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WhenlovefortheProphetbecomesart

UKSDIstanbulSeptember2011 WhenlovefortheProphetbecomesart 9.ExamplesofTurkishartofHilyeerifandRosary 13.WhenLovefortheProphetBecomesArt 17.TheNobleHilyeorFelicitousHilye 32.HilyesfromtheLibraries&MuseumsDirectorateofIstanbulMetropolitanMunicipality 40.HilyesfromtheCollectionofMehmetCebi 105.BeadsofRemembrance:NotesonPrayerBeads... 112.RosariesfromtheCollectionofMehmetCebi 169.BiographiesoftheCalligraphers

9.ExamplesofTurkishartofHilyeerifandRosary
TurulTuna AstheAssociationofInternationalArtandCulture,basedinIstanbul,weplacegreatimportanceon spreadingdifferentcultureandartsinourcountry,aswellaspromotingTurkishartsandcultureinother countriesandgeographiesthroughoriginalexamples.Webelievethatdevelopmentofamultilateralcultural exchangeisunitingforhumanityratherthandividing. IncollaborationwiththeTurkishEmbassyinVatican,TheAssociationofInternationalArtandCulturehas organizedtheexhibition"ClassicandcontemporaryexamplesofTurkishartHilyeierifandTesbih"tobe heldbetween1and19October2011inRome.Theaimofthisexhibitionistoarouseaseriousand expansiveinteresttowardsTurkishartandculturethroughouttheculturalcentersinEurope. Examplesoforiginalclassicalandcontemporarycalligraphycanbeseeninthisexhibition:30Hilyes,a specialartofIslamiccalligraphydescribingsomephysicalandspiritualattributesofProphetMuhammad, fiveofwhichdatebacktoOttomanperiod,areexhibitedalongwithsomeexamplesoftesbih,Islamicprayer beads. TheartofHilye,borninIstanbulintheseventeenthcentury,iscurrentlygoingthrougharenaissancewith originalinterpretationsbycontemporarycalligraphers.TheHilyeisapopularformofclassiccalligraphicart whichdescribessomephysicalandspiritualattributesofProphetMohammad.Itisinterestingtoseehow theoriginalworkstodayreflectthemodernconceptoftraditionalabstractTurkishart.Wealsothinkthat exhibitingthiscollectionofcharmingcontemporaryexamplesofclassicalHilye,whichinasensecanbe comparedtoiconsinEuropeanart,inRome,aculturalcenterwhichhasanimportantroleinWestern paintingtradition,ismeaningful. Inthisexhibition,alongwiththeexamplesofHilyesfromthecollectionsofMr.MehmetebiandIstanbul MetropolitanMunicipality,thereareclassicalandcontemporaryexamplesofIslamicprayerbeadsart, consideredculturalobjects,aswellasanoriginalTurkishartform.Theartofrosary,comingstraightfrom thereligiouspractices,hasdevelopedgreatlyovertime.WethinkthattheprayerbeadscollectionofMehmet ebiwillarouseinterestandawakespecialattentioninVaticanaswell. 1

WewishtothankthosewhohaveallowedforthisexhibitiontotakeplaceinPalazzodellaCancelleria,one ofthemostprestigiousandhistoricalplacesinRome:Firstly,TurkishAmbassadortoVaticanProf.Dr. KenanGrsoy,withwhomwehavecollaboratedfromthedaywehavejointlydefinedtheconceptofthe exhibition,forofferinghisendlesshelpandpatronageMr.Mehmetebi,unforgettablepatronandcollector ofcontemporaryHilyeandtesbihMr.RamazanMinder,DirectorofLibrariesandMuseumsofIstanbul MetropolitanMunicipality,forhavingmadeavailabletheclassicexamplesofHilyethroughhishelpand concernandTurkishAirlines,TurkishMinistryofCultureandAveafortheircontributionsatvariouslevels.

13.WhenLovefortheProphetBecomesArt
MehmetLftiSen ExhibitionofHilyeierif(aspecialartofIslamiccalligraphydescribingsomephysicalandspiritualattributes ofProphetMuhammad)andTesbih(Islamicprayerbeads). Turkishcalligraphyhashadapioneeringroleinitsgenrethroughouthistory.Thepiecesofcalligraphydone byTurkishpeoplewithloveanddevotiontowardsGod,confirmthesaying"TheQuranhasbeenrevealedin theHijaz,readinEgyptandwritteninIstanbul"allaroundtheworld.AftertheQuran,theHilyeierifisthe bestexampleofthisdevotionalartform.HilyesareconcreterepresentationsoflovetowardstheProphet,in thesamewaythatinEuropeanpaintingsiconsaresacredimages. Accordingtohistoricalsources,thefirstHilyewascreatedbymastercalligrapherHafizOsmaninthe seventeenthcentury,whichthenspreadthroughouttheIslamicworldandcontinuestodosotothisday. TodaythereisagreatinterestandmuchvarietyinHilyeierifartsandIslamicprayerbeads.Mehmetebi, whosecollectionofrecentworkswecanadmireinthisexhibition,hasencouragedthisrenewedinterest. Withhiscommitmenttothisart,hesupportscontemporaryartistsandencouragesthemtocreatenew originalpieces. ItisthefirsttimethatanexhibitionofHilyeieriftakesplaceinEurope,beginningitsjourneyinRome. Thisexhibitionpresentsartloverswithaselectionofmasterpieces:classicalandcontemporaryHilyeierif andIslamicprayerbeads.Inthisway,thelinesofthisartwhichspringfromthelovefortheProphet createanindestructiblebridgebetweencultures.Thecataloginyourhandsismadeupofworks,created withthegoalofreachingahigherdegreeofbeautyeachtime. Withthehopethatwhereverit'spresent,itwillconveythisbeauty.

17.TheNobleHilyeorFelicitousHilye
IrvinCemilSchick AmongthemostpopularworksintheOttomancalligraphictraditionisthegenreknownasHilyeierife (NobleHilye)orHilyeiSaadet(FelicitousHilye).1 ThoughttohavebeendesignedbyHafizOsmanEfendi
1

FormoreinformationabouttheHilye,seeM.UurDerman,LettersinGold:OttomanCalligraphyfromtheSakip SabanciCollection,stanbul,trans.MohamedZakariya,NewYork:TheMetropolitanMuseumofArt.1998,pp.3437M. UurDerman,TrkHatSanatnnaheserleri[MasterpiecesofTurkishCalligraphy],[Ankara]:KltrBakanlYaynlar, 1982,plates18,19,42,47and49FarukTakaleandHseyinGndz,HatSanatndaHilyeierife:Hz.Muhammed'in zellikleri/HilyeierifeinCalligraphicArt:CharacteristicsoftheProphetMuhammed,stanbul:AntikA..Kltr Yaynlar,2006.OnHfizOsmanEfendi,seeDerman,LettersinGold,pp.7274M.UurDerman,TheArtof

(10521110/16421698),awatershedinthehistoryofcalligraphy,thesepanelsdescribethephysicaland personalattributesoftheProphetMuhammadinarelativelyfixedcomposition. ThewordhilyahisArabicandsignifiesornament,countenance,image,orcharacter.Thereforetheterm "NobleHilye"maybeinterpretedasadescriptionoftheProphet.Indeed,thesepanelsare,inacertain sense,portraitsmadeupofwords. Fromtoptobottom,thecomponentsofthepanelarenamedbamakam(headstation),gbek(belly), kuak(belt),andetek(skirt). AtthetopofthepanelistheBasmala,thephrase"InthenameofGod,theCompassionate,theMerciful." Withslightvariations,thecentralmedallioncontainsthefollowingtext: [Itisrelated]fromAli(mayGodbepleasedwithhim)thatwhenhedescribedtheattributesoftheProphet (mayprayerstoGodandpeacebeuponhim),hesaid:Hewasnottootall,norwashetooshort,hewasof mediumheightamongstthenation.Hishairwasnotshortandcurly,norwasitlank,itwouldhangdownin waves.Hisfacewasnotoverlyplump,norwasitfleshy,yetitwassomewhatcircular.Hiscomplexionwas rosywhite.Hiseyeswerelargeandblack,andhiseyelasheswerelong.Hewaslargebonedand broadshouldered.Historsowashairlessexceptforathinlinethatstretcheddownhischesttohisbelly.His handsandfeetwereratherlarge.Whenhewalked,hewouldleanforwardasifgoingdownaslope.When helookedatsomeone,hewouldturnhisentirebodytowardshim.BetweenhistwoshoulderswastheSeal ofProphethood,andhewasthelastoftheprophets. ThisistheCaliphAlisdescriptionoftheProphetasrecordedinAbuIsaMuhammadalTirmidhis alShamailalNabawiyawaalKhasailalMustafawiya. ItiscustomarytoplacethenamesofthefourRightlyGuidedCaliphsatthefourcornersofthecentral medallion:AbuBakr,'Umar,'Uthman,and'Ali.Oftenaprayeriswrittennexttothesenames(suchas"may Godbepleasedwithhim").Sometimestheircognomensalsoappear(suchas'UmaralFaruqand'Uthman DhiNurayn). Belowthecentralmedallion,intheareaknownasthebelt,itiscustomarytowritethefollowingQur'anic verse:"Andwehaveonlysentyouasmercytotheworlds"(alAnbiya21:107).Sometimesanotherverse alsoconcerningtheProphetissubstituted,suchas"Indeedyoustandonanexaltedstandardofcharacter" (alQalam68:4).AndsometimesaHadithorHadithQudsimayappearinitsplace,suchas"Ifitwerenotfor you,ifitwerenotforyou,Iwouldnothavecreatedtheheavens." ThelastpartoftheHilyecontainsthecontinuationoftheCaliphAli'sdescriptionoftheProphet: Hewasthemostgenerousofmen,thetruestofpeopleinhiswords,themostmildmannered,andthe noblestincompanionship.Thosewhofirstsawhimwouldbeawed,andthosewhoknewhimpersonally lovedhim.AnyonewhodescribedhimwouldsayIneversawthelikeofhim,eitherbeforeorsince.'May Godblesshimandgranthimpeace.

CalligraphyintheIslamicHeritage,trans.MohamedZakariyaandMohamedAsfour,stanbul:IRCICA.1998,p.221.

Afterthiswouldusuallycomethecalligrapher'ssignature.OccasionallyHilyeswerewritteninorderto receiveacalligrapher'slicense(ijaza),thatis,asa"graduationthesis."Insuchcases,theworkwouldnotbe signed,butattheverybottom,inoneormorecartouches,wouldbetheteacher'sorteachers'attestation. LittleisknownabouttheinventionoftheHilye.SomehaveclaimedthatthegenrewasinspiredbyOrthodox Christianicons:althoughMuslimsinOttomanIstanbulwouldhavebeenquitefamiliarwithsuchworks, drawingapictureoftheProphetwouldnothavebeentoleratedwithintheSunnitradition,andthereforetext wouldhavebeensubstitutedforpictures. AccordingtoTimStanley,whilethisisperfectlypossible,amorelikelysourceofinspirationforthese calligraphicpanelsisthecelebratedpoemofthesixteenthcenturyOttomanpoetHaknMehmedBey(d. 1015/1606)knownasHilyeiHakn(theHilyeofHakn).2 Thispoemisbaseduponthefollowingsaying, whichisattributedtotheProphet: WhoeverseesmyHilyeaftermeisasthoughhehasseenme.Andwhoeveristruetome,Godwillspare himthefireofHell,andhewillnotexperiencethetrialsofthegrave,andhewillnotbedrivennakedonthe DayofJudgment.Hakn'sstanzasonthissayingareasfollows: TheimportantmeaningofthisHadithis (GodmayHebeexaltedknowsbest) Thathavingspokenmanypurewords, ThePrideoftheUniverse[theProphet]said:After me WhoeverseesmypureHilye Willbeasthoughhehasseenmybeautiful countenance. Ifhebecomespassionatethemoreheseesit, Inshort,ifhecomestolovemybeauty, Ifhedesirestoseemyface, IftheecstasyofGodgrowsinhisheart, ThenhewillbesparedthefireofHell AndwillenterHeavenbythegraceofGod. Ofthetrialsofthegrave,thatGodlyman WillbefreeuntiltheDayofJudgement. AndGodwillnotdrivehimnaked, AndhewillbeamongthoseonwhomHehas mercy. Andifamortalshouldcastaspelluponhim, TheProphetsayshewillnotbehurt. Thisaccountofmanyblessings Wastransmittedby[theCaliph]'Alihimself.3

IfHafizOsmandidindeeddrawhisinspirationfromtheHilyeiHakn,thenhecreatedhisHilyenotonlyas acalligraphicpanel,butalsoasadevotionalobjecttobevisitedbybelievers,tooccasionanexuswiththe Prophet,toclearthewayforbelieversintheAfterlife.Andthisisindeedhowtheyhavebeenperceived, written,andvisitedforcenturies. WhilethegeneralformoftheHilyeisasdescribedabove,avarietyofexperimentswereperformed throughouthistory.Forexample,thecentralmedallionwassometimesshapedasarhombusinsteadofa


2

TimStanley,"FromTexttoArtFormintheOttomanHilye,toappearinStudiesinIslamicArtandArchitecturein HonorofFilizaman.Seealsohis"SublimatedIcons:TheHilyeierifeasanImageoftheProphet."paperreadatthe 21stSpringSymposiumofByzantineStudieson"TheByzantineEye:WordandPerception,"UniversityofBirmingham, March2124.1987.OnthepoetHaknMehmedBey(d.1606),seeEJ.W.Gibb,AHistoryofOttomanPoetry,Londra: Luzac&Co.,19001909,vol.3,pp.193198,wherethepoet'snameisgivenasKhqnalsoBursalMehmedThir Bey,OsmanlMellifleri[OttomanAuthors],ed.A.FikriYavuzandsmailzen,stanbul:MeralYaymevi,1972?1975), vol.2.pp.171172.


3

[HaknMehmedBey],HilyeiHakn,[stanbul:Tabhaneimire],H.1264[1848],pp.1213.

circlesometimesthetextwaswritteninsidethenameoftheProphetinsomecases,thenamesofthefour RightlyGuidedcaliphswerereplacedbytheProphet'snamesthenamesoftheProphet'scompanions wereoccasionallywritteninsmallmedallionsandthereareevencaseswherestanzasfromtheHilyei HaknorotherpoemsinOttomanwerewrittenbelowtheHilye. LargesizedHilyesbyKdiAskerMustafazzetEfendi,FehmiEfendi,andHasanRizaEfendi,certainHilyes byFehmiEfendidecoratedwithghubariscript(microcalligraphy),othersbyMustafaRkimEfendiandeyh Azz'rRfwritteninavarietyofscriptstheseareallworksthatpushedtheenvelopeandarenow consideredpriceless. Likewise,manyHilyesinthisexhibitiondifferfromthetraditionalforms.Underthepatronageand encouragementofMehmetebi,calligraphersfromTurkeyandotherMuslimcountrieshaveadded elementslikedottedexercises(mashq),pictorialcalligraphies,inscriptionsofmashaAllah(fortyonetimes, asisthecustominTurkey),andtheninetyninebeautifulnamesofGod(alasmaalhusna),andused unusualscriptslikethulth(fortheactualtext),maqili,andjalidiwani,writingthetextonaninscribed background,andindimensionsneverbeforetried. Accordingtoebi,thedeterminingcharacteristicoftheseworksisthattheytakeclassicalelementsand organizetheminmoderncompositions,thusopeningnewdoorsforartists.Andindeed,thoughtheworks exhibitedherecontainthesametextastheoriginalHilyesdesignedbyHfizOsmanEfendi,somediffer markedlyintheirforms. NexttotheclassicalthulthnaskhHilyesbyHasanelebi,FerhadKurlu,JavadKhuran,KarimArbili,Fatih zkafa,andBilalSezer,andthosebySavaevik,IhsanAhmedi,HabibRamazanpur,Muhammad Javadzade,andTahsinKurtthatarelaidoutinclassicalcompositionsbutwrittenintaliqscript,thereare othersinjalithulthandthulthbyAliHsrevolu,LeventKaraduman,andJavadKhuran,injalidiwaniand diwanibyMuhammadJallulandAshrafKarkuki,entirelyinjalidiwaniby'AdnanKarkuki,injalidiwani,thulth, andnaskhbyAvnialNaqqash,andinjalithulth,thulth,andnaskhbySaidAbuzeroluthoughthesediffer fromclassicalpractices,theydosoonlymoderately.ThetextofAhmedFalsafi'sHilyeintaliqscriptisinthe Turkishlanguage,butthoughthismakesitinteresting,itisstillclosetotraditionintermsofform. AbdullahGllce'sandAvnialNaqqash'sconcentriccircles,IhsanAhmedi'sdualcentralmedallions,and MuhammadJavadzade'ssquareframehavemovedawaysomewhatfromtheclassicalnorm.Calligraphers whohaveaddedtextstotheirHilyes,suchasAbdullahGllce'suseofthefirsttwoversesofSuraalFath andverse128ofSuraalTawba,GrkanPehlivan'suseofthewordsNurun'alaNurinfromverse35ofSura alNur,theadditionoftheProfessionofUnitybyLevendKaradumanandGrkanPehlivan,orofthe ninetyninebeautifulnamesbyFevziGn,GrkanPehlivan,andSaidAbuzeroluareunusual,buthere theyareinthegoodcompanyofsuchgreatcalligraphersasMustafaRkimEfendiandeyhAzz'rRf. EvenEypKuu'sadditionoftheArabictext"Muhammadisaharbinger,butheisnotlikeotherharbingers heislikearubyamongstones"isawelcomenoveltythatdoesnotinanywayviolatethespiritoftheHilye. Ontheotherhand,somemaywonderifGrkanPehlivan'sKaabaconstructedwithcountlesscopiesofthe nameAllahinjalinaskh,hislargethreedimensionalletters,andhisBasmalaintheshapeofastork,Eyp Kuu'smosqueshapedmaqiliinscription,SaidAbuzerolu'sstorkshapedBasmalas,GrkanPehlivan's repeateduseoflaandmasha'Allah,LeventKaraduman'srepeatedhuwas,andespeciallywritingthetextof theHilyaasacalligrapher'sexercise(tamrin)inthecaseofLeventKaradumanand"blackenedscribbles" 5

(karalama,siyahmashq)inthecaseofSaidAbuzeroluhavenotleftbehindtheformoftheHilyetosuchan extentastohavemovedintoadifferentgenre.Afterall,debatescontinuedforalongtimeonthequestionof whetherornotfreeversewasreallypoetryandasitwasinthecaseofpoetry,thisisinfactauseful debate. Howfarmayoneventurefrompastexamplesinthetraditionalarts,andwhenhasonegonetoofar?This issuehaselicitedafairamountofdebateovertheyears,andnosatisfactoryanswerhasbeengiventodate. Andinawaythereisnoanswer,becausethisdeterminationcanonlybemadebytime.Withhisbold designsandbygivingmaximumfreedomtocalligraphers,Mehmetebihasplacedarichlylaidtablebefore thefuture.Timewillshowwhichofthesedisheswillgainfavor.

32.HilyesfromtheLibraries&MuseumsDirectorateofIstanbulMetropolitanMunicipality

40.HilyesfromtheCollectionofMehmetCebi

105.BeadsofRemembrance:NotesonPrayerBeads...
ThephraseSubhanallahissaidinpraiseoftheCreator'sabsolutegreatness,andmeans"Godisexempt fromanydeficienciesorimperfections."Itistheoriginofthewordforprayerbeads,tesbihormisbaha.Such beadsareknownasGebetsketteinGermanandchapeletinFrench. ThephrasesSubhanallah,Alhamdulillah,andAllahuAkbaroccurfrequentlyintheQur'an,andmost Muslimsrepeatthem,thirtythreetimeseach,afterthefivedailyprayers.Beadsonastringareoftenusedto countthesephrasesastheyarerepeated,andsowecallsuchstringsofbeadstesbihormisbaha.The ProphetMuhammad(P.b.u.H)encourageditsuse,saying"whatagoodwaytoremember."Ifthesebeads symbolizetheninetynineBeautifulNames(alAsmaalHusna)oftheCreator,iftheytakebelieverstoHis loftypresence,then,astheProphetofIslamsaid, Intentionalornot,largeorsmall,secretoropen,allsins,whatcamebeforethemaswellaswhatcame after,shallbeforgiventhroughthosepureprayersflutteringuponthelips. TherearesayingsattributedtotheProphetMuhammadaboutthetesbihormisbaha.Itisrelatedthathe useddatepitsandsmallpebblesforkeepingcount,andthatheadmonishedthewomenofMadinaas follows: Maketasbih,tahlil,andtaqdisyourpractice,andcountthemwithyourfingers,forfingerswillbecalledto renderaccounts. AbuHurayra,oneoftheProphet'scompanions,relatedthathesaid: Aftertasbih,dhikr,andprayer,allyoursinswillbeforgiven,eveniftheyareasnumerousasfoaminthesea. Prayerbeadsare"countingtools"bornofMan'sdesiretobeclosetotheCreator.Madeofeveryprecious material,theyconsistof33,50,99,100,108,500,oreven1000beads,dependingonthereligion.While 6

worshipping,theactofmovingthefingersalongthebeadssometimesturnsintoakindofmeditation, capturingthebodyandthemind.Thus,inastateoffaithfulcontemplation,thedhikrofthetongue,theheart, andthesoulbegins. TheProphetMuhammadisrelatedtohaveprescribedtherepeatedutteranceofthephrasesSubhanallah, Alhamdulillah,andAllahuAkbar,thirtythreetimeseach.Initiallyitwasthefingers'dutytokeepcount. Somewhatlater,stillduringthesameperiod,dateandolivepits,pebbles,andknottedropeswereusedfor thispurpose.Eventually,afterthethirdorfourthcenturyofIslam,earthwascollectedfromholyplacessuch asKarbala,Jerusalem,andtheKaaba,mouldedintorounddropsandpiercedtomakethefirstprayer beadsthesewereknownasturbat.Inaddition,prayerbeadswerefashionedoutoftheceramicorglass beadsofantiquenecklacesofHittite,Urartian,Phoenician,Roman,orByzantineorigin. Theaestheticdevelopmentofprayerbeadsisthoughttohavebeguninthefourteenthorfifteenthcenturies. Thehabbs(beads)werelikenedtothecongregationprayingbehindtheprayerleader(imam)therefore, theywerestrungaroundtheimme,thepiecethatmarksthebeginningofthestringofbeads.Andthusan artisticcompetitioninthefieldofprayerbeadswaslaunched.Hardwoodswerecarvedandturnedinto variousshapes.Theuseofsuchmaterialsasbone,horn,teeth,amber,pearl,andmotherofpearlbeganin thesixteenthcentury.TurningeverybeautifulthinginIslamintoanartform,Ottomanstanbulbecamea centerforthisartaswell. Nexttothegreatnessachievedbycalligraphy,illuminationandminiaturethelathesintherosariesshopsof Istanbulstartedmakingmasterpiecesof"prayerbeads"thatweresentfromIstanbultosultan'spalaces, privatecollectionsorsimplytoloversofrosariesthroughouttheIslamicworld. ItissaidthatthedevelopmentoftheartofmakingrosariesinTurkeygoesbacktothesixteenthcentury,but wehavenoevidencepriortotheseventeenthcentury.However,itisclearthatintwocenturies,the manufactureofrosariesturnedfromhandicraftintoaveritableformofart. Anymaterialhardenoughtoendurethelathecanbeusedinthemakingofprayerbeads.Awidevarietyof rawmaterialswereoncebroughtfromallaroundtheworld,havingdifferenttexturesthatgivedifferent pleasurablesensations.Accordingly,theyweresoldforhighprices.Letusnotethatanimalsarenolonger killedforthispurposethematerialsusedareobtainedfromdeadanimals,andthustheyare,inaway, immortalized. Materialsusedtomakeprayerbeadsincludeamber,emerald,ruby,rockcrystal,turquoise,ahmaksut (Afghanstone),agate,lapislazuli,jade,ivory,mammothtusk,walrustusk,whalebone,tortoiseshell rhinoceros,buffalo,bull,anddeerhorncamelbone,ambergris,tigerclaw,pearl,coral,motherofpearl,oltu tai(jet),ebony,snakewood,sandalwood,agarwood,bloodwood,Brazilianrosewood,beadtree,ironwood, rosewood,andtamarind. Theracehasnowbegun.Theimmesareharmoniouslyaligned,vestedwithringsandcoinsthousandsof goldorsilverpinshavebeennailedintoasinglestringofbeadstheyarestuddedwithrubies,jades,and diamondsallkindsofinscriptionshavebeenwrittenontothebeads.Inshort,wearenowlivingintheeraof "illumination"ofprayerbeads.

112.RosariesfromtheCollectionofMehmetCebi

169.BiographiesoftheCalligraphers
MastercalligrapherMehmedRashidEfendi MehmedRashidEfendiwasborninBursain1849.HecarriedouthisstudiesataQuranicschool.Hebegan hisstudieswiththemastercalligrapherSaadeddinEfendiofBursa.Startingin1869,hewouldgoeveryyear toIstanbulwherehewasabletostudywithSefikBey.In1892hewashiredasacalligrapherbytheErkn DiresiHarbiye.HediedonApril13th,1925.MehmedEfendiRashidisknownforhisworkswrittenin thuluth,naskhandriq'ascripts.

MastercalligrapherMehmetNazif MastercalligrapherMehmetNazifwasbornin1846inRusuk.AftermovingtoIstanbulhebegantostudy calligraphyfirstwithBurdurluHafizVahdetiEfendi,andlaterwithmastercalligrapherSamiEfendi. Employedbythecartographyofficeofthemilitary,healsogavecalligraphylessons.MehmetNazif,who diedin1913,taughtmanyimportantmastercalligraphers.

MastercalligrapherKazaskerMustafaIzzet MastercalligrapherandcomposerMustafaIzzetEfendiwasbornin1801inTosya.Afterhisfather'sdeath, hemovedtoIstanbulwhereheattendedtheFatihQuranicschoolandbeganstudyingcalligraphywith KomurcuzadeHafizEfendi.AsSultanMahmutIIlikedhisvoice,hesenthimtoEnderuntocompletehis studies.Therehestudiedforsixyearsmusic,calligraphy,languageandliterature.MustafaIzzetreceived hiscalligraphydiplomafromYesarizade.Till1852heheldseveralimportantpositionsintheSultan'sPalace. HeisknownforbeingthecreatoroftheimpressivemedallionsofHagiaSophia,aswellasforhavingwritten morethantwohundredHilyes.Themastercalligrapher,authorofworksinnaskh,thuluth,jalijaliandthulut ta'liqscripts,diedin1876attheageof75years.

AbdullahGllce Bornin1980inErzurum,AbdullahGllcegraduatedfromErzurummamHatipHighSchoolin1999.He madetheacquaintanceofthecalligrapherMmtazDurduinErzurumin1995.Afterstudyingnaskhscript withhimforoneandahalfyears,hecontinuedhistrainingviacorrespondenceduetohismaster's relocationtostanbul. Gllcemovedtostanbulfollowinghishighschoolgraduationandpursuedhisstudiesinnaskhandthulth scriptswiththecalligrapherHasanelebi.HeobtainedhislicenseinMay2003.Presently,Gllcepractices calligraphyinstanbul.

AhmadAlUmari Bornin1985inIraq,AhmedAlUmaristartedstudyingcalligraphyin1996inSamarrawithAbdulAziz.Later hemovedtoBaghdadandbegantraininginnaskhscriptwiththecalligrapherNabilAlSharifi.Hecontinued hisstudiesinnaskhandthulthscriptswiththecalligrapherAbbasAlBaghdadiandobtainedhislicense. 8

JavadKhuran Bornin1977inIran,JavadKhuranstudiedinthulthscriptwiththecalligrapherHakimGhannaminIran between19982002.LaterhecametostanbultocontinuehistrainingwiththecalligrapherMehmedzay. Hecompletedhisbasictraininginthulthscriptinoneyearandadvancedhisstudiesinjalithulthscriptwith zay.HeobtainedhislicensefromzayinthulthscriptinaceremonyheldinNovember2005atIRCICA. Khurancurrentlypracticescalligraphyinstanbul. Awards 1.2004Istanbul6thInternationalCalligraphyCompetition,firstprizeinthulthstyle. 2.2004Istanbul6thInternationalCalligraphyCompetition,firstprizeinjalithulthstyle. 3.2005AntikA..HilyeCompetition,firstprizeinjalithulth,thulthnaskhstyle. 4.2005AlbarakaTurkInternationalCalligraphyCompetition,specialprize. 5.2005AlbarakaTurkInternationalCalligraphyCompetition,secondprizeinthulthstyle.

AmirAhmadFalsafi Bornin1959inTehran,AmirAhmadFalsafibeganstudyingcalligraphyin1965.Hecontinuedbytaking lessonsfrommasterSayedHassanMirkhaniin1976.HeadvancedhisartworkingwithmasterGhulam HossainAmirkhaniin1981.HehasbeenteachingattheIranianSocietyofCalligraphersforthirtyyears. Falsafiparticipatedinover250groupexhibitionsinUSA,UK,France,Germany,Italy,India,Turkey,United ArabEmirates,andChina. Falsafihasalsoheldsevensoloexhibitions.HispublishedworksincludeDivaniKhvajahShamsalDin MuhammadHafizShiraziandMuraqqaiGulistan.

EybKuu Bornin1971inKarkuk,Iraq,EybKuustartedstudyingcalligraphywithAvniAlNaqqashinKarkukin 1994andcurrentlycontinueswiththecalligrapherDavutBektasinIstanbul.Hewonsecondprizein AlbarakaTrkInternationalCalligraphyCompetitioninthulthstyle.

FevziGn Bornin1956inKonya,FevziGnbeganworkingonthulthnaskhscriptswithHseyinKutluin1982and obtainedhislicensein1993.HebecameanassistantprofessorinSelukUniversity'sDepartmentof TurkishIslamicArtsin1993,associateprofessorintheDepartmentofTraditionalTurkishHandicrafts,Chair ofArabicScript,andprofessorinthesamedepartmentin2007. GnservedasdeputydeanatSelukUniversityFacultyofFineArtsbetween20032005.Hehasbeen theheadoftheFacultyofFineArts,DepartmentofTraditionalTurkishArtssince2005,andthedeanofthe FacultyofFineArtssince2007. GnhasparticipatedinsoloandgroupexhibitionsbothinsideandoutsideTurkeyandhaspublished 9

booksandarticlesinhisfield.

FerhatKurlu Bornin1976inFatsa,FerhatKurlumadetheacquaintanceofMuzafferEcevitwhenhewasasophomoreat theOndokuzMaysUniversity,FacultyofReligiousStudies.Hefamiliarizedhimselfwithartsandtookhis firstlessonsofriq'ascriptfromMuzafferEcevit.InJuly1996hemetmasterHasanelebiandbegan studyinginthulthnaskhstyle.Followingfouryearsoftraining,heobtainedhislicenseinaceremonyheldin October2000atIRCICA.In2001,KurluwasappointedasanimambytheDirectorateofReligiousAffairs.

GrkanPehlivan Bornin1970inAksehir,Konya,GrkanPehlivancompletedhisprimaryandsecondaryeducationin Istanbul.Heworkedasadesignerandstylistintheleatherapparelindustryandfortwentyyearshe designedhisownmodels. In1999,PehlivanmetthecalligrapherandmarblingartistFuatBaarandbeganstudyingcalligraphy. Histeacherconsideredhimtalentedenoughthat,afterashortperiodoffourmonths,hebegantoteachas histeacher'sassistant.Hereceivedhislicensefromin2003,andtookpartinmanyexhibitionsacrossthe country. GrkanPehlivansignshisworks"Mahfi."Hehastaughtcalligraphyinseveralinstitutions,andhaswritten theinternalinscriptionsattheMosqueofKamburMustafaPaa,thefoundationalinscriptionoftheBostanali MosqueinKadrga,andotherarchitecturalinscriptionsinvariousmosques,fountains,andmausolea.His worksareinprivatecollectionsbothwithinthecountryandabroad.

HabibRamazanpur Bornin1976intheGilanProvinceofIran,HabibRamazanpurstartedstudyingcalligraphywithAbbas Ahaveyn.Heobtainedhismaster'slicensefromtheIranianSocietyofCalligraphersin2009.Ramazanpur haswonprizesinnumerousinternationalcompetitions.HecurrentlypracticescalligraphyinTehran.

Hasanelebi Bornin1937inErzurum,Hasanelebiservedasimaminvariousmosques.Hestudiedcalligraphywith Halimzyazici,HamitAytaandKemalBatanayasfrom1964.Heobtainedhislicenseinthulthandnaskh fromHamitAytain1975,andintaliqandriq'afromKemalBatanayin1981. elebiwasentrustedwiththetaskofwritingthearchitecturalinscriptionsattheMosqueofAtatrk University,FacultyofReligiousStudiesinErzurumin1977andtheOrganizationoftheIslamicConference inJeddahin1981aswellastherestorationoftheinscriptionsatalMasjidalNabawiinMedinain1983.He heldhisfirstsoloexhibitionin1982atIRCICA,Istanbul.LateroncametheexhibitionsinKualaLumpur (Malaysia)in1984,andinAmmanin1985,wherehewasinvitedbyPrinceHassanbinTalalofJordan.In 1987,heresidedinMedinaforayeartowritetheinscriptionsinalMasjidalQuba.In1992,hewasinvitedto KualaLumpurbytheIslamicCulturalCenterofMalaysia.Heorganizedthe"30YearsinCalligraphy" 10

exhibitionatIRCICAin1994.elebialsoparticipatedinnumerousgroupexhibitionsofclassicalTurkish handicraftsbothinsideandoutsideTurkey. Hasanelebihasbeenteachingcalligraphysince1976andhasgivenlicensestoatotalof52students, domesticandforeign.

EhsanAhmadi Bornin1980inMashhad,Iran,EhsanAhmadigraduatedfromthePolytechnicUniversityDepartmentof AeronauticsandAstronautics.Hestudiedinnasta'liqscriptwithmasterAbbasAhaveyn.Hehaswonprizes ininternationalcompetitionsbothinsideandoutsideIran.Presently,AhmadipracticeshisartinIran.

KarimArbili Bornin1963inArbil,Iraq,KarimArbiligraduatedfromtheUniversityofBaghdad,FacultyofFineArts, DepartmentofCeramics.Hebeganstudyingcalligraphyin1991.Arbiliobtainedhislicenseinta'liqscript fromProf.Dr.AliAlparslan,andthulthandnaskhscriptsfromHasanelebi.Hewasawardedhonorable mentioninnaskhandriqa'stylesatthe1993InternationalCalligraphyCompetitionorganizedbyIRCICA, anotherhonorablementioninnaskhstylein1996,andwonthirdprizeinthulthstyle.Arbilialsowonan awardattheBaghdadCalligraphyandIlluminationFestivalin1995.

LeventKaraduman Bornin1978inBartn,LeventKaradumanmovedtoIstanbulaftercompletinghisprimaryeducation.He studiedIslamicandArabicsciencesalongsidehissecondaryeducation.Hebeganexaminingtheworksof oldmastersin1992andstartedstudyingthethulthandnaskhscriptswiththecalligrapherandmarbling artistFuatBaarin1995. Karadumanobtainedhislicensein2003anddisplayedhisoriginalartworkinexhibitionsbothinsideand outsideTurkey.Hegavecalligraphylessonsatvariousinstitutionsandorganizations,andisstudying calligraphyfromtheaestheticviewpointasascienceoftheline. Hisworksappearinmanyprivatecollections.Hehaswrittennumeroushilyesinmanydifferentforms,as wellascompositions,singlepieces,andpanels.HeworksinIstanbul,producingmodernworksofartinthe classicalcalligraphictradition. MuhammadJalul Bornin1957inAleppo,Syria,MuhammadJalulbeganstudyingcalligraphywithMuhammadSubariin 19751978.Hewonfirstandsecondprizesinvariouscompetitions.Hecurrentlypracticescalligraphyin Syria.

MuhammadJavadzadeh Bornin1971inTehran,Iran,MuhammadJavadzadehstartedstudyingcalligraphywithAbbasAhaveyn.He obtainedhisinstructor'slicensefromtheIranianSocietyofCalligraphers.Hehasbeenteachingtheresince 1996.Javadzadehhaswonfirstprizesineverycompetitionhehasparticipatedin.Currently,hecontinues 11

workingonhiscalligraphyinTehran.

Nurullahzdem Bornin1984inErzurum,Nurullahzdembeganhiscalligraphicstudieswithhisgrandfatherthe calligrapherevketzdem(19262003)andlateronresumedwithBilalSezer.Hethenbegantostudywith DavudBektain2004.zdemgraduatedfromtheAtatrkUniversity,FacultyofFineArts,Departmentof Paintingin2005.HeobtainedhislicenseinthulthandnaskhstylesfromDavudBektainSeptember2007. HewonawardsatvariouscompetitionsandparticipatedingroupexhibitionsbothinsideandoutsideTurkey. zdem'sworksappearinmanyprivatecollectionsandhecontinuestoworkinIstanbul.

SaidAbuzerolu Bornin1980inthecityofUfaintheRepublicofBashkortostan,Russia,SaidAbuzerolucompletedhis primaryandsecondaryeducationinUfa.HewasacceptedtoMarmaraUniversity,DepartmentofTurkish Educationin2001andmovedtoIstanbul.Thesameyear,hestartedstudyingthethulth,naskhandriq'a scriptswithMumtazDurdu.HecontinuedwithHasanelebistartingin2003,andobtainedhislicenseinthe thulthandnaskhscriptsin2004.AbuzerolucurrentlypracticescalligraphyinIstanbul.

Savaevik Bornin1953inAntalya,Savaevikreceivedhismaster'sdegreefromtheIstanbulStateAcademyofFine Arts,DepartmentofGraphicArtsin1976.Thesameyear,hebecamealecturerinthesamedepartmentas theassistantofprofessorEminBarm.Hebeganstudyingcalligraphyin1973withKemalBatanayinriq'a andta'liqscripts,andHamitAytacinthulthandnaskhscripts.Healsoworkedonthediwaniandjalidiwani styleswithProf.AliAlparslan.Hecontinuestoproduceclassicalcalligraphicworksaswellasmodernand originalworksinhisownstyle.

TahsinKurt TahsinKurtbeganstudyinginta'liqscriptwithProf.Dr.AliAlparslanin1987andthulthscriptwiththe calligrapherHseyinKutluin1994.Heobtainedhislicenseinthethulthscriptin2001.Hereceived honorablementionintheta'liqandjalita'liqscriptsatthe1997InternationalCalligraphyCompetition organizedbyIRCICA,waspresentedwithachievementawardsatthe1999and2001StateCalligraphy CompetitionsorganizedbytheMinistryofCulture,andwonfirstprizeinjalita'liqscriptintheFirstAlbaraka TurkCalligraphyCompetition.

TuranSevgili Bornin1945inOltu,Erzurum,TuranSevgilicompletedhisprimaryandsecondaryeducationinorum.He graduatedfirstfromtheIstanbulUniversity,FacultyofReligiousStudiesin1967andlaterfromtheMimar SinanUniversity,FacultyofFineArts,DepartmentofTextiles. SevgilistartedstudyingcalligraphywiththelatecalligrapherHamidAytain1963andobtainedhislicenses forKufi,thulth,naskh,ta'liq,diwaniandjalidiwaniscripts. 12

Forsomeyears,startingwiththe19811982academicyear,hewasalecturerincalligraphyattheBursa FacultyofReligiousStudies. TuranSevgili'sworkscanbeseeninnumerousmosquesandprivatecollections.HealsowritesTurkish inscriptionsforinvitationcardsandcustomorders.

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