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Can help on vortex flow meter.

It is done on water using a constant head tank flowing down and through the meter to a reservoir. There must be a back-pressure on the meter to prevent cavitation, see the meter literature for requirements. At start of run, the flow is diverted into a weigh tank and at termination the flow is diverted back into the reservoir. A pump continually pumps water up into the constant head tank located high above the meter. In the constant head tank there is an overflow port that flows excess water directly back to the reservoir thus the constant head.The weight prior run and after run is obtained. Monitoring the temperature provides correction for viscosity. A K factor is developed and referenced to Reynolds number= VDRho/Mu. (For memory think of dirty street over Mu that is a "street with veneral disease divided by Mu".) Reynolds number is a ratio of inertial forces over viscous forces and if differing flows have the same Reynolds number they will act exactly the same. Thus flows of gas, steam, liquids having the same Reynolds Number will behave the same and have the same K factor. Thus most calibration is simply done on water. Many companies make a difference in the accuracy of Kf actor for water versus gas or steam. There is no reason for a difference. However, when I developed the entire Foxboro product line I realized that most users would not measure the gas temperature and pressure accurately and therefore develop errors in calibration. I doubled the spec for gas or steam versus that from liquids. This practice continues to this day! The Reynolds number is usually referenced to the bore of the pipe as the "D". Many meters have reduce diameter to increase flow to allow lower low flow capabilities. Basically, low flow is about 0.5 ft/sec on water. Most manufacturers provide calibration to 20 ft/sec. In addition to what have been mentioned allready there are still some important details to take into account in regard of coriolis. 1) Proper mounting of the flowmeter. 2) Shutoff valves close to the flowmeter for proper zero point adjustment. 3) Flushing of the flowmeter to avoid air/gas prior to calibration with liquids. These precautions should also be mentioned in the installation guide/manual and therefore also applies for the calibration procedure. About monitoring the temp. density should also be mentioned. Especially for coriolis as this parameter is provided in addition to flow/mass and thus must be calibrated. In case of high accuracy this will require extended calibration with media of different densities and/or temperatures. When talking about the accuracy of the coriolis it really puts up high demands for the calibration rig, in particular the diverter, valves and offcours the weighing system. When a manufacturer provides flowmeters with approvals like custody transfer (CT) one might assume that they have accredited calibration rigs.

Instructions
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Turn the meter on. When the meter is on, the display button says "With gallon preset," which means it is calibrated at factory preset to the viscosity of water. Hold down the "Calibrate" button and switch it to "Leaders" preset. Hold down the button till it says "Cal B." This means that this is no longer a factory preset but something you can change.

Hold the "Display" button for four or five seconds or until it says "DD Cal," which means dispense display. Let go when it says "Run 01." Put the flow meter in the sample fluid. When you do this, the little turbine shows up at the bottom left, which confirms that the meter now has fluid going through it.
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The display button now says how much water you put in it. You can change this display to the amount of liquid you ran through the flow meter. If you measured 5 gallons of water in the meter, hit the "Calibrate" button five times.

Hold down both the "Display" and "Calibrate" buttons. It now says "Run 02," which means you can do another sample if you like. If you don't want to do another sample, just hold both buttons until it says "Cal end."

Turbine Meters A turbine meter consists of a practically friction-free rotor pivoted along the axis of the meter tube and designed in such a way that the rate of rotation of the rotor is proportional to the rate of flow of fluid through the meter. This rotational speed is sensed by means of an electric pick-off coil fitted to the outside of the meter housing. The only moving component in the meter is the rotor, and the only component subject to wear is the rotor bearing assembly. However, with careful choice of materials (e.g., tungsten carbide for bearings) the meter should be capable of operating for up to five years without failure. There are several characteristics of turbine flow meters that make them an excellent choice for some applications. The flow sensing element is very compact and light weight compared to various other technologies. This can be advantageous in applications where space is a premium

Primary Vs. Secondary Standards A primary standard calibration is one that is based on measurements of natural physical parameters (i.e., mass, distance, and time). This calibration procedure assures the best possible precision error, and through traceability, minimizes bias or systematic error. A secondary standard calibration is not based on natural, physical measurements. It often involves calibrating the user's flow meter against another flow meter, known as a "master meter," that has been calibrated itself on a primary standard. Calibration "To calibrate" means "to standardize (as a measuring instrument) by determining the deviation from a standard so as to determine the proper correction factors." There are two key elements to this definition: determining the deviation from a standard, and ascertaining the proper correction factors. Flow meters need periodic calibration. This can be done by using another calibrated meter as a reference or by using a known flow rate. Accuracy can vary over the range of the instrument and with temperature and specific weight changes in the fluid, which may all have to be taken into account. Thus, the meter should be calibrated over temperature as well as range, so that the appropriate corrections can be made to the readings. A turbine meter should be calibrated at the samekinematic viscosity at which it will be operated in service. This is true for fluid states, liquid and gas.

Master Meter A master meter is a flowmeter that has been calibrated to a very high degree of accuracy. Types of flowmeters used as master meters include turbine meters, positive displacement meters, venturi meters, and Coriolis meters. The meter to be calibrated and the master meter are connected in series and are therefore subject to the same flow regime. To ensure consistent accurate calibration, the master meter itself must be subject to periodic recalibration Gravimetric Method This is the weight method, where the flow of liquid through the meter being calibrated is diverted into a vessel that can be weighed either continuously or after a predetermined time. The weight is usually measured with the help of load cells. The weight of the liquid is then compared with the registered reading of the flow meter being calibrated Volumetric Method In this technique, flow of liquid through the meter being calibrated is diverted into a tank of known volume. The time to displace the known volume is recorded to get the volumetric flow rate eg gallons per minute. This flow rate can then be compared to the turbine flow meter readings K-Factor. K is a letter used to denote the pulses per gallon factor of a flowmeter. Repeatability. The maximum deviation from the corresponding data points taken from repeated tests under identical conditions.

Positive Displacement Calibrators: Some of the most dramatic improvements in flow calibrator technology involve the evolution of Positive Displacement calibrators. PD systems are Primary Standard calibrators, which take into account the varying conditions under which flowmeters operate. These calibrators are able to compensate for temperature, density, viscosity and other variables that can shift a meters output.it utilizes a precision machined measurement chamber, or flow tube, that houses a piston. This piston acts as a moving barrier between the calibration fluid and the pressurizing media used to move the piston. Attached to the piston is a shaft that keeps the piston moving in a true path and provides the link between the piston and the translator. The translator converts the linear movement of the piston through the precision flow chamber into electrical pulses that are directly related to the displaced volume. Calibrators of this style can be directly traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology via water draw validation. Total accuracy of this type of calibrator is conservatively specified at 0.05%

Flow Transfer Standards: Unlike primary flow standards, whose most important characteristics are theirtraceability to primary physical measurements (resulting in the minimization ofabsolute uncertainties, with less concern for usability or cost issues), the key criteria for secondary Flow Transfer Standards are portability, low cost and the ability to calibrate the flowmeter in the physical piping configuration it lives in. Instead of removing flowmeters from service for recalibration, FTS devices allowusers to bring the calibrator to the flowmeter. These portable, documenting fieldflow calibrators are intended for in-line calibration and validation of meters using the actual process conditions for gas or liquid. Advanced FTS systems incorporate hand-held electronics with built-in signal conditioners, thus eliminating bulky interface boxes and the need to carry a laptop computer into the field. High-quality Flow Transfer Standards also have the capability of measuring and correcting theinfluences of line pressure and temperature effects on flow.

Operation of a portable Flow Transfer Standard requires that a master meter beinstalled in series with the flowmeter under test. The readings from these instruments are compared at various flow rates or flow totals. A technician can install the master meter in the same system as the test meter, perform the calibration, and note any changes in performance. New calibration data might cause rescaling or new data points to be programmed into a flowmeters computer to align the measurement with the current flow calibration data.

Typical Calibration Techniques Most flowmeter calibration service suppliers provide a choice of calibration techniques to accommodate different applications and flow measurement requirements. One of the most common techniques is the single-viscosity calibration, which consists of running 10 evenly spaced calibration points at a specified liquid viscosity. Single-viscosity calibrations are recommended when the viscosity of the liquid being measured is constant. If a higher degree of accuracy is needed, again, the more data points taken the better defined the meter calibration curve will be

Strouhal Number/Roshko Number The best, and only completely correct way to present the data for a Turbine Meter is Strouhal Number as a function of Roshko Number, i.e., through the use of two

dimensionless parameters. The St vs. Ro presentation takes into account all of the secondary effects to which the meter is sensitive. This presentation or correlation is correct for both liquids and gases. It is almost a must for gas calibrations since the density and kinematic viscosity are a function of both temperature and pressure Your Calibrated Flowmeter Once your flowmeter is calibrated, it may still read exactly the same under the same flow conditions as it did before it was calibrated. The difference is that you will know exactly how close those values are to the true values, and you will have a formula to use to calculate the true values from the actual values read by your flowmeter. You can have a correction factor obtained from calibratiob which you can apply to the flow meter readings to obtain the correct or true flowmeter readings. K-factor ignores the effects of changing temperature on the meter body since the meter will change diameter when the temperature changes. The use of Strouhal Number instead of simple K-Factor will account for this temperature effect.

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