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HEADQUARTERSX CORPS

CHROMITE
15 AUGUST - 30 SEPTEMBER
1950

UNCLASSIFIED

H?!mQuARTERs x CCRFS WARDIARPSCEMARY FOR CPEFfATIGNCHRO1dITE 15 AUGUST TO 30 SEFXkBa 1950

t&Fmovm BP: coMuANllIN5 olQ?mAL

OFFICLUZ chief of Staff

TABLE OF CONTENTS PART1

Foreword Operation chromite


Organization of X Corps

1 1-2 2-3 3-5 5-6 the Inchon-Seoul of Important Operation Events 7 8 9-25

The Terrain
The Enemy The Plan for The Chronology

The X Corps Operations

15-30 September 1950

PAKC II G?CXERAL STAFF SECTION S-CNNRIES' I 11 III Iv G-1 Summary, I.5 Aug to 30 Sep 1950

G-2 Summary, 15 Aua; to 30 Sep 1950 03 Sumery, 15 Aug to 30 Sep 1950 15 Au@ to 30 SEP 1950

G-4 S-y,

See attached

books.

(Issued

with

Copies l-6)

BP the 1st of .Lugust 1950, tllemselves compressed

the United

Eations

Forces

In Xorea found

into a tight

perimeter.

The south around

flat&
TW,

of

this

line rested just west; of IZASMJ, the center

curved

and the

held by elements
Dlvisiuns, l,!axine

of ffve

US Divisions Dfvisfon, Republic

- the Wth, the 1st Marine

25&h, and 2d Snfantry Brigade of the 1st

the 1st Cavalry Divislor~, snd six

of Korea

Divisions.

(1)
of the war by I.23

On 'i' AuqWt , the first troops

susta!!,ned

counterattack

was launched on the south flank

of the perimeter

to drive

the enemy

~t0-tic ipetea in this

sucoessfu5.

attack.

(2) the Em my coast from

To make UP for these losses in the south,


towards
After

attacked strongly
the South Koreans.

TAEGU and captured PoFUNG was recaptured

POHANC 0~1 the


With the

east

aid of 6 US Task Farce and the attack


big

an TAIFXJ stopped,
effort. first But these two weeks

the imUcaCio~8
indications

were that the enemy had mad6 his last proved to be very mialaading
when in the an all out

of Sept;ember,

the North

Koreans

launched

offaneive which seriously


from until the east; the entire

threatened
UN line

Trn

frontally

ana by

et.lvelopment

between

'JYWX.7and POHANGwas puahed back


0nl.y

an enemy breakthroqh

seemed likely.
Arr~
the

by the greatest
It W&8
at

skill tllia

and naneuver , critical point

did the Eighth


that one
0r

prevent disaster,

most daring reversed

and successful

amphibious (3

operations

of modern warfare

the tide

of war cofnpletalY*

Operatlorrs

Plan

100 B with

code name CrmQMITE was conceived

1488

than two weeks af'ter


(1) LZtX3.K Periodic

the wax started,


Operations Report

when General OP the Arm Doualas


for for 1 August P 1950.

(2) EEJAKPeriodic Operations Report

August 1950.

(3) Congratulatory k!es8~6, Pre8ldeat Buman and Joint Chlsfs of Staff


to C3eneral. MacArthur.

YloArthur

told

hle Chief

of Staff,

lsajor

General assault

Mnsrd

Yq

Almond;

to

begin oonaldoring ooaat of Korea. area after

a plan for an amphibious Inchon was determined study

on the east or rest


landing

upon a.o the amphibious (1) CIEFZ

an exhaustive

had been ouapleted. directire,

Aa a rwult 100 B raa prepared for the committing

or G~eneral MaoArthur* and published

Operation

plur

on 12 August.

The plan boldly

o&led In an

oS the GRQ Reseno to seize

end the 1st Sfarine Division

amphibious

operation

the Inohon~soul to hie awlos

area and 6ut the l~ain line in the south. In

of enemy oommonioatlono conjunction dth this

and supply seaborne

envelopment,

Eighth

Army was to launoh i direction the amphibious roles sup-

major oftendve
along the axfs

f+rom the south, and driving


Taagu3ae&x+Swom.to (2) The Ehvy (3) effect

in a iorthwesterly
a~ jinoture with

ior

at Seoul.

and the Air support, air

Force had important oarrler airoraft

of transportation, port, and stmtegio

seourity, bombing.

naval gunfire The taatloal

cover was to be furnished loroe) and #ome naval

by the 1st Marine fir carrier aircraft

Wing (attached The objsctive

to the landing

support.

of Plan 100 B was the destruction Inohon-Seoul-Utohln.


(4)

or the north

Korean Army south of the line

TEE ORUNIZATION OF X CORW An a cover for the organization of the invasion foroe, General Almond

continued a8 Chief of Staff,


PlannlIlg Stair,

CHQ, FE% Ilie new etaif

had the title,

Special
The

GEQ, and his oomnmnd was carried f Corps and the final

under GHQ reserve. assignment

oomMnd was to be designated was published major units tested Araored (1)
(2) (3)

of forces The the battle 926

in Operation assigned

Order No. 1, GEQ, UH: 30 August

1950.

were the 1st Marine Division, from Eighth Battalion

which included

1st Shrine Field

Brigade

Army, the 7th Infantry

Divlslon, Artillery

Artillery

(155ma How), the 96th Field Edward 16. Almond

Statement *P

of Lieutenant

General

A.
Group

Commndar AmpNbiouo Order 14-50

One and Commnder Attack

Furoe CTF 90 Opn

(4)

CINX'l!

Operation

Plan 100 B, 12 August


2

1950.

Battalion Amphiblone

(155 Hoe),

the 50th AAA A!! Battalion Batt~ion, Briizads.

(BP). Co A Reinf,

56th

Tank and Tractor Special

the 19th Wincer &mice units Diviision

Conbat Group, the strength

tad the 26 Engineer

brought

or the X Corps to 69,450. borne Regimental

The 3d Infantry

and the 187th Airfuture

Combat Team were retained

In GHQ, DKC Reserve for Regiment joined

employment with X Corps. at IEROIOI on 23 September. When Major General assembled the nucleus

The 17th RJK Infantry

the Corps

Clark

L. Ruftier,

General Almond's on 15 August races against just

Chief

of Staff, marked

of X Corps Headquartera

1950, it

the beginning annals. meat that attempt conditions


tide

of one of the most euooessful date uaa 13 September, meant almost II month's

time in military Failure landing to

The target deadline could

one month awey. another

delay before

be made.

For only a short an assault

Deriod each month, would tidal landing across (1) the beaohes. But a month's On the other for at least The delay side of 160 days

at INCHCB permit over 31 feet

varied

between ebb and flow.

could

have meant defeat. was the fact

for UN Forces in South Korea. that amphibious scale doubts doctrine called (2)

the scales

to plan and mount such a large odds against almost anbarked assault it and the serfoua

operaMan.

In spite

of the great

of many experts,

the X Corps of areas. amphlbioua

70,000 men was organized and transported

and equipped,

moved to staging

to Korea in time to make a successful

at INZON on D-Day, the 15th of September. TIDE TERRAIN* IGENZRALDESCRIPTION tracts in mountainous Korea. point.

SB3UL area is one of the few lowland The City of SEOUL, with Its port of IEEON,

combine to meke a focal Into the sea north

The W-gang (1) (2)

passes through

SZCUT,but flows

of the area.

Annex B, par 2, Opn Plan, Amphibious Terrain Operations

Corn 7th Flt No. 9-50.

Manual, ES Army.

*Extracts

-Rendbook No. 65, FIE.

Sections

of the river-plain

are undulati.~.

South of Inchon,

hilIe

appear

close to the shore;

the coastline

is sometimea steep end high.

Bxteneire

drying mud-flats,
the off-lying subject

up to eight miles wide, fringe making navigation difficult.

the coastline
The Inchon

and surround
area is exceeding protects small 31'.

islands,

to ona of the most extrsme tidal island, Wolmi-do,

rangss in the world, a mile,

A hilly Inchon islands, harbor.

about one mile by half

Approaches

to the mainland

are restricted

by other

and channeled is located

by the multitude on a hilly

of mud-flats.* by Small flat inland are axtee

Inchon

prCWntOry'dissect.ed terrain. ?arther

stream vslle:rs slve valley flat;

and is backed by rough and iowlands cO"ntry

planted in rice.
mOVe,Lsnt. of irregular are steeper width,

Tne rice fields,

wet in

s.mm.?r, impede cross Near Seoul, one-two miles. rising w-iwiing

the valley,%s Yke Xand hills

generslly

varying

betvmen

than those near the coast, routes ars

to approximately and restricted.

2700 feet.

The main road and rail

;ecul railroad

is the main ccmmsrcial junction. Principsl

center

of Korea and is a major southeast

road and to

roads run south to Taejon, northwest

Chungju and Pusan, west to Inchon,


to iYonsan.

to Pyongyang and northeast

The Han-gang at Seoul is from MO-500 yards wide, to N/S movement. frequently diked;

and is a barrier

The current is maierate to swift;


the ohannel is nearly supply,

banks are steep and

loo0 yards wide near the mouth. &Ach however, requires purifi-

Korea has an abundant

water

cation.

.%i.nfal.l varies fran 20 inches a year in the north to 60 inches


June - September Is the rainy eeeeou. On the small off-

in the south.

shore islands water is very scarce. Seoul. and Inchon have municipal. water works.
source of supply, a.d is purified for

The Han-gang is the maim

dcanestic consumption.

*Extracts

Terrain Handbook Number 65, F2.L

Irrigation

is extensively

employed.

Saaeolral flooding

of rice

paddies

hinders military

operatloruh
II - YILITARY IxPoRTAEE

A.

Signiffcance. The Seoul-fnchon area lies in a cannvlnding position at the head of Topo-

most

major transportation corridor6 radiate

and cos&mn&ation

arteries

of Korsa.

graphic

from the lower Han-gang valley


towards this Pgongyang,

to the east to-

wards Ronsan. to the north Taejon. all route8 A force occupying

and to the south tm?erdS to block almost of the Korean

area Is In a position

of lorth-ijouth

or Jkaat-West movement at the waist

peninsula. The Inchon broad, shallow for ares Is important ImDeratrico large Gulf, in its which location offers Inchon at the head of the and ice-free of Hsn-

shelter

anchorage central

numbers of vesssls.

is the major port The fertile

Korea and Seoul is the most important


Is the most Development. Important

city.

gang vallsy B. Military

food producing

area in Xorca.

Dovelopmmts of the North Korean Forces included


fortlficatlons airfleld and emplacements. The Kiumpo Airfield

light

and temporary

is the only major

in the area.

Enemy forces headquarters, personnel garrison placementa mental crease for force.

In the Inchon-Seoul center,

arca consisted anti-aircraft coastal

principally

of major

a replacement an airfield, In addition,

defenses, defenses,

operating

minor port, In this

ana sn army reand to inof war located had

area the North Koreans drafted however, the state recruits area. of training did little DN prisoners

for North

Korean forces; hastily

attitude

of these

mobilized

the enemy potential in Seoul,

in the objective at the prisoner

were interrogated in the city. *Extracts

of war enclosure

ROK cities

and towns occupied

by North Korean forces

from X Corns Intelligence

Summaries for 5

August and September 1950

politiaal
espionage

advisory
groups of

groups

of approximately

5 Soviets,

and had counterin SEOUL

7 or 8 Soviets.

The total

enemy strength

was estimated at ImON Airfield consisted occupied reinforcing reserve

to consist

of approximately

5,000 troops;

enemy strength

use reported on 25 July as 1,000; enemy strength at KlWU


estimated

at about 500; enemy strength training

at UIJONGKT, undetermined, The 107th Regiment

of a wlargea replacement three

center.

locations northeaast of SEOUI. Enem forces, capable of


- SEOUL objsctire
of

the Dell@ divisions

area, of contact

consisted with

of uncommitted of-

In rear

the line

EE3AK, line-

oomuanication forces isips still

type regiments loaated

in occupipd

territory,

and ems11 gcrrison of organ-

in North Korea. dlrisions

The enemy was incapable engaging

addltlonal

cc&at

of the standard combat teams, for

EUSAK.

Howevar, provisional cwds were w&thin

reglnrsntal

brigades,

or defensive Estimates of

his capabillties
very

reinforcement.

enemyetrsngth pmmd to be
For

accurate as the operation


ranking Ra-th Korean

progressed.
of p 26.

what the t&es

highest

polos thought beginning

the INCHOH - SIWUZ Operations,

see attached

Interrogations

'IRE PUN FOR THE ISCHONSEOUL OPERATION

+. ,,._ .,,

The details

of the ampbibiolus assault in Operation

landing

by the 1st Urine ni~isi0n

Divf-

alon rserc published tions


Orders 14

Order 2. 1st mine

ana opera-

ana l5 Cl-F 90, USN.


Landing Team of the 1st &vine

A Battalion initial that landing Island prior

Dltiaion was to make an


D-Day, to secure

on WOIMI-DO (GRsh' BEWli) at 0630 hours, to the major landing by the balance

of the division.
of the

This step u1i9 13f3ssntial because of the 00m8k3naing


In ralatlon After 1730 hours, to the Inchon the Nolmi-do shoreline. landing (2)

position

bland

the principal

landings

were to be made at

D-Day, on RED. YELL.ON, and ELDE beaches at Inchon by the 1st (less one Regimental Combat Team) (Reinforced) landing in the l&wine in

marine Division amphibious Inchon aree. Division

assault.

This division

was then to seize a beachhead by the lst line

The beachhead

was to be expanded rapidly

to include

Kimpo Airfield

and the Dan River

west of Seoul. of Seoul, the flank. 2 1

The advance was to continue terrain commanding Seoul, The 7th Infantry administratively

to seize and secure the city

and measures taken to secure the Corps left (Reinforced) plus X Corps troopa,

Division

were to Ian of

from second and third after

echelon D-Day.

Navy convoys in the city The 7th Infantry flank Division

Inchon at a time to be designated was given the mission or protecting

the Corps right

and expanding
(3) This

the

beachhead to the south of Seoul as far Dlvlsion was to provide one Regimental

as Osan if necessary.

Combat Team for Corps Resarve.

The 17th ROBInfantry capture by the lst Wine

I$gtment was to occupy Seoul on order afUr


Division.

it8

The 187th Airborne or ground developed. Logistical Wine Division support until operations,

Regimental

Combat Team was to prepare

for

alrbccne

or act as Corps Reserve depending

on how the operation

was to be initially

the responsibility effect

of the 1st a relief.


The

the Inchon Base Command could an air

Klmpo Task Force was to establish for its defense.

bame at Kimpo Airfield

and provide to assume adminthe South (3) Map C

The Seoul Area Command was to be prepared ior the City of Seoul,
29 August

istrative

responslbilitles

and to work with knap B

iJ+an

Government in the city*8 rehabilitation.


(1) Operation Order No 1, X Corps, 7
1950 (2)

1.
2. L" 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The Inchon Landing by the 1st IWine


The Capture of Kimpo Airfield

Division,

15 Sep 1950

by the 5th Marine Regiment,

Capture Capture

of Suwon by 3&d RCT, 21 Sep 1950 of Yon.@m~o by the 1st Marine RCT, 23 Sep 1950 by the 1st ?&rim by the 32d XT, RCT, 24 Sep 1950

Second Han River Third EIan River with

Crossiw Crossing

25 Sep 1950 26 Sep 1950 and._ 7th

Juncture Capture

8th Amy by the 31st XT,

of Seoul by the 1st Mwine Division, 26 Sep 1950

Division

US Infantry

At 0628 hours l.5 septenrber of the 5th %erine Regiff&nt

1950 the 3a Battalion the line

Landing seam (BLT 3) and initiated the

crossed

of departure

first

amphibious assault lending (1) of American Forces against an enemy


Sunday 1945 when the US Tenth Army landed on Okinawa.

since Easter Beginning

at 0602, naval air made tha first


by more air strikes

strike

of the day against of opportaDlGreen the

WOLMI-M) followed nlty vision Beach. Inland.

on the island

and targets

Beginnin@c at 0624, heavy shelling reduced enemy pun and other

of WOUlI-DO by Cruiser emplacements covering 88 minutes

5 effectively

At 0633 the first

wave was on the beach and wlthin WOLMI-DO secured.

3d BLT Commander reported

Ike
promontory

in the morning, the 3d EILT began to advance on SO-WOLMI-DO, a small


extending south from WOIX-DO. The North Koreans began a trial to IIEHON,

escape from the island, and those who attempted were cleaning

but were bombed on the causeway leading to swim toward land were strafed. was left

By 1100 the Marines on SO-WOIXLDOx). (reinforced)

up what Little

enemy resistance

At 1645 hours the 1st wave of the 1st Marine Regiment consisting of Armored Amphibious Battalion, Tractors

of Company *A", 56th Amphibious the line of departure reserve and headed

Tank and Tractor

USA, crossed

for Blue Beach. The landing wave of the regimental


on the sea wall mistake enclosing the salt clouds flats well

(BLT-l/l)

landed
This

to the left

of Blue Beach.

was due to great aides.

of dust and smoke which hid the beach and waves, including some LVl's carrying troops
(2)

navigational assault

Succeeding were diverted

of

elements,

in time and led to the proper

beaches.

At 1732 hours, assault to climb elements,

2d and 3d Battalion& commenced landing foot

of the 1st Marine Regiment, Assault troops

designated were forced

on Blue Beach. adjoining

over the fifteen

high sea wall

Blue Beach 2, using

aluminum scaling ladders designed for the purpose,


(I) (2) Support Air Control 5th Marines Special

With the assault troops,

Center, USN Teletype Report I.3 Sept Action Report 6 Sept - 7 Ott 1950

cargo nets over the sea wall and breaching it by means of explosives.
troops reorganized their units in accordance with well coordinated troops

The assault

plans end began they however,

to move inland met light

toward their

objective. mostly

Ae the assault

moved forward fire;

opposition

consisting

of small arms fire the assault

and mortar

because of' the enemy's inadequate from accurate

observation,

elements were saved

enemy mortar and automatic

weapons fire.

(1)

XT 5 (-1 landed at 1732 on Red Beach north of the WXMI-DO causeway, The
landing moderate was made with opposition two Battalions only light abreast casualties. in columns of companies against Under cover of darkness the

with

high ground immediately to the rear of the beach was seized at 2000 hours where
the lendlng force (*PC). halted The and reorganized. By 2230 patrole were dispatched end outposted ashore. to the for

OA Line.
the night;

OALine

was reached without

opposition

by lS30 hours,

the Regimental objectives

Command Post was established

On 16 September at 0206 all Regiment zone or action in strength by BLT-3/l

along the O-l Line in the 1st Nfarlne Rills 180 and 233 were outposted At 1600 an attack to

were seized

and occupied.

and by noon the G-3 Line we.8 reached.

the BHL was launched and by dark the 1st Marines had advanced some 2000 yards. Throughout the night harassing, selected targets.
During the same period, the 5th %rlne Regiment

interdiction,

ana illumination

fires

were fired

on

launched an attack to capture The attack at 0630, ws


in the lead. By llo0 The column the divicontact

the rentainder of INCHON and other division


launched In a column of Battalions with

objectives.

the 2d Battalion

pushed eest along the main east - west roads through sion O-3 Line was secured against wes made alth the 1st mine light resistance,

the city.

and on the right attached

flank

Regiment.

The 3d Md: Battalion,

to 5th

Bbarines, mopped up enew The rapidly

snipers

in the city. secured the EiKL against scattered

moving 26 and 3d Battalions

resistance

just prior

to darkness.

(2)

The seizure of EXXON by the 1st and 5th Marine Reginents secured INCHON Herbor (1) as a base through 1st &ines Special which 7th Division Action Report l-30 and other September Corps elements 1950 could be

(2)

5th krlnes

Special Action Report 6 Sept - 7 October 1950

10

landed excedltiously. Cn 17 Se?ter,ber after a Quiet night the 5th Marine Regiment wee ettnck-

ed at 06w) by 5 ene.myT-34 tanks and epprorimtely


of tile 2d I?5ttdion.

200 Infantry

In the zone

All

the tanks were destrc:ied launchers;


xere

by Marine Tanks, recc~ilwere either o?nosition when friendly killed until tanks or

less rifles, wounded.

and rocket
The enemy tanks

all

enemy infantry

allowed

to advance without positions;

they cme in sight

of the tank and anti-tank

opened fire,
the destruction.

Marine Infantry

elements closed in on three sides to com7$ete

For the remainder opposition 2. to seize

of the day frikndly

attacks

advanced aginst

light

Cbjectives

Baker and Easy.

XIGU AIRFIELD CAFTJRFD 17 SEFTEXSGZ 1950 As soon as Objective Baker was passed by the 1st Battalion, 5th :&rim

Regiment, the 2d Battalion


to seize KIUQ Airfield. against

pushed north, with 2 platoons of tan!cs attached,


At 2020, under cover of darkness, resistance. in the attack and met KIEPC Airfield

was secured

moderate

At 0700, the 1st Farine Reglment !xd jumped off with stiffer resistance thsn ,they had previcusly with

experienced.

By 1300 the fires.

BHL was reached

by 1st and 2d Battalions

the sid of supportins mounted on tsnks

3y 0910, G Company, 1st h!arine Xqiment, 1st Tank Battalion, ward. WT-1 for objective spearheaded and ran into The remainder
of

of 73Compm.v. to-

a tiive

alon:: the S?XX - IECXZJ Iiiohway, ?be troops dismcunted

heavy resistance. the 2d Bnttslion, were dur in for

the assault.

loaded on 3X%3, the night.

foll.o~-

ed at 1600, and by 1830 all

slenents

Cn 18 September the 2d Battalion,


fire tanks, Progress were light. The 2d Rettalion, ceived s series in the early jumped off was steady morning.
At 0645,

1st Marine Be,$nent received artillery


the 1st end 3d Battalicns, followed supported by

in an attack. against

The 2d Battalion

the 3d Bat&lion. for the day

enemy small arms fire.

Casualties

5th b:srine Regiment, counterettacks fanatically. in depth,

in the early until

norning

bcurs re-

of uncoordinated 200 stro&T, executed attacked defense

0500, vr!len the eneny, was also re-

approximately pulsed

This attack

by a well

end the enemy suP%red the rI.!3v crea (Z,C> C)

heavy casualties.

i3y 0800 hours,

18 Sqtember, 11

ras'cca~pletely

cleared of enssay* 5th Rarine Regiment continued to attack at day break YORGDUNGFG by 093& Just before noon the RAN River.. at

The 1st Battalion,

and occupied Objective FOX overlooking the 2d Battalion reached positions

(Objective to

DCG) overlooking Airfield consisting

The 5th Narins Regiarental CP displaced

C&Se
had

On 18 Septanbor elements of the 7th Division


Regiment,

of the 32d Infa&q

7th

~COnnai8sanCe

C~peny,

and part of the 73d Tank Battalion

landed at IRCHON. On 19 September the 1st Marine Regiment attacked in eons at 1030 with two Battalions resistance abreast. consisting The 3d Battalion, on the left, made rapi.d advances against The 2d Battalion the jump off. each day. met a

of aaall amus and mortar firs. immediately after

well organised center of resistance

The 1st k&rine Regiment had met increasingly Frg

heavy resistance

the &loo of departure forward the greater portion

of the I.ECHGN- !SOud,

Righnay vra8 found to be mined in well selected locations, At 1200, 32d Infnntry l&eved t&e 1st. yarlne of the 92d Infantry Regiment, attached to the 1st Marine Division,
on the right flank.

re-

Divj.eion elements Regiment relieved

The 2d Battalion

ths 1st Battalion

of the 1st Marine Regi-

mnt south of the XNCHON - SXJL Highway0 The enemy continued to withdraw s1cml.y to the hills favorable south of the SEOUL - INCHONRigMay, where the terrain
is

for defensive tactica.

BLT 1/5 had been oldered late 18 Septsmber to prepare to attack and seize Hills 80 and 85 at0700 the next morning. Before the scheduled attack on the anus and sporadic mortar fire at

19th, Caapany C began to receive heavy mall 0615 fraa Hilll3.8. airfield in front
At

darm small groups were observed advancing toward the

of Canpauy C and other groups wsre moving across the rice of the Canpanys position. Action was promptly taken to cut

paddy to the front off tld


attaok.

While the enany attack was being held by Ccmpsny CI Canpany B U8. After a heavy artillery concentration and

began an attack to envelop Rill

air Strike3 Ccmpany B eueceeded in taking the objective*


C to BOVW forward and take the ridge to the left. llhile awaiting the
arrival. of

This enabled Cmpmy U8 was secured,

By1055 Hill

tanks, Ccmpauy C and CompanyB consolidated

I.2

their routed villn<es fire

positions from Hill

before

beginning

the attack Bill

on Rills

80 and 85.

The enemy was end the arms

80 by an air

strike.

85 was seized

and occupied mortar,

to the rear

were cleared. against

Yhen enemy artillery, positions on Hills

and small

were aireoted

the Marine

80 and 85, a perimeter 1st ifattalion, 5th

defense was set in on the reverse Marine 3.

slopes

of the two bills.

liegimnt

was relieved

by 1st Battalion,

1st Marine Regiment.

FIRST EAN RIVSR CROSSIXG The 5th Esrine Regiment began hurried patrol preparations departed for the crossing of the on side

HAN River.

At 1900 a reconnaissance

from KI%?C and arrived for the far

the near bank of the X&N River of the river the village returned and reached

at 1950.

14 swimmers departed

the opposite

bank at 2040 hours. with

A patrol

reconnoitered then

end the high ground on the right to the river bank as planned

no oontaot;

the patrol for

and at 2100 gave the signal

the re-

mainder of the reconnaissance company to cross the IiAX River.


barked hidden In nine (9) amphibious tractors. At nidstream, with

The Corcpany em-

the enemy, which had been

on the high ground,

opened fire

machine guns and mortars.

The LVTs
upon and

were ordered to return to the south bank.


were also directed to return

The swimmers were being fired

to the south bank. that the beach location on the far bank at the

The Marine

swimmers determined

old Perry site was suitable


During to support the day additional the 326 Infantry

for the landing of LVTs.


elements of the 7th Division came ashore and moved The on the

Regiment which continued contact with

to attack

to the east.

7th Reconnaissance 7th Division north

Company maintained (left) flank.

the 1st Marine Division

On 20 September the 5th Marine Regiment 0545, lng, in column of battalions the 1st Marine Engineer and turned Battalion

(Reinf)

crossed toward

the IIAN River After

at

southeast

SWUL.

the croesconduct-

and the 1st Shore Party

Battalion

ed ferrying
crossing River

operations

in the sector.

The 3d IW Battalion

assisted

the river

operations

by patrolllng

to the north

on the south bank of the FiAN left flank. (1) of the RAN River.

and protecting

the 1st Marine Division's stiff delaying action

The enemy offered


Initially

after

the crossing

the enemy held his fire, and on the slopes Special Action

but upon reaching of the small Report hill

PAI!NGJU he begen fighting to the east. 1950.

in the streets (1) 5th I6arinee

6 September - 9 October 13

The 5th I!arine


southeast

Regiment forced of another

the enemy in this enemy battalion southeast

area to withdraw occupying prepared site.

to the posiAfter

under cover line

tions

on the ridge

3,000 yards

of the crossing resistance the Marines

the initial

?hase, the enemy offered

only slight bombardment,

to the advance. advanced to a

Aided by very heavy naval and aerial

point within

four miles of SlKXJL.

To the south the 1st hiarine Regiment bad advanced along the IKHON SXCUI Highway against Regiment,
village

stiffening

resistance; by an estimated was stopped


Iater

at 0430, 2d Battalion, enemy battalion line units

1st &.rine

received
of SOSA.

an attack The attack

northeast of the
with rifle fire, anarwhich &wine

by front

bayonets, gaged with %illery inflicted units

bazookas,

and itrenades.

the 2d Battalion

became heavily Following

the advance elements

of an attackiw started

enemy force. a strong

concentrations

the 2d Rattalion on the enemy.

counterattack of the day all

heavy casualties held their positions

The rsmainder

on the outskirts friendly air

of YOZGDUIJGPO. During and artillery continued

the afterto bomb and

noon and throughout

the night

shell the town in preparation


During

for an assault the follarring


Division

morning*
The

the same day the 7th Infantry

opened Its CP ashore.

31s.t RCT debarked and concentrated

in the area of CRAESU-RI to secure the area

to the south and protect the Division


east taking resistance. The enem conducted tank a delaying with Objectives Baker, Charlie,

south flank.

The 32d RCT advanced to the


stiffening enemy

Dog, and Igay against

action

through

skillful

employment of antifire. In

mines in conjunction
of the action,

small arms, machine guns, and mortar Regiment seized

the course

the 32d Infantry

the coammnding

ground overlooking gained positlone

YOMJDUNGPC from the west and south. from which to begin an assault

The X Corps had now

on SBDUI. -its advance 3

On 21September

at 0630 the 1st Marine Regiment continued

along the IN.lIiCN - SlWJL Highway to YONGDWGPO and attacked Battalions; two from the northwest

the enemy with

and one along the INCHON Road.

The attack

progressed against light


khe let Bn attacking

resistance

at first,

but became increasingly

heavy,

from the FM was slowed in its

advance by heavy casualtlea.

I.4

WAm Ccmpanymaneuvered to the right

and entered the town fran the SOuthw8St. An Curpny had reached the all night

This maneuver was successful and by nightfall road overlooking the airstrip.

The Caqxmy held this position 275 of the attackers+

against enemy attacks killing

During the night the re-

mainder of the regiment prepared plans to renew the attack towards nAi' Canpanys position the next day.

The 5th Marine Regiment continued to enlarge the bridge head acroS8 the HANRiver driving into the city southeast along the general axis of the railroad leading

of SEOOL. l'ne advance was slowed by artillery was soon reduced.

and mortar fire.

The greater part of the opposition period,

HOweVert during this

the enemy continued to'attanpt guerrilla

crossings of the HAN River in various activities.

sectors and to extend their ,!,, CAFTW


CF

SWON Zl S&pTEzIBBR 1950 32d Infantry Regiment captured the Regi-

On.21 September the 2d Bati.alion, strategic hill mass, Objective


F,

easing the pressure on the lstkarine 32d Infantry

ment attacking the important

YCNQuIJ@C~ lhe 1st Battalion,

Regiment captured the withdrawl route

communications center of ANYANGNI, cutting

of eneny units to the South and preparing the fall airfield. After taking

of SLWON with its excellent

ANYAI@-~?I,the 7th Recunnaissance Canpany continued to The eneny in the city were caught ccmpleteby a

the south and entered SJWONat 1830. ly by SU'priS8.

The Rwonnaissance Companywas immediately reinforced

Task Force consisting of Canpany eke, 32d ET, Canpany "A'(, 73d Tank Battalion, 1 and a Flatoon of Engineers fmm Coupany I%*, 13th Engineer Battalion. 'Jhe G3 of the 7th Division was killed on a reconnaissance near the SIMONAirfield. Regiment continued their attack

On 22 September at C8GO, the l&Marine and advanced through YO~~;DUIXJFQ linking mentr The enemy had apparently

up with "A" Company, 1st Marine %egiorganized forces fran the city
sniper fire

withdrawn all

during the night and the only opposition rarge mortars.

met was fran

and long

The enemy had withdrawn across the HAN River leaving only a

Coverin& force south of the river. The 2d Battalion, 7th harine fregiment, after debarking at ~?ZHCN, assumed

15

responsibility unit,

in the zone of action

of 3d Battalion,

IULC. %.th the latter the 2d Battalion, 7th

and X Corps Special Operations Canpany attached, the Corps left flank

Marine Regiment protected The 3d BatMLlonr Battalion

south and west of the HANRLver.

7th Marine Regiment, remained in Corps Reserve v&ile the let

continued unloading. was captured ar.d p&Xd in Operational status. a Task 7%

During the day SLE4ON Airfield Klements of the 31st Infantry Force oftlz Tank Battalion, Infantry

Regiment moved to the SDWON area to relieve

32d Infantry

Regimentmade up of CcanpanynKeandtsnks The 1st and 3d Battalions

fmmthe

already in that area.

of the 32d

Regiment continued to advance to the east and north in the 7th Division resistance.

zone against moderate to light

The 5th ldarine Regiment line west of SEOULand north of the HAN River extended fras Iiill
KMC,

296 to SOGANG. On 23 September at 07W the 1st BattalionP


on enemy positions the 1st and to its front
3d Battalions~

began

8x1 attack

in order to straighten 5th Marine Rsgimsnt, gains were made and 2d Battalion, MdC, at lm KMG, 5th

out the line.

Yeanwhile,

supported the advance by fire. the 1st Battalion,

In the advance only slight

IQIC, was unable to seize the objective.

Yarine Regiment, wasordered hours to continue the attack. moved to sn assembly area.
resistance

to pass through the lst Battalion,

After this maneuver the lst Battalion,

The attack was then continued against fierce


casualties. to

nith heavy friendly


force

The attacking

was ordered

halt and consolidate

its minor gains. fortified

The entire

attack was held up pending the reduction in front of the 2d Battalion,

of the heavily

enamy position

5th Marine Regiment.

The enany launched a counterattack Regiment positiofm.

at 1535 hours against the 5th Ldarine


The left

This attack was repulsed.

flank

Of the 5th brine

Regiment north of the river 5.

crossing site8 ranained quiet throughout the day,

THECAPTUUSCFYQGlXJNGFQ
At

1600 the

3d

Battalion,

lsttlarine

Regiment, had seized the RAN River 1st Marine Regiment attacked along the south bank against

bridge approaches,

The 1st and jd Battalions,

and drove scaus@CQ yards through TONGDDNGPO to positions of the HANRiver. the 1st llarine

During the night the enemy launched two counterattacks Regiment.

16

The 7th Marine Regiment had little

activity

in its aone.

The 7th Yarine

Regimental Headquarters and the 3d Battalion the RAK River. The 7th Division with only minor activity was generally

moved to assemhlp areas north of

quiet at the front

during this period HOWup

against amell units of the 9th KK Dixieion. Regiumt the

ever, in the eon@ of the 32d Infantstubborn

enemy was pitting


east of the bill

rcsi~ta~ce

but was forned slowly to give ground.

The 1st and 3d ma88 south

BattelAons of the Reglmmt nr" oocupi.ed positions of the HANRiver opposite SEOUL.

ICorps TAC (IWine Air Group 33)furnished close air support for the let
Marine Division was 78. wae 78. and the 7th Infantry Division. Total number of sorties for close flown Total ncmher of aircraft reported on station

air

support

An estimated 400 eneaytmops

were destroyed in two tunnela oh the

north edge of SEOUL. On 24 September the 5thYarine and artillery fire.


At 0520

Regiment was subjected ta enemy mortar


counteratteck

the Regiment received a (1) The 2d Battalion

by 3 enemy

regimente which as mood. against heavy resistance 1st Battalion


At

at 0640 marned the attack and air preparation. objective The

after

a 20 minute artillery

caemenced moving

slowly toward regimcatal

2 at 0700.

0810, 3d Battblion,

5thMarine

Regiment, began movement dowo the east aplr the heavy x%&tams in front of the 2d by fire.

of Rill Battalion

36 tc attampt to outflank
and to gain
batter

observation facing

to support the 2d B&t&Son Sthlarine

With stiff

reeistence

them, 2d Battalion, heavy casualties.

Regiment,

advanced toward iiill Battalion Battalion left ilet&

105 sustaining

ID order that the 3d the 1st to the

could continue its attack in support of the 2d Battalion, was directed to relieve to move their reserve campauyfram the right
3d

e1sment.e of the

Battalion (Hill

on Kill

216. By ll&
its heaviest

the 2d Battalion casualties 6.

had seiaed the objective

105) suffering

of the Korean war.


September

HAK KWKRCIKXSIKCI: 24 SSPCOEJD

The 1st Marine Regiment began preparation River at XKGDUKGPO by sending reconnaimance early on the m02ning of 24 (1) Periodic Intelligence
Ssptamber.

for the crossiug of tb elaments to the crossing light,

KAK @.te

At first

the Engineers attached

Report, X Corps, 24 September 1950 l7

to the 1st &rlne of the initial

Regf~enb, began cleariag

the oroesing eraa.

The crossing

battalion

was delayed by mines at the crossing site.

By 0800 a reoonnaiseanoe party and the aesault elements cf the 26 Ratta11~x1, let &rina Regiment, had crossed the RAR against sporadic mortar firs. north of the river. The 26

Contact was made with tha 5th Marina Ragtint Battalion moved rapidly into positions

on the right

flank of the 5th ularine

Regiment and after


nmss of Hill 79.

the cr~s~lng the 2d Battalion

began advancing on the hill which ax-

This advance was continued by the 1st Battalion, to seize Hill

eoutsd a passage of lines of the 2d Battalion of heavy amall srna, mortar and automatic fire. released from Dl~lslon

79, in the face wa6

By 1600 the 3d Battalion

Reserve and crossed the HAI?to join other biarine elements. had advanced approximately 2000 yards.

During this period the ldsrine Battalions The &rinas now held an almost solid

line along the western side of SEOUL. (I) Division, began preparation to

The 17th Infantry

Regiment, 7th Infantry

debark at INZHON. Meanwhile the 3lst Infantry data deiensire TAEJON Highway. positions south of the airstrip continued light

Regiment continued to consollat SUWON and astride the SECVLin that sector. Iate that night

The opposition

an enuny maa block and fire The 326 Infantry 26 Battalion, approximately

tanks ware knocked out in the 3UWOR area.

Regiment, after making a surprise predawn attack with the enemy resistance and gained

continued to move east against light 3000 ysrde. 187th Airborne ET,

The 36 Battalion, relief

landed at IlfWC airfield

and bsgan flank south

of the 26 Battalion,

7th Marine Regiment, on the Corps left

and west of the DAR River. X Corps TAC destroyed 7 enemy tanks in SEOUL, destroyed several mortar and machine gun emplacements and destroyed and dlsparsed troops along the front. Eighty-one sorties were flown. to dayllght, the 36 Battalion, 1st Rerine Regiment, and gained condcgee

On 23 September, prior

moved forward in column of ccrmpanfee through the 2d Bat&ion tact with the 1st Battalion turn in the direotion draw slightly zone. (1) 1st Wrlne Special Action Report, l-30 September 1950 18 on the right..

This movement involved a 90

of the attack.

The 1st Battalion flank,

was required to withIts new

and pivot on its left

yet rexmining within

Reorlentetion lines,
positions

of the Reghent was particxlsrly

difficult of attack,

due to passage of and the unfavorable

a change in the Seggimental direction for supporti& artillery

on the opposite side of the RANRiver. and by


0700

These ~robh,,S

were cvercane however, without loss of control


by

the

attack to the east was underway into SXUL.


mcmantm and continued forward with the surprt

noon the of tanks.

attack

had gained

At one point in manned by approximately

the advance the 1st Battalion

ran into ar enemy position

1000 men. Concentration by 4.2 mortars flushed several hundred enemy troops fran road blocks into the open vihere 1st Battalion dowr. 'The 3d Eattalion All was able to reach till
during advance

machine gunners cut them

97 where contact was made with hours there was heavy house to by fires in the city.
At

the 1st Battalion. house fighting

the daylight
was hampered

and the

about

1930 hours the-Marines tied in their ment had advanced approximately The 2d
and

positions
yards

for r;lyht defense. (1)

The regi-

2300

during the period.

3d Battalions,

5th Liarine iiegiment, had attacked at 0700, of SECULin the regimental zone. Resistin its

25 September to seize that portion ance was light advance on Kill attati wd the 3d Battalion 105.

was supported by the 2d Battalion seized Hill

At 1335, 2d Rattalion

72 and continued to

to seize Hill

105. The Division


elements

Reconnaissance Canpany occupied Hills The 1st Battalion attack later


delayed

2l6 and 296 relievir~

of the 1st ~isttalion.

assembled in the rear cf the 3d Battalion

in order to make the final

for the ,. capture of SECULin the regimental zone. The 3d Battalion (2) This counterattack ceived a counterattack which was repulsed. the dmmediate pursuit of the enemy who was withdrawing rapidly

re-

to the North. approxFmately

After the day's actions the regiments were occupying positions 2500 yards east of their original positions.

During the day the 2d Battalion, 3d Rattalion, the vicinity

7th Marine Regiment was relieved


Regiment then attacked

by the
east in

187th Airborne RCT. The 7th hlarine of Hill 285 in coordination or no resistance.
25 ZFTU!BW

with other elements of the 1st AWine

Division meeting little


7.

Tl:IRD Ati

IUVi% CRCSSIfG:

(1) (2)

1st ldarine Special Action Report, l-30 Septenber 1950 5th Marine Special Action Report, 6 Septsnber - 7 Cotober 1950

19

Ihe 32d Infantry,

7th Mvision,

attacked across the HAN River tightenthe beginning of the cross-

ing the ring around ,5EOUL. Within one hour after ing at 0630, the 2c.iBattalion had crossed the river

in the face of enemy fire mass of the first objeo-

and by 10% was on the slopes of the dcminating hill tive. By1900 all primary objectives

had been seized and the heights im-

mediately

south of SMUL wer% in the hands of the 32d FUZCT. 'he 17th ROK behind the 32d RCT to positions east of the

Regiment crossed the river

32d RCT. The rapid advance of the 32d RCT aided the Marine Units to continue their advance. (1) at IEHON and moved by foot and rail observation to positions

XT 17 off-loaded near ANTANGNI. withdrawal


Aerial

reported the beginnings of an apparent

from SEOUL by the enemy. on South Mountain in SEOUL. Toe area 114 sorties were florm durinp:

I( Coqs TAC placed main effort was neutralized


and enany troops

dispersed,

the day and 4 during the hours of darkness. The time of attack of the 1st Marine RegFment for
been set for 0630, but on the night of 25 Septmber

26September had
was alerted

the.unit

by CG X Corps for an attaok at 0145. coordination

There iumediately

followed

a hasty

with the 5th YM.ne Regiment, fire

As the assault was to b,e prefor this were found inadequate and the attack time was Regiment received a flank. lhe main force The

ceded by artillery

and as the preparations were notified

the assault battalions reset at 0200.

to stand fast, lsttiarine left

However, the 3d Battal.ionr

heavy eneny attack shortly of the attack was directed Battalion,

before 0200 on their

down the SEOULHighway fran the northeast. for the jump off, was extrenely

due to extensive preparations

well prepared to meet the enemy. The enemy rushed in several tanks which were blasted by the Lfarines. and 3 damaged. 'Ibe attacking two self-propelled This engagement cost the enany 7 tanks destroyed force was estimated at 12 T-34 tanks, at least reinforced infantry battalion,

assault guns , and a heavily These efforts

stippctied by 12Onun mortars. until (1)

on the part of the enemy continued By 0900 the 2d Battrilion,

0540 when the force was finally ;/?aar %.ary Summary, 7th US Infantry

repulsed.

Divi~sion, l-30 September 1950

1st Earins on the right.

Regiment,

continued

the attack

in conjunction

with

the 1st Battalion

Par the remainder slow. By 1300 physical

of the day the advance through contact was established

SEOUL was pain&akin&. 1st on

between 1st Battalion, 32d Infantry Regiment

Marines Regiment and elements the 1st Farins Division right

of the 2d Battalion, boundsry. Patrols

Prom the 3d Battalion,

1st Marine Regiment, mst patrols same t.ime. (2)

from the 5th Marine Regiment at about the 5th h!arine


the 1st

As soon as tha attack against the 3d Battalion,


at 0445 a patrol

?ie&ment, had been repulsed ?%arine Regiment. to the north.

was sent east to contact

This was an attempt to coordinate

pursuit

of enemy elements

Due to heavy enemy resistance


contact. an attack

the 1st Marine Regimsnt was un-

able to advance to the point~of

Rowever, by 1140, the 3d Battalion,


in coordination with elements 5th &rine light resistance. of the

5th I'nrine

Regiment,

launched

1st Yarine Regiment., after


?egiment that afternoon

making contact.

The 3d Battalion, against

afivanoed 500 to 600 yards

The 2d Fattalion

mopped up in Its zone, while the 1st Battalion,


front line.

KE, mopped

up in the areas to the reap of the reSimenta1 quiet throughout the rest of the night

It was generally

in the 5th Marine Regiment zone.

The 7th larine Qegiment continued to protect


and the F&N River The Division crossing sits. Company remained

the Division

left

flank

Reconnaissance

on R',ll

296.

The 3d Battalion,
talion attached,

187th Abn XT, with the 3d Korean ?!arine Corps Batthe mission of ,protectiuS assembled the Corps left in the vicinity flank on

continued

the !?!PO Peninsula. Airfield. Shortly after

1st and 2d Battalions

of KIXPC

daybreak

26 September,

Company "L" 32d XT launched

observed a large attack. The The

columu of enemy moving east of SZEWL and promptly rest of the RCT moved into Objective 2 against

a local

moderate

enemy resistance. units continued

2d Battalion

was counterattacked,

but gave no ground and all

to move forward, (1)


(2) 1st %rinss

(1)
Special Action Report, Xvlsion, l-30 l-30 Sept 50. Sept 50.

?%a Disry Summary, 7th US Infantry

21

The eneary continued

to resist

the 326 RCI' attack

on SRWL by heavy to

moderate anip9r fire


yards to the vicinity crossing

and street tightin&

The Regiment advanced zooo-3000


of the 17th RCT protected operations.

of CEOR3RYON-SO. Rlements site

the RAR River

and engaged in mopping-up

The 26 Battalion, talion, supported that attncked

31st ROT, reinforced

by one compaw of the 1st Ratorganized progressed defensive slowly. positions General Barr attack

south of SDWON and met well The attack

by tanks and mortars.

evening ordered

the 31st RCT to conduct position

8 coordinated

regimental

to clear

the enamy hill

south of SDWON. At this

time the Regiment-

al Commanderhad dewted
the south and east. 8.

with a task force on a wide PlankIng movement to


Were delivered to this column near CSAN-NI. (11

The orders

JCTNCTDRX IITFf RWRTR ARMYz 26 September 50 At 262320 September, element8 of the 7th Infantry miles south Dlvfslon met elements leg of

of the 1st Cavalry

Division

about five Division

of SDWON. The last

the advance of the 1st Cavalry of CHONGyU. This juncture Korea and marked the first Korea and X Corps unite 9. 0-Z During

elements

originated

in the vicinity in southwest of

cut off North Korean Forces meeting of the Eighth

located

Army units

from the south

in the II9ZHON-SBIuL area.

OF SROULz 26 September 50 the day General ageArthur issued the following communique:

VXSJL, Capital
United

oi the Republic of Korea, is again in friendly

hands,

Nations Foraes, including

the 17th Regiment of the ROK Army and elehave completed the envelop-

ments of the U.S. 7th and 1st Marine Divisions, ment and seizure of the city. and special

While U.S. and ROX Marines astride the RAN River

troops defenses,

drove to the northwest other Marine Units

to expand perimeter

pushed into

SIWIK from the northwest. with

Meanwhile,

the 326 U.S. Regiment of

the 7th Division,

the 17th ROK Regiment,

In a bold saeep along the

southern bank of the HAN, accomplished a second crossing or the river


east of the city the enem gerrleon and occupied to flee the convnandlng terrain to the north, Dl~lslon, on the outskirts,

southforcing

in disorder

(1) 7b.r Diary 3unnmy, 7th US Infantry

L30 Sept 50

22

The liberation

of the city

was conducted in such a manner as to cause (1) Division

the least possible damage to civl.1 institutions.s

On 27 September, in the early morning, units of the 1st Grins


resuned their attack against

the enemy in the eastern portion

of the City of
and

SEOUL. In the 1st liarine Regiment aone the advance was made by the 1st
2d

Battalions

against

strong well organized resistance late that afternoon.

until

the enamy po-

sition

began to daterlorate

Approximately 3WO yards

were gained in the fighting. Ibe 2d Battalion,


and

5th Marine Regiment advanced against light

resistance At 1610 the

by I.015 hours had driven to the Russian Consulate Building,

3d Battalions Building. Corps left

5th bfarine Regiment raised the American Flag over the Capitol the

During the day the 7th Marine Regiment continued to protect flank and repulsed a counterattack of battalion

strength with the

assistance of close air support at 1345. made a link-up at 1500 hours.

'Ihe 5th and 7th Marine Regiments

On the RDMPO Fenlnsula, 1Fng.

the 187th Airborne RCTconducted extensive patrol-

By1045 the 32d RCT was able to link-up overcaning moderate enemy rssistance.

with the 1st Marine Regiment after in To the

There were heavy enemy casualties captured or destroyed.

the sector and much enemy equipment was either

east of SEOUL, the 17th ROK Regiment continued mopping-up operations. In the Slat RCT sector, 31st Infantry just prior to daylight, the task force under the

Regimental Camnander wasattacked

by enemy tanks in USAN-NT, Fhile

but they were driven off with bazooka fire proceeding north, a heavy fire fight

and one tank destroyed.

developed, holding up the task force. and

During the morning, the 31st RCT, minus Darts of the 3d Battalion

the task force with the Regimental Cosvnander, reswned the attack tp the south fran the SDW,U area. This attack moved against a strong and determined enemy mortars, ati tanks. Progress was slow. and aF-

who was suppxted by artillery,

The Close Air Supnort Group attacked enemy machine gun, mortar, tillery (1) positions Cfficial along the entire Corps front.

Twenty-seven (2'7) requests

Caumoique Nwnber 9, dated 26 Septanber I%&

23

for strikes

were received and sixteen (16) were flown for a total In addition,

of seventy-

eight (78) close support sorties. mission wes flown.

one (1) night close support

Cn 28 September elements of the 31st Regiment attecked north from 08AN-NI to eliminate the enemy cutting the road at RAESAMI-RI. The ssee:i,it south An air strike
excellent

from SUWCN was also continued.


and a tunnel in this area with

was called on Hills

118, 92,

results.

The 57th and 926 Field

Artillery

Battalions

fired

heavy concentrations

accounting far about half of occupied

the enenw casualties. all objectives

The RCT, after (1)

overcoming heavy resistance,

by 1625 hours.

In the 1st Marine Division Mine

Sector at 0645, 1st and.3d Battalions,

1st

Regiment, continued to clear the remainder of SEOULand seize Hill In the 1st herine Division as a whole

133 and the commanding ground to the northeest.

zone of action the energy appeared to be broken and the division


was engaged in mopping-up

operations.

The enemy had withdrawn all his forbehind to fight

ces from SEOULexcept for small elements which had been left a delaying action. In the 5th Wrine Regiment zone, patrols As the,Regimsnt*s

encountered no enemy resistance. were se-

zone had been cleared and all assigned objectives Regiment was pinched out by the 1st kine Regiment on the left

cured, the 5th brine from the right

and the 7th brine

Regiment .ii as planned. 1st Rsrine Regi-

The 36 Battalion, ment provided security

5th Wine

Regiment, and 3d~Battalion,

for the ceremony in SWUL at which the government of at SBIUL. By 2050 hours, mopping-up

South Korea was returned to the Capitol operations

in ths 5th Rsrine Regiment zone were completed.

The 3d Battalion.

32d RCl'

continued

its

advance north

and cut the main

highway running east from SIDXG within SEOUL was cleared.

By 0200 hours, the 7th Division

sector

X Corps then directed reconnaissance in force east

of the TORSHON River. 1st and 2d Battalions, Battalion (1) (Reinforced) 187th Abn RCT were in Corps Reserve. The 3d

was designated Task Force Able with mission of proDivision, l-30 Sept 50.

War Diary Summary, 7th U. S. Infantry 24

t90ttrg

the corps

iert

(north)

flank.

Security

and Reconnaissance patrols

from TF Able reported no enemy contact. Close Air Support missions were conducted along the entire and consisted mainly of strikes tions and troops concentrations. Corps front

against enemy mortar and machine gun poeiAll aircraft available were utilized. the SEOUL-

By 29 September, X Corps had achieved its smin objective-in INCHOR area. There yet remained the clearing

of the IKJBPO Peninsula and the to

seizure of VIJONGBU which was the refuge of North Korean troops fleeing the north. X Corps activities consisted of patrol action.

There were inrepulsed. On

stances of weak counterattacks

by the enemy which were quickly

29 September, at SBODL, a liberation ing where General h&Arthur ident SyngmanRhee.

ceremony was held at the Capitol

Build-

turned over the government to South Korean Pres-

At 1800 hours on 30 September ths,7th bility

Division

ees relieved

of responsi-

in the SEOULarea and the FiCT's prepared to move into new areas. As the month of September ended, Operation Chromlte was brought to a

completely successful conclusion. into October, decisive results

Although some mopping-up was continued space of fifThe victory had

had been achieved in the brief

teen (15) days since the landing et IBCHONon 15 September. been won at the cost of only 3,498 UR casualties killed end 7,000 captured.

as opposed to 14.000 enemy

25

Pi-3 TAlZUOKI cfHANGcHuL


15 Sept 50 RI was attached Ef first learned

Oapt (Seoul Regiment)


to the Seoul Regiment located US Troops had landed At this in Seoul. in Inchon.

on 16 September 1950 that was released

However no information acting commanding officer

in detail.

time PB wss Seoul Regiment) assigned

of 1st Company (1st Battalion, orders

19 September 1950. defense positions only known unit reinforcements According was closing

The Regiment received in Seoul City and vicinity. time.

to move to their

The Seoul Regiment was the was heard as to receiving

in Seoul at this

Nothing

for the Seoul Re@ment. to hearsay, on the southern last front, the North Korean Amy

in on Pusan, their

objective.

I$! was tola from higher coxxnanaer to lecture


necessary for the defense of Seoul. a surprise

his troops to die if

The Inchon landing

was quite

to the troops

of the Regiment situation.

who at no time were given any information

concerning

the battle

The Regiment maa commanded by Co1 Lee Kyong U., who ~1a.slast American air Korean troops. received attack and Arty causeA the most casualties combat exp?rience.

seen in Seoul. amoq North

IV had no actual

Men of the Seoul Regiment trainin+ Beard that

anywhere from 15 days to 2 months of military worked for the North

the South Koreax people valuntarily paid by the North Korean governqent. General MacArthur was.

Korean Army and were as to who 01 what

PA had no knowldge

The Seoul Regiment was ordered

to die If

necessary

to defend the citjr

Of Seoul.
of holding

The Regiment received

no reinforcements.

IV had given up hope attack resultirG in

Seoul on 22 September 1950 due to heavy air

large North Korean casualties,


North Forces. Korean Army nova has no possibility of defeating the United Nations

There is no comparison

between the American

and Russian

supplied

North Korean weapons and equipment. The North Koresn people revealed as a whole have no desire that to have war. RowNorth

ever, information

the South Koroon Army had attacked

26

Emea !p mosalng the 38th parrdlel,


The Hmth Korean Amy presently numbers of trained soldiers remin is poorly
equipped and cmly limited

in North Korea.

LTT CTL Km
On 15 Septmber

Lt.

Cal.

27th brigade

(No serial

Uumber)

1950, the 27th Briwde to this part brigade

was located

in Kumchon above section.

Seoul.

PN was attached luring the early

as Chief

cf Cultural

of September that

1950, it ws

rumored smong high at of

ranking Vowan,

officers Inchon,

of the brigade

U.S. Forces would make a landing After the lsndine

or Mokpo ir, the very near future. the 27th Brigade parallel was ordered

U.S. Forces kilometers this defense

in Inchon, north line

to defend an area 24 The purpose heading north located 04 after in

of Seoul,

to the 38th parallel. U.S. troops

wss to block

any advancing

the ca>ture Seoul st this Received

of Seoul.

Designations

of mejor ??orth Korean units

time were unknown. no information concerning system, front. Preouently, the:: that to die if necessary to hold their reinfcnxeaents in this mea, Due

to the poor communidation the situation FT lectured Tcaition". reinforcemnts Also

no informtion

ms available

concerning

on the southern his troops infcrrned (did

the 27th Brigade

would not receive it was difficult that with

not receive

any from south).

FV believed

to defend the Inchon-Seoul planes available the North

IIowever, stated any planes. _, Korean Air Forces would defend this area. ares without Commander what-so-ever. General

There

was no disagreement

bet;ueen PSI and hls'Senior "\ The 27th Rriga?e was comr;anded by,..Brig. SHIN RI BON. Their planes present location

KANGYCN KIL and Asst

Colonel

is unknown. most casualties should easily among Earth on trucks,

American Korean troops.

and tank guns~ caused.the

In a combat area U.S. Infantry so conspicuous tactics and are vsry

not be loaded spotted against for U,S.

because they look Believes that

targets. troops,

guerrilla

were most successful

As an average, military considered training. us giving

the men of the 27th Brigade


According

received

about 20 days of Division was

to hearsay threat

the U.S.

1st mine

the greatest

to North Korean Units. cooperation

The Earth

Korean Army while civfllEms. their homes.

in Seoul received

very little voluntarily

from South Korea troops in

Very few of the civilians

cooked meals for

28

RI frequently

lectured

his troop

that the South &wean &my had aI.their enemy now vae the United Statea.
their country fromUS N&lolls.

ready been annihilated


He told his troops .

and therefore

to "die

if necessary

to protect

aggreesion" General

191 gave no lnfoy&.ion was believed

to troops

concernisg

the United

MaoArthur

to be the Comander-In-Chief

of the US troops

in the Paclric Theater.


f4p stated etrength that the North Korean Amy has still in North Korea) to defeat an adequate military In the event

(remaining

the UN loroea.

this inaldent cannot be settled peacefully as Worth Xorea desires the North
Korean,Army will continue being to fight defeated by guerrilla by the United defeat feeling people that tactics Mations for the next 10 to PWIhas Faces. It Is

20 yeara (even after confideme Every North always that

Forces).

North Korea will

eventually

the lJnlted.Ratione towerda America.

Korean citizen

has an unfavorable

spoken and known among North Xorean

the wer would have been property if the

over low

ago without

e.ay damage or destruction

of personal

United States had not aided the So&h Koreans and bombed tbe North Kareane,

9 Cot50 KIN Yom i-m LT COL (107th Regt)


In KIX'O 15 September 1950. Pi! was

The 107 Reijilr,ent was located

temporarily

attached to this regiment as Chief of Staff.

The regiment received no information concerning the IRXON landing,


however, due to heavy naval gun fires and plane activities, the invasion was expected on or about 14 September 1950. The 107 Regiment was originally ordered to d&end the west coast However,

excluding the Inchon area (west coast along the KIM'0 area). immediately after the IRCHONinvasion the and defend the entire area 4 kilometers
regiment was

ordered to move

northeast

of INCHON.

At this time the 18th Division known North Xorean units

and the 61th Regiment were the only

located tn SEOUL. Heard that the 18th Division to defend SIWJL. No however,
Informed

would receive an adequate number of reinforcements definite information was available

on the southern front,

sourcea indicated

the North Korean Army was retreating to lecture

In the TABONarea.

Fophad no opportunity hearsay from Battalion

any troopa, however, according to morale was very high and

Commanders, the troops'

they had confidence in defending the IRCHON - SEOUL area. Knowing the present military strength in the SKODLarea, I% had no con-

fidence in defending the IXHON - SEOULarea, however, with two well trained and equipped North Korea Corps the mission could have been acoompliahed. The 107 Reglnent was under the SKCVLSecurity Regimental Commanderwas Lt Co1 Che Han. Che Ran ordered his regiment to retreat fromhigher headquertersinSEODL.
After

unit comnanded by Co1 Kim ---. the LEHON invasion Lt Co1

heading north without proper orders he was arrested and wae be-

Therefore, in SEOUL*

lieved to have been court-martialed Air attacks and naval gun fire Korean unite.

caused greater caaueltiee

among North
by

Air attack wae the only typs of US attaak feared

North

Korean troops (I% did not have any actual combat experience). Aaaordlng to hearsay the American Infantry wae very 81~ and always gave North the front lines. 30
Koreans

advance in the combat area in

adequate time to reorganize

The men of the 107th Regiment reoeived an average of 20 to 30 days


of military training. F'Wbelieved that

very little

cooperation vms given South

by South Korean oivillans Korean oivlliane


Heard that United cerning Unit Nations

which was believed

to be compulsory.

were employed and paid by the Rorth Korean gov#?nnent.


General Forces MmArthur in Korea. was appointed No intelligence Cmmander-in-Chief reports of the con-

-uere received and that

the U.S. Han River crossing, however, was expected . would cross by amphibious tractors and landing craft. a military books. school, RI learned American

a Marine

?Jhile attending Korean translated when ha first

strategy

through Seoul

Russian

RI had given up hope of &&mii~ of U.S. trcops at Inchon.

learned

the lauding

North Korean

Army has no possibility


military strength remains

of defeating

the Unite6 mations Forces.


trained

That little
and equipped tiiat gum-

in North Korea is very poorly

and is not sufficient rills activities will

to be used in combat. However, he bslieves continue for quite


some

time.
however, did not desire

The North Korean people war.

had confidence

in victory,

31

A 4Omm gun crew aboard the


US9 ldt McKinley for action off prepares the west

Coast of KOREA.

IST's

assemble for

the

assault on blue Beach,


WOL?AI-DO, INCHON, KCREA.

1st Mar Div tank-dozer covering WOLMI-Do* a pillbox on

U S Marines unload supplies from ISTs at a debris


littered beach, IBCHON.

Men of the 3Zd Inf Rqt,

7th Div,

debark from an

LST et IHXOM,

fin EM, crying enters the tidal IIYCHON.

supplies,
basin at

to force

North Korean soldiers

out,

during

the fighting

'Jnidentified soldier

American

soldiers

rout

a North krean irivzsion of

from a c**e

during

the X Corix

IXHCN, KOREASI,

Fortified

position

on WOW-Do after

the pre-invasion

bombardment by Marine Air Arm and Naval @dire.

An LST, stranded on 8 pier by the receding indicates the


extreme

water,

tide variation

in the IiVXON area.

UTs

are grounded by the receding tide off WOIMI-DO.

South Korean remees, INCHON was secured,

who returned fight fires

to their

homes after from the

which resulted

fighting.

South Korean refugees return to INCHON after has been secured.

the city

G/A Dou.&as MacArthm, CINCUNC, attends briefing a

at the 1st Far Div ~ (Left)

CP. INcmCN.

G/A Douglas Mac.I.rthur end Maj Gen 0. P. Smith, CG, 1st Mar Div, leaving

the CP, 5th %r Regt. INCHCN. (Right)

G/A MacArthlur visits POWcamp at INCHON.

the

?&an of the I&

Mar Mv me

up the road from INCmN to made T-311/85 North

'3WXf.Lpast a knocked-out Russian KOrelm tank.

An

AMINAC

of the let

Mar Mv rolls

through

INCHON during North

the offellsiva ~orsan force8

launched by U s m&.nes in that eree.

against

Men and supplies mcwe across the causeway that connects WOOLMI-Do and IWHON after the city has been secured.

A bulldozer

is used to pull

a trailer

full

of supplies

through the streets

of INCHON.

ldultiple firing
KORE.4.

4.5 inch on retreating

rocket

launcher
Korean

of the 1st Mar Div forces near INCHON,

North

A battery Korean

of six forces

rocket

launchers

is fired

against

North

by 1st Mar Div in the INCHCN, KOREA, area.

U S Marine helicopter the first

is

A!nerican plane

to land on the newly recaptured KIMPO Airfield. (Left)

Lt Gen Lemuel C. Shepherd, CO, !ldF FAC, imediately after first alighting frcm the

American plane to

land at KIMPO Airfield after (&W) its recapture.

The B-17 of Maj Gen E. E. Partridge, CG 5th Air Force,

at KIMPO Airfield first day the strip

on the
was its

usable following

capture by 1st Mar Div. (Left)

Men of the 32d Iti, 7th Div, capture a

prisoner

ofi a hill
of

on the outskirts SEOUL. (Right)

Men of the 31st Inf, hunt out North hidden

7th Div,

Koreans

in the brush around

YONGJON-NI, KOREA. (Left)

Men of the 326 Inf,


7th Div, a hill advance UP on the Out-

skirts (Right)

of SEOUL.

&j

Gen Edward M. Almond, CGX Corps, and Lt Gen Lenusl


CO W PAC. at the PGW enclosure at INCHON, KORE4. where some

C. Shepherd,

300 POW's await

processing

North Korean soldiers,

captured

in the INXON area,

are

taken to the PCWcamp.

Members of the 5th Mar Regt move toward engage the North Korean forces.

the HAN River

to

R(X Marines l-1?ont lines

are loaded

on DUKW's prior area.

to moving to the

in the HAN River

The first

trainload.of

ROK troopa the attack

pulls

into

YONGDUNGPO

from INCHON before

on SEfYJL.

ROK Marines cut through the offensive

in DUKW's of the 5th Mar Regt, a field on their

1st Mar Div, during

way to the HAN River area.

launched

by UN Forces in that

AMTRAC's wait assault

orders

to cross

the IiAN River

to join

the

on SELXJL.

AMTRC*s fire bank.

on an enemy held town from the HAN River

Amphibious River into

vehicles SPIOUL.

of X Corps line

up to cross

the HAN

u s Marines, road after

riding in AMTRAO's use railroad tracks


making a crossing of the HA?: River

for

in KOBBL.

The railroad

bridge

spanning the HANRLvsr

fran YONGDuNGPoto sM)tJL


(in background). (Left)

Marine &@.nserS build raft on which to ferry

heavy equipment across

the HANRLver. (Right)

733 Fingr (C) Bn bridges


a aall stream in
SCSA,

KOREA. (Left)

A DUKWstarts

up the bank
on the

of the HAN River

SDX%Lside with men ary3


Supplies of the 32d J XT.

along the north the HAN River WaY to SKmL.

side of on their

along

the north

side of on their

the HAN River way to SEOUL.

An amputation

in the field

being perfomed

by the Bn opposite

Surgeon of en Infentrg 3mxL. The soldier

battalion

on the HAN River

was wounded in the attack

on SEOUL.

Medics of the 5th Mar Regt use an AMTF@ and civilian litter front. beerera to evacuate wounded from the HAN River

The hel+x%s once stood

homeless survey

the ruins

where their

homes

in East SFJXL, KORIDL

Navy Corpsmen assigned Korean girl

to the 5th Mar Regt attend during the fighting at

who ~8s injured

the HAN River.

United fighting

Nations

troops of

in the streets

SEOUL, Capital

of KOREA.

Tanks, supported Infantry

by

advance through of SEOUL

the streets

A Marine casualty to the rear street during

is taken the

fighting

in SEOUL.

American rolling

M-26 tanks down the streets of SEDFL.

in the city

A tank of the 32d Inf Regt, throqzh 7th Div, breaks

a barricade

in SEDX. KOR&L

The combination of
Infantry .mtual and tank gives protection in

the street
SEOUL.

fightins

in

These pictures street effected fighting

are of the which of'

the capture

3EoUL, Capital

of KOREA.

Convoy accompanying SF.QULcrosses

G/A Douglas

MacArthur,

CINXX,

to

the HAN River

from KIWO Airfield.

The Korean Capitol returning

Building,

scene of the ceremonies of Xorea Gxernment.

SEOUL to the Republic

",/A r)c~;las &bessas

MacArt:hgr, guests

CISXX, cereof

L%EKrlnn .%ee (right ldsnt of Korea,

center), his

Pres-

atten3Lilg

expresses

-.onies tc r3store the ReF2blic

the Capital to its

&mititude XacArthur,

to the VI3 Forces am? G/k CIXCLW.

of :icrec

cgoniw

the

ceremonies

to

rertcre

t'.e

Capital,

sso-LIL,

to

The

Republic

of Korea, G/A Douglas Kackrthur,

CIKXINC, leads t&e

Lord' s ?rwer.

U.9 i-WY LOWS WAITING TO BE UN'LOAD~ IN THE ImHON HARBOR. THE ICM'SAREOPHZATEDTHIS FAR INTHEHARBQRONLYDURINGHI~TIDE.

TWOU S NAVY SAIIORS SIT STRANDB) CN AN ICM DUE TO LOWTIDE IN THJ?l HARBOROF IhlCHON. A 30 PT TIDE IS ONE OF THE GREATESTHAZARDSTO SMALL ANI) LARGE BOATS BRINGING IN hUCH NEEDEDSVPPLI5.