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# Viva-voce Questions for Networks & Measurements Lab EEE217 1.

## Ohms Law &Krichoffs laws

1. Why tungsten is used as filament in incandescent lamp ? A) Because the melting point of tungsten is higher. 2. Melting point of a Tungsten ----A) 32000 C 3. What are the types of filaments that are used in filament lamps? A) Metal filament and carbon filament 4. Why gas is filled inside the filament lamp. A) To avoid Vaporization of filament 5. What is difference between AC and DC resistance A) Rac= 1.2 or 1.5 times of dc resistance. 6. What is a linear circuit? A) whose parameters are constant i.e, they do not change with voltage and current 7. What is the heating effect of a electric current. A) When electric current passes through a conductor, there is a friction between the moving electrons and molecule of conductor. Electric energy supplied to overcome this friction is converted into heat .this is known as heating effect of electric. 8. Define ohms law. A) The ratio of potential difference (V) between any two points on a conductor to the current (I) flowing between them, is constant, provided the temperature of the conductor does not change. 9. Define Kirchhoffs Voltage law. A) The algebraic sum of voltage drops and emfs around any closed loop in a circuit is equal to zero at all instants of time. 10. Define Kirchhoffs Current law. A) the algebraic sum of currents entering into a junction (node) is equal to the sum of currents leaving that junction(node). 11. Filament of a lamp is made of --------A) Tungsten 12. Give the Voltage Division Rule. Ans) The voltage drop across any resistor or a combination of resistance, in a series circuit is equal to the ratio of that resistance value to the total resistance, multiplied by the source voltage. 13 If one of the resistance in a parallel circuit is removed , what happence to the total resistance. Ans) Increases. 14. The series circuit consists of five equal resistances and dissipates 10 watts of power. Then power dissipated in each resistance? Ans) 2W

## 2. SUPER POSITION THEOREM

1. Super position theorem is valid for -----A. Both AC and DC circuits 2. When applying super position theorem to any circuit ideal voltage source is replaced by --- and ideal current source is replaced by ----A) Short circuit, open circuit. 3. Give the statement of superposition theorem. A) It states that in any linear network containing two or more sources, the response in any element is equal to the algebraic sum of responses caused by individual sources acting alone ,while other sources are non-operative 4. Give the limitations of super position theorem. A) Valid for only for linear systems and not valid for power responses. 5. When the superposition theorem is applied to the circuits consisting of dependent sources, how the dependent sources act A) Active. 6. Superposition theorem is essentially based on the concept of? A) Linearity principle.

3. THEVENINS THEOREM
1) While applying thevenins theorem, thevenins voltage is equal to----A) Open circuit voltage at the terminals. 2) Thevenins impedance is ----A) Equivalent impedance between the open circuit terminals when voltage sources and current sources are replaced by their internal impedances. 3) Nortons equivalent form in any complex impedance circuit consists of ---A) Equivalent current source in parallel with equivalent impedance. 4) What is the main application of thevenins theorem? A) To find the V, I and P in any element.

## 4. MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFOR THEOREM

1) Condition for Maximum power transferred to a load in a DC circuit ---A) Load resistance is equal to equivalent resistance of network. 2. In a complex impedance circuit, the maximum power transfer occurs when the load impedance is equal to------a) Complex conjugate of source impedance. 3. Maximum power transfer occurs at what % of its efficiency? A) 50% efficiency. 4. Applications of maximum power transfer theorem. A) This theorem is particularly useful in communication network, power transmission and distribution networks etc,. 5. What is the valve of maximum power transferred to the load (RL).When E is generator EMF and Ri is internal resistance. A) Maximum power is E2/ (4 Ri)

5. RECIPROSITY THEOREM
1) Reciprocity theorem is applicable to ----A) Single source, linear, bilateral networks. 2) Condition for a reciprocal network in terms of ABCD parameters. A) AD- BC = 1 3) Condition for a reciprocal network in terms of Z parameters. A) Z21 = Z12 4) Give the Statement of Reciprocity theorem. A)

6. RESONANCE
1. 2. A) 3. A) 4. A) 5. A) 6. A) 7. A) 8. A) 9. A) 10. A) 11. A) 12. A) 13. A) 14. A) 15. A) 16. A) Give the dynamic impedance in parallel resonant RLC circuit A) Dynamic impedance = L/RC. What is the condition for series resonance? Xl=Xc Give the formula for Resonant frequency of RLC series circuit. 1 fr = 2 LC At resonance RLC series circuit act as a----Pure resistive circuit. Below resonance frequency RLC series circuit act as a---Capacitive circuit Above resonance frequency RLC series circuit act as a---Inductive. What is band width? Difference of upper cut off frequency to lower cut off frequency. What is the power factor of the circuit at resonance-----Unity. Why current is maximum at resonance in RLC series circuit? Because impedance of circuit is minimum i.e Z=R. Why impedance is minimum at resonance in RLC series circuit. Because net reactance is zero i.e X=0 At resonance voltage drop across inductor is equal to voltage drop across capacitor why? current is same for both the elements and XL=Xc. What is current value at lower and upper cut off frequency in RLC series circuit in terms of maximum value? 0.707 Im If XL>Xc, RLC series circuit act as a----Inductive If XL<Xc RLC circuit act as a----Capacitive. Define Q factor It is the ratio of voltage drop across L or C to applied voltage What is the power factor of a parallel resonant circuit? Unity

17. A) 18. A) 19. A) 20. A) 21. A) 22. A) 23. A) 24. A) 25. A) 26. A) 27. A) 28. A) 29. A) 30. A) 31. A) 32. A) 33. A)

Series and parallel resonant circuits magnifies-----Voltage, current What is the relation between apparent power(S), true power (P) & reactive power (Q).
S = P2 + Q2 What is the phase angle between line voltage and phase voltage in a balanced star connected system 30degrees what is the power factor of RLC series circuit at lower cut off and upper cut off frequency 0.707lead, 0.707lag What are the units for susceptance Mho Insulation for all electrical equipment is designed for -----value. Peak The form factor for DC supply voltage is always----Unity In a series resonant circuit the impedance above and below resonant frequency is-&--Inductive & capacitive Give the expression for quality factor in series RLC circuit Q = XL/R What is meant by selectivity? It indicates how well a resonant circuit responds to a certain frequency & eliminates all other frequencies. Narrower bandwidth greater the selectivity. Give the relation between bandwidth & quality factor Q =fr/BW What is meant by magnification? The ratio of voltage across either L or C to the voltage applied at resonance is magnification Give the other name for parallel resonant circuit Rejecter circuit Give the expression for quality factor in parallel resonant circuit Q = 2fCR=WCR In a series RLC circuit, if C is increased, what happens to resonant frequency Resonant frequency decreases A certain resonant circuit has a bandwidth of 1000 hertz. If existing coil is replaced by a coil with a lower Q, what happens to bandwidth Bandwidth increases What is condition for resonance in parallel resonant circuit? The net susceptance is Zero.

## 7. TWO PORT NETWORK

1. A) 2. A) 3. A) Give an example for lumped element & distributed element Resistance of a resistor, resistance of transmission line Give an example for bilateral element Over head transmission line. In electrical circuits transient currents are associated with Inductors & capacitors.

4. A) 5. A) 6. A)

In transient circuit analysis, complementary function gives ------response. Transient Define electric network Interconnection of two or more simple circuit elements is Electric network Give the classification of Network elements a. active & passive b. unilateral & bilateral c. linear & nonlinear d. lumped & distributed 7. Define active element A) An active element is capable of delivering an average power >0 to some external Device over an infinite time interval 8. Define passive element A) A passive element is defined as one cannot supply average power>0 over an Infinite time interval 9. What are unilateral elements? A) Unilateral elements have different relations between voltage &current For two possible directions of current 10. What are bilateral elements A) Bilateral elements have same voltage& current relation for current Flowing in either directions 11. Give examples of active elements A) Energy sources (V& I sources) 12. Give examples of passive elements A) Resistors, capacitors & inductors 13. Give examples of unilateral elements A) Vacuum dioses, silicn diodes & metal rectifiers 14. Give examples of bilateral elements A) High conductivity materials 15. What are linear elements? A) A linear element is one which obeys homogeneity & additivity properties 16. What are non-linear elements A) Non-linear elements does not obey Homogeneity & additivity properties 17. What are lumped elements? A) Elements which are very small in size &their size is small compared To wavelength of applied signal 18. What are distributed elements? A) The elements which are not separable for analytical purpose. 19. Give examples for LUMPED parameters. A) Capacitors, Resistors, Inductors, transformers, .etc., 20. Give examples for Distributed parameters. A) Transmission line (which has distributed resistance, inductance and capacitance along its length May extend for hundreds of Kms)

## 8. Transient response of RL and RC circuits

1) What is transient? A) The state or condition of the circuit from the instant of switching to attainment of steady state is called transient state or simply transient. 2) Why transients occur in electric circuits? A) The inductance will not allow sudden change in current and the capacitance will 5

not allow sudden change in voltage. Hence in inductive& capacitive circuits transient occurs during switching operation. 3) What is free and forced response? A) The response of a circuit due to stored energy alone is called free response and due to an external source is called forced response. 4) Define time constant of RL circuit? A) It is the time taken by the current through the inductance to reach steady value if initial rate of rise is maintained 5) Define time constant of RC circuit? A) It is the time taken by the voltage across the capacitance to reach steady value if initial rate of rise is maintained. 6) The time duration from the instant of switching till the attainment of steadystate is called-----------? A) Transient period. 7) The response of a circuit due to -------- alone is called natural response B) Stored energy. 8) In circuits excited by DC source at steady state-------- behave as short circuit-And --------- behave as open circuit? A) Inductance and capacitance 9) In electrical circuits transient currents are associated with A) Inductors & capacitors. 10) In transient circuit analysis, complementary function gives ------response. A) Transient.

## 9. PARAMETERS OF AN IRON CORE INDUCTOR

1. What is meant by true power? A) It is the useful power transferred from the source to the load, p= VIcos 2. What is apparent power? A) Product of RMS value of V&I is apparent power. 3. What is power factor? A) It is the ratio of actual power to apparent power.(or) cosine of the angle between V&I 4. What is the power factor of pure resistive circuit? A) Unity 5. Power factor of 0 indicates what? A) Purely reactive element. 6. In RC circuit power dissipation is due to which component. A) Resistive component 7. R.M.S value of sine wave indicates what? A) R.M.S value is the measure of heating effect of the wave. 8. Define R.M.S value? A) The value of A.C voltage is adjusted such that the same amount of heat is produced in the resistor as in the case of the D.C source. 9. Give the relation between R.M.S value and peak value of a sinusoidal waveform A) V[R.M.S] = V[p] / 2 = 0.707 V[p] . 10. Define peak factor? A) The peak factor of any waveform is defined as the ratio of peak value of wave to the R.M.S value of the wave. 6

11. Give the peak factor of the sinusoidal wave form? A) P.F = V[p] / (V[p] / 2 ) = 1.414 12. Define form factor of sinusoidal wave form? A) F.F = V[r.m.s] / V[avg] == V[p] / 2 /0.637 V[p] == 1.11. 13. Define impedance? A) The ratio of voltage to current function is defined as impedance. 14. Give phase relation in a pure inductor? B) In a pure inductor, V&I are out of phase & I lags behind V by 90 degrees. 12. Give phase relation in a pure capacitor? A) In a pure inductor, V&I are out of phase & I leads behind V by 90 degrees. 13. What is the impedance of pure capacitor? A) Z = 1 / WC. 14. What is the average value of a sine wave over a full cycle? A) Zero. 15. A sine wave voltage is applied across a capacitor, when the frequency of v is increased? A) I increases. 16. A sine wave voltage is applied across a inductor, when the frequency of v is increased? A) I decreases. 17. For the same peak value, which wave will have highest RMS value? A) Rectangular wave form. 18. The form factor of D.C voltage is? A) Unity. 19. The power consumed in a circuit element will be least when the phase difference between V&I is? A) 90 degrees. 20. Give the importance of impedance diagram? A) It is the useful tool for analyzing series A.C circuits. 21. What are compound circuits? A) A.C circuits to be analyzed consists of a combination of series& parallel Impedances. Circuits of these types are series- parallel or compound circuits. 22. When the resistance of an RC circuit is greater than X[c], between applied voltage and the total current is closer to? A) Zero degrees. 23. When frequency of applied voltage in a series RC circuit is increases, what happens to X[c]? A) Decreases. 24. Give the phasor diagram of series RL circuit? A) 25. Give the phasor diagram of series RC circuit? A)

26. What is the phase angle between capacitor current and the applied voltage in a parallel RC circuit A) 90. 10. WHEATSTONES BRIDGE 1. By using Wheatstone bridge, what resistance is measured A) Medium resistance-1ohms to about 0.1Mohm 2. Wheatstone bridge operates on what principle A) Null indication principle 3. In bridge Rx,R1, R2,R3 are termed as what A) R1,Rx-ratio arms R2,R3-standard arms 4. What is bridge sensitivity A) Deflection of galvanometer per unit fractional change in unknown resistance 5. for required accuracy factors that should be considered for measurement of Medium resistance by Wheatstone bridge A) R of connecting leads b. Thermo-electric effects C.Temperature effects d. contact resistance 6. Give the limitation of Wheatstone bridge A) It is limited to measurement of resistances ranging from a few ohms-M ohms 7. What bridge is used for measurement of high resistances A) Mega Ohm Bridge 8. What bridge is used for the measurement of low resistances A) Kelvin Bridge 9. What are the different methods for the measurement of low resistance A) a. Ammeter-Voltmeter b. Kelvins double bridge c. Potentiometer method 10. What are the different methods for measurement of high resistance A) a. Direct deflection method b. Loss of charge method c. Mega ohm method d. Meggar 11. What is the use of guard circuit in measurement of high resistance? A) To eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation 12. Which instrument is used as insulation tester? A) Meggar 13. What are the different methods used to measure earth resistance A. Fall of potential method b. Earth tester 14. On what factors the value of resistance of an earthing electrode depends A) a. Shape & material of electrode b. Depth to which electrode is driven in to earth c. Specific resistance of soil

## 11. SCHERING BRIDGE

1.What are the various methods used for calculate capacitance? Ans) De Sautys bridge, Schering Bridge, High voltage Schering Bridge. 2.Which bridge is used for measuring capacitance by comparing with lossless capacitor like air capacitors? Ans) Desautys bridge. 3.What is dissipation factor in Schering Bridge? D= tan =WC1R1=WC4R4 ( C1=C2R4/R3).

4.What is main applications of Schering bridge Ans) To Measure Properties of Insulators, capacitors, bushings & insulating materials. 5.Which bridge is used for measuring relative permittivity? Ans) Schering bridge 6.Wagners earth devices are used in ac bridges for? Ans) eliminating the effect of earth capacitances. 7.Which bridge is used for measuring frequency? Ans) Weins bridge. 8.which device can be used for detection of null condition in a bridge circuit Works at a frequency of 2 KHz. Ans) Head phones, Tunable amplifiers. 9.What are the various factors causing errors in ac bridge circuits Ans) Stray conductance effect, mutual inductance effect, stray capacitance effect, residues in components. 10. When localizing ground fault with the help of loop tests, the resistance of the fault affects what A) Sensitivity of bridge 11. What are the various methods used for calculate capacitance? Ans) DeSautys bridge, Schering bridge , High voltage Schering bridge. 12. Which bridge is used for measuring capacitance by comparing with lossless capacitor like air capacitors? Ans) Desautys bridge. 13. What is dissipation factor in Schering bridge. D= tan =WC1R1=WC4R4 ( C1=C2R4/R3). 14. What is main applications of Schering bridge Ans) To Measure Properties of Insulators, capacitors, bushings & insulating materials. 15. Which bridge is used for measuring relative permittivity? Ans) Schering bridge 16. Wagners earth devices are used in ac bridges for? Ans) eliminating the effect of earth capacitances. 17. Which bridge is used for measuring frequency? Ans) Weins bridge. 18. which device can be used for detection of null condition in a bridge circuit 19. Works at a frequency of 2 KHz. Ans) Head phones, Tunable amplifiers. 20. What are the various factors causing errors in ac bridge circuits Ans) Stray conductance effect, mutual inductance effect, stray capacitance effect, residues in components. 21. What are the various methods used for reducing errors in ac bridge circuit Ans) Use of high quality components, bridge layout, sensitivity, stray conductance , effects, eddy current errors, residual errors. 22. What is the source of emission of electrons in a CRT. Ans) Barium and strontium oxide coated cathode. 23. At what frequency, Post acceleration is needed in a CRO. Ans) More than 10 MHz 24. What are the various methods used for reducing errors in ac bridge circuit Ans) Use of high quality components, bridge layout, sensitivity, stray conductance , effects, eddy current errors, residual errors.

25. What is the source of emission of electrons in a CRT. Ans) Barium and strontium oxide coated cathode. 26. At what frequency, Post acceleration is needed in a CRO. Ans) More than 10 MHz

## 12. MAXWELLS BRIDGE

1 . What are the applications of AC bridge circuits? Ans) Communication systems and electronic circuits. 2. Different methods used for measurement of self inductance. Ans) Maxwells inductance bridge, Maxwells LC Bridge, Hatsbridge, Andersons Bridge, Owens Bridge. 3. Different methods used for measurement of mutual inductance. Ans) Hearviside Mutual inductance bridge, Campbells modification of heaviside bridge, Carey foster bridge, Campbells bridge. 4. What is the principle behind Maxwells LC bridge? Ans) In this bridge, an inductance is measured by the compression with a standard variable capacitance. 5. Application of Maxwells LC Bridge. Ans) It is used to measured wide range of inductance at power frequencies and audio frequencies 6. Disadvantages of Maxwells LC Bridge . Ans) This is not suitable for the coils with a very low value of Q ( ie Q< 1). This bridge requires a variable capacitance which is very expensive if calibrated to a high degree of accuracy. 7. The advantages of hays bridge over Maxwells LC bridge is Ans) It can be used for measurement of inductance having high Quality factor. 8. What are the applications of iron cored coils ? Ans) as filter reactors in the rectifier circuits . 9. Owens bridge is used for ? Ans) To measure an inductance in terms of the capacitance 10. Maxwells bridge is used for ? Ans) This is a modification of Maxwells LC bridge .It is used to measured for self inductance in terms of a standard capacitance . 11. What is the expression for Q factor in Maxwells LC Bridge? Ans)Q = (WL1/R1) = WC4R4 12. Different methods used for measurement of self inductance. Ans) Maxwells inductance bridge, Maxwells LC Bridge, Haysbridge, Andersons Bridge, Owens Bridge. 13. Different methods used for measurement of mutual inductance. Ans) Hearviside Mutual inductance bridge, Campbells modification of heaviside bridge, Carey foster bridge, Campbells bridge. 14. What is the principle behind Maxwells LC bridge? Ans) In this bridge, an inductance is measured by the comparision with a standard variable capacitance. 15. Application of Maxwells LC Bridge. Ans) it is used to measured wide range of inductance at power frequencies and audio frequencies 16. Disadvantages of Maxwells LC Bridge . Ans) This is not suitable for the coils with a very low value of Q ( ie Q< 1). 10

This bridge requires a variable capacitance which is very expensive if calibrated to a high degree of accuracy. 17. The advantages of hays bridge over Maxwells LC bridge is Ans) It can be used for measurement of inductance having high Quality factor. 18. What are the applications of iron cored coils? Ans) as filter reactors in the rectifier circuits. 19. Owens Bridge is used for? Ans) To measure an inductance in terms of the capacitance 20. Maxwells bridge is used for? Ans) This is a modification of Maxwells LC bridge .It is used to measured for self inductance in terms of a standard capacitance . 21. What is the expression for Q factor in Maxwells LC Bridge? Ans)Q = (WL1/R1) = WC4R4

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## 13.CALIBRATION OF ENERGY METER

What is the functioning of shading band in energy meter? To obtain the phase displacement of exact 90 degrees In energy meter driving torque is produced due to? The reaction between fluxes and eddy currents What is formula for braking torque in energy meter? T(b) = K()()N / R = flux of braking magnet N= speed of the rotation of disc R= resistanc of eddy current paths K= constant 4) What is the condition for steady state speed of energy meter disc? A) T(d) = T(b) 5) What is ment by creeping? A) Slow continuous rotation of disc on NO load . 6) How do you prevent the creeping? A) Two holes are drilled in diameter of the disc. 7) What are the units for power? A) Watts 8) What are the units for energy? A) KWh 14. MEASUREMENT OF POWER IN A 3 PHASE CIRCUIT 1) Can wattmeter measures the reactive power? 2) What are the different methods for finding three phase power? 3) What type of load is used in this experiment? 4) Define Active power? 5) Define reactive power? 6) Define apparent power? 7) Define Form factor? 8) Define Peak factor? 9) What is the relation between voltage and current in a pure resistor? 10) What is the relation between voltage and current in a pure Inductor? 11) What is the relation between voltage and current in a pure capacitor? 12) Define frequency? 13) What is electric power? 14) Why we are using (0-600V) voltmeter in this experiment? 15) What type of wattmeter is used in this experiment? 1) A) 2) A) 3) A)

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