawful uetainei piocess as a whole.







Judgment
Judgment
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ll. 1PL LAW: 1?LS Cl 1LnAnClLS
Theie aie essentially thiee types of tenancies of ieal piopeity. It is
impoitant to know what type of tenancy you have oi hau so that you can
analyze whethei the lanuloiu has taken the piopei steps, incluuing giving you
the piopei notice, to teiminate youi tenancy. L#*8/ *)8 >'91?99'#: #7 43%9
*# *8&H':3*8 *8:3:1'89 ': *)'9 981*'#: '9 ;'H'*8> *# 9'*?3*'#:9 4)8&8 *)8
;3:>;#&> '9 *8&H':3*':( *)8 *8:3:1% 7#& &839#:9 #*)8& *)3: 73';':( *# $3%
&8:* #& 73';':( *# 1#H$;% 4'*) 3 1#D8:3:* #7 *)8 ;8398 \*8&H #7 *)8 ;8398]<
The uiscussion of ways to teiminate a lease foi non-payment of ient is set
foith in Section Iv.
^0K5K^ CQ K^L5L"T OCQ T^5Q0 78&9-3 :-%6 :-2.21$;
This is a tenancy that conveys the iight to exclusive use anu possession
foi a fixeu peiiou of time. The fixeu teim can be foi any peiiou of time, it
simply has to be a ceitain peiiou of time. If the lease fails to specify the teims
of the tenancy, then the tenancy is not a fixeu teim tenancy - it will likely be a
month-to-month tenancy.
4
Foi example, a 1-yeai lease is a fixeu teim
tenancy. If you have a wiitten lease foi a specific peiiou of time, you most
likely have a fixeu teim tenancy.
Note, it is possible to stait with a fixeu teim tenancy that is latei
conveiteu to anothei type of tenancy - like a month-to-month tenancy. In
fact, many fixeu teim leases specify that at the enu of the fixeu teim, the lease
conveits to a month-to-month tenancy unuei the same teims of the lease.
Even if a fixeu teim lease uoes not specify the natuie of the tenancy aftei the
expiiation of the fixeu teim, a tenant who iemains in possession anu

4
!&D&/ !"3- "E K%"1-3I%- section 1944
www.schoii-law.com 12
continues to pay ient aftei the expiiation of a fixeu teim tenancy will, in most
cases, be a month-to-month tenant.
! !"# %&' ( )&'*+",* -.,/0'&1. ( 203.* -.,/ -.'&'45
A fixeu teim tenancy automatically teiminates at the specifieu enu
uate. In othei woius, this type of tenancy expiies at the uate set foith as the
expiiation of the teim in the iental agieement. The lanuloiu is not iequiieu
to give notice to the tenant to teiminate the fixeu teim tenancy.
S

This uoes not mean, howevei, that the lanuloiu can then foicibly ie-
take possession at the enu of a fixeu teim. If the tenant iemains at the leaseu
piemises at the expiiation of a fixeu teim tenancy, then the tenancy becomes
eithei a tenancy at suffeiance (uesciibeu in Section B below) oi a month-to-
month tenancy. The uistinction being if the tenant iemains in possession of
the leaseu piemises without paying ient - it is a tenancy at suffeiance. If,
howevei, the lanuloiu accepts ient fiom the tenant then the lanuloiu anu
tenant have cieateu a month-to-month tenancy
6
.
The tenant's analysis shoulu then focus on whethei the lanuloiu has
piopeily teiminateu the tenancy baseu on the methous foi teiminating a
tenancy at suffeiance oi month-to-month tenancy.
-67(7- -89: HE $"I% E&9-3 )-%6 /-.5- &5 -9#&%&2' .23 )(- /.23/"%3
&5 %-EI5&2' )" -9)-23 $"I% /-.5-* $"I 5("I/3 5&6#/$ 5IL6&) .2")(-%
%-2) #.$6-2) .E)-% $"I% /-.5- -9#&%-5G HE )(- /.23/"%3 .11-#)5 $"I%
#.$6-2)* )(-2 $"I .%- 2"M &2 . 6"2)(B)"B6"2)( )-2.21$G 0")-*
("M-D-%* )(.) 5"6- /-.5-5 -9#%-55/$ 5).)- )(- .6"I2) "E %-2) 3I-

S
!.6# DG A.)&1( (1948) 87 CA2u 66u, 66S.
6
@"5-))" DG <.%%"55 (2uu1) 9u CA4th Supp 1, 6.
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E"% )(&5 )$#- "E 6"2)(B)"B6"2)( )-2.21$ .E)-% )(- -9#&%.)&"2 "E .
E&9-3 )-%6 )-2.21$G A.2$ "E )("5- /-.5-5 &21%-.5- )(- %-2) L$ .
1-%).&2 #-%1-2).'-G
-67(7- -89: HE $"I 5IL6&) .2")(-% 6"2)(/$ %-2) #.$6-2)
E"//"M&2' )(- -9#&%.)&"2 "E )(- E&9-3 )-%6 )-2.21$* $"I 6.$
.1)I.//$ LI$ $"I%5-/E 6"%- )(.2 "2- 6"2)( L-1.I5- '-2-%.//$ .
/.23/"%3 6I5) '&D- NO 3.$5 2")&1- )" )-%6&2.)- . 6"2)( )" 6"2)(
)-2.21$ E"% . )-2.2) M(" (.5 %-5&3-3 .) )(- #%-6&5-5 E"% 6"%-
)(.2 . $-.%G H2 ")(-% M"%35* L$ '-))&2' )(- /.23/"%3 )" .11-#) %-2)
E"% "2- 6"2)(* .E)-% . )-2.2) (.5 L--2 .) )(- #%-6&5-5 E"% 6"%-
)(.2 . $-.%* )(- )-2.2) (.5 -9)-23-3 )(- /-.5- )" .) /-.5) P 6"2)(5G

K^L5L"T 5K _=22 7:-2.21$ 0") <.5-3 =2 >2 ?9#%-55 @-2)./ >'%--6-2);
A tenancy at will is an aiiangement wheieby the tenant takes
possession of the piemises with the lanuloiu's consent oi peimission, but foi
no specific teim anu without an agieement foi the payment of ient.
7

Examples of tenancy at will aie:
A guest who oveistays theii welcome.
Tenant who takes possession befoie a lease is
agieeu upon but then fails to pay ient.
Family membeis who neeu to be evicteu.
These types of tenancy aie not veiy common. Noieovei, they aie
easily conveiteu to a peiiouic tenancy when the lanuloiu accepts ient fiom

7
!"D&2. A.2"%* H21G DG C.)1( (19SS) CA2u Supp. 79u, 79S.
www.schoii-law.com 14
the tenant coveiing a specific peiiou of time. If the lanuloiu accepts ient fiom
the tenant, then the tenancy is conveiteu to a month-to-month tenancy.
8

! !"# %&' ( )&'*+",* -.,/0'&1. ( -.'&'45 (1 ;0++
Foi a lanuloiu to teiminate a tenancy at will they must give the tenant
Su uays' wiitten notice befoie commencing an unlawful uetainei pioceeuing.
9

A tenant, howevei, can teiminate a tenancy at will without notice.
6^Q=CF=" K^L5L"T 7A"2)(B)"BA"2)(;
A Peiiouic Tenancy continues fiom one peiiou to the next
automatically unless eithei lanuloiu oi tenant teiminates it, at the enu of
peiiou, thiough piopei notice. These types of tenancies have no fixeu teim.
Rathei, they last foi successive peiious (e.g. week-to-week, month-to-month,
yeai-to-yeai). They aie by fai the most common type of tenancy.
The most common example of a peiiouic tenancy is the month-to-
month tenancy. In this type of tenancy the tenant may have an expiieu fixeu
teim lease oi no lease at all but pays ient on a monthly basis. If you have no
lease, you have been paying ient on a monthly basis anu the lanuloiu has
accepteu ient on a monthly basis, chances aie you have a month-to-month
tenancy.
! !"# %&' ( )&'*+",* -.,/0'&1. ( <"'1=>-"><"'1= -.'&'45
The length of time iequiieu to teiminate a month-to-month tenancy
uepenus on whethei it is foi cause.

8
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 194S-19S4; @-3-D-/"#6-2) >'-21$ "E !&)$ Q !"I2)$ "E J.2
8%.21&51" DG JI#-%G !)G (197u) 1S CASu S61, S7u
9
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 789.
www.schoii-law.com 1S

S-RF3% L#*'18
In geneial, a month-to-month tenancy can be teiminateu foi any
ieason upon thiity uays' wiitten notice.
1u
This iule, howevei, is not
absolute. Foi example, in ient-contiolleu aieas, like Los Angeles,
ceitain othei iequiiements must be met befoie a lanuloiu can evict a
month-to-month tenant.
B-RF3% L#*'18G
Theie is an exception to the Su-Bay Notice iule above. The tenant is
entitleu to ieceive at least a 6u-Bay Notice if the tenant has been
iesiuing in the iental unit foi at least one yeai.
11

! <.1="*? @A B.,C04. @A 7"104. -" -.,/0'&1.
Notice must be seiveu in one following ways
12
:
1. Peisonal ueliveiy;
2. The lanuloiu can leave a copy with someone of
suitable age anu uiscietion at the tenant's iesiuence
oi place of business in auuition to mailing a copy of
notice to the tenant's iesiuence;
Wheie methous 1 anu 2 cannot be satisfieu because the tenant's
iesiuence anu business cannot be ueteimineu oi a peison of suitable age anu
uiscietion is not available, then the Lanuloiu is expecteu to:

1u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(1); !./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1946
11
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1946.1(b)(h).
12
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1162
www.schoii-law.com 16
Place a copy of the notice in a noticeable place
Belivei a copy to a peison iesiuing at the auuiess
Nail a copy, auuiesseu to the tenant, to the iesiuence
-67(7- -89: ?9.6&2- ("M $"I %-1-&D-3 $"I% 0")&1- )" K.$ @-2)
"% RI&)G S.5 &) #%"#-%/$ 5-%D-3T HE &) &5 $"I% M"%3 .'.&25) )(-
/.23/"%3U5 )(&5 &5 #%"L.L/$ 2") . E&'() M"%)( E&'()&2' I2/-55 $"I
5"6-("M (.D- M&)2-55-5G 8"1I5 "2 )(- 1"2)-2) "E )(- 2")&1-
&25)-.3G A.2$ /.23/"%35 E.&/ )" #%"D&3- )(- %&'() &2E"%6.)&"2 "2
)(- 2")&1- )" )-%6&2.)- M(&1( 1.2 #%-D-2) )(- -D&1)&"2G
K^L5L"T 5K 0EOO^Q5L"^ 7:(- C"/3"D-% :-2.21$;
A tenancy at suffeiance is a tenancy that iesults fiom a tenant, who hau
the iight to occupy the ienteu piopeity but has ueciueu to stay in possession
aftei the iental teim has enueu, without the lanuloiu's consent. These
situations can be complicateu by the fact that some ient contiol oiuinances
may cause a holuovei tenancy to become a peiiouic tenancy insteau.
^`3H$;89 #7 K8:3:1% 3* 0?778&3:18G
Someone who continues in possession of piopeity
aftei a moitgage is foiecloseu upon.
1S

A tenant who takes possession unuei a voiu sale
contiact oi lease without the lanuloiu's
peimission.
14

Note, the holuovei tenant is iesponsible foi the faii maiket ient uuiing
the holuovei peiiou.
1S
0ne of the best inuicatois of the faii maiket ient will

1S
Gartlan v. C. A. Hooper & Co. (1918) 177 CA 414, 425-426
14
Norton v. Overholtzer (1923) 63 CA App. 388
www.schoii-law.com 17
be the ient the tenant hau paiu unuei the piioi fixeu teim tenancy aujusteu
up oi uown baseu on cuiient maiket conuitions. Also, a holuovei tenant may
have to pay uamages foi inteifeience wheie the tenant knows of a new tenant
who has signeu a lease foi the piopeity.
! -.,/0'&10"' @A ( -.'&'45 (1 BDAA.,&'4.
0nlike othei types of tenancies, a lanuloiu may initiate an unlawful
uetainei against a holuovei tenant without seiving a notice to quit.
16
This
means that if you aie a holuovei tenant, the lanuloiu can immeuiately
commence an eviction action without any auvanceu notice via a S-uay, Su-
uay, oi 6u-uay notice to quit. Thus, the eviction pioceeuing will become
public iathei quickly. This iule is evolving following the evei-changing post
moitgage foieclosuie eviction actions. Be suie to check on the latest
legislation foi evicting tenants post-foieclosuie.
Remembei, if the lanuloiu accepts ient foi futuie possession, the
tenancy will be conveiteu fiom a holuovei tenancy to a peiiouic tenancy. The
tenancy will be foi the same peiiou as the expiieu lease, not exceeuing one
yeai. In any case, the tenancy at suffeiance will piobably become a month-to-
month lease if ient was paiu monthly unuei the expiieu lease.
17
Bowevei, if
the lanuloiu meiely accepts ient that is past uue, the tenancy iemains a
tenancy at suffeiance.
-67(7- -89: HE $"I M.2) )" 5).$ &2 #"55-55&"2 "E . #%"#-%)$ )(.)
$"I #%-D&"I5/$ /-.5-3 "% #%-D&"I5/$ "M2-3* ./M.$5 .))-6#) )"

1S
!"/$-.% DG :"L%&2-% (19S6) 7 CA2u 7SS, 742.
16
!"/$-.% DG :"L%&2-% (19S6) 7 CA2u 7SS, 742
17
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 194S
www.schoii-law.com 18
5IL6&) #.$6-2) E"% )(- 6"2)(/$ %-2)G HE )(- /.23/"%3 .11-#)5* $"I
)(-2 (.D- 1%-.)-3 . 2-M )-2.21$G
www.schoii-law.com 19

lll. nC SLLl PLL
Lanuloius aie absolutely piohibiteu fiom peisonally evicting the
tenant. This is not the Wilu West wheie the lanuloiu can take the law into
theii own hanus; they must evict tenants thiough the legal piocess. A
lanuloiu can ietake possession of the piemises if the tenant has abanuoneu it.
0theiwise, the lanuloiu must go thiough the couit system to evict a tenant.
18

As a tenant, even if you feel you may have a weak uefense to the unlawful
uetainei, you have the iight to foice the lanuloiu to evict you thiough the
legal system. In othei woius, the lanuloiu cannot foicibly evict you by
changing the locks oi uenying you access to the leaseu piemises, even if you
fail to pay ient oi aie otheiwise in bieach of the lease.
-67(7- -89: ,.23/"%35 "E)-2 )%$ )" 51.%- )-2.2)5 L$ )(%-.)&2' )"
V&1V )(- )-2.2)5 "I) )(-65-/D-5W 3" 2") L- 51.%-3 L$ )(&5G HE )(-
/.23/"%3 1.%%&-5 )(%"I'( M&)( )(.) )(%-.)* )(-$ 1.2 L- /&.L/- E"%
E"%1&L/- -2)%$G H) ).V-5 .) /-.5) PBN M--V5 )" .1)I.//$ -D&1) . )-2.2)
.5 /"2' .5 )(- )-2.2) 1"2)-5)5 )(- .1)&"2G HE )(- )-2.2) E.&/5 )" E&/-
.2 .25M-%* )(-2 )(- /.23/"%3 1.2 -D&1) )(- )-2.2) 6I1( XI&1V-%G
If the lanuloiu attempts to ie-take possession by means that fall
outsiue the legal piocess then you can biing an action against the lanuloiu foi
foicible entiy oi foicible uetainei.
19
Califoinia law piohibits foicible entiy
anu foicible uetainei, which aie the impiopei self-help iemeuies wheieby a
lanuloiu attempts to iegain possession of the leaseu piemises by uoing things

18
8"I% J-.5 &2D-5)6-2) !"%#G FG H2)-%2.)&"2./ C")-/ :-2.2)5U >55U2 (1978 81 CASu 6u4, 612.
19
Jordan v. Talbot (1961) 55 Cal. 2d 597, 603-605; !./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- sections 1159, 1160
www.schoii-law.com 2u
like bieaking into the ieal piopeity, thieatening the tenant with violence,
changing the locks oi otheiwise uisposing the tenant of possession of the
piopeity without the use of the couit system.
2u
In fact, the only self-help
iemeuy available to a lanuloiu is to offei something to the tenant, such as
money oi a piomise to not collect past uue ient.
_M5K "5L TCE FC =O TCE 5Q^ 5 J="K=Z CO 0^2OPM^26a
A tenant who is a victim of an unlawful foicible entiy can initiate a
summaiy pioceeuing of theii own to iestoie possession. The uispossesseu
tenant can initiate a foicible entiy oi foicible uetainei action.
21
As summaiy
pioceeuings, these actions aie iesolveu quickly, similaily to unlawful uetainei
actions.
_MT =0 KM=0 =Z6CQK5LKa
Lanuloius will often tiy to thieaten a tenant oi to convince the tenant
that they will be immeuiately evicteu if they fail to comply with the lanuloiu's
uemanus. Foi example, a lanuloiu may tell you that if you fail to pay ient they
will immeuiately evict you oi change the locks. This is not the case at all.
Being a tenant who iemains in possession of piopeity uoes not make you a
tiespassei.
22
Insteau, the couit explicitly states, "a tenant is entitled to peaceful
possession until the detainer action culminates in a judgment of forfeiture.
23

Theiefoie, the lanuloiu must follow the pioceuuies pioviueu by law foi
hanuling the mattei.

2u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 11S9, 116u
21
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1174(a)
22
Four Seas Inv. Corp. v. International Hotel Tenants' Assn, (1978) 81 Cal.App.3d 604, 612.
2S
Four Seas Inv. Corp. v. International Hotel Tenants' Assn, (1978) 81 Cal.App.3d 604, 612.
www.schoii-law.com 21
-67(7- -89: HE $"I .%- /.)- "2 %-2)* )%$ )" #.$ &) /.)-G HE $"I 1.2
2" /"2'-% .EE"%3 #.$&2' %-2) .23 (.D- 2" M(-%- )" '"* $"I 1.2
).V- /&6&)-3 1"6E"%) &2 )(- E.1) )(.) )(- /.23/"%3 6I5) 5)&// I5- )(-
1"I%) 5$5)-6 )" -D&1) $"I M(&1( 1.2 ).V- P )" N M--V5 7#%"D&3-3
$"I E&/- . %-5#"25&D- #/-.3&2'; &E 2") /"2'-%G :(- 3"M25&3-*
("M-D-%* &5 )(.) $"I 6.$ -23 I# M&)( . YI3'6-2) .'.&25) $"I )(.)
'"-5 "2 $"I% 1%-3&) (&5)"%$ .23 &5 3&51"D-%.L/- L$ EI)I%- /.23/"%35G
To piotect youiself against these types of thieats, it is impoitant to
unueistanu the eviction piocess timeline. With it, you can iest assuieu that
you will have a chance to uispute the lanuloiu's case, anu even have a tiial,
befoie an actual eviction will occui.
Below, is anothei unlawful uetainei timeline.


www.schoii-law.com 22
lv. 1L8MlnA1lnC A 1LnAnC? lC8
nCn-A?MLn1 Cl 8Ln1 - 8CL8
nC1lCL
The most common ieason foi an eviction action is foi the non-payment
of ient. Accoiuingly, we have uevoteu an entiie section to this issue. If you
misseu a ient payment, ieau this section caiefully because you may be able to
ieinstate youi tenancy.
-67(7- -89: Z--# &2 6&23* E"% 6.2$ /.23/"%35* -D&1)&2' . )-2.2)
&5 . 6-)("3 "E /.5) %-5"%)G HE $"I .%- . '""3 #.$&2' )-2.2)* 6"5)
/.23/"%35 M"I/3 %.)(-% (.D- $"I 5).$ )(-2 )" '" )(%"I'( )(- )&6-
.23 -9#-25- "E (.D&2' )" E&23 . 2-M #.$&2' )-2.2)G :(.) 5.&3* &E
$"I .%- &2 . %-2) 1"2)%"//-3 .#.%)6-2) "% ("I5-* .23 $"I .%-
#.$&2' L-/"M 6.%V-) %-2)* )(-2 1(.21-5 .%- )(- /.23/"%3 M&// 3"
.2$)(&2' M&)(&2 &)5 #"M-% )" '-) $"I "I)G =I% '"./ &5 )" (-/# $"I
5).$G
SPF5T LCK="^ KC 65T Q^LK CQ bE=K
Lanuloius aie iequiieu to issue anu seive a S-Bay Notice to Pay Rent oi
Quit ("S-Bay Notice") befoie commencing an unlawful uetainei foi failuie to
pay ient.
24
A tenant cannot waive the iight to a S-Bay Notice.
2S
The S-Bay
Notice uoes not in itself give the lanuloiu the iight to gain possession of the

24
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2), 1161.1
2S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 19SS(a)(S).
www.schoii-law.com 2S
piopeity again.
26
The Lanuloiu must still go thiough with the unlawful
uetainei action to iegain possession against the tenant's will. Anu, moie
impoitantly, uuiing the S-Bay Notice peiiou the lanuloiu must accept ient
fiom you, which will ieinstate youi tenancy anu avoiu an unlawful uetainei.
As a iesult, if you aie late on youi ient anu ieceive a S-Bay Notice to Pay Rent
oi Quit it is a goou iuea to submit payment of youi ient assuming theie is no
valiu ieason foi you to withholu ient.
As a tenant uefenuing an unlawful uetainei complaint, it is impoitant to
sciutinize the S-Bay Notice because it may have flaws that can be attackeu.
! ;=&1 -" )""E 2", 8' ( F>G&5 7"104. -" (11&4E -=. 7"104.:
The notice cannot be seiveu befoie the amount
becomes uue.
27

The notice cannot uemanu ient uating back fuithei
than one yeai.
28

The notice cannot uemanu moie than the amount of
ient that is past-uue.
29
If it uoes then the notice is
invaliu.
Su

The notice must give the tenant the infoimation
necessaiy to make the payment. Specifically, the
notice must pioviue the name, telephone numbei
anu auuiess of the peison accepting the payment.
S1


26
[%.23 !-2)%./ KIL/&1 A.%V-)* H21G DG Z"Y&6. (19S6) 11 CA2u 712, 717.
27
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2); ,$3"2 DG <-.1( (1928) 89 CA 69, 74.
28
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2)
29
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2); ,$3"2 DG <-.1( (1928) 89 CA 69, 74
Su
,-D&)\ 8I%2G !"G "E )(- K.1&E&1* H21G* 86 CA 4
th
1uS8, 1u4u.
S1
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2)
www.schoii-law.com 24
The notice must uemanu that the tenant pay @H
quit. The notice is not valiu if it uemanus that the
tenant pay 5LF quit.
S2

The notice cannot uemanu something othei than
ient.
! !"# -" (11&4E ( G.A.410C. F>G&5 7"104. -" 9&5 H.'1 @, ID01
(1) A Notion to quash lanuloiu's unlawful uetainei complaint: The
motion to quash attempts to annul the complaint foi failuie to satisfy the
iequiiements of the Coue of Civil Pioceuuie section 1161 iequiiing a S-Bay
Notice befoie pioceeuing with an unlawful uetainei action.
-67(7- -89: > 6")&"2 )" XI.5( 1.2 L- 3&EE&1I/) #%"1-3I%.//$G H)
1.2 L- )(- )-2.2)U5 E&%5) %-5#"25&D- #/-.3&2' .23 M&// /&V-/$ 3-/.$
)(- )%&./ 3.)- &2 $"I% .1)&"2G >2")(-% ./)-%2.)&D- &5 5&6#/$ )"
#%-5-2) )(&5 &55I- .) )%&./ 75-- L-/"M;G
(2) Bemuiiei to lanuloiu's unlawful uetainei complaint: A Bemuiiei
essentially says that even if the facts in the complaint aie tiue, theie still is no
basis foi the lanuloiu winning the lawsuit. In this case, lanuloiu cannot
pievail because of his failuie to abiue by pioceuuie in ueliveiing a piopei S-
Bay Notice to pay ient oi quit.
-67(7- -89: S&)( . 3-6I%%-% )(- 1"I%) M&// .11-#) .// "E )(-
/.23/"%3U5 .//-'.)&"25 &2 )(- 1"6#/.&2) .5 )%I- 7-D-2 &E $"I )(&2V
)(-$ .%- 2");G :(&5 &5 2") . E.1)I./ (-.%&2' ] &) &5 . (-.%&2' )" 5-- &E
)(- /.23/"%3 5).)-3 . #%"#-% 1/.&6G :(-%-E"%-* )(- "2/$
3-6I%%.L/- &55I-5 .%- 2") E.1)I./ &55I-5 %.)(-% &) &5 &55I-5 )(.)

S2
C&26.2 DG S.'2"2 (19S9) 172 CA2u 24, 27.
www.schoii-law.com 2S
5("M . 3-E-1) &2 )(- ^B3.$ 2")&1- &)5-/EG 8"% -9.6#/-* &E )(- ^B3.$
2")&1- E.&/5 )" #%"D&3- .23 )&6- .23 #/.1- M(-%- #.$6-2) 1.2 L-
6.3-G
-67(7- -89: > #"55&L/- '""3 )(&2' .L"I) . 3-6I%%-% &5 &) 3-/.$5
)(- I2/.MEI/ 3-).&2-% )%&./G :(- )-2.2) 1.2 E&/- . 3-6I%%-% &2 /&-I
"E E&/&2' .2 .25M-% .23 )(-2 )(- )-2.2)U5 .25M-% M&// 2") L- 3I-* &E
.) .//* I2)&/ )(- 3-6I%%-% &5 %-5"/D-3G :(.) 6-.25 )(.) $"I 6.$
3-/.$ )(- I2/.MEI/ 3-).&2-% )%&./ 5&6#/$ L$ E&/&2' )(- 3-6I%%-%
L-1.I5- )(- /.23/"%3 1.22") %-XI-5) )(- )%&./ 3.)- L- 5-) I2)&/ )(-
)-2.2)U5 .25M-% &5 .1)I.//$ E&/-3G :(.) 5.&3* &) &5 . L.3 &3-. )" E&/- .
3-6I%%-% I2/-55 $"I (.D- . D./&3 /-'./ L.5&5 E"% 3"&2' 5"G _"I
5("I/3 2-D-% E&/- . 3-6I%%-% "% ")(-% #/-.3&2' )" 1.I5- 3-/.$ ]
)(&5 1.2 "#-2 $"I I# )" /&.L&/&)$ E"% E&/&2' . E%&D"/"I5 6")&"2G
(S) Raise the issue in the answei to the complaint: A tenant woulu file
the pievious two moues of attack as motions simultaneously with an answei
to the complaint. Yet, the tenant can choose to simply auuiess the ueficiency
of the S-Bay Notice within the complaint itself.
-67(7- -89: 4-6I%%-%5 &2 I2/.MEI/ 3-).&2-% .1)&"25 .%- E.&%/$
%.%-G :(- 5&6#/-5) 6-)("3 )" .)).1V )(- D./&3&)$ "E . ^B4.$ 0")&1-
)" K.$ @-2) "% RI&) &5 )" %.&5- )(&5 &55I- .5 .2 .EE&%6.)&D- 3-E-25-
.23 #%-5-2) &) .) )%&./G :(&5 %-XI&%-5 )(- /-.5) .6"I2) "E M"%VG
! 8A -=. F>G&5 7"104. 8? J&+0*
If the S-Bay Notice uoes not have any ueficiencies that can be attackeu,
then the most obvious option available to the tenant is to pay the past-uue
ient being uemanueu within the S-uay peiiou aftei seivice. The lanuloiu
www.schoii-law.com 26
must accept the tenant's payment. The tenant woulu be wise to biing a
witness when attempting payment in peison. Bowevei, if the lanuloiu
iefuses to accept payment then the tenant shoulu ueposit the money in a
bank account in the name of the lanuloiu if the tenant has knowleuge of
lanuloiu's bank account.
SS

-67(7- -89: HE )(- /.23/"%3 %-EI5-5 )" .11-#) %-2) 3I%&2' )(-
)(%--B3.$ 2")&1- #-%&"3* $"I 5("I/3 3"1I6-2) )(- %-EI5./ &2 .
M%&))-2 /-))-% )" )(- /.23/"%3 -21/"5&2' )(- %-2) #.$6-2)G Z--# .
1"#$ "E $"I% /-))-% .23 %-2) #.$6-2) .23 M- %-1"66-23 6.&/&2'
&) L$ %-'&5)-%-3 "% 1-%)&E&-3 6.&/ "% -D-2 6.&/&2' L$ "D-%2&'() 6.&/
M&)( . )%.1V&2' 2I6L-%* LI) 6.V- 5I%- &) '-)5 )(-%- L-E"%- )(-
-9#&%.)&"2 "E )(- ^B4.$ 0")&1- K-%&"3G
-67(7- -89: HE $"I 3" 2") V2"M )(- /.23/"%3U5 L.2V .11"I2)
2I6L-% .23 $"I .%- )%$&2' )" 3-#"5&) )(- %-2) &2 )(- /.23/"%3U5
L.2V .11"I2) 3I%&2' )(- ^ 4.$ 0")&1- K-%&"3 /""V .) $"I% "M2
L.2V %-1"%35G HE $"I 1.2 .11-55 $"I% L.2V %-1"%35 "2/&2- $"I 1.2
/""V .) )(- L.1V "E 1/-.%-3 1(-1V )(.) )(- /.23/"%3 .11-#)-3 E%"6
$"I "2 . #%&"% "11.5&"2 )" D&-M )(- /.23/"%35U L.2V .11"I2)
&2E"%6.)&"2G
! 6AA.410C.+5 -.'*.,0'K H.'1 ;01=0' -=. F>G&5 9.,0"*
If the S-Bay Notice allows foi peisonal ueliveiy than a tenant's choice
to mail the payment can be a iisky one. The Payment must be Q^"^=J^F
within S uays unless peisonal ueliveiy is not possible.
S4
Theiefoie, a tenant

SS
[I$ 8G >)V&25"2 !"G "E !./&EG Q JIL5&3&.%&-5 DG !"66%G =E H2)G @-DG J-%DG (9
th
Cii. 1987) 814
F2u 1S88, 1S9S.
S4
!"%2M-// DG <.2V "E >6-%&1. 0.)U/ :%I5) Q J.DG >55U2, (Cal.App.4.Bist.199u) 224 CASu 99S-
998
www.schoii-law.com 27
uoes not satisfy the S-uay peiiou by mailing the payment within S uays.
Bowevei, if it is not possible foi the tenant to uelivei to the auuiess listeu in
the notice, then the payment may be satisfieu by mailing within S uays.
SS

-67(7- -89` :(- )-2.2) 5("I/3 #-%5"2.//$ 3-/&D-% )(- #.$6-2) &E
&) &5 .) .// #"55&L/-G HE )(- #.$6-2) 6I5) L- 6.&/-3 )(-2 )(- )-2.2)
5("I/3 3" 5" L$ 1-%)&E&-3 6.&/ &2 "%3-% )" #%"D- )(.) &) M.5 %-1-&D-3
M&)(&2 ^ 3.$5G K.$ -.%/$ &E #"55&L/-G
! %&+4D+&10'K -=. G&1. 9&5/.'1 <D?1 L. H.4.0C.*
Figuiing out the uue uate of a S-uay notice to pay oi quit can be tiickiei
than it woulu seem. The uue uate is computeu by excluuing the 1
st
uay anu
then counting thiee uays fiom the uay aftei the notice is ieceiveu.
S6
If the last
uay is a holiuay then it shoulu be excluueu too.
S7
Legal Boliuays aie eveiy
Satuiuay, Sunuay anu those uays listeu in uoveinment Coue sections 67uu-
67u1.
S8

" ^`3H$;8: The case of ,.6.22. DG F"'2.% involveu a tenant who was
seiveu notice to pay oi quit on a Weunesuay the 2u
th
. The couit
excluueu the uay it was seiveu, the 2u
th
. S uays aftei the 2u
th
fell on
Satuiuay, the 2S
iu
. Yet, weekenus count as holiuays. Theiefoie, the
couit excluueu Satuiuay, the 2S
iu
anu Sunuay, the 24th. Finally, the
upcoming Nonuay was Nemoiial Bay, a iecognizeu goveinment
holiuay anu excluueu that uay. Accoiuingly, the couit concluueu that
the last oppoitunity to tenuei payment was at the enu of Tuesuay, the

SS
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2)
S6
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 12
S7
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 12
S8
,.6.22. DG F"'2-%, (Cal. App. Bep't Supei. Ct. 199S) 17 Cal. App. 4th Supp. 4, 8
www.schoii-law.com 28
26
th
. Fuithei, a complaint coulu not be fileu until Weunesuay the
27
th
.
S9























S9
,.6.22. DG F"'2-%, (Cal. App. Bep't Supei. Ct. 199S) 17 Cal. App. 4th Supp. 4, 8
www.schoii-law.com 29
v. 1L8MlnA1lnC A 1LnAnC? lC8
lAlLu8L 1C CCML? Wl1P A
CCvLnAn1 Cl 1PL LLASL - 8CL8
nC1lCL
A lanuloiu can also attempt to teiminate a tenant's lease foi ieasons
othei than simply non-payment of ient. Inueeu, a tenant's bieach of a
mateiial covenant of the lease gives the lanuloiu the iight to teiminate the
lease.
4u

The most common covenant is the uuty to pay ient. Yet, the lease may
contain othei specific covenants that tenants shoulu check foi. The lanuloiu
must still pioviue a S-Bay Notice to cuie oi quit. This notice is similai to the
notice to pay ient oi quit, which was pieviously uiscusseu foi nonpayment of
ient.
41
The tenant will not be evicteu as long as the covenant is satisfieu
within the S-uay peiiou.
42
Fuithei, the iesiuential lanuloiu cannot cite the
bieach in an attempt to evict a tenant aftei accepting ient with knowleuge of
the bieach of the covenant.
-67(7- -89: HE $"I %-1-&D- . ^B4.$ 0")&1- )" !"6#/$ M&)( .
!"D-2.2) &2 )(- ,-.5- "% RI&)* $"I 5("I/3 3" M(.)-D-% &5 2-1-55.%$
)" 1"6#/$G HE $"I )(&2V $"I .%- ./%-.3$ &2 1"6#/&.21- "%

4u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161
41
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(S)
42
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161.S
www.schoii-law.com Su
1"6#/&.21- &5 5"6-("M &6#"55&L/-* )(-2 )%$ 5IL6&))&2' $"I% 2-9)
6"2)(U5 %-2)G HE )(- /.23/"%3 .11-#)5 &)* )(- ^B4.$ 0")&1- )"
!"6#/$ M&)( . !"D-2.2) &2 )(- ,-.5- L-1"6-5 &2D./&3G K.$&2' %-2)
%-.//$ 5"/D-5 #%"L/-65G
Some covenants, howevei, aie consiueieu incuiable. The lanuloiu
uoes not neeu to give the tenant an oppoitunity to cuie wheie the tenant
sublets the iesiuence, is a nuisance, uses the piemises illegally oi commits
waste.
4S
A nuisance is anything injuiious to health, incluuing the illegal sale
of a contiolleu substance. A nuisance can also be inuecent behavioi oi an
obstiuction to the fiee use of the piopeity.
44
An illegal use of the piopeity is
somewhat self-explanatoiy. Bowevei, the use must be continuous anu not
just a single act. Finally, waste constitutes an act that is piohibiteu by the
lease anu peimanently uiminishes the maiket value of the piopeity as a
whole.







4S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(4)
44
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section S479
www.schoii-law.com S1
vl. 1PL unLAWluL uL1AlnL8
CCMLAln1
An unlawful uetainei complaint tenus to be uone on a faiily stanuaiu
foim. Tenants shoulu use this ieality to theii benefit. The pieuictability of
the unlawful uetainei complaint allows a tenant to become comfoitable with
the complaint anu moie easily ueciphei if theie is anything on the foim that a
tenant can use to attack a lanuloiu's case.
A tenant can use any inauequacy in the complaint to attack the
plaintiff's case foi failuie to state a piopei cause of action. The buiuen is on
the plaintiff to piopeily file the complaint. To be cleai, a plaintiff who so
much as fails to piopeily check a box that is necessaiy to the complaint is
vulneiable to having the case uismisseu foi failuie to state a claim. Theiefoie,
attention to uetail is ciucial when assessing the complaint.
To aiu in this exeicise, we have pioviueu an example foim of a
complaint. In this section, we will walk you thiough what to look foi when
iesponuing to a complaint. Please use the following foim complaint to
follow along with the numbeieu explanation. In othei woius, the numbeis on
the complaint coiiesponu with the explanation on the following pages.




www.schoii-law.com S2




www.schoii-law.com SS





www.schoii-law.com S4





www.schoii-law.com SS
-=. 7"1&10"'? "' 1=. '.31 A.# M&K.? ,.A.,.'4. 1=. A",/ "' 1=. M,0", F
M&K.?N 8' "1=., #",*?O 1=. 'D/P.,.* M&,&K,&M=? P.+"# 4",,.?M"'* 1" 1=.
'D/P.,? #. =&C. &**.* 1" 1=. A",/? "' 1=. M,0", F M&K.?O '"1 1=.
M&,&K,&M= 'D/P.,? 0'1.,'&+ 1" 1=. M,.>M,0'1.* QD*040&+ 4"D'40+ A",/ R
1=.5 4",,.?M"'*. 1" 1=. 'D/P.,? 1=&1 #. &**.*N
.< K)'9 '9 *)8 13$*'#: #7 *)8 $;83>':(< Beie you want to look to
see who the law fiim is that fileu the complaint. Theii name anu
contact infoimation will be listeu heie. I iecommenu uoing an
inteinet seaich to get the backgiounu on the law fiim to see who
you will be uealing with. Theie aie ceitain fiims that almost
exclusively hanule lanuloiu unlawful uetaineis anu leaining this
infoimation may aiu you in unueistanuing why they will not
ietuin youi telephone call. We finu that many of the unlawful
uetainei "mills" flatly iefuse to ietuin tenant's calls oi even the
telephone calls fiom a tenant's attoiney.

Anothei issue to look foi in the caption aiising wheie the
lanuloiu uoes not hiie an attoiney. If the lanuloiu files the
unlawful uetainei on his own behalf, then it is a goou iuea to
ueteimine whethei the lanuloiu is an inuiviuual oi a business. If
the lanuloiu is not an inuiviuual, then chances aie the lanuloiu is
not peimitteu to iepiesent itself. In fact, a membei of a
coipoiation oi limiteu liability company who is not a lawyei may
not iepiesent itself in couit. Befoie you biing this issue to the
lanuloiu's attention is a goou iuea to see if the peison who
signeu the complaint (paiagiaph 19) is a licenseu attoiney in the
State of Califoinia. You can finu this infoimation by uoing a
simple seaich foi the peison's name at www.Calbai.ca.oig.
www.schoii-law.com S6

,< This pait of the caption iefeis to the couit wheie youi case was
fileu. This is impoitant foi these ieasons:

It tells you the couit that is hanuling youi case. You neeu to
know this so that you know wheie to file youi papeiwoik (youi
answei, uemuiiei, motion to stiike, etc.) in youi case. If you file
youi papeiwoik at the wiong couithouse it will be as if you uiu
not file anything at all. Pay attention to the auuiess anu uouble
check that plaintiff listeu the piopei auuiess by viewing the
Califoinia State Couit Website at http:www.couits.ca.gov.
Also, this is the auuiess wheie youi case will be heaiu.

Each county has its own iules as to wheie unlawful uetainei
actions must be fileu. ueneially, they must be fileu in the bianch
of the Supeiioi Couit locateu closest to the iental piopeity. This
is woith uouble-checking because if the lanuloiu fileu the
unlawful uetainei in the wiong bianch of the County Supeiioi
Couit theie may be giounus to attack the complaint on this basis
oi to have the case tiansfeiieu to the appiopiiate juuicial
uistiict. In the Los Angeles County Supeiioi Couit you can use
this link
http:www.lasupeiioicouit.oigFilingLocatoi0IfilingSeaich.
aspx to ueteimine the piopei location foi the unlawful uetainei.

S< This is youi case numbei. You neeu to put this on all of the
uocuments you file with the couit.

www.schoii-law.com S7
U< Beie, the plaintiff must inuicate what type of case this is. In
othei woius, this tells you the amount of iental uamages (back
ient) the lanuloiu is seeking fiom you, if any. This is impoitant
because youi filing fee vaiies uepenuing on the amount
uemanueu in the complaint. You shoulu check youi Supeiioi
Couit's website foi a scheuule of the applicable filing fees. The
filing fees tenu to vaiy slightly fiom county to county. You must
|pay a filing fee upon filing youi initial filing with the couit.
Note, if you win youi case then you will be entitleu to be
ieimbuiseu foi this expense by the plaintiff puisuant to a
memoianuum of costs
http:www.couits.ca.govuocumentsmcu1u.puf.

@< These boxes must be checkeu to show that the Plaintiff has
capacity to sue. The Plaintiff alleges a cause of action eithei as
an inuiviuual oi some kinu of entity (e.g. public agency,
paitneiship, coipoiation) against a nameu uefenuant who was
in possession of the piemises.

Nake suie the plaintiff listeu in item 1 is the peison who signeu
youi lease. In some cases, a piopeity management company will
file the unlawful uetainei on the lanuloius' behalf, which is
peimitteu.

B< K)8 $;3':*'77 H?9* 9)#4 9*3:>':( *# 9?8< The plaintiff must
have an inteiest in the piemises, eithei as the ownei oi in some
othei capacity. A plaintiff who uoes not have an owneiship
stake in the piopeity must show that he is the "ieal paity in
www.schoii-law.com S8
inteiest" thiough some othei means.
4S
A piopeity ownei's
agent piobably uoes not have stanuing to file an unlawful
uetainei action in the agent's own name.
46
The non-ownei must
state what inteiest he has in the piopeity. Accoiuingly, a tenant
shoulu sciutinize any non-ownei's inteiest in the piemises to
ueteimine if the plaintiff has a valiu basis foi claiming it is the
ieal paity in inteiest (e.g. title, the lease was in the agent's name,
the agent is a paity to the contiact
47
). If the non-ownei has not
stateu the ieason foi having an inteiest in the action then the
tenant can attack the complaint on this basis. The best way to uo
this is likely at tiial oi via a uemuiiei with an accompanying
iequest foi juuicial notice that takes juuicial notice of iecoiu
title. You may want to consult an attoiney foi this complicateu
pioceuuie.

-67(7- -89` ,&V- .2$ ")(-% #/.&2)&EE* . 6.2.'-6-2)
1"6#.2$ 6I5) 5#-1&E$ ("M &) (.5 '.&2-3 .I)("%&)$ )"
E&/- .5 . #/.&2)&EEG _-)* 6.2.'-6-2) 1"6#.2&-5 .%-
"E)-2 .55&'2-3 )(- .I)("%&)$* )(%"I'( 1"2)%.1)* )"
#I%5I- /"5) %-2)G :(&5 1"2)%.1)I./ .I)("%&)$ M"I/3 L-
-2"I'( )" '&D- . 6.2.'-6-2) 1"6#.2$ .3-XI.)-
5).23&2' .5 . #/.&2)&EEG

Sometimes theie is an actual owneiship uispute between the
lanuloiu anu tenant. 0nfoitunately, because unlawful uetainei
pioceeuings aie summaiy in natuie the unlawful uetainei couit

4S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section S67
46
A"3/&2 DG S./)-%a5 8I% J("# (1948) 8S CA2u S84, S9u, 188 P2u 8uS, 8u8-8u9
47
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section S69 (a)(4).
www.schoii-law.com S9
is not the piopei pioceeuing to content owneiship. This woulu
iequiie a sepaiate action foi quiet title that must be fileu as a
geneial civil mattei. If you have an owneiship uispute, we
stiongly suggest you ietain an attoiney foi a sepaiate quiet title
mattei. That saiu, just because a lanuloiu files an unlawful
uetainei uoes not mean theii owneiship is piesumeu. They
must still show that they aie the ieal paity in inteiest as set
foith above.

W< K)8 $;3':*'77 H?9* 9)#4 3 &8;3*'#:9)'$ *# *)8 *8:3:* *)3* '9
$&#$8& 7#& A&':(':( 3: ?:;347?; >8*3':8& 31*'#:< The
complaint must offei pioof that a iental agieement exists anu
the natuie of the agieement, incluuing any changes maue to the
agieement.
48
The complaint must have the iental agieement
attacheu to it unless 1) the agieement is oial 2) neithei the agent
noi his employees have possession of a copy of the agieement oi
S) the complaint is baseu on oveiuue ient unuei Coue of Civil
Pioceuuie section 1161(2). The complaint must specify the
mateiial teims of the iental agieement wheie it uoes not attach
the iental agieement foi a sufficient ieason.
49

-67(7- -89: >2$ 3-E&1&-21$ &2 )(-5- 5#-1&E&1.)&"25
1.2 L- .)).1V-3 )(%"I'( . 6")&"2 )" XI.5(* .
3-6I%%-% "% .) )%&./G
I< K)8 $;3':*'77 H?9* 9$81'7% 731*9 9)#4':( *)3* $&#$8& :#*'18
439 $&#D'>8>< In oiuei to accomplish this, a copy of the notice

48
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1166
49
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1166(a)(2)
www.schoii-law.com 4u
must be attacheu to the complaint.
Su
The complaint must
uesciibe the methou of seivice with specificity.
S1


N< 5 1#H$;'3:* 7#& ?:$3'> &8:* 9)#?;> 9$81'7'13;;% >8H3:> *)8
3H#?:* #7 311&?8> ?:$3'> &8:* 3:> *)'9 3H#?:* 9)#?;> A8
*)8 93H8 39 *)8 3H#?:* $&#D'>8> #: *)8 :#*'18 *# $3% #&
X?'*<
@,
A compliant on othei giounus can only attempt to
iecovei the ieasonable iental value foi the time the tenant was
holuing ovei.
SS
The plaintiff cannot asseit a ieasonable iate that
is highei than the iate specifieu in the iental agieement.
S4


As seen in line 11, the uamages will acciue uuiing the holuovei
anu may be stateu as a pei uay figuie that will be totaleu at the
time of a futuie juugment foi the plaintiff.

As seen in line 12, the plaintiff may asseit a claim foi statutoiy
uamages. The statutoiy uamages amount cannot exceeu $6uu.
SS

The plaintiff must piove malice on the pait of the tenant.
S6
To
piove malice, the plaintiff must show, "that uefenuant willfully,
uelibeiately, intentionally anu obstinately withholus possession
of the piopeity with knowleuge of the teimination of his lease
anu against the will of the lanuloiu."
S7
In othei woius, the

Su
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- section 1166(c)
S1
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- section 1166(a)(S)
S2
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- sections 1161(2), 1174
SS
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- section 1174(b)
S4
A18.%/.23 DG !.%#-2)-% (19S7) 18 CA2u 2uS.
SS
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- section 1174(b)
S6
!"3- "E !&D&/ K%"1-3I%- section 1174(b)
S7
J.55"2 DG Z.).5( (198S) 146 CASu 119.
www.schoii-law.com 41
plaintiff must show that that the tenant uesiieu to huit the
lanuloiu.
As seen in line 1S, the plaintiff can iecovei attoiney fees wheie
the lease pioviues foi them.
S8


.-< K)8 $;3':*'77 H?9* >8H3:> ': *)8 1#H$;3':* *)3* $#99899'#:
'9 &8*?&:8>< 0theiwise, the complaint lacks a cause of action.
S9


..< =9 *)8 1#H$;3':* D8&'7'8> A% 3: 3**#&:8%a If so, consiuei filing
a motion to stiike baseu on the attoiney veiification.

If a ueficiency is founu in the complaint then you shoulu think
about filing a uemuiiei to challenge the sufficiency of the
pleauing. Those pioceuuies will be auuiesseu in the next
section.












S8
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1uSS.S(a)(1u), (c)(S); !./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1717
S9
J(I5-)) H21G DG C"6- J.DG Q ,".2 >55U2 (1964) 2S1 CA2u 146, 1S4
www.schoii-law.com 42
vll. llLlnC ?Cu8 8LSCnSL
5L0_^Q
We iecommenu using the foim answei. You can always auu to it.
Remembei if you miss the ueauline to file youi answei you automatically lose
youi case by way of uefault, so ># :#* H'99 *)8 >83>;':8. The foim answei
can be founu at the following link-
http:www.couits.ca.govuocumentsuu1uS.puf.
Beie is a uiscussion of how to fill out the answei, please iefei to the
following foim answei below anu the coiiesponuing numbeieu explanation
below:
www.schoii-law.com 4S




www.schoii-law.com 44





www.schoii-law.com 4S
-=. 7"1&10"'? "' 1=. '.31 A.# M&K.? ,.A.,.'4. 1=. A",/ "' 1=. M,0",
M&K.?:
.< O';; ': %#?& :3H8

,< Leave blank (0nless you aie licenseu attoiney)

S< Leave blank (0nless you aie licenseu attoiney)

U< O';; ': %#?& 3>>&899 anu ielevant contact infoimation

@< Wiite in youi name oi "In Pio Pei" - this means that you aie
iepiesenting youiself

B< K)'9 '9 *)8 3>>&899 #7 *)8 1#?&*< Be suie to match this up with
the auuiess on the plaintiff's complaint oi on the summons.
Again, if you file youi answei in the wiong bianch couit, even if
you fileu youi answei in the iight county, it will be as if you
nevei fileu anything.

W< O';; ': *)8 :3H8 #7 *)8 $;3':*'77 3:> >878:>3:* 39 *)8% 3$$83&
': ;3:>;#&>c9 1#H$;3':*. If theie is a spelling eiioi as to youi
name you coulu wiite }ohn Smith incoiiectly sueu as "}hn Smth".
But if the name is ieally wiong, I woulu leave it be anu just fill
out section 9 coiiectly.

I< K)'9 '9 %#?& 1398 :?HA8&< You can get this fiom the summons
anu complaint. Bouble check the case numbei to make suie you
have it iight.
www.schoii-law.com 46

N< _&'*8 ': %#?& :3H8< If theie aie two uefenuants each will have
to file theii own answei if counsel uoes not iepiesent you. If you
aie iepiesenteu by counsel the attoiney can file one answei foi
multiple uefenuants.

.-< ")81[ *)8 3$$&#$&'3*8 A#`< If the lanuloiu has uemanueu less
than $1uuu in the complaint, incluuing by factoiing the uaily
uamages to uate listeu in paiagiaph 11 of the foim unlawful
uetainei complaint, then you can maik 2(a). By maiking 2(a)
you aie peimitteu to file a geneial uenial of all allegations in the
complaint.

If, howevei, the lanuloiu has uemanueu moie than $1uuu you
must veiify the contents of the answei by iesponuing to each
paiagiaph of the complaint. Be caieful heie, we suggest you
only aumit to allegations you can tiuly aumit. You aie peimitteu
to ueny baseu on a lack of infoimation anu belief, so if you uo not
know something to be tiue - like an allegation that the lanuloiu
seiveu the S Bay Notice on a paiticulai uay, uo not aumit it.

..< These aie the available foim affiimative uefenses. Check all
boxes that apply. We suggest you check any anu all that may be
applicable. You must put in youi affiimative uefenses because
failuie to uo so may waive those issues foievei. Please see the
section on Affiimative Befenses foi moie infoimation.

www.schoii-law.com 47
.,< This section peimits you to wiite in youi auuitional facts
iegaiuing the affiimative uefenses. Bo not be afiaiu to auu
auuitional affiimative uefenses not listeu in Section S of the
answei if you think theie aie some valiu anu applicable
affiimative uefenses.

.S< Beie the most impoitant infoimation to auu is if possession is no
longei at issue. If possession is no longei at issue, the lanuloiu
no longei has a iight to a tiial within 2u uays anu the case will be
conveiteu to an oiuinaiy (slow) civil case. This is a peifect
oppoitunity to let the couit know that possession is no longei at
issue if that is the case.

.U< This is youi piayei foi ielief - youi iequest foi ielief. 0nly check
the boxes that apply. You cannot iecovei attoineys' fees if you
aie iepiesenting youiself. S(u) is only applicable if you aie
making a bieach of the implieu waiianty of habitability claim.

.@< If you neeu moie ioom to explain youi case anu have to use an
attachment this is wheie you inuicate the numbei of pages that
you aie attaching to the complaint.

.B< Some couits pioviue unlawful uetainei assistants. If you useu
one then you shoulu inuicate that you uiu. If you uiu not, then
inuicate that you uiu not. This book is not an unlawful uetainei
assistant - it is a book.


www.schoii-law.com 48
.W< You must sign the answei.

.I< You must veiify the answei unuei penalty of peijuiy.
5OO=QZ5K=J^ F^O^L0^0
In iesponse to a plaintiff's complaint, a tenant can asseit that
auuitional facts exist that constitute a uefense. An affiimative uefense is
essentially an excuse uefense to a plaintiff's complaint. Foi example, self-
uefense is an affiimative uefense in an assault case.
! G.A.'?. 2", L,.&4= @A 63M,.?? 9,"C0?0"' @A -=. H.'1&+
(K,../.'1
A tenant's obligations within a iental agieement aie mutually
uepenuent upon the lanuloiu's fulfillment of the expiess covenants within the
contiact.
6u
In othei woius, youi obligation as a tenant to pay ient is cieateu
by the iental agieement. Theiefoie, a tenant has a uefense foi not paying
ient when a lanuloiu bieaks the agieement. Yet, the bieach will piobably
have to be substantial.
! G.A.'?. 2", ;&,,&'15 @A !&P01&P0+015 L,.&4=
Landlords frequently try to evict tenants despite poor rental
conditions. In 1974, in Green v. Superior Court
61
, the California Supreme
Court determined a warranty of habitability is a part of all residential
rental agreements. That means that the landlord has an affirmative
obligation to maintain the leased premises in a habitable (livable)
condition throughout the terms of the lease.

6u
[%--2 DG JI#-%&"% !)G (Sumski) (1974) 1u CSu 616, 624.
61
[%--2 DG JI#-%&"% !"I%) (1974) 1uCSu 616.
www.schoii-law.com 49
Resiuential tenants can asseit an affiimative uefense foi a substantial
bieach of the implieu waiianty of habitability.
62
All iesiuences must meet
ceitain living stanuaius in oiuei to be consiueieu "habitable" oi fit to be
occupieu by tenants. Babitability is implieu in eveiy contiact. Theiefoie, a
tenant is guaianteeu ceitain stanuaius of living whethei the lease expiessly
ueals with habitability oi not.
Califoinia Civil Coue section 1941.1 pioviues ceitain base stanuaius
that must be met foi a iesiuence to be habitable, incluuing plumbing, watei
anu heating.
6S
Fuithei, lanuloius must maintain the locks at the iesiuence
64
.
Builuing coues also pioviue stanuaius that must be met. While builuing
coues can be pietty uense, tenants can finu these coues on local city anu state
websites.
-67(7- -89: HE $"I )(&2V )(- 1"23&)&"2 "E $"I% .#.%)6-2) "%
("I5- 6.$ L- L-/"M LI&/3&2' 1"3- 5).23.%35 %-XI-5) .2 &25#-1)&"2
L$ )(- /"1./ ("I5&2' 3-#.%)6-2) "% )(- /"1./ 3-#.%)6-2) "E
LI&/3&2' .23 5.E-)$G HE )(- #IL/&1 .'-21$ E&235 D&"/.)&"25 )(&5 M&//
.&3 $"I% L%-.1( "E )(- &6#/&-3 M.%%.2)$ "E (.L&).L&/&)$ 1/.&6 .23
6.$ -2.L/- $"I )" '-) %-3I1-3 %-2) E"% . #-%&"3 "E )&6-G
! L,.&4= @A %"C.'&'1 @A ID0.1 6'Q"5/.'1
The Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment applies to the obligation to pay
ient.
6S
The covenant is applieu to eveiy lease anu containeu in eveiy lease
iegaiuless of whethei it is expiessly stateu.
66
0nuei the covenant, the

62
[%--2 DG JI#-%&"% !). (Sumski) (1974) 1u CSu 616, 624.
6S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1941.1
64
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1941.S
6S
</.1V6.2 DG 4./)"2a5 >I)" Q 8I%2&)I%- ,".25* ,)3G* bc (1942) Cal. App. 2u 14, 18.
66
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1927
www.schoii-law.com Su
lanuloiu must not wiongfully evict a tenant oi uistuib a tenant's possession
to the iesiuence.
67
Essentially, a tenant has the iight to use anu enjoy
piopeity in the way that the tenant oiiginally expecteu, when signing the
lease.
0bviously, a lanuloiu who wiongfully ousts a tenant is uistuibing the
tenant's use anu enjoyment of the piopeity. Yet, the covenant can also be
bieacheu thiough a constiuctive eviction, meaning that you uo not actually
neeu to be physically iemoveu fiom the piopeity. A constiuctive eviction
occuis when the lanuloiu ienueis the piemises unfit as a iesiuence.
68

Example: A bieach of the covenant of quiet enjoyment coulu be
constant louu music at all houis that pievent the tenant fiom
being able to use theii leaseu piemises unuei the ieasonable
quiet conuitions they oiiginally contemplateu.
! 2&0+D,. -" 9,"M.,+5 2"++"# H.M&0, ('* G.*D41 9,"4.*D,.?
A tenant who gives timely notice of neeueu iepaiis can iaise the
lanuloiu's subsequent failuie to make the iepaiis as an affiimative uefense to
an unlawful uetainei foi failuie to pay ient.
69

! )&'*+",* H.AD?.* -" (44.M1 H.'1
A tenant can iaise an affiimative uefense to an unlawful uetainei action
foi failuie to pay ient wheie the lanuloiu iefuseu the tenant's timely offei of
ient.
7u
The tenant must state that the offei to the lanuloiu was maue befoie

67
K&-%1- DG 0.5( (19S4) 126 CA2u 6u6, 612.
68
[%"( DG Z"D-%a5 <I// K-2* H21G (196S) 221 CA2u 611, 614
69
J&-L-% DG </.21 (1888) 76C 17S 17S-174; NcNally v. Waiu (1961) 192 CA2u 871, 884.
7u
@.23./ DG :.)I6 (189S) 98 C S9u, S96.
www.schoii-law.com S1
the expiiation of the S-Bay Notice peiiou. The tenant shoulu incluue the
specific uate the lanuloiu was offeieu the ient.
-67(7- -89: HE $"I .%- .//-'&2' . E.&/I%- )" .11-#) %-2)* &) &5 .
'""3 &3-. )" 3"1I6-2) &)G :%$ 3"&2' . 1"D-% /-))-% -21/"5&2' )(-
%-2) .23 6.&/&2' &) "D-%2&'() "% %-'&5)-%-3 6.&/ "% L%&2' . M&)2-55
M(-2 $"I )%$ )" #.$ %-2) &2 #-%5"2G
! )&'*+",* (44.M1.* H.'1 (A1., 63M0,&10"' @A F>G&5 7"104.
The lanuloiu waives his ability to cite a bieach when he accepts ient
aftei the expiiation of a S-Bay Notice.
71
The lanuloiu's act of accepting ient
cieates a new tenancy.
72
0nce a tenant mails payment to the lanuloiu then
the buiuen is on the lanuloiu to show that he uiu not accept the ient.
7S

Tenants shoulu check the notice to make suie that the methou of payment is
piopei. Also, tenants shoulu senu payments by a foim of mail that allows foi
pioof of its ueliveiy (e.g. ceitifieu).
! 7"104. G".? 7"1 BDMM",1 S'+&#AD+ G.1&0'., (410"'
The lanuloiu must give piopei notice befoie filing an unlawful uetainei
action.
74
Pieviously, we uiscusseu how to spot a uefect in a S-Bay Notice. A
uefective notice cannot suppoit an unlawful uetainei claim. Accoiuingly, the
uefect can be useu as an affiimative uefense.
! G0?4,0/0'&10"'

71
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 194S; See EBC Associates, LTB. v. uutieiiez (1984) 1SS CASu
167.
72
<%&''5 DG ?/-1)%"2&1 A-6"%&-5 Q A.'2-)&15 !"%#G (197S) SS CASu 9uu.
7S
?D&3-21- !"3- section 641
74
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161.1
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Lanuloius cannot uisciiminate against tenants in theii attempts to evict them.
Tenants can asseit an affiimative uefense foi uisciimination in an unlawful
uetainei action.
7S

ZCK=CL KC bE50M
A motion to quash can be useu simultaneously with a uemuiiei oi
motion to stiike. The motion essentially alleges that the couit uoes not have
juiisuiction to heai the complaint. The motion must be fileu within the S-uay
pleauing peiiou. A tenant may use a motion to quash when finuing a uefect in
the notice, complaint, oi, most commonly, the seivice of summons.
A motion to quash ielateu to seivice of a summons ielates to the
situation wheie the tenant claims they weie nevei piopeily seiveu. As a
piactical mattei, fighting seivice is usually not the best way to hanule an
unlawful uetainei because the lanuloiu will eventually get you seiveu. That
saiu, it might be a goou way to take an aggiessive stance against the lanuloiu.
0i, if you have ieason to think that you will not be seiveu, you can fight
seivice via a motion to quash if you tiuly weie not seiveu with the complaint.
ZCK=CL KC 0KQ=d^
A tenant can biing a motion to stiike when a giounu exists to eliminate
all oi a poition of the complaint. A tenant piopeily asseits a motion to stiike,
"any iiielevant, false oi impiopei mattei inseiteu in any pleauing" as well as
"any pleauing not uiawn oi fileu in confoimity with the laws of this state, a

7S
4-#.%)6-2) "E 8.&% ?6#/"$6-2) Q C"I5&2' DG JI#-%&"% !"I%) (2uu2) 99 Cal. App 4
th
896,
899-9u2.
www.schoii-law.com SS
couit iule, oi an oiuei of the couit."
76
The motion to stiike may be useu to
eliminate small poitions of the pleauing, incluuing even single woius.
0ne of oui most common ieasons foi filing a motion to stiike involves
unveiifieu complaints. veiification iefeis to a ueclaiation unuei oath oi upon
penalty of peijuiy that a statement oi pleauing is tiue. The veiification is
geneially founu at the enu of the complaint. Plaintiffs aie iequiieu by statute
to veiify unlawful uetainei complaints.
77
Accoiuingly, tenants can stiike
complaints that aie unveiifieu iesulting in the entiie complaint being thiown
out.
5**#&:8% J8&'7'13*'#: #7 "#H$;3':*9G We often file motions to stiike
wheie the attoiney has veiifieu the complaint. The law is evolving in this
aiea, but the stanuaiu we apply is that the only time the plaintiff's attoiney
may veiify the complaint is wheie the client's absence fiom the county makes
it 0/M,&4104&+ ", 0/M"??0P+. 1" "P1&0' 1=. 4+0.'1T? ?0K'&1D,.N
UV
If the client
can be ieacheu by mail, no impossibility exists anu attoiney veiification
shoulu not be alloweu.
See Foim Notion to Stiike foi Attoiney veiification at enu (if Puichaseu)
dddddd HE $"I (.D- 2") #I%1(.5-3 )(- D-%5&"2 "E )(- -BL""V M&)( )(- 6")&"2 )"
5)%&V- #/-.5- 1"2).1) J1("%% ,.M* ^cOBebfBcghh* &2E"i51("%%B/.MG1"6 E"%
#%&1&2'G dddddd
Fuithei, a lanuloiu cannot file a complaint seeking ielief oi uamages
that aie not appiopiiate. Befenuants can move to stiike a pait of a complaint
attempting to iecovei pie-teimination ient wheie the piimaiy puipose of the

76
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 4S6
77
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1166(a)(1)
78
4-!.6# DG 8&%5) Z-25&2')"2 !"%#G (1978) 8S Cal.App.Su 268, 27S.
www.schoii-law.com S4
complaint is possession of the piemises, baseu on a Su-uay notice to quit.
79

Fuithei, a motion to stiike can be useu to attack a complaint seeking
statutoiy uamages. Statutoiy uamages, which cannot exceeu $6uu, iequiie a
finuing of malice.
8u
A complaint foi statutoiy uamages must be specific in its
allegation of malice. When the complaint fails to pleau anything moie than
conclusoiy teims (the title of the teims themselves), it can be attackeu
thiough a motion to stiike.
81
Finally, a motion to stiike may be appiopiiate
wheie the plaintiff iequests post-juugment uamages, such as uamages foi the
time aftei the couit issues its juugment.
82

A tenant must pioviue 16 uays notice foi heaiing when attempting a
motion to stiike.
8S
A tenant seeking to stiike a poition of the complaint
shoulu specifically quote the poitions that the tenant wishes to stiike.
84

When stiiking an entiie paiagiaph oi cause of action, the tenant can just list
the paiagiaph they want to stiike insteau of quoting it.
8S

F^ZEQQ^Q
A tenant can file a uemuiiei as a way to asseit that even if the facts
allegeu in the complaint aie tiue, the plaintiff is still not entitleu to pievail.
86

A uemuiiei to the complaint assumes that all mateiial facts being allegeu aie

79
J.L-%& DG <.V()&.%& (198S) 169 CASu Su9, S17.
8u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1174(b)
81
!$%I5 DG C.D-%5"2 (1976) 6S CASu Su6, S16.
82
CI3-1 DG @"L-%)5"2 (1989) 21u CASu 11S6, 116S; Cavanaugh v. Bigh (196u) 182 CA2u
714, 72S
8S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1uuS(b)
84
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule S29
8S
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule S29
86
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u, 4Su.1u.
www.schoii-law.com SS
tiue.
87
Essentially a uemuiiei puipoits to look at the complaint anu say, "So
what. Even if eveiything you say is tiue, you still lose as a mattei of law".
Foi example, let's say that to catch a touchuown pass in a football game
a playei must 1) secuie the ball, 2) bieak the plane of the enu zone anu S) get
both feet uown in the enu zone. A uemuiiei may be appiopiiate wheie the
othei paity alleges to have scoieu a touchuown baseu having secuieu a ball,
bieaking the plane of the enu zone anu getting only one foot uown.
0bviously, the playei uiu not scoie a touchuown even if all the facts being
allegeu aie tiue because the playei uiu not get both feet in the enu zone.
A tenant can piopeily submit a uemuiiei wheie the complaint uoes
not state a cause of action.
88
A complaint fails to state a cause of action when
it uoes not incluue all essential allegations.
89
The most obvious allegation in
an unlawful uetainei action is that the tenant is unlawfully in possession.
Likewise, the action being sought is a ietuin of possession. These elements
must be piesent in a complaint. Accoiuingly, a complaint is vulneiable to a
uemuiiei when it uoes not state that the plaintiff wishes to iecovei
possession,
9u
how the plaintiff intenus to iecovei possession,
91
oi uoes not
claim that the uefenuant is in possession.
92

Fuithei, a tenant shoulu biing a uemuiiei when the lanuloiu files the
complaint befoie the notice peiiou has enueu
9S
oi when the complaint uoes

87
J-%%.2" DG K%&-5) (1971) S CSu S84, S91.
88
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 4Su.1u.
89
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 11S9.
9u
Shusett, Inc. v. Bome Sav. & Loan Ass'n (1964) 2S1 CA2u 146, 1S4-1SS.
91
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1166(a)(2).
92
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- sections 11S9-1161a; J(I5-))* H21G DG C"6- J.DG Q ,".2 >55U2 (1964)
2S1 CA2u 146, 1Su.
9S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1161(2)-(S), 1161.1.
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not eithei attach notice oi uesciibe the methou of notice in the complaint.
94

Even if the notice is attacheu, any uefect in the notice can be challengeu by
uemuiiei.
Tenants must file uemuiieis within the S-uay peiiou foi iesponses to
the complaint. A notice of heaiing anu uemuiiei shoulu be fileu anu
suppoiting points anu authoiities shoulu be incluueu.
9S
The heaiing will be
set no less than 16 couit uays following all paities being seiveu.
96

Remembei, theie aie uiffeient methous foi calculating seivice - see seivice
section below. Following the heaiing, the couit will eithei sustain oi oveiiule
the uemuiiei. If the uemuiiei is sustaineu, the opposing paity likely can
amenu theii compliant. If the uemuiiei is oveiiuleu, the tenant's answei is
uue within S uays of ieceiving notice of the iuling.
97










94
S&/5"2 DG J.3/-% (191S) 26 CA SS7, SS8.
9S
@I/-5 "E !"I%) iules S2S, S1S(a).
96
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1uuS.
97
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 472b, 1167.S; @I/-5 "E !"I%) iule S2S(e).
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vlll. PCW 1C llLL 1PlnCS
K=Z=Le
Tenants have S uays to file a iesponse to an unlawful uetainei
complaint.
98
While official holiuays aie excluueu fiom the S-uay peiiou,
Satuiuays anu Sunuays aie counteu as pait of the S uays. This is not the case
when the uue uate falls on a weekenu.
99
The time to iesponu to the complaint
is extenueu wheie seivice is by substitute seivice.
=L 6^Q0CL O=2=Le
Regaiuless of whethei oi not you aie a lawyei, tenants have the option
of filing couit uocuments themselves. Tenants simply must tiavel to the
coiiect couithouse anu uelivei the foims to the cleik. Some couithouses
have uiffeient filing winuows foi unlawful uetainei actions.
O5V O=2=Le
Tenants may also be able to fax couit uocuments in lieu of filing them
in peison. Tenants shoulu visit the appiopiiate county website to ueteimine
the fax numbei anu pioceuuies followeu by the couit. An auuitional fee may
be chaigeu foi each page fileu by fax.
CL2=L^ O=2=Le
A select numbei of couithouses pioviue the option of online filing,
otheiwise known as e-filing. Tenants can ueteimine whethei this option

98
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1167
99
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1167
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exists by visiting the website foi the appiopiiate county website. The couit
will likely chaige an auuitional fee foi online filing.
O^^0
A fee will be assesseu upon filing papeis. Tenants can usually pay fees
by cash, check, money oiuei oi cieuit caiu. In oiuei to ueteimine the piopei
fee amount anu accepteu methous of payment, tenants shoulu visit the
appiopiiate county website.
0^QJ="^
Tenants can be seiveu by 2 methous:
.< 68&9#:3; 08&D'18G
This is hanu ueliveiy. If you aie seiveu by peisonal seivice youi
iesponse to the complaint is uue to the couit within S uays of seivice.
,< 0?A9*'*?*8 08&D'18G
This type of seivice is peimitteu, without leave of couit, wheie the
following conuitions aie met:
Lanuloiu's piocess seivei has tiieu peisonal
seivice but cannot complete seivice with
ieasonable uiligence.

Lanuloiu's piocess seivei left a copy of the
summons anu complaint at uefenuant's "uwelling
house, usual place of aboue, usual place of business,
www.schoii-law.com S9
oi usual mailing auuiess othei than a 0niteu Stateu
Postal Seivice post office box"

Lanuloiu's piocess seivei left the complaint with a
"competent membei of the householu" oi a peison
in chaige of the office, business

Lanuloiu's piocess seivei left the summons anu
complaint with someone at least 18 yeais olu

Lanuloiu's piocess seivei then maileu the
summons anu complaint to uefenuant at the
auuiess wheie the summons anu complaint weie
left.

Seivice is effective 1u uays aftei mailing, meaning
the tenant woulu have 1S uays fiom the uate of
mailing to iesponu to the unlawful uetainei
complaint
Tenants seiving lanuloiu's attoiney with papeis in the lawsuit can
follow the following geneial guiuelines:
The uefenuant oi any othei paity to the lawsuit 13::#* seive anything;
a non-paity ovei the age of 18 must seive items.
ueneially, motions, uiscoveiy anu othei iesponsive pleauings can be
seiveu thiough any of the following methous without the agieement of the
www.schoii-law.com 6u
plaintiff, but iemembei theie aie uiffeient ueaulines that apply to noticeu
motions, uiscoveiy anu iesponsive pleauings:
" 68&9#:3; F8;'D8&%G Beliveiy to the office of the attoiney, you neeu not
finu the attoiney, you can leave the papeis with anyone in chaige of the
office.
1uu

If you uelivei something by peisonal ueliveiy then seivice is effective
on the uate of uelivei. So, foi example, if you aie filing a motion that
iequiies 16-couit uays notice, you can seive the motion 16 couit uays
in auvance without auuing auuitional time foi seivice beyonu the 16
couit uays.
" O'&9* ";399 Z3';G This is just iegulai mail. It woiks.
If you seive a uocument by iegulai mail seivice is complete upon the
ueposit of the item in the mail. That saiu, any statutoiy peiiou within
which the opposing paity is iequiieu to ieact - like filing an opposition
to a motion oi iesponuing to uiscoveiy - is extenueu by S uays.
1u1

If you aie filing a motion you must extenu the notice peiiou by S
calenuai uays. In othei woius, a notice motion seiveu by mail must be
seiveu 16 couit uays +S calenuai uays in auvance of the heaiing uate if
you aie going to seive the notice of motion by mail.
" CD8&:'()* Z3';: This is simply a methou to ensuie ueliveiy by the
following uay.
1u2


1uu
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1u11(a)
1u1
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1u1S(a)
1u2
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1u1S(c)
www.schoii-law.com 61
If you seive a uocument by oveinight mail seivice is complete upon the
ueposit of the item in the mail. That saiu, any statutoiy peiiou within
which the opposing paity is iequiieu to ieact - like filing an opposition
to a motion oi iesponuing to uiscoveiy - is extenueu by 2 uays
If you aie filing a motion you must extenu the notice peiiou by 2
calenuai uays. In othei woius, a notice motion seiveu by oveinight
mail must be seiveu 16 couit uays +2 calenuai uays in auvance of the
heaiing uate if you aie going to seive the notice of motion by oveinight
mail.
FC LCK OCQe^K KM^ 6QCCO CO 0^QJ="^
Whenevei you cause a uocument, pleauing oi othei mateiial to be
seiveu in youi lawsuit, you must incluue a pioof of seivice. A pioof of seivice
is simply a ueclaiation unuei penalty of peijuiy by the peison who seiveu the
uocument. We suggest you use a juuicial council foim pioof of seivice founu
online at http:www.couits.ca.govfoims.htm.filtei=P0S. Beie, you will
finu a list of available pioofs of seivice. Foi most situations,P0S-u4u is the
foim you will want to use.
When you file a motion oi othei item with the couit the couit cleik will
check to make suie that you have a valiu pioof of seivice attacheu to youi
uocument. Also, the juuge will sciutinize the pioof of seivice to make suie
you have notifieu the othei paity of the event you aie in couit foi anu uone so
with the iight amount of time. Nessing up the pioof of seivice can be fatal,
but it can always be iemeuieu by simply filing a new pioof of seivice, as long
as it iemains tiuthful.
www.schoii-law.com 62
lx. 8LCuLS1lnC A !u8? 18lAL
F^5F2=L^
Each paity is alloweu the oppoitunity to a tiial by juiy. Paities must
iequest a juiy tiial at the time the cause is first set for trial, if it is set upon
notice or stipulation.
103
Parties must request a trial by jury within five days
after notice of setting if it is set without notice or stipulation.
1u4
A tenant
who uoes not make a iequest within the piosciibeu time limits waives the
oppoitunity foi a juiy tiial. In unlawful uetainei matteis the juiy fee must be
paiu at least S uays befoie the uate set foi tiial - the fees aie now non-
iefunuable.
-67(7- -89` As a matter of practice, I suggest you file your
$150 jury fee deposit and serve a notice of the same at the
time you file your answer. This may help you settle the
matter and preserves your right to a jury trial.
"C0K
A paity iequesting a juiy tiial must pay juiy fees. A tenant iequesting a
juiy must ueposit the fiist uays attoiney fees, totaling no moie than $1Su, at
least five uays befoie the uate set foi tiial.
1uS
At the beginning of the seconu
uay anu each uay of tiial theieaftei, a paity uemanuing a juiy tiial must pay
the juiy fees anu mileage of the juiy. The fee foi juiois is $1S a uay pei juioi

1uS
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S1(u)(4)
1u4
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S1(u)(4)
1uS
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S1(b)
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anu $u.S4 pei mile.
1u6
A paity's Failuie to ueposit juiy fees constitutes a
waivei of the iight to a juiy tiial.
1u7

6C00=f2^ Q^2=^O OQCZ =L5FJ^QK^LK _5=J^Q
If the iight to a juiy tiial has been waiveu inauveitently, tenants who
wish to tiy the case by juiy shoulu petition the couit foi ielief. Couits aie
instiucteu to giant such ielief when the opposing paity woulu not be
piejuuiceu by the uecision.
1u8
In othei woius, the couit shoulu giant a tenant
the iight to juiy even if that iight has been waiveu unless it woulu be unfaii to
the opposing paity, foi some paiticulai ieason.















1u6
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 21S
1u7
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S1(u)(S),(6)
1u8
S(.%)"2 DG JI#-%G !)G (1991) 2S1 CASu 1uu, 1u4.
www.schoii-law.com 64
x. ulSCCvL8?
The uiscoveiy piocess can often be wheie cases aie won anu lost. The
uiscoveiy piocess pioviues foi the available pioceuuies foi obtaining
eviuence befoie tiial. The eviuence you obtain will be the founuation foi
which youi case is baseu. Tenants shoulu not foiego uiscoveiy as is often
uone in unlawful uetainei actions. Anu tenants must be piepaieu to
appioach uiscoveiy in an oiganizeu anu tactical mannei. Boing so will allow
tenants complete uiscoveiy effectively anu without expenuing unnecessaiy
funus.
While the timefiames foi uiscoveiy methous may be shoitei, all
iegulai methous aie available in unlawful uetainei pioceeuings. Noimal
methous of uiscoveiy incluue uepositions, inteiiogatoiies, inspection
uemanus anu iequests foi aumission.
Biscoveiy in unlawful uetainei actions must be uone no latei than the
Sth uay befoie tiial.
1u9
Biscoveiy motions may be maue at any time with S-
uays' notice.
11u

=LK^QQCe5KCQ=^0
Inteiiogatoiies aie wiitten questions sent to an auveisaiy anu
iequiieu to be answeieu. The puipose of inteiiogatoiies is to obtain
infoimation on any factual mattei that may be uncleai. Foi example, suppose
an unlawful uetainei compliant may allege that a tenant staiteu with a
tenancy at will but then it was conveiteu to a fixeu teim, to which the tenant

1u9
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2u24.u4u(b)(1).
11u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u.8
www.schoii-law.com 6S
ultimately became a holuovei tenant. The tenant may use an inteiiogatoiy to
cleai up how the tenancy at will was conveiteu to a fixeu teim anu what
peiiou that fixeu teim was to last foi. Auuitionally, tenants can use
inteiiogatoiies to finu out who the witnesses at tiial will be.
Tenants may seive inteiiogatoiies S uays aftei seivice of the summons
anu complaint.
111
Responses aie uue no moie than S uays aftei they aie
seiveu.
112

Tenants shoulu begin theii uiscoveiy with the use of foim
inteiiogatoiies. The unlawful uetainei foim inteiiogatoiies aie easy to fill
out (you simply check off boxes). The foim inteiiogatoiies juuicial council
foim can be founu at http:www.couits.ca.govuocumentsuu1u6.puf. The
foim is juuicial council foim EB-1u6. We stiongly iecommenu a tenant seive
these foims in eveiy case as theie is no uownsiue to gaining moie
infoimation about youi case.
F^6C0=K=CL0
Aftei finuing out which witnesses will appeai at tiial, thiough
inteiiogatoiies, tenants must ueciue which witnesses to subpoena foi
ueposition. A ueposition is an oppoitunity to obtain oial out-of-couit
testimony fiom a witness. The ueposition is essentially an inteiview with
the opposition's witness. Tenants shoulu foimulate a specific plan of which
witnesses they want obtain pie-tiial testimony fiom anu what infoimation
they hope to elicit thiough ueposition. Beposition testimony can be useu at
tiial to impeach the witness anu ieveal any contiauictions in the testimony.

111
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uSu.u2u(b)
112
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uSu.26u(a)
www.schoii-law.com 66
A wiitten iecoiu is kept of the testimony by a couit iepoitei anu can
latei be useu at tiial. The paity iequesting the ueposition will pay foi the cost
of the couit iepoitei. This cost can iange. Still, tenants shoulu expect pay
the about $1,uuu uollais pei ueposition in fees to the iepoitei. It is veiy iaie
to have a ueposition in an unlawful uetainei action anu we geneially
iecommenu against the cost foi small matteis.
Bepositions must be scheuuleu foi a uate at least S uays aftei seivice of
the ueposition notice anu must be completeu S uays befoie tiial.
11S

-67(7- -89: :-2.2)5 5("I/3 L- 5)%.)-'&1 .L"I) M(&1( M&)2-55-5
)(-$ 3-#"5-G J&21- $"I M&// L- #.$&2' E"% )(- 1"I%) %-#"%)-%* )(-
1"5) 1.2 .33 I# XI&1V/$G >2 I2&6#"%).2) M&)2-55 6.$ 2") L-
M"%)( )(- )&6- .23 6"2-$G
Yet, the ueposition piocess may be a way to secuie a settlement. A
lanuloiu's cost foi uepositions may fai exceeu a tenant's because lanuloius
who acquiie an attoiney will be paying his attoiney a fee foi attenuing
uepositions of both his witnesses anu youis.
=L06^"K=CL F^Z5LF0
Tenants may uemanu the oppoitunity to inspect, test oi sample
eviuence.
114
Bemanus may be seiveu S uays aftei seivice of the summons oi
on appeaiance by the uefenuant.
11S
The uemanu must specify a ieasonable
uate foi inspection, at least S uays aftei seivice of the uemanu
116
. Tenants

11S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2u2S.27u(b)
114
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uS1.u2u.
11S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uS1.u2u(c).
116
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uS1.uSu(c)(2).
www.schoii-law.com 67
may seek leave to specify an eaily uate on a showing of goou cause.
117

Responses aie uue S uays aftei seivice.
118

Nost people use inspection uemanus to obtain uocumentaiy eviuence.
We stiongly suggest iequesting all uocuments that the lanuloiu may claim
suppoit vaiious aspects of the lanuloiu's unlawful uetainei case. By uoing
this, you get a pieview of the uocuments the lanuloiu may tiy to use at tiial to
piove up its case.
5FZ=00=CL Q^bE^0K0
A iequest foi aumission is a wiitten list of questions oi statements that
aie seiveu on an opposing paity anu expecteu to be eithei uenieu oi
aumitteu. The uefenuant may seive iequests foi aumission at any time.
119

Responses aie uue S uays aftei seivice.
12u







117
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uS1.uSu(c)(2).
118
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uS1.26u(b).
119
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uSS.u2u(a).
12u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2uSS.2Su(b).
www.schoii-law.com 68
xl. SL11LLMLn1
Any settlement shoulu cleaily say that the lawsuit is being uismisseu
with piejuuice, upon satisfaction of any conuitions to the agieement.
121
A
settlement with piejuuice means that the plaintiff cannot file a new complaint
baseu on the same occuiience as the one being uismisseu. Tenants shoulu
also iequest foi a waivei of costs. It is the lanuloiu's obligation to infoim the
couit of the settlement anu seive all paities to the uispute.
122

Both paities also have the option to stipulate foi entiy of juugment. A
stipulateu juugment essentially makes the agieement between the lanuloiu
anu tenant the juugment of the case. Both paities sign the stipulateu
juugment, as well as the juuge. Bowevei, tenants shoulu avoiu stipulateu
juugments because they cieate a public iecoiu of the settlement.
Subsequently, tenants may be uisciiminateu against by othei lanuloius.
0^52=Le KM^ Q^"CQF
0pon settlement, tenants shoulu seek to seal any iecoius ielateu to the
unlawful uetainei action. 0nless confiuentiality is iequiieu by law, couit
iecoius aie piesumeu to be open to the public.
12S
Paities must obtain a couit
oiuei to seal a iecoiu.
124
The couit oiuei is obtaineu thiough a wiitten
motion oi application auuiesseu to the couit.
12S
The motion must be
suppoiteu by points anu authoiities anu a ueclaiation stating facts.
126
At a

121
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section S81
122
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule 22S(a)(1)
12S
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule 2.SSu(c)
124
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule 2.SSu(a)
12S
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule 2.SS1 (b)
126
@I/-5 "E !"I%) Rule 2.SS1(b)(6),(u),(e)
www.schoii-law.com 69
minimum, the paity seeking to seal uocuments oi maintain them unuei seal
must come foiwaiu with a specific facts they want withhelu anu specific
ieasons foi withholuing them.
127
The uocuments must be placeu with the
cleik, in a sepaiate envelope sealeu anu labeleu "C0NBITI0NALLY 0NBER
SEAL."
}uuges typically have no pioblem sealing the iecoiu in unlawful
uetainei actions pioviueu all paities stipulate to having the iecoiu seal. You
shoulu always ask foi this when settling an unlawful uetainei mattei.













127
CG<G 8I//-% !"G DG 4"-, (2uu7) 1S1 CA App.4th 879.
www.schoii-law.com 7u
xll. 18lAL
You must show up foi youi tiial.
KQ=52 F5K^
The plaintiff can iequest that the couit set a tiial uate any time aftei
the uefenuant has "appeaieu" by answeiing the complaint.
128
The plaintiff-
lanuloiu must seive the tenant with a copy of the iequest. 0pon ieceiving the
plaintiff-lanuloiu's iequest, the cleik will set a tiial uate. Wheie possession of
the piopeity is an issue, the cleik must set the uate of tiial within 2u uays of
the time that the iequest is maue.
129

A tenant-uefenuant can seek an extension of the tiial uate wheie moie
time is neeueu to complete uiscoveiy anu piepaie the case.
1Su
To obtain an
extension, the tenant will neeu to show goou cause to the couit in a motion
anu pietiial heaiing.
1S1
This is next to impossible to get without the plaintiff's
coopeiation so I we iaiely tiy to get an extension without a stipulation fiom
the lanuloiu's attoiney.
-.'&'1 -0M: HE #"55-55&"2 &5 2") .) &55I-* )-2.2)5 5("I/3 E&/- .
6")&"2 &2 "##"5&)&"2 )" )(- %-XI-5)* E"% E.&/I%- )" 5.)&5E$ !"3- "E
!&D&/ K%"1-3I%- cche.G :(- 6")&"2 &5 E&/-3 I5&2' )(- 5.6- j4BcbO
)%&./ %-XI-5) E"%6 I5-3 L$ )(- /.23/"%3G :(- 5).)I)- 5).)-5 )(.) .
j4 .1)&"2 M(-%- )(- )-2.2) &5 2" /"2'-% &2 #"55-55&"2 &5 2")

128
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u, 117u.S
129
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u.S(a)
1Su
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u.S(b)
1S1
@I/-5 "E !"I%) iules S.1SS2 (a) & (c); !./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 117u.S(b)
www.schoii-law.com 71
5ILY-1) )" #%-1-3-21- "D-% ")(-% 6.))-%5G
c^P
:(-%-E"%-* )(- 1.5-
1.22") '" )%&./ XI&1V/$ .5 . 5I66.%$ #%"1--3&2'G
c^^
S(-2
#"55-55&"2 &5 2" /"2'-% .) &55I- )(- 1.5- M&// L- 1"2D-%)-3 )" )(-
"%3&2.%$ 1&D&/ 1./-23.% .23 2" /"2'-% -2)&)/-3 )" . XI&1V
%-5"/I)&"2G
0K=6E25K=Le KC KM^ "CZZ=00=CL^Q
The couit can attempt to appoint a commissionei oi any membei of the
state bai as a juuge pio tem, to peifoim juuicial uuties anu sit in as a
tempoiaiy juuge.
1S4
Paities must stipulate oi agiee to the use of a
commissionei foi the case.
1SS
Theiefoie, a tenant-uefenuant can avoiu the
case being tiieu in fiont of a tempoiaiy juuge by iefusing to agiee to a
stipulation.
-67(7- -89: =2- #&-1- "E .3D&1- H 1.2 #.55 "2* .E)-% %-#%-5-2)&2'
6.2$ )-2.2)5 .23 /.23/"%35 .) )%&./ &5 2") )" 5)&#I/.)- )" )(-
!"66&55&"2-% &E $"I .%- )(- )-2.2)G H (.D- E"I23 )(.) )(-
1"66&55&"2-%5 72") .1)I./ YI3'-5; M(" "E)-2 %-5&3- "D-% /.23/"%3
)-2.2) 6.))-%5 )-23 )" (.D- . /.23/"%3 L&.5G A$ 5I''-5)&"2 &5 2")
)" 5&'2 )(- 5)&#I/.)&"2G HE $"I 3" 2") 5&'2 &)* $"I% 1.5- M&// L-
%-.55&'2-3 )" .2 .1)I./ YI3'-G :(.) 5.&3* 2" 5I''-5)&"2 &5
.L5"/I)-G A.2$ "E )(- 1"66&55&"2-%5 .%- XI&)- '""3 .23 E.&%G
Fuithei, an unintenueu consequence of not stipulating to the
commissionei is that fact that it almost always cieates uelay. The couit must

1S2
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179a
1SS
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179a
1S4
!"25)&)I)&"2 >%)&1/- FH sections 21, 22; @I/-5 "E !"I%) iule 6.6u9(b).
1SS
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 2S9
www.schoii-law.com 72
finu an available juuge to have youi tiial anu theie may not be a juuge
available on that uay.
2^LeKM CO KQ=52 ^0K=Z5K^
0n the uay of tiial the couit will usually ask foi an estimate. Typically,
the mastei calenuai tiial juuge oi commissionei will hanule matteis that take
less than an houi. If you estimate that youi case will last longei than an houi
the couit may senu you to a uiffeient uepaitment to heai youi mattei. This
may also cause you to have to wait until the couit is finisheu with shoitei
matteis oi until anothei uepaitment has availability.
L^eCK=5K=Le _=KM C66C0=Le "CEL0^2
When you show up foi tiial on the uay of tiial the juuge oi
commissionei will typically make a speech about the natuie of unlawful
uetainei matteis anu encouiage all paities to exploie settlement. In fact,
some juugescommissioneis iequiies that the paities go outsiue the
couitioom anu uiscuss possible settlement of the mattei befoie the couit will
allow the tiial to pioceeu. In those situations, the couit iequiies to uiscuss
settlement in the hallway outsiue the couitioom oi at anothei specifieu
location (in Bowntown Los Angeles they iequiie you to go to the 9
th
flooi)
anu then to iepoit back foi tiial oi to confiim the settlement. ueneially, these
couitiooms will not allow you to go to tiial without fiist uiscussing
settlement.
Nany of the juuges also iequiie that the paities show each othei any of
the uocuments that they intenu to use at tiial. This way theie aie no
suipiises. It is a goou iuea to have youi exhibits ieauy. We suggest
piepaiing 2 binueis one foi the juuge anu one foi youiself. You can show the
www.schoii-law.com 7S
othei paity the juuge's copy anu make suie to keep it clean anu cleai of
maikings. 0n youi copy you can maik it up, highlight it anu uo whatevei you
neeu to uo to make suie that you aie able to quickly access the exhibits anu
make youi points at tiial. The iule you shoulu live by at tiial is that if you
cannot locate the uocument anu the specific poition of the uocument you
neeu foi tiial within S seconus they aie useless. Nake suie you can get to
eveiything quickly anu know what youi talking about oi the juuge will get
fiustiateu with you.
Beie aie some key settlement points to consiuei whenevei settling an
unlawful uetainei:
Aie you giving up possession.
If so, when, wheie anu who uo you gives the keys to.
Bave you thought about the secuiity ueposit. }ust
because it is not a pait of the unlawful uetainei complaint
uoes not mean that it cannot be incluueu in the
settlement.
Is the lanuloiu uismissing the complaint.
If so, is it with piejuuice.
When.
Bo you have to meet ceitain conuitions befoie the
complaint is uismisseu. Can you meet those conuitions.
Is theie a compliance heaiing. - A heaiing to ueteimine
whethei oi not the settlement has been complieu with.
Bo you have an agieement to seal the complaint.
Is the lanuloiu foigiving any ient. If so, how is that to be
uone by waiving futuie ient.
Is the lanuloiu oi aie you waiving costs.
www.schoii-law.com 74
Aie you anu the lanuloiu waiving attoineys' fees.
Aie you giving a stipulateu juugment. - A stipulateu
juugment is a juugment that is helu but not enteieu unless
you fail to comply with the settlement agieement. This is
often a pait of any settlement.
Is the lanuloiu going to fix any conuitions in the iental
unit.
If so, spell out the conuitions.
5"KE52 KQ=52
The buiuen is on the plaintiff to piove his case by a pieponueiance of
the eviuence. Thus, the plaintiff must show that you, the uefenuant, aie moie
likely than not liable of all the elements of the case. The essential elements
of an unlawful uetainei case aie 1) that a lanuloiu-tenant ielationship
existeu, 2) the ielationship was teiminateu anu S) the tenant subsequently
continueu possession of the piemises.
1S6
As uefenuant, youi job is to poke
holes in the plaintiff's case anu show that one of these elements, moie than
likely, uiu not exist.







1S6
>(/-%5 DG <.%%-)), (19u6) 4 CA 1S8, 16u.
www.schoii-law.com 7S
xlll. CS1 18lAL MC1lCnS
ZCK=CL OCQ L^_ KQ=52
Tenants can motion foi a new tiial in oiuei to vacate the pievious
juugment anu essentially stait all ovei again at the tiial phase. Califoinia
statutoiy law allows foi seven ieasons to move foi a new tiial.
1S7
The most
populai ieasons foi a couit to giant a tenant a new tiial aie excessive
uamages, newly uiscoveieu eviuence anu juiy misconuuct. A tenant must
make the motion within 1S aftei notice of the juugment.
1S8

-67(7- -89: HE $"I /"5- .) )%&./* )(- "335 "E $"I #%-D.&/&2' .) .
6")&"2 E"% . 2-M )%&./* (-.%3 L$ )(- D-%$ 5.6- )%&./ YI3'-* .%- D-%$
/"MG
Q^2=^O OQCZ OCQO^=KEQ^
A tenant can iequest that he be ielieveu fiom having to foifeit a lease
because of the haiuship that it woulu cause the tenant.
1S9
Bowevei, the couit
will only giant such a motion foi a tenant who fully peifoims the covenants of
the iental agieement, incluuing paying all uue ient.
14u
The statute iequiies
that the tenant peifoim in a "piacticable" mannei anu leaves the couit in the
position to ueciue when the tenant has uone so.
141
A tenant may file the
motion any time befoie the piemises is iestoieu back to the lanuloius
possession.

1S7
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S7.
1S8
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 6S9.
1S9
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179.
14u
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179.
141
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1179; [&// K-)%"/&I6* H21G DG C.$-% (2uu6) 1S7 CA4th 826,
8S2-8SS.
www.schoii-law.com 76
ZCK=CL OCQ 0K5T
A tenant can attempt to peisuaue a couit to issue a uiscietionaiy stay
of a juugment.
142
0sually, a tenant will neeu to show haiuship to obtain the
stay.
14S
The couit may conuition gianting a stay on the tenant paying the
ient that woulu be acciuing uuiing the peiiou of the stay.
144

-67(7- -89: 8%"6 6$ -9#-%&-21-* )-2.2)5 .%- D-%$ I2/&V-/$ )"
"L).&2 . 6")&"2 E"% 5).$G :(-%-E"%-* )(- 6")&"2 &5 2") M"%)( )(-
)&6- .23 -EE"%) "E "L).&2&2'G HE $"I .%- .) )(&5 #(.5- "E )(-
#%"1-55* $"I 6.$ L- L-))-% 5-%D-3 5#-23&2' $"I% )&6- )%$&2' )"
E&23 . 2-M 3M-//&2' )" %-2) .23 .%%.2'&2' E"% 6"D-%5G














142
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 918
14S
!./&E"%2&. !&D&/ !"3- section 1176(a)
144
A-3E"%3 DG JI#-%G!)G (198S) 14u CASu 2S6, 24u, 189 CR 227, 2Su
www.schoii-law.com 77
xlv: 1PL LCCkCu1
If you have lost youi case, you aie not immeuiately evicteu. The
lanuloiu must still uo the following:
0btain a wiit of possession fiom the couit;
This is the legal uocument that allows the lanuloiu to tell
the sheiiff to evict you;
Senu the wiit of possession to the Sheiiff's office with
instiuctions to seive a notice to vacate;
Bave the Sheiiff's office seive the notice to vacate;
The Notice to vacate gives the tenant S uays to vacate the
piemises befoie the locks aie changeu.
Neet the Sheiiff's office at the piopeity to effectuate the
lock out.
This piocess is nevei fastei than S uays anu typically takes longei than
a week.

Below is a uiagiam of the post-eviction piocess:


www.schoii-law.com 78







u00B L0CK WITB Y00R CASE ANB TRIAL! .






WE B0PE Y00 WIN!

"#$% &#'(#) '#
*'$(+, -./,0 #)
1%2$#2,$
3''#$),4
5,$(6(7.'(#)

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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]

[Insert Name]
[Insert Address Line 1]
[Insert Address Line 2]
Telephone: [Insert Telephone Number]
Facsimile: [Insert Facsimile Number]

In Pro Per
[Insert NAME(s)]



[COURT]
[VENUE]
[DISTRICT] DISTRICT

[Plaintiff(s)] ,

Plaintiff(s),

vs.

[Defendant(s)] ,

Defendant(s).







)
)
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Case No. [Case No.]

Assigned for all purposes to the
Honorable [Judge]
Department [Dept]

DEFENDANT(S) [NAME(s)] NOTICE
OF MOTIONAND MOTION TO
STRIKE COMPLAINT FOR
UNLAWFUL DETAINER;
MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND
AUTHORITIES IN SUPPORT
THEREOF


Hearing
Date: [Insert Date]
Time: [Insert Time]
Dept.: [Insert Dept.]

TO ALL PARTIES AND THEIR ATTORNEY OF RECORD IN THIS ACTION:
PLEASE TAKE NOTICE THAT on _____________[Insert Date]at
____________[Insert Time], or as soon thereafter as the matter may be heard, in Department
______________[Insert Dept.]of the above-entitled Court, located at
____________________________________[Insert Court Address], Defendants
_______________[Insert Name(s)] (Defendant(s)) will and hereby do move to strike the

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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]
entire Complaint for Unlawful Detainer filed by Plaintiff _____________[Insert Plaintiff
Name(s)], (Plaintiff(s)) in this action.
The motion is made pursuant to California Code of Civil Procedure sections 435 and
436 upon the ground the Complaint for Unlawful Detainer is not properly verified as required
pursuant to Code of Civil Procedure sections 446 and not drawn in conformity with the laws of
this state.
This motion is based upon this Notice, the Memorandum of Points and Authorities
attached hereto, the Court's files and records in this action, and such evidence as may be
presented at the hearing.


DATED: _____________[Insert Date]




By:
IN PRO PER
_______________[Insert Name(s)]







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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]
MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITES
I. INTRODUCTION
________________[Insert Plaintiff Name(s)], (Plaintiff(s)) complaint is improper and
not filed in conformity with the law as it is not verified by Plaintiff(s). Indeed, Plaintiff(s)filed
its Verified Complaint for Unlawful Detainer on ________________ [Insert Date]. The
Complaint, however, is not properly verified. Plaintiff(s) attorney, ________________ [Insert
Verifying Attorney Name] improperly attempted to verify the Complaint to circumvent the
requirement that unlawful detainer complaints be verified. ________________ ([Insert
Verifying Attorney Last Name]) verified the Complaint on the suspect grounds that
Plaintiff(s)is absent from the county and unable to verify the Complaint this not credible.
Attorney verifications are only permitted where the clients absence from the county makes it
impractical or impossible to obtain the clients signature. Plaintiff(s)surely is not absent
from ________________ [Insert County Name] nor could its purported absence from the
county make it impractical or impossible to obtain its signature. This is simply a way for
Plaintiff(s) counsel to cut corners. Plaintiff(s) could have easily verified the Complaint by
facsimile, email or mail, and as such, it was not impractical or impossible to obtain a member
of Plaintiff(s)signature. The attorney verification is not permitted and the Complaint is
therefore not verified as required. The Complaint must be stricken and the action dismissed
without prejudice.
II. STATEMENT OF FACTS
This is an action for unlawful detainer based on a Notice for Possession (Notice), a
copy of which is attached to the Complaint as Exhibit ________________ [Insert Exhibit
number if applicable]. The Notice is in connection to property located at and commonly
known as ________________ ___________________________ [Insert your rental property
address] (the Property).
On or about ________________ [Insert Date of Service of Notice of Possession],
Plaintiff(s) (again through its legal counsel) served Defendants with the Notice and then
subsequently filed its Verified Complaint for Unlawful Detainer on ________________
[Insert Date of Filing]. However, the Complaint is not properly verified as stated in the

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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]
Complaint, but rather, ________________ [Insert Verifying Attorney Last Name] improperly
attempted to verify the Complaint. The attorney verification provides:
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
___ [Insert Relevant Quote from Attorney Verification]

The verification fails to state any reason why Plaintiff(s) purported absence from the
county makes it impractical or impossible to obtain its signature. Indeed, Plaintiff(s) is a
________________ [insert description of Plaintiffs business] and is easily accessible to
anyone by telephone, facsimile, their website, email or mail.
_______________________________________________________________ [be as detailed
as you can by inserting facts about plaintiff that suggests they would be available to verify the
complaint, think about your interactions with plaintiff, look on their website regarding
accessibility, gather email address, any information you have about their availability will cut
against the validity of the attorney verification]
Despite its accessibility, Plaintiff(s) failed to verify the Complaint and the Complaint
only contains an improper verification from ________________ [Insert Verifying Attorney Last
Name].
III. DISCUSSION
A. The Complaint Must Be Stricken Because the Complaint for Unlawful
Detainer is Not Verified as Required
Code of Civil Procedure section 436 provides that the court may strike out any improper
matter inserted in a pleading or any part of any pleading not drawn or filed in conformity with
the laws of this state. In limited civil cases for unlawful detainer, the plaintiff is required to
plead facts in a verified complaint, otherwise the action is subject to dismissal without
prejudice. C.C.P. 396a(a). The only time the plaintiffs attorney may verify the complaint is
when the plaintiff is absent from the county where the attorney has his or her office or is
otherwise unable to verify, or the facts are within the personal knowledge of the attorney
verifying the complaint. C.C.P. 446; League of Women Voters v. Eu (1992) 7 Cal. App. 4
th


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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]
649, 656. Courts have construed Code of Civil Procedure section 446 to permit attorney
verification only where the clients absence from the county makes it impractical or
impossible to obtain the clients signature. DeCamp v. First Kensington Corp. (1978) 83
Cal. App. 3d 268, 275. The practice of attorneys verifying for their clients is discouraged and
does not authorize attorney verifications where the absence of the party creates no inability on
his part to verify. Id. If the client can be reached by mail, no impossibility exists and
attorney verification is not allowed. Id.; Weil & Brown, Cal. Practice Guide Civil Procedure
Before Trial (The Rutter Group 2010) 6:320.
Here, Plaintiff(s)filed the Complaint for Unlawful Detainer as a limited civil unlawful
detainer case, and as such, Plaintiff(s) is/are required to verify the Complaint. However,
Plaintiff(s) failed to verify the Complaint and instead, its attorney, ________________ [insert
attorney name], improperly verified the Complaint. ________________ [insert attorney
name] verification states _________________________________________ [insert
verification quote] An attorney verification, however, is permitted only where the plaintiffs
absence from the county makes it impractical or impossible to obtain Plaintiff(s) signature.
The verification fails to provide any showing that Plaintiff(s) officers purported absence from
the county makes it impractical or impossible to obtain Plaintiff(s) signature. And, Plaintiff(s)
purported absence from the county does not create an inability to verify the Complaint. Indeed,
_______________________________________________________________ [be as detailed
as you can by inserting facts about plaintiff that suggests they would be available to verify the
complaint look on their website regarding accessibility, gather email address, any
information you have about their availability will cut against the validity of the attorney
verification] Plaintiff(s) is easily accessible to anyone by telephone, facsimile, their website,
email or mail. Indeed, Plaintiff(s) attorney could have easily obtained Plaintiff(s) signature by
facsimile, email or mail. Any argument otherwise is simply not credible. Thus, it was not
impossible to obtain Plaintiff(s) signature and the attorney verification is not allowed.
Accordingly, the attorney verification is not permitted and the Complaint is not verified as
required. Plaintiff(s) failure to verify the Complaint makes the Complaint improper and not

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Motion to Strike;
Case No. [Insert Case Number]
filed in conformity with law. The Complaint must therefore be stricken and the action
dismissed without prejudice.
IV. CONCLUSION
The practice of unlawful detainer attorneys providing sham verifications of unlawful
detainer complaints must end. These sham verifications have become all too common with
unlawful detainer plaintiffs firms who consistently demonstrate a complete disregard for Code
of Civil Procedure section 396(a). The law, as set forth in DeCamp v. First Kensington Corp.
(1978) 83 Cal. App. 3d 268, 275, is clear that attorneys must not verify complaints unless the
clients absence from the county makes it impractical or impossible to obtain the clients
signature. Plaintiff(s) has failed to show that circumstances exist to require attorney
verification of the complaint. Accordingly, this Court should strike the Complaint in its
entirety due to Plaintiff(s) failure to verify the Complaint for Unlawful Detainer as required.
The Complaint should be stricken and the action dismissed without prejudice.


DATED: _____________[Insert Date]




By:
IN PRO PER
_______________[Insert Name(s)]