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HAND-BOOK
OP

CHINESE BUDDHISM
BEING

A SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY
WITH

VOCABULARIES OF BUDDHIST TERMS


in Pali, Singhalese, Siamese, Burmese, Tibetan, Mongolian

and Japanese.

BY

EBNEST J. ETTEL,

m. a., ph. d. (tubino)

Inspector qf Schools,

Hongkong

A CHINESE INDEX

K TAKAKUWA.
SECOND EDITION

486616
23.2.- -4-3

REVISED AND ENLARGED


TOKYO, SANSHUSHA.
1904

TOKYO
Printed by Saosbusha
Vo),

Nictaome, Mitoahiroebo, KabcIs.

REPRINTED IN CHINA

1939

PEEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


No
apology
is

though it is the Chinese religious

first

needed for the appearance attempt of its kind.

of this little book,

The student

of

literature

finds himself at ahnost every step

hampered by the continual recurrence of Sanskrit and other foreign terms embedded in the text, generally without a word of explanation. These form a series of vexatious riddles for a clue to which one has to go beyond the range of a Chinese
This is especially the case with Buddhist works, many which are simply translations from Sanskrit or P&li or Tibetan originals. Hence arises the need of a Dictionary like
library.

of

the present which aims at smoothing the pathway to an understanding of Buddhism and of native religions influenced by it. That this is a real want is proved by the cordial response with which the announcement of this publication has been
received.

No
sions,

but the
lias

doubt the present volume has many defects and omisauthor feels confident that it will enable any
acquired an ordinary acquaintance with the Chinese read and understand all the popular Buddhist

one who
classics,

language, to

from the study of which Missionaries and others have been deterred by the inability of Chinese Pundits to give any
assistance in that direction.

own
his

The author has not confined himself to the results of his investigations, but has freely drawn upon all books within reach from which information upon these topics could be
It
is

gleaned.

consequently his pleasant duty to acknowledge

the help thus derived. the most cordial

He
to

begs, in the

first

instance, to

give

thanks

the

venerable

Nestor of Chinese

Sanskrit studies, Stanislas Julien, whose most valuable works

have

been with

the exception of Chinese

texts the principal


all occasions.

source of reference and freely resorted to on

Tlie

author

is similaiiy

indebted to the works of the lamented E.

BuRNOUF, whose premature death has been a great loss to the students of Buddhism. To these names he must add that of
C. F. KoEPPEN, whose masterly exposition of the whole system
of

Buddhism has

greatly assisted the present writer to

under-

stand

many

intricate details of its

Chinese development.

The running title nderetood cwm grano


other

" Sanskrit Chinese Dictionary " is to


salts.

be

A
list,

comparatively small number of


to topographical subjects

terms

chiefly

referring

have

been inserted in the same


texts

because they occur in Chinese


sujficiently

mixed up with Sanskrit terms, but are not numerous to justify a separate alphabetical list.

As regards
of Julien

the Sanskrit and Pdli terms given in the book,

the author has in almost every instance the excellent authority

and Bumouf to

fall

back

upon.

The orthography

employed

in the transliteration of Sanskrit

generally adopted

by English

scholars,

and Pdli is not that but the French orthogra-

and Bumouf is retained, because it is to the works of these two Savants that every student of Chinese Buddhism will constantly refer. Theirs are works which cannot be dispensed with and will not easily be superseded. On the other hand, he has not slavishly followed their spelling, but has substituted s' for the peculiarly French 9 and likewise u

phy

of Julien

for on.
of

No

pronunciation

is

given for the Chinese renderings


comparatively useless

Indian terms, as any such attempt, besides unduly swelling

the bulk of the book, would have been


for the modorn systems of pronunciation

dialectically different

in the different pai-ts of

Chinadeviate

considerably

from the

mode

of

pronuniation which was in vogue

when

the respective

Chinese equivalents for Sanskrit and Pali terms were invented. To the language then spoken, in China no modem Chinese
dialect

comes nearer in sound than the very Sanskrit or P41i

forms themselves.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


After an interval of more than fifteen years, the publishers called for a new edition to satisfy a small continnoas demand.

1547 articles contained in the first edition have accoi-dingly been re-written with a view to condense as well as to correct the subject matter of the book, in order to

The whole

of the

admit

an addition of 577 new articles without materially increasing the bulk of the volume or omitting any point of The literature, the biography, and the philosophy of interest. Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism have been specially laid under
of

contribution to extend the usefulness of this

Handbook, whilst

the substitution of a Japanese Vocabulary in place of the former Chinese Index now makes the book a guide to the understand-

ing of Japanese as well as Chinese Buddhism.

The author has


ference

freely used whatever recent

works of

re-

command, but he desires specially to derived from Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue the help acknowledge o the Buddhist Tripitaka (Oxford, 1883) and the courteous aswere
at
his

sistance of the Kev. J. L.

Gordon, M. D,

who

furnished the

materials to the above mentioned Japanese Vocabulary.

Hongkong, March, 1888.

E.J.E.

t55

In translating the Chinese explanations


the author has aimed at verbal exactitude.

of Sanskrit phrases,

Where

the Chinese

explanation
of

is

ambiguous, he did not substitute a clearer form


considering
it

expression,

important to preserve the exact

in which Chinese Buddhists, more than a thousand years before European Scholai-s had discovered Sanskrit, under-

manner

stood and explained Sanskrit phraseology.

When

speaking of

the

foimder of Buddhism,

the

term

^^
tance,

S'akyamuni has been employed in accordance with Chinese usage, which prefers this title ^o that of Gautama. As the famous Chinese travellers Fah-hien and Hiuen-tsang had to be and refen-ed to very frequently, the Chinese symbols (see Mahay^ua deva and Mokchadeva) for their names

^^

have been omitted for the sake of brevity.


to the frequently recurring measures of disought to be understood that the value of a Chinese different periods of time, li has been differently computed in but it will be safe to count one Chinese li as equal to 329 French

With regard
it

metres or about one-sixth of an English mile.

Hongkong, February

1st,

1870.

E. J.

EITEL.

PART
-5*-<

I.

A SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

A
ABABA or HAHAVA
The
hells
|sp

fourth of the eight peculiar to Northern Buddhism. The beings imprisoned there cannot produce

'ABHAYAGIRI |^g|Ll litmount Fearless. A mountain cold


!

on Ceylon with an ancient monastery in which Fa-hien


(A.

D.

400)

found

5,000

articulate sound but this one, Ababa, their tongues being frozen.

any

priests.

ABHAYAGIRI VASINAH

^nj-

ABHASVAKA(Pali. Abhassara)
lit. all

piJ^RSfe -^ lit. light and


ha-svara) or by

brightness (a-bh4svara) explained by

sound (ablit.

of dwellers
less,

j^-^^
and
the

:J5jilf[5 school of the w(X)ded mount, or by i^;fot|fK lit. school of

or

on mount Fearby Ht.

extreme

light
of

purity.

The

sixth

eighteen

celestial

worlds called Brah-

malokas.

ABHASVARAS
saras.

(Pali.

Abhas-

whose

Tib. Od-gsal) lit. those nature is brightness,

d-bhasvai-as,

paI^qg^J0||

^^
lit.

orppf-^Hft^orpofgg
explained by

the secret forest, A schismatic philosophical School, a branch School. Sthavirah of the The adherents of this School called themselves disciples of Katydyana and studied the doctrines of both the small and great conveyance (v. Triyana).

devas of light and sound

J^g# ^^^ ABHATAMDADA who


lit.

he

procures removal

(abha-svara). The inhabitants of the third of the three

of fear. of

standing epithet
(v.

Kwan-yin

Avalokites'(Pali.

which from the second Dhydna.


celestial regions

vara.)

ABHtDHARMA
dhana.
or

Abhi-

ABHATA M-M.

lit.

fearless,

Singh.

Abhidhamma.
pjBlU^^

Tib. Tchos non pa)

an epitliet given Buddha.

to

every

PART

I.

explained

by

lit.

tradi-

cal

work ascribed

to

Kdtya-

tion, or

by

coming the law or conquering law, or by ^^J^^;^ ^^' Buddhaghosa peerless law.
defines Abhidliarma as that law (dharina) which goes beyond (abhi) the law, i.e. bylaw.

l^j^

lit.

over-

yana.

ABHIDHARMA
S'ASTRA
j',nj

HRIDAYA
>li> tiRB

philosophical Upadjita.

work

by

ABHIDftARMA KOCHA KA-

RaKA S'ASTRA

pSflBft^

ABHIDHARMA PITAKA

lit.

the collection of dis-

A work by SamghabliJMira. KOCHA ABHIDHARMA


S'lSTRA ppjHlt^Jgia^

courses. divisions

One
of

of

the

three

the Buddhist canon (v. Tripitaka) comprehending aU. philosophical works. Its first compilation is ascribed to Mahdkas'yapa, but it does not as a whole belong to the primitive period of Buddhism. This section of the Chinese canon is subdivided into 1.

^A

tract

by Vasubaudhu

refuting the doctrines of the

Vibhacha School.

ABHIDHARMAMRITA

S'AS-

philosophical

work

by

Ghosha.

-^^^

ABHIDHARMA PRAKARANA PADA S'ASTRA


sophical
niitra.

^^
Vasu-

or

Abhibharma of the Mahayana School, 2. /Jn^ or the Abhidharma of School, and 3. Hinayana the
the

treatise

by

ABHIDHARMA PRAKARANA S'ASANA S'ASTRA ^i|^ A philosophical trea-

discourses

included

in

the
tise

canon during the Sung and

by Sanghabhadra.

Yuen
1368).

dynasties

(A.D.

960-

ABHIDHARMA PRAKAS'A SADHANA S'ASTRA ppj|ij|.


phical
Is'vara.

ABHIDHARMA DHARMA SKANDHA PADAS* ASTRA


philosophical

work,

attributed

to

work by Mau-

ABHIDHARMA S'ASTRA

dgalyAyana.

fh^ A
ASTRA

philosophical

work
S'-

DJNANA by Vasubandhu. ABHIDHARMA PRASTHANA S' ASTRA pj ABHIDHARMAVATARA

AM^ilMM^

philosopliical

work by Arya

SANSKMT-OHINESE DICTIONAKT.
Skandharatna.

ABHIDHARMA MAHAVIBHACHA S'ASTRA pSfffl^^ B^&:^f^im ^ ^^^'^


*'*'-

ABfflSHEKAIE iJjglg An exclamation ('con-

secrate

me by

sisting of 100,000 stanzas, the compilation of which is ascribed to the five hundred

addressed in Tathagatas.

prayers

sprinkling') to

ABHTUTGATA RADJA -^

have Arhats supposed to formed the synod convoked by king Kanichka.

j^^

lit.

the

great

august

monarch.

Name of the Kalpa

ABHIDHARMA VIDJNANA KAYA pAdA S'ASTRA

in the course of which Subha vyuha is to be reborn as a Buddha.

ABIDA

V.

AMITABHA.
VE-

denying the existence of both ego and non-ego, by Devas'arma.


lectical treatise,

ABRAHMA TCHARITI
RAMANI
debauchery.

y^^^

no The thii-d of the


Ht.

ABHIDJNA DJNAS
Singh.
talents,

or

CHADABHI-

Abhinna. Abhignyawa) -;^ip


(Pali.

or ";^Sfti^ Six supernatural

which

S'akyamuni

ten rules for novices (v. S'ikchapada), enjoining abstinence from violation of the vow of chastity with the following clause, lay-men ought to abstain at least from fornica*

acquired in the night before

tion,

ecclesiastics

from

all

he became Buddha, and which every Arhat takes possession of by means of the fourth degree of Dhyana. Most Chinese texts reckon six such talents, while the
Singhalese

sexual intercourse.'

ACHTAU VIMOKCHAS.
under Vimokcha.

See

ACHADHA m^^:^
day

know only

The first month of summer, correspond-

five.

Sometimes however only

five

are mentioned. Particulars see urder Divyatchakchus, Divyas'rotra, Riddhisakchaltkriya,

ing to the time from the 16tli of the 4th Chinese moon to the 16th day of the 6th

moon.

Purvanivasdnusmiiti

djiiana, Parathittadjnana

and

ACHTA BUDDHAKA NAMA MAHATANA SUTRA

As'ravakchaya.

^^
S'A-

ABHIRATI
dom
of

fabulous realm situated East of our universe, the sphere of two Buddhas, Akchobhya and Merukuta.
joy.

^^^ A

lit.

king-

ACHTA DAS'A KAS'A


STRA

a book by Nagardjuna, introduced in China by Paramirtha, A. D. 557-689.

+A^^

Title of

PABT

I.

ACHTA

DAS'A S'ASTRA
of a booli.

NIKATA
^^^^

A+^

the images of the Triratna. According to Singhalese and Tibetan sources, the meaning
of adhimukti is inclination of the will. In the Lalitavistara
(q. V.) its

ACHTAPAS'A nIrAKA St-

A 1^^+A^^g
Title of a book.

meaning seems to

be

'

intelligence.*

Bumouf
by ^

ACHTA MANDALAKA
Title of a book.

SU-

translates it 'confidence.'

sometimes

ADHYATMA VIDYi p^^


lit.

ACHTA SAHASRIKA PRADJ&A PARAMITA SUTRA


Title of

the
of

esoteric

luminary.

One

the

J^Hg Pantcha
(q. v.)

Vidyd S'astras

ADINNADANA VllRMIANI

a book.

^jm^
theft

lit.

abstinence from

ADBHUTA DHARMA

and robbery.

See Sik-

^^
lit.

^bJ-^

chx)a'da.

explained

by ^'g*;g'

fore, i.e. marvels.

Avbat never took place besection

ADJAtAS'ATRU
tasattu.

of

prising books on
events.

Buddhist literature commiraculous

(Pdli. AdjASingh. Aja'sat. Tib. MassKjessdGra) or Kchema-

dars'in

pSfH^^Dflyg^
explained
lit.

or

ADHIMATRA
-jr^
of the
lit.

KARUNIKA

PflfMtfri

by^

great mercy. One Mahabrahmanas who

^^

an enemy before

he was bom, or no enmity


in the lieart, or (as the Tibetans explain it) ' not creating himself any enemies.' king of Magadha, son of king Bimbisara, originally one of

appeared from the South East Mahabhidjiia worship to djnana bhibhu.

ADHIMUKTI
ti.

(Pali.
lit.

Adhimutattention,

Tib. Mos-pa)

S'4kyamuui's most formidable Converted to Buddhism, he became famous


opponents.
in almsgivdied 24 3'ears after S'akyamuni (about 619 B. Ch.) His son and successor was UdAyi. There is a daughter mentioned Adjdtas'atru of under the name ^nfJlLj^
for his liberality
ing.

by

ffl

|#

lit

pious thought-

He

fulness

which
oil of

is

as an example of mentioned the light-

ing of a lamp fed with the three flowers (Sandal,

Soma and Tchampaka) and


the placing this lamp before

Asuddharda According

to

SANSKBIT-CHINESE DIOTIONART.

Tibetan legend, an infant son


of Adj^tas'atru was kidnapped, exposed at the roadside and finally made king of

RT^SISSn

explained as

Tibet under the ritsanpo

name Njak-

the latter Sseger Ssandalitu or Kiisiihu


call

The Mongols

(^ ^

if

^ ^),

an automat (Bpf^ Adjnana) of the Kdundinya (f^f^i/n) family. A famous disciple of S'dkyamuni, more commonly quoted as Kaundinya (q.v.).

schiretu.

ADJITAVATI
VATI.

ADJATAS'ATRU KAUKRIT-

TYA VINODANA MAHAYANA SUTRA ^^^f^


"tttBE^S
Title of a book.

HIRANYAADYACHAYASANTCHODA StTRA a^&m^s


V.

,iKi^ Title of a book.

ADJITA
^jita)

^^^
by

(Pali.

Adjita.

Singh,

AGAMA fpf^^
explained
peerless
lit.

or

fpf^^
lit.

or

pSf^^
^i*-

by
law,

^J4*y^
or

by

explained
invincible.

|Bfefg0

title which S'akyamuni gave to Maitreya, and which is now the stand-

system of teaching. A section of Buddhist literature unknown to Nepaulese Buddhism. Like the Singhalese, the Chinese Buddhists divide
the Sutras of the small conveyance-school (v. Hinayana) into the following four classes

^j^

ing epithet of the

latter.

ADJITA KiS'A KAMBALA


(Pali. Adjita

Kesa Kambali.

(Bl'^)-

(^)-

Dirghagamas

Singh. Ajita Kasa Kambala) lit. the invincible one, who wears his hair for a covering
the six Tirthyas, the head of

(Singh, digha nikayo or dik sangi) # Pqt-^ long a^amas

compilations treating on cos-

mogony.

(2)

Madhyamaga-

mas
or
lit.

a brahminical ascetic sect, whose favourite dogma was the impermanency, the continuous self-destruction and
consequent
things.

(Singh, majjhiraa nikayo medun sangi) tflKnT-^


;

middling dgamas works on metaphysics. (3.) Samyuktagamas (Singh, sanyutta nikayo or sanyut sangi)
Kpf >4j
treatises
lit.

unreality

of

all

^t
con-

mixed

agaraas

ADJNATA KAUNpiNYA or ADJNANA KAuNDINYA


(Tib

on

ecstatic

Koun ches Kdundinya)

templation. (4.) EkottarSgamas (Singh, anguttara nikayo or angotra sangi) i^Jffij^

PART
numerical agamas
being
gene-

I.

lit.

duces a sound like Ahaha.

ral compilations, the

subject

matter

arranged

nu-

AHARA AHARA MAMAYUH


SANTARANI igj^^P^g
j^

merically.

AGNI

or

AKNI fp^^/g Name

Central in of a kingdom Asia, situated to the North of lake Lop.

An

exclamation

('

give

me, give me, old age, oh protector ') addressed in prayers

AGNI
JU
of of

DHATU SAMADHI to Tathdgatas. Bi^ the contemplation AHIKCHETRA or AHIKHAthe world on fire, a degree TRA pjfl ^1^ ^ "^ ^^' ecstatic contemplation (v.
cient
city

Samddhi.)

and kingdom

in

AGNIVAS'AYANA
givessayana).
v.

(PaU.

Ag-

DIRGHA-

Central India, on the northern bank of the Kalinadi, north Pantchdla (the present of

Duab). NAKHA. AGRA PRADIPA DHARANI AHORATRA


Title of a book.

_ g _^;^

lit.

one day and one night.

AGURU

division of time.

(Beng. Agur. Ai-ab. Ayalugi. Pers. Ayalur chee or Cud Hindee. Tib. Akaru) literally not heavy ^4^IJM

AIS'VARIKAS pSj^ggR A
theistic

by ^jfTk.^^ ^^*perfume immersed in water. Agallochum or lignum Aloes, the the decayed root of
explained
Aquilaria

School of Nepaul, which set up Adi Buddha as a supreme divinity. It never in followei-s found any
China.
(Pali.

AKANICHTHA
taka. Tib!

Akanis-

Ahalim or Hebrews.

agallocha. Alialoth of

The
the

Og

min)

^3^3/^
^i*-

plained by

AGURU SUTRA RTAIB Title of a book. AHAHA or HAHAVA

^ ^

*^^

final limits of the The last of the desire.

world of

The

fifth

of

the

eight

cold hells (unknown to Southern Buddhism), so called because the cold is there so intense that the damned spirits cannot stir nor speak, whilst the cold air, passiug through their throats, pro-

eighteen Brahmalokas, called Athe highest. kanis'ta i. e, Originally only sixteen Brah-

ern

malokas were known. NorthBuddhism added two, happy which are called ^S

birth

and

j^^

happy

love.

Singhalese Buddhists only sixteen.

count

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

AKANICHTHAS fe^^5c AKCHOBHYA pa)


The devas inhabiting the
final

(Tib.

Hkhrougs

per^lSgp

OT

pp^pg^

limits of the world of desire. The inhabitants of the ninth and last region of the fourth Dhjana, appropriately called

lit.

*the highest ones.'

AKAS'AGARBHA

book, gupta, A. D. 587.

e a ^^^mrnrn by Djnanatranslated
of

SUTRA

motionless. 1. A numeral term equal to 1 followed by 17 ciphers. 2. A fabulous Buddha mentioned as a contemporary of S'akyamuni and said to reside in a realm also called Abhirati. See under DjMndkara.
,

AKAS'AGARBHA BODHISA- AKCHOBHYASYA TATHAMAHAYINA TTVA DHARANI SUTRA GATASYA SUTRA pSfP^i^llg TiUe
of

book,

translated

by

of

a book.

Dhannamitra,
479.

A.

D.

420 aktntchavyayatana i^
in tion
of

AKAS'A
Buddha
the
fifth

PRATICHTHITA
dwelling

lit. f&iM/i: empty space.

state

of

absolutely nothing.
of ecstatic

having degree

fabulous

meditation

living somewhere to South of our universe.

(^),
mongs
of

See Samadhi.

He was

at a former time the Mahabliidjna son of

AKLES'A
med)
ruption. Asita.

(Tib.
lit.

Non

^)
A

without cor-

djndna bhibhu.

cognomen

AKCHARAMATI NIRDES'A

NAMA MAHAYANA
EA
of
ft

fpfg^^^M m
book.
i\

SUT- ALNI
Title

AKCHAYAMATI 4^

^off Ij jg of a kingdom, which formed part of ancient Tokhard, situated near to the sources of the Oxus, to the North of
or

or

ARNI

Name

lit

the

Bodhisattva

of
fic-

Munkau.

exhaustless meaning.
titious

AMALAKA
/jJH^
lit.

AMALAEA.Rby

being to whom S'akyamuni addressed a series of i-emarks about AvalokitesVara.

explained

^g

AKCHAYAMATI PARIPRITCHTCH'A
Title of

^m^m^m^

a book, translated by Bodhirutchi, A.D. 618907.,

AMITABHA

precious vase. The fruit of the Phyllanthus emblica or the Mirobolana emblica, used^as a medicine. (variations of the same name are Amita, Abida,

PART
Amitayxis, AmitaTib. Od dPag med or or Hopame)

I.

AmitAya,
rus'i.

pfj^ l^'g^jP
by

been originated by Persian or Manichaean ideas influencing the Buddhism of Cash-

W^
lit.

explained

|^^^

mere and NepauL For must have been from one


these
countries
of

it

of

that

the

boundless age. This explanation rests on a miscon-

dogma

ception of the original mean-

ing of Amitabha i.e. boundless light, but the latter idea is preserved in one of the many titles of this fabulous

Buddha

^fi;^H^
^it.

lit.

bo-

undless light. are 'W'JC-^^^


great
light,

Other

titles

reached China, when a priest from Tokhara brought (147 A. D.) the first Amitabha Sutra to It is remarkable that China the Chinese travellers Fahien and Hiuen-tsang omit Southern all mention of it. Buddhism knows no Amita,
neither are there any traces of a Brahminical or Vedic origin of this doctrine. The most ancient Sutras brought
to

Amita

diffusing
lit-

"^^^^
teacher
of

sovereign

the
I

Western Heaven,
lit.

^"^^S
West,

guide to the
lit.

-4^

of

it,

China make no mention and the first that al-

S^-^r"^
original

great mercy and

sympath'y,

;$:6{|l^f^
lit.

^t.

teacher Upadhyaya,

^W"^:^

embodiment

of the sphere of the law. As the derivation of the term itself suggests, Amita was originally conceived of as

ludes to Amita, the Araitayus Sutra, translated A. D. 148 170, was, like others of the same class, already lost when well-known catalogue the compiled, K'ai-yueulu was A.D. 730. When the so-called Lotus-school or Pure-landor school

^:fg^
to

^-{-^

impersonal, as the ideal of bouudless light. Considering also the mention made of his name in a list of one thou-

began

flourish,

and the

poetic tenets of this school, referring to a paradise in the West, began

peculiarly

sand fictitious Buddhas which reminds one of the thousand


Zarathustras of the Persians, and which was propagated

to

influence

the

common
the

people,
favourite
dhists.

Amita
of

became

Chinese
is

by

tlie

Mahdyana-school
it is

He

Budnow by far

the most popular

Buddha

in

(about 300 A.D.),


natural,
in

but
of

China.

authentic

the absence information as


it

to

There

the origin of this dogma, to

some confused are traditions as regards the antecedents of Amita.

suppose

that

may have

One account

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.
describes
tion
(q.v.),

him as an incarnathe

equivalent

of

Nirvana,
of

the

of

ninth

son

of

MaL&bhidjna

djuan&bhibhu

haven of final from the eddies


gration.

redemption
transmi-

whilst another account alleges that he was the second son of a Tchakravarti of the lunar race and, like his father, called (Kau-

AMITABHA VYUHA SUTEA


rH5CK
translation,

f^/^3|n

'(tm Title of a made A.D. 222

280.

alleged that he was converted by a Buddha called -ffrg;^^


(Sahes'vararadja),

s'ika).

It is further

AMITAYUR VYUHA SUTKA


Title of a translation by Fahien, A.D. 9821,001.

embraced the

that religious

he
life,

certain vows and was reborn as a Buddha in Suk-

made

AMITAYUSHA VYUHA

havati

(q.v.),

tes'vara

and

where AvalokiMahasthanap^

a:*io*#
by A.D. 618907.
translation

Titi

^n

Bodhimtchi,

rapta joined him. According to the


of

teaching

AMLA

or

AMLIKA
or

the

Amita
ni,

School, is looked upon as the

Mahayana

^^KM

The Tamarindus

indica.

celestial reflex of

S akyamuand as having, by dint


contemplation
(dliyana),
viz.,

AMOGHA
explamed
lit.

AIMOGHAVA-

of

by

produced a spiritual sou,

Padmapani (i. e. Avalokites'vara). The Nepaulese doctrine, of a primoixlidl Buddha (Adi-Buddha) having
procreated

the vadjra which is not hollow. S'ramana of northern India, a follower of the

;^^^j|[J

mystic
to

teachings

attributed

Amita,

been adopted Buddhism.

by

has not Chinese

The doctrine of Amitabha and his pai-adise in the

West

(v.

Sukhavati)

is,

strict-

ly speaking, no contradiction of the theory of Nirvdna, for


it

does

circle

though

iuten-upt the of transmigration, it ofiers to the de-

not

Samantabhadra. He followed his teacher, Vadjrabodhi, to China (A.D. 719) and eventually succeeded him in the leadership of the Yogatcharya School (A,D. 732). From a journey through India and Ceylon (A.D. 741 746), he brought to China more than 500 Sutras and

S'asti-as previously

unknown
trans-

in China.
literation

He
of

votee of Amitabha aeons of rest. But the popular mind does, indeed, understand his paradise to be the practical

introduced a
the

new alphabet

for

Sanskrit and published 108 works, mostly translations. He introduced

10

PABT
the All-souls-festival (v. Uluniversally so lambana), popular in China to the present day. He is the chief representative of Buddhist mysticism in China, which he succeeded in spreading widely through the patronage of three successive emperors, Hiuen-tsung (A.D. 713 viz. 756), who prohibited his retiring to India (A.D. 749),

I.

Bodhirutchi, A.D.

618907.

AMOGHA

PAS'A KALPARAa translation

"^^
b^
709.

Title of

iBodhirutchi, A.

D.

707

AMOGHA
:^

PAS'A

MANTRA
by

SUTRA i%m-4^^m0.%
Title of a translation

Sutsung
pitaka

(A. D.

756763),
title

who gave him

Djuanagupta A.D. 587.

and
or

others,

the

Tri-

Bhadanta

H^^^

AMRA

or

AMRATCA

AMAfruit

^^^ Taitsuug (A.D. ~*IK)' 763780), who gave him, when he died (A.D. 774), the rank of a Minister of State and a posthumous title. He
is

KpT^KI
of

tree,
is

the

which

described

and

commonly

referred

to

as

a cross between a plum The mango a pear. which is also called tree,
as

y^^

(Amc^ha).

Mahapala

(^^^M)'

^^'"^

PAS'ARDDHIAMOGHA SUTHRTDAYA MANTRA


Title

the Malay rendering of which the word raaugo is derived.

a tiauslation, of Hiuehlsang, A.D. 659.

by

AMRADARIKA or AMRAPALI or AMBAPALt


(lit.

the

guardian

of

the
or

Amra

tree)

AMOGHAPAS'A DHARAJSfl SUTRA :^.^^,mtm


Jp^
Title of a translation,

^j^M'Af
lit.

^^SS-/r
girl.

the

Amra

A female devotee who presented to S'dkyamuni the

A.D. 618907.

AMOGHA

HRIDAYA MAISTRA RADJA SUTRA


PAS'A

Amravana garden plum garden). Legends firm that she was bom
an

f^^
See

lit.

af-

^^^^^ll^jlEEg
of a translation tchinta, A.D. 693.

Title

Amra

tree.

of also

Djivaka.

by Ratna-

AMRADARIKA sCtRA ^-^

AMOGHAPAS'A
Title
of

HRIDAYA
by

Title ot a book.
(Tib.

StJTRA;f;^||^^,j^,|g AMRITA
a
translation

Bdoud

rtsi)

(ig

or DiiK^BrKcWir ex-

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY,
plained by

11 A. D.

"H*^

lit.

sweet

W.&
ANANDA

by-Divakara,

dew.
the

The ambrosiaii food of immortals. In Hindoostaui the guava fniit is now called amrut.
(Tib.

618907;

^l^^gg by
Kun dgah

BodhirutchirA.D. 386534.
(Tib.
''''

AMRITODANA rIdJA
Bdoud
dana)
rtsi

Pnlltl>'&

zas

Pali.

Amitoli*-

by

WH

bo) explained

HJcS
the

^*' ^^^'

^ ^^

^^

"y*^^3
who
feasted

^^^

king

on

am-

Dronodana, called Ananda (joy), because he was born


at

prince of Magadbrosia. ha, father of Anuruddha and Bhadrika, uncle of S'akya-

moment

wlien S'4k-

muni.

ANABHKAKA

(Tib^ Sprin lit* med) lit. cloudless The second happy love.

yamuni attained to BuddhaUnder^ the teaching of ship. the latter, Ananda became an Arhat, famed especially
for his

sg^

memory

or experience

(^^y

The compilation and

region of the fourth Dhydna inhabited by devas (q. v.),


called

Anabhrakas.

The

edition of the earliest Sutras Before is attributed to him. his death (B.C. 866 or 463),

eleventh Brahmaloka.

ANAGAMm (Singh.
Tib. Phyir

Andgami. mi hong ba) KpT

M^
lit.
lit.

by yf^ not returning, or by yTv^^ not coming i. e. not to


explained

he appointed S'anavasika as his successor and dispatched his second disciple, Madhvantika, to convert Cashmere. Ananda is to re-appear on earth as Buddha Sigara varadhara buddhi vikriditabhidjria.

be reborn into the world of de.sire. The third degree of


saintship, the third
class
of

ANANDAPURAppjUIJ^^II A kingdom and city in


western India, N.E. of Guthe present Bamagar, jerat near Kurree. It was one of the strongholds of the Jain
;

embracing all those who are no more liable to be reborn as men, though they are to be bom once
Aryas,

more

as

devas,

when they

sect.

will forthwith

become Arhats

ANANTAMATI M-g-^
dipa.

lit.

and enter Nirvana.

ANAKCHARA GRANTHAKA ROTCHANA GARBHA SUTRA.


Title of three translations, viz.

boundless meaning. The third son of Tchandra surya pra-

ANANTAMUKHA SADHAKA
DHARANI.
Title translations, viz.
of

-X^^^t^:^
^y
r>ivakara,

eight

it^^WM.
A.D. 683;

/&3&^-g-

xmmMitm

12
280;

PABT

I.

^mm^Mmmw by ^ 317-420;
Buddhabhadra, A.D.
s'&nta A.D.

wealthy

householder

(v.

^mt^J^M
286534

Grihapati) of S'ravasti, famous for his liberality. See also Sudatta and Y&is'&kha.

ANATMA

or

ANATMAKA

(Tib. stong

pa nyid)

A.D. 420-^79;
bhadra, A.D.
ghap&la, A.D.

lf^

lit.

<i;gtSrWt

ppf||Peg byGuna420479; -^
502657;

no ego. A metaphysical term designating self-inani-

^^

tion, vacuity, impersonality, as the aim and end of philosophic speculation.

A
H^

ANAVADATA

v.

Anavatapta.

Djfidnagupta. A.D. 585;

ANAVANATAMITA YAYANTA

VATDJ-

618907

ANAJ^TAMUKHA VINIS'OD-

HANA NIRDiS'A
j^-^
907.
Title of a

tei*,^^!:

maintaining aloft the victorious banner. Name of the realm in which Ananda is to re-appear as Buddha.

translation

ANAVATAPTA or ANAVADATA^ (Pali. Andtattha.


Anotatta. Siam. Tib. Ma dros pa.

by Bodhirutchi, A.D. 618

Singh. ^ ADodatasa.

ANANTA TCHARITKA
ft
lit.

imliraited action.

^^ A
who

Mong. Maor

pam

dalai)

fpfJIS^^^

fictitious

Bodhisattva

rose out of the earth.

ANATHA PINDIKA or ANATHA PINDADA (Pali. Anepida.

plained
the

by

^f^lf J^

Ht.

lake

Tib.
(lit.

Mgon
one who

sbyin

raed zas gives a-

his own without keeping (an^tha) a mouth full (pinda) for himself,

way

pindada grihapati), explained


l>y

mmmmm^
'f^^^
^ifefe
lit.

|ijjf5|5-f||^^ (""'*

lit.

supporter of
or

destitutes

and orphans,

trouble. plateau, N. of the Himalaya. to be square, It is said measuring 50 yodjanas in circumference, and sending forth from each side a large river, viz. in the East the S'itd, in the South the Gtangd, in the West the Sindhu and in the North the Vakchu.

without heat or lake on a high

by

a pious donor.

What

is

meant,

is

perhaps

the Manasarovana lake (Lat.

8AN8KBIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.

13

Sr

N. Long.

8P

3.),

which

aRgulimaliya sx)tra

seasons overflows and forms one lake with lake Koodh (ten miles distant), which latter sends forth one river, the S'atadru. The sources of three other rivers,
at certain

18WMM

'^^^^^

a trans-

^
lit.

lation by Gunabhadra, A.D. 420479.

ANGULIPARVA finger-joint. A
24th
pai't

J||j^

Bhramaputra, Ganges and Oxus lie within a short radins around those two lakes. Hiuentsang (incorrectly) identifies the Anavatapta
vix.

measure, the of a fore arm

(Hasta).

AmLAMBHA SAMADHI ^ ^ ^ the cause-less


lit.

lake with lake Sirikol (Lat. 3820 N.) on the plateau of

saraadhi.

degree of Samd(Tib.

dhi

(q. v.).

Pamir. ANAVATAPTA NAGARIdJA ANIRUDDHA

Mah hgags

PARIPRITCHTCH'A

SUby
explained
poor,

^
in

TRA E^5/.iiJt^S:t
Title of a translation

by

^"^

Ut.
lit.

not not

Dharmarakcha, A.D. 308.

and by
of

ANDHRA.
between

ggg A kingdom
(Tib.

extinguished.
disciple

^^ Name
'

of

S'akyamuni,

southern India, situated the Krishna and GtDdavari, with the capital Vingila (q. v.).

who

being

himself not poor', supported, during a famine,

many

ANGARAKA
fe
lit.

Mig

dra.^r)

Pratyeka Buddhas, which charitable act caiised among the devas a joy which
is,

to the

present day, 'not

tire star.

The planet

extinguished.'

He

is

to

re-

Mars.

ANGIRASA
cient

^>^^

An

anof

appear on earth as Buddha Samantapmbhasa. See also Anuruddha.

Richi,

an ancestor

Sakyamuni.

AMTYA
helmet.

V.

Trividya.

ANGULIMALIIA
gulimala)

ANS'UVARMMA
(Singh. Anor

explained by

^S^flJ^H e^pi'^i^^^ by ^MW. JIM


lit.

-^-^

^|^^0 bright
lit.

King

of

ancient

rosaiy of fingerbones. as

A
a

S'ivaitic sect of fanatics

who
them

Nepaul, descendant of the Litchhavis (q. v.), author of the S'abdavidya S'astra.

practised assassination
religious act.

One

ANTARABHAVA SUTRA
j^^M
Title of

of

tp

was

converted

by

S'ak-

a translation.

yamnni.

A.D. 384417.

14

PART

I.

ANTABAVASAKA
explained

by

pg
lit.

-g-

explanation

is

based

on a

skirt.

sort of waistcoat, worn priests instead of a shirt.

by

derivation of the term from anu (lit. conformity). Anurud-

dha was a son of Amritodana and therefore cousin german


to

ANTIMA DEHA DHARINO


for the last time in a body. The last stage in the process of transmigration, preceding

S'dkyamuni, at whose death he was present.

ANUTTARA BODHI

@
^

^ J-^^
intel-

lit.

unrivalled

Nirvana.

ligence.

ANU
na

ppJll

or

^gg

lit.

fine

ANUTTARA DHARMA
lit.

|ft J^

dust.

(q.v.),

division ivis of a yodjaequal to 7 atoms

peerless law.

of dust.

ANUPADHIS'ECHA
lit.

^^
Ira-

ANUTTARA SAMYAK SAMBODHI unexcelled perfect intelligence KofiM^^


lit.

without

remnants.
as

materiality,
of

an attribute tho3e who have entered

^U

H|^H#|g

explained by
(anuttara)

unexcelled

Nirvana.

jTp/g correct equality (samyak) and


telligence

ANUPAPADAKA or AUPAPADUKA (Pali. Opap4tika.


Aupapatika. Brdzus te skyes pa)
Siugli.
lit,

TFi#

correct

in-

(sambodlii).
of

An

Tib.

^'fk

birth by transformation. One of the Tchatur yoni (q. viz. supernatural birth v.), (from a lotusflower, etc.) in full maturity, such as is ascribed to Buddhas and Boddhisiittvas, the latter coming, from Tuchita, by this birth into the world.

every Buddha, otherwise explained as signifying untarnished (a ) and


epithet

unparalleled (nuttara) correct complete view (sam) and

wisdom (myak) with complete


highest possession of the sentiments (sambodhi).

APALALA
source
v.),

pSfi'jJgll naga (guardian spirit) of the


of
(q.

The

ANURUDDHA |f ;|t
explained by 'f/n'g'
formity,

f'g fSf

lit.

conlit.

yamuni

the S'ubhavastu converted by S'4kshortly before the

and by

^"^

latter's death.

not poor. Tlie latter explanation properly refers to Aniruddha (q. v.) with whom

APARADJITA
Title
of

DHARANI.
tra.uslations,

three

Aniruddha
Chinese

is

identified

in

texts.

The former

ISJE

(see also

Dhvadjd-

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
grakeyiiradMraTii),

15

^f|^
GHODAraarako

Asakrit Sain&dhi.

APRAMInABHA mana) ^^-)^


light.

(Pdli.
lit.

Apra-

unlimited
sixteen

APARA.GODANA

The fifth of the


(Tib.

or

Brahmalokas.

HANYA

(Siam.

Jaua Tliavib. Tib. Noub Kyi va lang spyod P^jg^^S^

APRANABHAS
med
od)

Tshad
lit-

^^^

un-

limited. Tlie second region of the second Dhydna, in-

habited by devas.
or

U5PJE

^^Plained
*

in

the cjontinent in the West (apara) where the people use cattle (go) in place of money(ddna)'. One of the four continents of every universe, situated

Chinese texts as

APRAMANAS'UBHA
lit.

unlimited purity. The second region of the third Dhyanas, inhabited by devas.

^^^

APSARAS

(Tib.

W.
in

Lhahi bou mo)


At-

of

Sumeru

(q.v.),

circular

^-^

lit.

female devas.
the

shape, the faces of the inhabitants being also circular.

tendants on

APARIMITAYUS StJTRA

regents of sun and moon, wives of Gandliarvas, and other female devas.

APTANETRAVANA %^^i^
lit.

ceming AmitAbha, translated by Samghavarman, A.D.


252.

the forest of the recovered

eyes.

APARIMITAYUS
s'ASTRA

81&TRA
Vasub-

ARADJAVARTAN Q|^
the

lit.

^/^ A
andhu

treatise

mmmmmm by
v.

a white elephant. The form in which S'dkyamuni entered

womb

of

MahAmdya.
path
i.e.

on the doctrine of Araitabha, translated by Bodhirutclii, A.D. 529.


(q.v.)

immaculate the immaculate (of Buddha).

The

conception

APAIIIVARTYA
and
Avivartita.

ARAJNYA
Avaivartya,

V.

-Dharraarakcha.
(Pali.

ARANYAKAH
kangga.
Tib.

Arannapa)

Dgon pa
in

APASMARAKA
A
class of

PST^^H
hostile to
v.

demons

men.

MWS
lit.

^^Pl^i^ed by

^H^

living

retiremejit

and

stillness; or Kpti^R'Lr or

APKBITSNA SAMADHI

or

[^

explained

16

PART

I.

by
of

^=^^

lit-

DO sound

of

viz,

r^^'flh lit.

deserving woris

strife..

General

ascetics hermits, of whom three classes

designation and especially


v.

ship.

The Arhat

the per-

are distinguished,

Dharma

fected Arya, and the state of Arhat can accordingly be atonly by tained passing

Aranyakah, Matanga Aranya-

through the different degrees


of saintship (v. Arya). ship implies, strictly
ing,

kah and Ddnataka Aranyakah.

AKATA
(Tib.

(or

Av^) KALAMA
rtsal

Sgyou

ches

kyi

of possession natural powers and successive

Arhatspeaksuper-

bou ring hpliour piT^jjJn^


or

^^j!jn One

of the tirst

Nirvana. parlance

teachers of S'akyamuni.

ARBUDA ^J^P'g

The

first

of the eiglit cold hells, where the cold chaps (arbuda) the skin of the culprits.

ARHAN

or

ARHAT

(Singh,

and Burm. Rahat or Rahdn. Siam. Arahang. Tib. Dgra btshom pa. Mong. Daini daruksau or Chutuktu) KpTl^

SI ^M
(v.

^^

IM^
lit.

explained
of

by

promotion to Buddhaship and But in popular term the Arhat simply means an advanced disciple of S'akyamuni. The Chinese text of the Saddharma pundarika employs, accordingly, the term Arhat occasionally as a synonyme of S'ravaka (q. v.) and constantly includes under it the largest circle of 1200 disciples of S'akyamuni as well as the smaller ones of 500 and of 18 disciples. At present, the term ArliAn or Lo-hdn (|Sy||) is used as a
all of famous disciples of S'akyamuni, but denotes more especially those

Buddha Buddhaphalam). The


fruit

designation

original

meaning
is

of

Arhat

overlooked by Chinese commentators, who prefer the derivation aii-hat (destroyer of the enemy). The following two explanations are most common, viz., destroying the thief
(worthy)

500 Arhats who are to reappear on earth as Buddhas, each assuming then the title

Samantha prabhasa.
There are some attributes of every Buddhist saint which are often used as synonymes for the term Arhat, viz.,

^^
i.e.

conquering
yT^

all

and
i.e.

/^ exempt from

passions, birth

j^

fcft

destroying

the

thief
yT^

from transmigration.

third, less

common, explanation is perhaps based on the original meaning of Arhat,

(Kchinas'rava)

and

^
who

exempt from study


cha
opp.

(As'Aikf'ne

^-^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTION.VRY.
studies, S'aikcha).

17

fourfold
stations,

path.

Those

four

ARITI

V.

Hariti.
v.

AETHAS'IDDHI
thasiddba.

Sai-vart-

being accessible only through personal growth


in holiness, are called

pQ^
mean-

ARTHAVINIS'TCHATA DH-

ARMAPARIYATA
translation
rani,

f^ifjjg

the four fruits. Corresponding with this distinction of four stations or four fruits,

by Suvama Dhaor

and identic with it iu ing, is a distinction of


four

gg ::gfour

about A.D. 1113.

beings

or

fiQ^K

AHUNA ppJJ^
A
S. of

^jj^^p
(q.v.)

mountain (said to increase and decrease periodically),


Sphitavaras
or
iu

classes of Aryas. For particulars regarding this distinction, see under S'rotdpanna, Sakridagamin, Anagamiu
is

the Punjab.

AEIJPADHATU

ARtPAGzugs
3,

and Arhat. The title Arya also an epithet of every

VATCHARA
med
lit.

(Tib.

patriarch.

pai

khams)

^-fe

the

world

without

form

iETA DASA larigwD;^ or ^-^ holy apostle. A


lit.

third of the three worlds (v. Trailokya), towering above the Meru. That world in Avhich there is neither form nor sensation, comprising four heavens and forming the antechamber
(desire).

The

famous representative of the Mahdsamghikah School

ARYA DJAMBHALA DJALENDRA YATHALABDA KALPA SUTRA Sp

of NiiTana.

Title of a

transla-

tion

by Dharmadeva, A. D.

ARTA
gp
by
^

(Pali.

Ariya.
pa.

Singh.

960-1127.

Arya. Tib. Chutuktu).

Hphags

Mong.

explained
-

Mmw Mmm by ^
^
lit.

pSf^

or

pjj^
holy or

ARYAGAGANA G AND J A
PARIPRITCHTCH'A "gr^
.

PI

..

-^

lit.

the Reverend.
to

H^
(abstract).

Title of a

book

title

given
(q.v.)

those

who

have

the Aryani and thereby entered the Arya imarga i. e.

mastered

ARYA NAGARDJUNA BODHISATrV^A.


Title
of

satyani

SUHRILLEKA.
translations,

three

the Arya's path


tions,
is

to Nirvana. This path, having four sta-

Gunavarman,
A.T>.

called

UQ\^

the

431

m.

18

PART

I.

by Samghavarman, A.D. 434


A.D. 700-712.

ARYAS'URA

g^

lit.

Arya
the

the brave, or

H^S

lit.

iRYA PARS'VIKA v. Pdrs'va. ARYASATYANI or ARYANISATYANI


or

great Brave. An Indian Buddhist, author of several works.


or

TCHATURSA- ARYATARA
four dogmas.

SRAGDHARA

TYA gy^^

lit.

Four truths, the mastering of which constitutes an Arya They are, (1.) Dukha (q.v.V

vinity of the Tantra School.

ARYA TARABHADRA NAMA


ACHTAS'ATAKAM.
of three Title
(1.)

^=^

lit.

the

dogma

of

books

viz.,

misery, viz., that misery is a necessary concomitant of sentient existence ; (2.) Samuthe dogma lit. daya

mi
mil
or

(2)
(3-)

3^^
;

^mm^m^ m^m^mn
lit.

of

accumulation,
(3.)

viz.,

that

misery
lit.

is intensified

by the

passions

Nirodha
of

^=^
is

ARYAVARMMA
1^
holy helmet.
priest of the Sarvastivadah School, author of a work on the V4ibhachika philosopiiy-

the

dogma

viz.,

that

passion

the (and existence)


;

extinction, extinction of

practicable
lit.

(4.)

Marga jM"=^

the dogma of the path, viz., that there is a path (v.

ARYA VASUMITRA S'ASTRA


a book.

Arya) leading to
tion
of

tlie

passion

extinc(and ex-

istence).

ARYASENA
30
of

fSf

$gp J)f||S

or

AS'AIKCHA

see under Arhat.

lit.

holy army.

One

ASAKRIT

SAMADHI
the

(lit.

repeated samadhi)

^'fit'^
(in

the principal representa-

tives of the

Mahasamghikah

^
is

lit.

samadhi which
one

School (about A.D. 600).

not

collective

ARYASIMHA

gip^^^

or

degree of ecstaformula). tic contemplation.

Bhikchu. The 24th patriarch, a Brahman by birth, a native He died a of Central India. martyr's death in Cashmere
(A.D. 259).

ASAMGHA or ASANGHA or ARYASAMGHA fnj ff ffl


or

fe^

lit.

no contiguity.

native of GandhAra, origiof the nallv a follower

SAN8KBIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

19

He Maliis'dsakah School. mostly in Ayodhya (Oude). where he taught the principles of the Mahdydna School and wrote many works in explanation of its docStrongly influenced trines.
lived

hyea as equal to 1 followed by 97 cyphers, whence Burnouf

hyea
the

concluded that Asamkis the highest conven-

by Brahn.inism and S'ivaism, he became the founder of a new School, the Yogatcharya
or Tantra School, the tenets of which are expounded with
dialectic subtilty

sum constituted by highest odd units (7 and 9), suggesting also that the two numbers 7 and 9 have some mystic meaning. (2.) Name of a class of kalpas
tional
(q.v.).

Every Mahdkalpa

(q.

in

Asamgthe
re-

ha's

principal

work,

Yogatchdrya
(q. v.).

bhumi

s'astra

in every universe, of 4 Asamkhyea kalpas, viz., the period of destruction *^ peiiod of conV.) consists,

His teachings

i^.^)'

wide consequence
ceived

acceptation in of the belief that Asamgha had been miraculously transported to the

tinued destruction or emptiness (^#n); the period of

reproduction

or

formation

heaven Tuchita where Maitreya taught hira'the principles of the Tanti'asystem, and addressed to him the substance of the above mentioned S'astra. He is said to have lived 1000 years
after S'akyamuni,
i.e.

(iSSj)

'

*^ *^ period of

continued reproduction or settlement {^-ii^Y Rich of


these

Asamkhyea kalpas
20

is

subdivided into kalpas (/]>^).

small

about

ASANDJNI SATTVA RANGI SATTVA

or

A-

(P41i.

550 A.D. and as no translation of any of his works appeared earlier than 590 616 A.D., this date is probably near the mark.

Asanga satta. Singh. Assanja satthaya. Tib. Sems tchan hdou tches med) iffi^ lit.
without heat. The 15th of the 18 Brahmalokas. The 6th region of the 4th

ASAMKHYEA

(Pah.

Asam'

klieyya. Singh, Asankya.) Rqf

Dhyana.

iw^w
w^
countless.

'

explained
for

Mi^m by
The

^#^

ft ASALINI DHARMA S'ALA


lit.

^di^

lit.

the odd monas-

(1.)

highest

sum

which a conventional

term exists, according to Chinese calculations equal to 1 followed by 17 cyphers. Tibetan and Singhalese computations estimate one Asamk-

A ASAT ji^^
tery.

vihira in Kliarachar.
lit.

the incompre-

hensible nothing phical term.

philoso-

ASITA
Tib.

(Singh.

Nap po

or

Kala dewala. Traog srong

20
tsien po)

PART
ov

I.

piffiPg
or

|{pj^
exP''

a grandson of

Adjitas'atru'.
refei-s

or

The

latter

remark

^^J^
by

pqj^
lit'-

to

Kdlas'oka (453 B.C.) and not


to Dharmas'oka who was the grandson of Tchandragupta

plained
less.

^}^

riclii

('(jlj)

whom

S'akyamuni, in a former life, served as a slave. On S'akyamuni's subsequent re-birtli,


Asita
pointed

out

the

lak-

chanas (q.v.) on the child's body. One of the 18 Arhats /|Sj||V worshipped in China,
Asita, the Arya of See Ghridhrakuta.' also Akles'a and Tapasvi.
is called
'

(381 B.C.) and who reigned about 319 B.C. But the Chinese constantly confound these two. As'oka, they say, gained the throne by assassination
latives.

of

his

nearest

re-

mount

AS'MAGBHA
'^
or

(Pali.

Vadjira.
i.e.

Converted to Buddhism, through an Arhat whom he had boiled alive and who proved invulnerable, he became the Constantine of the Buddhist Church and
distinguished himself by the number of viharas and stupas

Tib. Rdohi snid sence of stone)

po

es-

pgf^^^g pjj^^^l'^ or
deposit,
lit.

explained M0.W^ stone

lit.

^ by ^ and by
of

he erected. He is supposed to be identic with the Piyadasi whose edicts are found
inscribed on pillars and rocks

i/#d^

amber.

One

the Saptaratua (q.v.), either amber (Remusat), or coral


(Julien), or
ouf),

diamond (Burn-

throughout India. His younger brother (correctly son ') was Mahendra. In the 17 th and 18th years of his reign the third synod was held by
'

or emerald (Wilson).
lit.

Mahamaudgalyayana.

(2.)

Name

of

a tree

AS'MAKtTA

(te^JJ^)
tree)

lit.

sorrowless

luider

stone heap momitain. The eastern border of the desert of Gobi.

which Mahamaya

(q.v.)

delivered without pain. Jouesia asoka.

was The

AS'OKA
dassi.

(Pali.

Asoka or PiaAsoka.
Tib.

Singh.

AS'OKADATTA
NA.
Title
of
tions, viz.,

VYAKARAtwo
transla-

gnan med pa. Mong. Chasalang oughei Noni un khagban) '

Mya

^f^M
'

MW
(1.)

^-Sf^^jSt-^
539,

by Buddhasauta, A.D.

ffilE^
texUs

^it-

sorrowless.

A king, described by
as

Chinese Tchakravartin,

rakcha A.D. 317.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY

21

AS'OKA RADJA DJATAKA

wwifli
TRA
420.

"^^^^^ ^^

^ ^^'
lit.

AS'OKA RADJAVADANA SU-

m^^mv^m

horse tamer.
(t.

(1.)

mi(2.)

Title

litai-y title

Upasena).

of a translation, A, D. 317

of one of the first five followers of S'akyamuni.

Name

A'SOKARAMA > .JA^ ^fin A vihara iu Pataliputtra


v.),

^^ ^
1/JU
rrrt-

(q.

AS'VAGHOCHA (Singh. sagutta) pBjg^^g^J>


M.

As^ or

in

which the third synod

P^

lit.

a horse neiehine:.
patriarch, a native

was

held.

The 12th

AS'OKA SUTRA
Title
of

^qj^^g
by
A(Pali.

of Benares, a noted ant^onist of Brahraanism.

He

a translation Saraghapala, A.D. 512.

AS'RAVAKCHAVA
savasamkhaya)
tion of faults,
lit.

>jp^

destrucor

yS

^
to

converted Kapimala, and is the author of a number of works. He is said to have died B.C. 327 (correct date about A. D. 100). His pos-

lit.

finality of the stream.

thumous

title

is

-tJT^

lit.

The Chinese explanation

de-

rives the term from tFe root to drop) and sups'ru

(^

absolute conqueror. The earliest translation of any of his works was .published in A.D. 405.

poses
refer

the
to
'

word
the

as'rava
'

stream of metempsychosis. Accordingly as'ravakchaya, one of the 6 Abhidjnas (q.v.)' designates supernatural knowledge of the finality of the stream
'

AS'VAGHOCHA BODHISATTV A DJATAKA Mngifei^


jS
Title of a

book

(abstract).

AS'VAKARNA
na. Siara.

(Pali.

Assakan-

of

Singh.

Aswakamna.
BnT^^^ilflK

life.'

ASURA

Assakan)

(Singh. Asur. Tib. Lha ma yin or Lha min. Mong. Assuri) or ppj^li^lg ^^^^ ^^

^^

explained MM^Mp: by horse ear


of the 7 concentric circles of goldhills which sur-

plained

MMM WMik by ^fe^


lit.

mountain.

;,^J^^I iitThe 5th

those

are not devas. The 4th class of sentient beings, the mightiest of all demons, titanic enemies of the devas.

who

/^^^J^,

round Sumeru, 2,500 yodjanas high and separated by oceans from the 4th and 6th circles. A Buddha, called
(lit.

AS'VADJIT
Tib.

Rta

(Singh. thoul)

MM^&& ^7^3^^ glory and


Assaji.

great

ruler
of

of

light,

title

22

PART
the Chinese god of fire), and mentioned in a list of 1,000 Boddha (of the last kalpa), is said to have lived on these

I.

series of duties for the same.

obligatory

ATCHINTYABUDDHAVITitle translations by Bodhirutchi, viz.,^:?^^^^-^^


of

mountains.

CHAYA NIKDES'A.
two

AS'VAYUDJA ^j^lf IMH


The
first

month

of

autumn.
province

ATALI
of the

Pofll:7flJ

^
of

kingdom
(Pali.

Malva.

ATCHINTYAPRABH A S A
lit.

ATAPAS
Mi

Atappa. Tib.

gdoung

ba)

^'^
The

BODHISATTVA NIRDES'A SUTRA ?r.sm^mm


^^1^
Title of a translation

without trouble.
of the 4th

13th

by Kumaradjiva, A.D. 384


417.

Brahmaloka The 5th region Dhyana.


|nifp:gl!:
;

ATATA

The 3rd

of

ATHARVA YEDA or ATHARVANA [HiT^^^^ explained


by

culprits'

where the the 8 cold hells lips are frozen, so that they can but utter this
sound, Ataia.

]l^W
or

lit.

rnagic incantalit.

tions,

:ff^|^ S'astra on magic, or by

by

i^

ATCHALA
satiable.

^Ij^Jg.

lit.

in-

Name
fpf |/f

of

Rak-

chasi.

ATCHARA
of the

kingdom
or ^

Arhat H An Andhra,
of

of calamity averting prayer. The 4th portion by the Veda, containing proand incantations verbs, magic formulas.
lit.

founder of a vihara.

ATIGUPTA Pnjifi^^
plained
finitely

exin-

by

ATCHAKYA

ATCHARIN
^^ ^^

mmmm mm^ mmm mmm m by ^


^

high.

^g^ A

lit.

explained
teacher

|^fggtli

India Central 630) introduced a Sutra called K'^M/g^^S*

native of who (A.D. into China

lit.

of

morals, or

ATMA MADA ^'^


ATMANEPADA A conjugation,

lit.

selfish

pride Spiritual selfishness.


able to elevate the conduct of one's disciples, or by Tp
:f=p
lit.

so called

be-

correct conduct.

(I.)

title of honour given to those who have passed througli the novitiate. (2.) A

cause the action is supposed to revert (pada) to oneself (^tmane), e. g. da (to give), to thus conjugated, means
*

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.
Chin.

23

give to oneself, to take'.

Kwanyin) or Aryava-

ATYANVAKELA PuJI^^S

lokites'vam

PiJT^JPjJf^^

An

ancient kingdom, the

country near Corachie (Lat. 24" 51 N. Long G?'* 16E).

AVABHASA
kingdom

of light

^@^ and

lit.

the

virtue.

5PM n"^ plained


by

correctly

ex-

||H

realm in which Mahakas'yapa is to be reborn


fabulous
as Baddha.

t5l:

lit.

on-

looking (avalokita) sovereign (is' vara). (1.) An Indian male divinity, unknown to South-

AVADANA
|J|^

pBIiglitlR or explained by

^D^
of

^
lit. lit.

em

Buddhism,

perhaps an

comparisons, or by Hj
illustrations.

One

twelve

ancient local deity of Southern India, adopted by the followers of the Mahayana School in India (especially in

classes of Sutras, illustrating doctrinal points by the use of metaphors and parables,

Magadha)

and

highly

re-

or stories.

AVADANA

StJTEA

|ij^g

by Dharmatrata, translated A. D. 399. See also Dharmapada.


Title of a Sutra

AVAIVARTIEA
miltog pa)

{Tib.

Phyir
lit.

^JjgU
(i. e.

not

turning

back

going

straight to Nirvana). An epithet of every Buddha.

AVAIVARTYA SUTEA APARIVARTYA SUTRA


^^

or

translation

^ ' mmwcmm by Dharmarakcha,

A.D. 284,
tita.

See

also Avivar-

AVAKAN
Spyan Mong.

v.

Invakan.
(Tib.

vered, from the 3rd to the 7th centuries, in conjunction with Mandjus'ri, as a Bodhisattva who, from of old, appeared on earth in a variety of places (but especially at Potala) and under numerous forms (but always as a male), saving for instance Simhala (q.v.) from shipwreck and generally acting as a sort of Saviour of the faithful, and bearing some similarities to Yislmu. (2.) The first male ancestor (Brasrinpo) of the Tibetan nation, the principal tutelary deity of Tibet, adopted by Tibetan Buddhism under the name Padmapani (i.e. lotus bearer or lotus- born) as an incarnation of Aval okites' vara, and highly revered, in

AVALOKITES'VARA
Ergetu

ras gzigs or Cenresig.

conjunction with Mandjus'ri (the representative of creative wisdom, corresponding with

Khorasim.

Brahma)

and

Vadjrapani

24
(the representative of

PART
divine

I.

ip

(v.

S'ubhavyuha), a ruler of

coiTesponding with India), as the representative of compassionate Providence (corresponding partly with conti'oller of the Shiva),
power,

a northern kingdom, supposed to be identic with ;^zp:

Chwang-wang
dynasty
(B.

of

the
696).

Chow

metempsychosis and special head of the present Buddhist


church.
lables

She was so determined, it is said, to become a nun, that she


C.

The six mystic sylom mani pad me hum

(q.Y.) are specially used to invoke this male deity, who is often represented with 11 heads (in 3 tiers) and 8 hands, and with the Shivaitic necklace of skulls. He is supposed to have appeared on earth in various iucamations as the spiritual mentor

absolutely refused to be married, even when put (by her father's order) to degrading duties in the convent. Her father ordered her to be executed with the sword, but the sword was broken into 1,000 pieces without hurting Her father then orderher.

of all believers, and especially to have been incarnate in the King of Tibet called Srong-tsan-gam-bo and in every successive Dalai Lama.

ed her to be stifled, when her soul left the body and went down to hell, but hell forthwith changed into para-

To save his hell, Yama sent her back to life, wheredise.

upon

she

was

miraculouly

The Tantra School of Tibet declared this Tibetan deity to be the Dhyani Bodhisattva (spiritual reflex in the world of forms, produced by contemplation) of Amitabha Buddha. His special sanctuary is on mount Potala in Lhassa. (3.) A Chinese female
probably an ancient local goddess of mercy
deity,

transported, on a lotus flower, to the P'ootoo island of (Potara), near Niugpo, where she lived for 9 years healing disease and saving mariners from shipwreck. Her father having fallen ill, she cut the
flesh off
it

into

her arms and made a medicine which


life.

saved his

To show

his

fand progeny), worsliipped in China, before the advent of Buddhism, under the name

a ordered gratitude, he statue to be erected in her


honour,
'

saying

with

completely

^^^|g formed

Kwanyin and adopted by Buddhists as an incarnation


of

(ts'uen),

arms and
for

the
the
*

sculptor

eyes', but misunderstood

Avalokites'vara (or Padmapani). According to Cliinese accounts, Kwanyin was the third daughter of ^^Ttt

order

^^^Jg
(ts'ien)

with

thousand

arms and eyes,' whence it happened that a statue with

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

25

a 1,000 eyes and 1,000 arms perpetuated her memory, and she was henceforth known

and worshipped by people desiring progeny. She is also styled Bodliisattva (q.
v.)

and revered as

^^^Qg
'the

and Abhayaihdada

(q.v.)

Some Chinese texts confound Kwanyin with Maitreya (q.


v.), because the former is tiie predicted successor of Amitabha, whilst Maitreya is to be the next Buddha to appear in this world. If other texts increase the confusion by identifying Kwanyin both with Maitreya and with Purna Maitrayani puttra (q. v.), the explanation is likeKwanyin 's wise ensy, for title -fr j^ (lit, great mercy)

who Bodhisattva Kwauyin has 1,000 arms and 1,000 eyes, great in mercy and great in To identify compassion.' Kwanyin as an incarnation of Avalokites'vara, her name was explainKwanvin

ed as meaning avalokita (^S


lit.

looking onj

svara
of

1^

lit.

sound
is also

ie.

prayers).

She

styled

|||^-^
on or
re-

Tfe

ht.

the sovereign (ishlooks

is

likely

with

that

varaj

who

3^pP-

to be confounded of Maitreya viz. lit. family of mercy


of

gards (avalokita) the sounds or prayers (svara), and, by


abbreviation,

and with that

|g [^

g :^

^^^

^M^
mercy.
sert

Purna

viz.

lit.

the son of

full

the sovereign (ishvara) who looks on the world (avalokiOther epithets are -x^ ta).
Jij^ig:
lit.

sound of the world

of

hght,

and

f9-

lit

looking controller (Kwanyin), which two epithets may be modern corrupt forms or archaic relics of her ancient

name. Kwanyin is also stylAbhytitgata (v. ed J^5^ radja) lit. the august monarch, and as such regarded as the
patron of those who are under criminal prosecution. Another
title is

the third son of the grihapati An&tha pindika of the bamboo garden Djetavana near the Gridhrakuta mountain, and was called Sudatta.' But as they add that this was but one of the many incarnations of Kwanyin, there is no contradiction in the statement,
'

Some texts also that Kwanyin was

as-

though

it

is

based

on

mistake, as Sudatta was the name of the father.

Q^;^^

li^-

AYALOKITES'VAEA BODHISATTVA SAMANTAMUKHAPAKrV^ARTA

^^^

white

robed great scholar, and as such she is represented with a baby on her arm

i^

Title of

a translation, of

26

PART
a
chapter

I.

from

the

Sud-

dharma pundarika, by Kumd(who translated the A.D. 384417, and by Djiianagupta(who translated the gathds), A.D. 557
I'adjiva

prose)

the Saramatah School, so called because its founder was, as a newborn babe, abandoned by his parents.

AVARAS'AILAH
y4s)

(Singh. SeU-

589.

pj>tfili^l|^''lil
^^^-

AVALOKITES'VARATKADAS'AMUKHA DHARANI.
Title of

ftqfb

*^ School of

the

dwellers

two translations,

viz.

the western mountain. A subdivision of the Mahasamghikah School.

on

iR7

by Tas'ogupta. A.D. 567 -581, and -^'mWK^t'^ by Hiuen-tsang, A. D.


656.

AVARAS'AILA SAMGHARAexplained

by

g|J[j^

lit.

the monastery of the western

AVALOKITES'VAKA MATRI

DHARANI

mtmf^M
book.

mS^^M
^'^^^
^^

mountain. A viliara in Dhanakatcheka, built 600 B.C.,


deserted A. D. 600.

"

AVALOKITES'VARA PADMA

AVATAMS'AKA SUTRAS. A subdivision of ^Mc?I^


the Sutra Pitaka.

DJALAMULA TANTBAN A-

MA DHARANI.
books,
viz.

Title of four

(1.)

^gg^

AVATARA ppia^^l
plained by

ex-

-f^^

Ht.

meta-

morphosis. The Brahminical incarnation corof idea responding to anupapadaka


(q- v.j

AVENIKA DHARMA

(Singh.
-f-

miAVANDA
IJnf^:^ An ancient
kingdom, probably the modern district of Shekarpoor, Dat. 27 36 N. Long. 69 18 E.

Buddha dharmma)

Ayf\

Jty^
marks
'

lit

18 detached char-

acteristics. of a
'

The

distinctive
is

Buddha who

AVANTIKHAH
pa vahi sde)

(Tib.

Srung
of

imfrom the perfections which mark ordinary mortals.

detached

^
the

;^;fi "pTf^-f
great

lit.

the

School

AVIDDILA K ARNA SAMGHA-

son who could not be abandoned. A subdivision of

RAMA
frag

^^

Mmmmmm ^ff-^tiM
^i*-

SANSKEIT-CHINE8E DICTIONARY.
the monastery of those whose ears are not pierced. An ancient vihara near Yodhapatipura.

27
ancient kingthe
region

WffllSfe ^^
dom,
probably

near Surajepoor, Lat. 26 26 N. Long. 86 16 E.


a

AVIDYA (Singh. Awidya. Tib. AYANA Iry lit. Ma rig pa) B^ absence division of time,

march.
equal
to

A
6

lit.

perception. The last (or first) of the 12 Nidanas (q.


of

months.

ignorance which mistakes the illusory phenomena of this world for realv.),

AYATANA

viz.

ities.

npJtJlfHJI^ ral term for the organs of sense. See Chadayatana and Vidjnana.

Gene-

AVILOMA hair. A
yodjana.

M^
(Singh,

lit.

a sheep's
of

AYODHYA J^^f^
pital of

The

ca-

subdivision

Kos'ala, the head quarters of ancient Buddhism, the present Oude, Lat. 26^

AVITCHl

and

Siam.
RpT

N. Long. 82 4 E.

Awichi. Tib.

Mnar med)
or

AYURVEDA

^^

explained

Bft^

or

explained by

^^
hell.

pnJiHj;^
lit.

^Pq^;^!]^
The

S'astra of longevity. the Vedas, a ritual

One
to

of

be

uninterrupted
culprits die

last

used at

sacrifices.

of the 8 hot hells,

where the

AYUTA
bv

(Tib.

Ther hboum)
100
koti.

and are re-born

^
A

without interruption (yet not without hope of final redemption).

-^mm

lit.

numeral, equal to
(or

1,000,000,

AVIVARTITA

APARIVA-

000.

RTYA) SUTRA ;f:i||||; ^iT^ Title of a translation,


See also A.D. 397439. Vaipnlya vyuhayivartita dharraatchakra sutra.

B.
BADAKCHAN Eo^^lij
district of
"'^

||cg|fj||^ or mountainous

AVRIHA
effort,

(Singh. Awiha.
lit. lit.

Tib.
of

gion

Mitchheba)

making no
absence

T^khdra, tlie renear Gurabeer, Lat. 34 45 N. Long. 70 E.

fe/^

tliought.'

loka.

'The 13th BrahmaThe 4th region of the

BAGHELAN

4th Dhydna.

AYAMUKHA

couutry W. of the Bunghee river, between Koondooz and Ghoree, Lat 36 N. Long.
68E.

^ tl S

'^^^

(or

Hayamukha)

28

PART

I.

BAHUDJANA
explained

pf.

|g Jg
^i^-

by

^4^

^^^

of an India.

ancient

Kingdom

of

living beings.

BALAPKITHAGDJANA
Balaputhudjdjana)

(Pali.

BAKTKA gpgll or ||||ig A city of Bactriana, once a


nursery of Buddhism, A. D. its 600 still famous for sacred relics and monuments. Tlie present Balkh, Lat. 36 4B N. Long 67"=* 4 E.

^.^j]/>

>'h5ES'J4

^^^-

li*'*le

child

bom

apart, or

by

0j^/(k

BALA
The

(Singh.

Pumna)
who

^|

born a fool and differing (sc. from the saints). A designation of unbelievers.
lit.

sister of the girl

Acanda BALI
supplied

pC^
lit.

explained by

>&-

fSingh. Sujata)

i^

one

S'akyamuni

who has

ties (sc.

-with milk.

of relationship).

Name

of a

BALA

or Pantchabalani (Singh. Balayas) ^"fl lit. five powers,

king

of Asuras.

BALUKA

with

the
ij-

note 'bala
to
limit,

signifies *jj

lit.

the categories forming the 37 Bodhi pakchika dharraa (q. v.), embracing (1.) the power of faith, v. S'raddhabala, (2.) the power of energy, v. Viryabala, (3.) the power of memory, v. Smritibala, (4.) the power of meditation^ v. Samiidhibala, and (5.) tlie power of wisdom, v. Pradjto stop.' of
'

One

^^ ancient Jl|^j[Jn of eastern Turkestan, the present Aksu, Lat. 407 N. Long. 3929 E.
kingdom
Authe of S'astra.

BANDUPRABHA 3^^
thor

Buddhabhumi

Sutra

BAEUKATCHiVA

n^^ An ancient
Gujerat, S. of

kingdom in the Nerbudda,


21''44

^ j^ f^
N.

fiabahi.

See

also

under

near Baroche, Let. Long. 72*^66 E.

Lidriya.

BASTAH
Phaggs
" ' or

(Tib.

BALADITYA ^Hpif^^ explained ^jjj]^ lit- the early sun. A king of Magadha,
protector of Buddhists, who if identic with Balihita, reigned A. D. 191.

pa

lama)
"'

Bhachbah or y^ ffl

^^

E-&E " ,f># ^.&E A S'ramana


M:?fE
B3
(

Tt

of

Tibet

+ y^),

teacher

and

confidential adviser of Kublai

BALAPATI ^|||^J[g Name

Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
Tibet (A. D.

29

of
is

1,260).

He
of

the author of a

manual

Buddhist terminology

(a^^
an-

^t^\

and

translated

other work into Chinese. He constracted (A. D. 1,269) for the Mongol language an alphabet and syllabary borrowed from the Tibetan and known by the term Horyik, for which, however, the Lama Tsordjiosen subsequently (A. D. 13071311) substituted another alphabet, based on that of S'akyapandita.

the sages. designation for the kalpa (q.v.) of stability, so called tHBcause 1,000 Buddhas (sages) appear in the course of it. Our present period is a Bhadrakalpa and 4 Buddhas have already apIt is to last 236 peared. million years, but over 151 million years have already elapsed.

BHADRAKALPIKA SUTRA
tion

M^M bv

"^^^^^

transla-

Dharraarakcha, A.D.

300.

BAYANA

'^f^ll^ kingdom and city in Bokhara, famous for a statue of

An

ancient

BHADRAKA RATRI ^|g;^


'M Title of a
translation

A.D. 701.

(entering Nirvana), said to have been 1,000 feet The present Bamyan, long. Lat 3450 N. Long. 67^40 E.

Buddha

BHADRA
Yas'odhara.

KATCHANA

V.

BHADRA MAYAKARA
RTPRITCHTCffA.
two translations,
viz.

PA-

BHADANTA
'^ttPt
lit.

(Pali.

Bhanta)

Title of

explained by -;^g^

^-p

great virtue. titie of lionour (like Keverend) given to priests (especially of the Hinayana School).
(Pali.

/ ^i^

by Dharmarakcha,

gflgfj] Bodhiru^y Btl^tlllE't' tchi, A.D. 618907.

Arb.^265 316, and

BHADRA
"MM.
lit.

Bhaddha)
or

^^'

IStPt
fl.)

explained by

^
^

BHADRAPADA
W^ Name
of

M^|||^
month

of the last

virtuous,
sage.
(3.)

by

pa
lit

summer.
gj; p-g

An

epithet

of every
of
tree.

Buddha.

(2.)

Name
the

BHADRAPALA
^^

Name

of

realm
is to

in which Yas'6dhar4 be reborn.

^|)'^?J^|p ^ Bodhisattva who, with 500 others, slighted


S'akyarauni in a former life, but was afterwards convei"ted

g ||

BHADRAKALPA
la)

(Pali. Bhaddha Kappa. Siam. Phattaka-

and became Buddha.

l^^l

lit.

the

kalpa

of

BHADRAPALA S'RECHTHI

30

PART

I.

PARIPRITCHTCH'A.
of

Title

zen or

Ming

zan)

two translations,

viz.

^f^

by Djndnagnpta, A. D. 596, and -j^^^^^^ by Divakara and others, A.

ft.##
D. 680.

son of
the
first

J^J&M
one of

"'

mini m.m ^
Amritodana,
5 disciples of S'&kcity
S.

yamuni.

BHAGAI ^fjp^ A
lakchandni
(q.
v.).

BHADRAPALA SUTRA
kv^ Title of

famous for a of Khoten, all statue exhibiting the

a transla-

tion

by Lokalakcha.

BHGARAMA
or

(lit.

BHADRA RUTCHI
iffi;^
lit.

dwelling,

explained

by

^^^y

Bhaga) J^ ^^O" sapara or Karsana (Ptolemy),


the
capital
of

^^^
>. lit.

of

the ar&ma, the god-

good

and
with

loving.

A
dis-

Kapis'a,

the

priest of Parvata

whose

modern Begr^m.

putation

Brahman
latter

BHAGAVADDHARMA
ble

was cut short by the


sinking

down

into hell.

honouraof

^^

BHADRATCHARI PRANTDHANA m%

law.

S'ramana

Title

of

a" translation

by

western India who translated into Chinese a popular work in honour of AvalokitesVara.
or

Amoghavadjra,
771.

A.D.

746 BHAGAVAT
(Pali.

Bhagavan

BHADRA VIHARA |^^||


lit

wa.

Bhagava. Singh. BagaSiam. Phakhava. Tib.


das)

Btsham Idan
or

:^il^|^
'
epithet,
(or

the monastery

of

sages.

A vihara in Kanyakubdja. BHADRAYANITAH or Bhadraputtriyah J^^^^jgj^


gr
of
^K or

% man ^^^
'

* " MM^w mm An
the
of

virtue

merits)', given to every

Budmi-

^M
ni

lit.

the

School
nt.

dha.

Bhadra,

or

BHANI

^Jg

or

-^ jg A

the School of the conveyance of Bhadra, or lit.

nister of S'as'auka.

^#^

the School of the descendants of Bhadra. School founded by a famous ascetic called

BHARYA ^jfljgp A wife. BHASKARA VARMMA


fSi^L'l^^,
explained

^^ by

Bhadra.

tit.

aiTDOur of the sun.

BHADRIKA
(Pali.

or Bhadraka Bhaddaji. Tib. Ngang

king of Kamarupa, a descendant of Narayana Deva.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARr.

31

BHAYA
lit.

(Singh.

existence.

Bhawa) ;^ One of the

12 Nidanas, existence, as the assigns moral agent that every individnal to one or other of the Trailokja /"IT

lation 615.

by Dharmagupta, A.D.

BHECHADJYA RADJA

m
A

lit.

the medical king.

modes of actual creative existence). The cause of Bhava is Upadana.


^fe'
lit.

three

disciple of S'akyamuni. See also Survasattvapriyadai"s'ana

and Yimalagarbha.

Its consequence is Djati.

BHECHADJYARADJA BHE-

BHAVASANGKRAMITA
TRA.

SU-

CHADJYASAMUDGATA

Title of 3 translations,

U^-^m
translation D. 424.

Title

of

g by
-534;
(3.)

Bodhirutchi, A.D. 386


r2.)

by Kdlayas'as, .A

by Buddhas

anta, A. D. 539

ftiatt-^-g BHECHADJYA SAMUDGATA U^T^. lit. the su:

mm-tm:^
A.D. 518907.

perior

medical

Bodhisattva.

j^
or

BHAVA VIYEKA m
:y^^
lit.

A- disciple of S'akyamuni. See also Yimalanetra.

clear argument.

disciple of Nagardjuna, retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya. Author of the

BHICHMAGARDJITA GHOCHASYARA RADJA


ip
lit.

who

the

king of grave

#
in

utterance.

Hr^

which

numberless

The name under Buddhas


appeared,
the

Successively
S'astra, translated tsang, A.D. 648.

Mahasambhava, during
by HiuenV.AC-

Yiuirbhoga Kalpa.

BHECHAD.JYAGUPtU

BHIKCHU
loiig.

PURYAPRABHASA PURYAPRANIDHANA
Title
of a translation by Hiuentsaug, A.D. 650. See also Saptatathagata piirvapranidhana vis'echavistara.

(PaU. Bhikkhu. Singh. Bhikchu. Tib. Dges-

Mong. Geloug)
explained by

J^U

jC.

or
lit,

jy^^
lit.

^ A-

^5^
(1.)

mendicant scholars or by
followers of S'akva.

BHECHADJYAGURU PURVAPKANIDHANA ^gjji^p

fragrant plant, emblem of the virtues of a religious mendicant. (2.) Two classes of S'ramanas viz. (<:i.v,),
esoteric

mendicants

who

control their nature

l^ ^4^ by

32

PART
the law, and exoteric men^lio control dicauts (j^Y'^) Every their nature by diet. true Bhikchu is supposed- to

I.

BHUTA g|^^

explained

by

^ A:

lit,

spontaneous genera-

tion, or

by

4y^

lit.

born

work

miracles.

by transformation.

BHIKCHUNI
ma, or Ani. ganza)

Tib.

j^^l/g

along Mong. Tshibaov

Dge

BHUTAS
sect.

^^

Heretics

who

besmeared their bodies with Probably a Shivaitic ashes.

-^.^J^

Female

religious

mendicants
rules

who observe

the same

BIMBISAR/^

as any Bhikchu.

BHIKCHUNI PRA.TIMOKCHA SUTRA -f-fj^jrt


piiation

or Bimbasara or Virabasara (Singh. Bimsara. Tib. Srenika, or Gzugs tshan Mong. sningpo. Margisiri amogo langa ouile duktchi, Tsoktsasun or dshiriiken)

by Fa-hien.

BHIKCHUNI SAMGHIKAVINAYA PRATUVIOKCHA SUTRA JtJjgftfiK#


a translation by Fa-hien and Bhuddhabhadra, A.D. 414.

X
ed)

lit.

a sliadow (renderor

by ^%M^ lit. the sand of a vase. A King residing Magadha, at of converted by Radjagriha,
solid,

S'4kyamuni, to whom gave the Venuvana park.

he

He
son

BHIMA
Name
(of

K)[.^ or jj|J^
of

(1.)

was murdered by
Adjatas'atru.

his

S'iva's
(2.)

wife
city,

terrible).

Khoten, possessing a

(the of statue

W.

BIMBISARA RADJA SUTRA.


Title
of

books,

viz.

(1.)

said to have transported itself thither from

Buddha)

Udyana.

and

(2.)

m ^^^31 u,
intelligence, or

BHUROM

Ugpjg An exclama-

BODHI
Byang
by

tion, frequently

occurring at the beginning of mantras (q. v.), probably in imitation of

(Tib. or Sarabodhi cub) 3?iS. explained


lit.
lit.

by

TC.

(the act of

keeping

Bhramanic mantras which begin by invoking bhur (earth), bhuvah (atmosphere) and svar (heaven). Perhaps a contraction of bhur (earth) and ora (q.v.)

one's mind) truly awake, in contradistinction from Buddhi (the faculty of intelligence). That intelligence or knowledge by which one becomes a Buddha or a believer in Baddhism.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

33

See also dharma.

Bodhi

pakohilca

BODHIDHARMA
nese) called
patriarch,

^^^^s^gijj
{1st

The 28th Indian


Bodhitara

Chi-

high when Hiuen-tsang (A.D. 629645), still exists, 2 miles S.E. of Gaya, on the left bank of the
feet

saw

it

Ndiranjana.
tree,

Cuttings of this

originally

(^i&^

^).
by

He was

a Kchattriya

birth, being the son of a king of southern India. His teacher Panyatara

(M;^^

^\

gave him the name Bo-

which is considered to be a symbol of the spread and gi-owth of Buddhism, are planted in China in front of monasteries and temples. Fah-hieu (A.D. 399 414) mistook this tree for

dliidharma to mark his understanding (bodhi) of the law

a palmtree (v. Patra), with which the Bodhi tree is now generally identified in China.

(dharma)

of

Buddha.

Bo-

dhidharraa brought the almsbowl of S'akyamuiii (v.


pAtra) to China (9th moon, 21st day, A.D. 520), visited Canton, and then Lohyaug,

BODHILA
of

-j^ifljll

A native,

Cashmere, author of the Tattva santchaya s'astra (Jfe

S:

Sra)

^^'oi^ging

to

the

where he remained engaged


in silent meditation for 9 years, being thenceforth known as the wall-gazing
'

Mahasamghikdh

School.

BODHIMAlSfDA
dhiraandalaj
the

(Singh.

Bolit.

^^;^tg
^||j)^
said

Brahman'

(^HS^IgP^).

He

is

circa

supposed to have died A.D. 529.


or Bodhivrikbodhi-tree,
tree

platform of bodhi, j^l^ lit. the platform


intelligence, or

or
of
Ht.

BODHIDRUMA
cha
or

the diamond
sana).

throne (vadjraterrace,
to

The

^Jgigf

lit.

^i^
pippala,

lit.

of

in-

telligence,
lit.

or
or

-^
lit.

^ i

j|:
ilj

n M

have raised itself out of the ground, surrounding the Bodhidruma, where all Bodhisattvas
sit

down

when

lit.

pippali

vrikclia,

tree

asvas'tha vrikcha. The (Ficus religiosa) under

about to become Buddhas. This ground, said to be as solid as diamond, is beheved to form the navel (centre) of
the earth.

S'akyamuni did 7 and under which he became Buddha. This tree, originally 400 (Chinese) feet high, and 50
years'

which

penance,

BODHIRUTCHI ^f;|-g 5;
plained by

^^

lit.

uuder-

standing and hope, or by

34

PART

I.

3S
(1.)

lit.

intelligence
of

and hope.
noiiiiem

S'ramana

Tripitaka, sutras treating on the state of a Bodhisattva.

India, who arrived in Lohyang A. D. 508, and translated some 30 works. (2.) Cc^nomen of Dharmarutchi
(q. y.)

BODHISATTVA

PITAKA
SIJTRA j^

SADDHARMA
Title

BODHISATTVA
dhisatto.

(Pdli.

Bo-

of a translation by Dharmarakcha, A. D. 1004

Bodhisat. Singh. Siam. Phothisat. Tib. Bjang cub sems dpa) lit. he whose essence (sattva) has become
intelligence (bodhi)

1058.

BODHISATTVA PITAKA SUTRA a^MS^^ Title of


atranslaticn

by Hiuen-tsang,

or
or

m^ ^ BODHISATTVA VATAMSAKA
or

:^J

A.D. 645.

PITAKAMANDJU-

explained

by
in

'^Ir"

lit.

knowledge

S'BIIklULA

GARBHA TANA.D.

possession of one's affections or by :^*l'\ lit. the mind of


intelligence.

The
more

of saints

who

liave

third class to pass

translation,

980

1001.

only

once
life

through

BODHISATTVA
NIRDES'A.
translations,
vi2;.

TCHARYA
Title
of

human

Buddbas,

before becoming including also

two

those Buddhas yet perfected

are not entering Mahsisattvas). Nirvana (v. One of the three means of

who by

^j^^^

481,

by Gunavarman, A. D. and

Dharmarakcka, A. D. 414

conveyance

Nirvana (v. Triydna), compared with an


to

42L

elephant fording a river.

BODHIVAKCHO
S'RI

NIRDES'A

MANDJUSUTRA

BODHISATTVA RUMA SUTRA

BODHID-

m
of

^^jf ;^
translation,

Title of a book.

A.D. 9801001.

BODHISATTVA BUDDHA- BODHI VIHARA M.^^^ NUSMRITI SAJNIADHI j^ lit. the temple of intelligence.

~Bt^^ rHftg
?i^

Title

favourite

name,

given
v.

to

a translation, A.D. 462.

many

monasteries.

BODHISArrVA PITAKA J^ pa

BODHIVRIKCHA
druma.

Bodhi-

section

of

the

BODHYANGA (P&li,

Sarabodj-

BANSKRIT-CPINESE DICTIONARY,
Singh.

35

hana.

Bowdyanga)

^^ A.D. 222280, and


seven divisions of
bodhi, or

i,j^-of
tlie

lit.

seven branches

:^M
406.'

by KumAradjiva, A.D.

understanding. 37 categories

One
of

of

the

BRAHMADATTA
or ^y^i^
(1.)
(2.)
lit-

dharma, pakchika Bodhi comprehending 7 degrees of


intelligence, viz. (1.)
V.

gifti

o^

^^ ^Brahma.
V&rduas'i,
(3.)

memory
;

A king of A king

Kanyakubdja.
of

discrimination (3.) Y. Dharma pravitchaya energy v. Virya (4.) joy v.

Smriti

(2.)

father of K4s'yapa. as Brahmanandita.

Same

Priti;

(5.)

Pras'rabdhi ; templation V.

tranquillity v. (6.) ecstatic con-

BRAHMADHVADJA
lit.

-^^

indifference v.

Samadhi Upekcha.
or

(7.)

Brahma's figure. A fabulous Buddha, whose domain is S, W. of our universe, an


incarnation of the 8th son of

BOLOR
A

$|;S5g.

kingdom, N. of the Indus, S.E. of the Pamir, rich in

^%^

Mahabhidjna djnand bhibhu.

BRAHMAKALA
Name
of a

The modern Balti, minerals. or Little Tibet (by the Dards It is to be called Palolo). distinguished from the city
Bolor in Tukhira.

mountain.

^ H
jljn

BRAHMAKAYIKAS

(Siam Phrom. Tib. Tshangs hkhor)


the devas of Brahma. retinue of Brahma.

BRAHMA

(Siam. Phrom. Tib.


tegri)
\:^JB

The

Tshangs. Mong. Esrun

J
or
rffii or /fekiir

or

BRAHMAKCHARAS
or

:%j<

explained
^^*-

by
^^^

'^^

lit.

Brahma's

^^
Avrit-

-fcj^:^^^^
father of
all

beings. the Brahrainical Trimurti, adoptliving

The

first

person

of

Pdli or Sanskrit, the former being considered by by Chinese writers the more ancient system, both as a
ing.

ed by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being


looked upon, not as creator, but as a. trasitoiy devata whom every saint, on obtaining bodhi, surpasses.

written guage.

and

spoken

lan-

BRAHMALOKA t^^

lit.

the

heavens of Brahma, or the heavens of the lit.

^^

ruler of the

BRAHMA DJALA
Title
of

SUTRA.

two

translations.

world. Eighteen heavenly mansions constituting the world of form (v.

36

PABT

I.

Rupadhata) and divided into


contemplation Southern Bud(t. Dhyana). dhism knows only sixteen. Northern Buddhists added

lit.

the

woman-kingdom.

regions

of

kin'gdom of northern India, the dynastic title of which was entailed upon the female
line exclusively.

Its

capital

Punyaprasava
bhraka.

and

Anaze)

situated near gur, Lat. 3a10 N.

was

Sirenng-

Long

78'*

BRAHMANA
plained by
walk.
(1)

(Tib.

Brara
li^'

46 E.

BRAHMA PUROHITAS
^^-r
term
lit.

"pvive

S^

lit,

the

attendants

^
of

of

social

distinction (hS^

clanV the

caste of Brahmans. (2.) religious term, designating a man whose conduct is pure.

Brahma. The 2nd Brahmaloka. The 2nd region of the 1st Dhyana,

BRAHMA SAHAMPATI
Mahabrahma
lit.

or

sahaihpati

^^

BRAHMANANDITA :^j^
Brahma's elephant.

lit.

king of Yais'ali, who had 1000 sons, also called Brahraadatta.

lord of the world of title of patient suffering. Brahma, as ruler of the

Sahalokadhatu.
exlit.

BRAHMANAPURA ^||P^ BRAHMATCHARI S A city, N. E. of the plained by


capital of Malava.

des-

cendants

of

purity.
(2.)

(1.)

A
of

BRAHMANARACHTRA ^||
the kingdoms of the Brahmans. A general name for
India.

young Brahman.

Bud-

dliist ascetic, irrespective caste or descent.

BRAHMAVADANA
book.

StJTRA

BRAHMANARACATRA RADJA SUTRA

(Siam. Phuttho. Tib. BRAHMAPARIGHADYAH BUDDHA Sangs rgyas. Mong. Burchan)

^3EM

"^^^^^

VASTU -^^ Title f^^^JtH BRAHMA of a syllabary, in 12 parts.


^

^ book.

:^^

lit.

the

assembly of
Ist

the Brahmas.

The
1st

Brahof

maloka.

The

region

^^

^'^

RSk
by

^''
lit.

the 1st Dhyana.

plained

B awake

^^-

BRAHMAPURA

mm

'^|

explained "ty

(understanding). The (1.) first person of the Triratna. highest degree of (2.> Tlie

8ANSKBIT-0HINESE DIOTIONART.
saintship, Buddhaship. Every intelligent person

37

(3.)

who

broken throngh the has bondage of sense, perception

ligence and longevity. native of Cabul, who arrived in China A. D. 423 and translated 3 works.

and

self,

knows the
all

utter

unreality of

phenomena,
to

and

is

ready

enter

Nirvdna.

BUDDHAGAYA v. GayA. BUDDHAGUPTA -^pg^^


explained

by

J^

BUDDHABHADRA
or
ex-

lit,

honey

of intelligence,
^^^'

and by

plained by
ligent sage,

(i.) native of Kapilavastu, a descendant of Amritodana B&dja, who came to Cliina A. D. 406, introduced an alphabet of 42 charac-

^^A

lit.

intel-

A king of Magadha, son and successor of


telligence.

^fS

P'o^ction of in-

S'akrdditya,

BUDDHA HPJDAYA DHARANI.


Title of tions, viz.

two transla-

ters

and translated and com-

posed
disciple

many
of

books.

(2)

:M
650,

^ft^tlNptSM

Dharmakocha,
in India.

by Hiuen-tsang A. D. and

whom

640)

Hiuen-tsang (A.D. 630

met

FgM

^1^>liN^ppgg

of later date.

BUDDHABHtMI SUTRA

M
lation

BUDDHAKCHJETRA
Buddhasetra.
khet.

(Singh.

Title of a trans-

by Hiuen-tsang, A. D.

Tib.

Siam. PuthaSangs rgyas kyi


^

645.

BUDDHABHUMI
S'ASTRA
on the
ing

StjTRA

precedtranslated by Hiuen-tsang A.D, 649.

^miim commentary
work,

explained by

^^

mmm ^4-

m^
the

lit.

land of Buddha, or by

4Sl^

lit. the kingdom of Buddha. The sphere of each Buddha's

BUDDHADASA
explained

^l^pgU^f^'
Jp.

by

<^

lit.

influence, said to be of fourfold nature, viz. the (1.) domain where good and evil

envoy

of

intelligence.

are
(2.)

mixed

native of Ayamukha, author of the Mahavhibhdcha s'dstra.

BUDDHADHARMA
Avenikadharma.
plained

same as
ex-

the domain in which the ordinances (of religions) are not altogether ineffectual -t

^^^^;

1MWIfei
lit.

*^^g^ impurity

BUDDHADJIVA ^|Jgff
by

^^m

intel-

is banished and all beings reach the state of S'ravaka and Andgamin; (3.) the do-

38 main
in

PART

I.

spontaneously
carried
ffl

which Buddhism is accepted and


practice
its

BUDDHAPHALA
the
fruit

into

^&

of

Buddha.

^^ The
lit

fruition of Arhatship or Ara-

4-

where

demands

hattvaphala.

are fully responded to


-|,

^^
^
carry
ffl

and where even ordinary


accept
the

beings

and
-fHj

them
-4;

into practice
(4.)

BUDDHAPITAKA NIGRAHANAMA MAHAYANA. SUTRA -j^^l^ Title of a


translation A.D. 405.

by

Kumaradjiva,

domain

of

spiritual

nature

\^

iW: -1-^

BUDDHASAMGHATI SUTRA
by Dharmarakcha, A.D. 265316.
translation

where all beings are in a permanent condition of stillness and light j^^^-^-h.

Title

of

BUDDHAMITRA
The 9th
In-

BUDDHAS'AKTA
explained by
intelligence.

JL^

^[?g^^
lit.

fixed

diau patriarch, a native of northern India, by birth a Yais'ja, author of the

^p^

native of Central India, who translated some 10 works into Chinese,

ijSMMKj^

A.D. 524550.

Paiitchadvara

dhyana sutra mahartha dliarma, and therefore styled Mahddhyanaguru (great teacher of contemplation}. died B.C. 487.

BUDDHASIMHA
lion's

f^P'gfflpf
^^^'

explained by filfi-^'^
intelligence
intelligence).

(i.e.

su-

He

preme

(1.)

BUDDHANANDI
The 8th Indian
native

Vi^l

disciple of Asaragha. (2.) An Buddhochinga of epithet

\&
a

(q. v.).

patriarch,

of Karaarupa and descendant of the Gautama

BUDDHAS'RIDJNANA

lit.

the

good

omen

^^
of

family.

intelligence.

Bodhisattva,

BUDDHAPALI
explained

i^mmm by J^^
lit.

author of the

ttRO ^^j^^^/fg^^

guard-

Mahayana
s'astra.

lakchanasamghiti

A BUDDHATCHARITA KAVdisciple of Nag4rdjuna and YAstjTRA i^wrnme and founder of a subdivision


ed by
intelligence.
(1.)

Madhyamika School. native of Cabul who translated (A. D. 676) a Dhilrani into Chinese.
of the
(2.)

narrative

of

the

life

of

S'akyamuui by As'vaghocha, translated by Dharmarakcha A.D. 414421.

SANSKBIT-CHINELE DICTIONARY.

39

BUDDHATCHAKITRA ^^^

fT^^^
of

Title

of

history

and

translation by Buddhabhadra others, A.D. 418420.


-jf P'ggP'^ by -^HB lit. inand bright. A

by

translated Djnaiiagupta, A.D, 587.

Shakyamnni,

BUDDHAYAS'AS
explained
telligent

BUDDHATCHHATA
lit.

the shadow
of

of

^ Buddha.
|^

native
of

of

Cabul,

translator

The shadow

S'akyanmni,

4 works, A.D. 403413.

exhibited in various places in ludia, but visible only to those whose mind is pure.
'

BUDDHOCHINGA A native of India,

^ J] ^
also
styl-

BUDDHATKATA f^pg^H
by

ed Buddhasimha, who propagated Buddhism in China (about 348 A. D.) with the
aid of magic.

^^
(1.)

lit.

intelligent
of

saviour.

Name

an

BUDDHOCHNICHA
The skuUbone
ni,

f^7g>g'

Sammatiya Arhat, of the native of School. (2.) Cabul, translator of the -^

of

an object

of

S'akyamnworship (v.
or

Uchnicha).

BUKHARA :^^
purnabuddlia sutra prasann^rtha sutra (circa A.D. 650).

Mabavaipulya

The present Bokhara,

^J|
Lat,

39^47 N. Long. 64''25 E.

BUDDHAVANAGIRI |^ \l^ A mountain near

mm
or

iladjagriha. S'akyamnni once lived in one of its rock caverns.


v.^t

c.
CHADABHIDJNAS
nl*
V.

Abhidj-

BUDDHAVARMAN
If PtSft^
l^
lit.

CHADAKCHARA
MAJNTRA.
lations, viz. (1.)

VIDYItrans-

explained
of
in-

Title of 3

by

cuirass

-^^^^
A.

telligence.

A native
nffi

of India,

^ by
693,

Bodhirutchi,

D.

co-ti-anslator of the

KpTgH-i^

(2.)^^^3r|5A.D.

Abhidhar^ vibb4ch4 s'Astra, A.l>. 437


ttt

^ &^

439.

317_420. and (3.) :^^J^ ^^^ A. D. 502557.

BUDDHAVATAMSAKA MAHAVAIPULYA S^TRA -^

CHADAYATANA
lit.

(Singh.

We-

danakhand. Tib. Skye mtchh6 dwellings or

ismmmmm

^iti^ of

-^^

lit.

40
entrances or

PART

I.

-^pl
of the

li**

^^^

course
south.

(of

gun as.
nas
;

One

12 Nidd-

the sun) period

to the of 6

sensation, the objects of sensation, the oi^ns of nose, sensation (eye, ear,

months.

DAKCHINAKOSALA
sala.

V.

K6Stj-

tongue, body, mind). NIDANA CHADPADABHIDHARMA DAMAMtlKL TRA (Mong. Dsangluu)

^^

Title of

philosophical work.

M REll^^lS
lation
(lit.

Title of a trans-

CHADIIMAN ^,g|
tricfc

A
on

the

sutra

of

the
fool-

dis-

causes of

wisdom and
or
lit.

of

Tuklidra,

the
dis-

ishness), A.D. 445.

upper Oxus.

CHAGHNAN /^^Jg A
trict

DANA
of cliarity.

explain-

E. of Chaduman.

ed by /Aji^

exhibition
first

CHANNAGARIKAH

|l)|g|P

the School of 6 cities. philosophical School.

A
So-

of the 6 Paramitds, charity, as the motive of alms, sacrifices, snd self-imself- mutilation molation.

The

CHANM^KA
dliisattva,

jgj^jjn
famous

for

filial

DANAPALA ^JJ A of salvation.

lit.

donor
of

native

piety.

CHANMUKHI DHAEANI

Title of

Udyana, who translated into Cliinese some 111 works and


received (A.D. 982) from the Emperor the title SB -^

a translatiou by Hiuen-tsang, A. D. 645.

grji

lit.

great scholar and ex-

CHARAKA

fj^^^y^

mona-

positor of the faith.

stery in Kapis'a.

DANAPA^n ;jg^

lit.

by

D.
DAGOBA y. DAKCHINA
south)
or

Stupa.
(lit.

charity crossing (tlie sea of misery) or "Jfe^^ h^- sovereign of charity. A title given to liberal patrons of Buddhism.

the

right,

DANATAKA

ARANYAKAIJ
on

*^i
or

*i*B m-.

The

Deccan, S. of Behar, often confounded with -jc^^^ Syria.

living ou the seashore or half-tide rocks.

DAJ^TAKACHTHA

DAKC'HINAYANA

^ff

lit.

^.K

explained by

^^

fl^^^
lit.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

41

dental

cayed

wood (restoring deteeth when chewed). tree, said to have grown from a toothpick of S'akyamnni.

Vasubandlm, by by Bodhirutchi, A.D. 508511.


pilation translated

DANTALOKAGIRI
illl]
'''^

tain (the monies Daedcdi of Justin) near Varucha, with a cavern (now called Kashmiri-

as

JJ^^
^
"''?""

DAS'ABHUMIVIBHACHA S'ASTRA -\-i^Vt^m^


Commentary, by Nagardjuna, on the two foregoing works,
containing the earliest teachArait^bha, regarding ing

III

translate

by Kumaradjiva,

Ghar), where SudAna lived.

circa A. D. 405.

DARADA Pgg
of

the ancient

The country Dardae, now


N.
ten

DAS'ADHARMAKA.
A.D. 539. and

Title of

called Dardu, Lat. 3511

Long. 7354 E.

two translations, viz. (1.) -^ 3^_U^-^ by Buddhas'anta,


(2.)

DAS'ABALA -f-^
powers.

lit.

^^'X

Buddha,

epithet of every as possessing 10 faculties, consisting of some of the 6 Abhidjnas and of some of the 8 Margas.

Au

^~f*)^^ ^y
A.D. 502557.

Samghapaia,

DAS'ADIGANDHAKARA
VIDHVAMSANA

SUTRA

DAS'ABALA
Vdchpa.

KAS'YAPA

v.

DAS'ABHI)MI pratichthi|l<:rij
'

& translation by Dharmarakcha, A.D. 306.

An

exclamation

(lit.

DAS'ASAHASRIKA DJNAPARAMITA.

PRA A sec-

thou who ai-t standing upon the ten regions') addressed to Tathagatas in praj-^ers.

DAS'ABHUMIKA
Title of

SUTRA.
viz.

translations,

tion of the Mahapradjfiaparar mit& sutra (q. v.), identic Achtasahasrika the with pradjnapararaitA sutra (q.v.) and separately translated under the following titles, viz.

Dhannai-alccha,
(2.)

AD.

297,

and
A.

-f-{J;Stg djiva and Bnddhayas'as,

by Kumara-

by Lokarakcha, A. D.
(2-)

?3:

179,

A^&^kW)mi
(incomplete)

by Kumaradjiva, A. D. 408,

D. 384-417.

DAS'ABHUMIKA
S'ASTRA -j^^j

S^TRA
A
corn-

iM

by

Dhar(4.)

raapriya, A.

D. 382,

-^

42

PART

I.

mmmmm
DAS'ATCHAIQIA

^- ^-

222- DEVADARS'ITA
s'tha (Singh

or DevadiDevadaho)

W-^
Danapala, A.D. 980-1,000.

The residence

of

Sup-

rabuddha.

KCHITItwo trans-

DEVADATTA
datta.

GARBHA.
lations, viz.

Title of
(1.)

'JC^^-JC^

(Singh. DewaTib. Lhas by in or Hlau dshin. Mong. Tegri Oktiga) or

explained
of

Jl^g^ by
The
of

^J^
rival

lit.

gift of devas.

enemy
A.D. 397-439.

and S'dkyamimi, an
Asita,

incarnation

swal-

DELADA

(Singh. Dalada)

m^

^
DEVA
Lha.

lit.

Buddha's

tooth.

sacred relic, the left tooth of S'akyanmni.


(Singh.

canine

lowed up by hell, worshipped as Buddha by a sect, up to 400 A.D., supposed to reappear as Buddha Devaradja (^iir) in an universe called

Devasoppana (^vM").
Dewa.
Tib.

Mong. Tegri) ig.^ explained by ^tI? A lit. inliabitants of the Brahmalokas, or by ^l^j^ lit. spirits
(1.)

DEVALAYA
^|r^ Name
lit.

(Singh. Dewala) shrine of a deva.


all

of

brahmiuical

temples.

of heaven.

signation

of

the

General degods of

DEVALOKA (Singh. Dewaloka.


Tib.

Lha

yul)

Brahminism, and of all inhabitants of the Devalokas who are subject to metempsychosis. (2.) Name of the 15th patriarch, a native of southern India, a disciple of Nagardjuna, also called Devabodhisattva gL ^i& 3 i^

or

3^^

lit.

^mansion
lit.
;

heaven
of

devas. The 6 celestial worlds, Meru, situated above the between the earth and the

Brahmalokas. See mahdradja kayikas


strims'as
;

Yama
;

Tchatur TrayaTuchita

and Arya Deva


Nilanetra
eye)

Nirmanarati

Paranirmita.
exlit.

^g

g^^,
(lit.

and

azure
dis-

DEVANAGARI
plained

or

^glJ0g

(Ht.

by

^*

tinguishing

brightness),

au-

Indian
Tibet,

thor of 9 works, a famous antagonist of Brahminism.

characters used in or by wAf^ lit. the

writing of devas.

See under

SANSKBIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
Sanskrita.

43

saras.

DEVAPRADJNA J|g|
by

of

^Jm m
A

lit.

wisdom

DHANADA v. Vais'ramana. DHANAHATCHEKA Uj|,5|^


An ancient kingdom ;^jj|g in the N.E. of modern Madras
presidency.

native of Kustana who translated 6 works into Chinese.

deva.

DEVAS'ARMAN A Sthavira, anthor


works
(in

fcB'
I

DHANU

^
or

lit.

bow.

of two which he denied the existence of both ego and non-ego), who died 100 jears after S'akyamuni.

measure of length, the 4000th


part of a yodjana.

DHARANA

Purana.

explained by

}^^^^/^

lit.

the 24th

DEVASENA g^J^^I^
plained by
of

ex-

^^

part of a tael. An Indian weight, equal to 70 grains.

lit.

devas. An Arhat could transport himself othei-s into Tuchita.

army who
and

dhara:nimdhara
lit.

mm
A
future

the earth. fabulous Bodliisattva to whom

grasping

DE\'ATA SUTRA
Title
of

Buddha

revealed

the

^^p^^g
by
lit.

of Avalokites'vara.

translation

Hiuentsaug, A.D. 648.

DHARA^i
by

DEVATEDEVA ^nfl^
S'akyamuni),

P'glljg

explained

lit.

mantras.

Mystic

the deva among devas. The name given to Siddharta (v.

forms of prayer, often couched in Sanskrit, forming a


portion of the Siitra literature (Dharanipitaka) in China as early as the 3rd century, but

when,

presentation in of Mahes'vara (S'iva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before

on his the temple

made popular

chiefly

through

the Yogatcharya v.) (q, School. See also Vidyadhara-

him.

DEVENDRA SAMAYA

^^
of

lit.

doctrinal

method

^^

pitaka Mantra Vidya mantra.


;

Biddhi

DHARMA
Singh, krims)

(Pali.

Dhamma.
Tib.

lord of devas. A (on royalty), in the possession of a sou of Radja balendraketu.

the

Dharmma.

Los
or

work

^Jg
(1.)

or

^qjjgf^

aiiBlftBP
lit.

e^P^^i^ed by

J^

law.

The Buddhist
religion,

DEVI

(Singh.

Dewi)
"l^-ir

law,

principles,

J|||
lit.

explained

by

canon,

and objects
or
kind,

of

worof

ship. (2.)

The perception
one

female deva.

Same

as

Ap-

character

of

44
the Cha4ayatanas. of the Triratna (q.

PART

1.

(3.)
v.)

One

works on the Vinaya. (2.) A fabulous king of Kinnaras.

DHARMA ARAJ^YAKAH
Hermits and

DHARMADHATU HRIDDTA
SAMVRITA NIRD^S'A g

ascetics, holding

that the principles(dhifirma) of human nature are originally

^tfitt^^^BUf

of

a translation by Mandra, A. D. 502557.

calm
tree.

and

favourite

passive. tree is the

Their

Bodhi

DHARMAJATAYAS'AS

^0

DHARMABALA ^^-f] A
S'raraana of the West, translator (A.D. 419) of the SukhAvati vyiiha.

native of Central India, translator (A.D. 481) of the Amithai-ta sutra

mBuddha
'

DHAJRMABHADRA jSjg or DHARMA GAHANABHTUD^jS*^ a S'raraana of the GATA iM. A fictitious


West, translator of 2 sutras. See also under Dharraadeva.
said to have taught absolute intelligence'.
or DharmaDhammagutta)

DHARMABODHI
or

i>g

DHARMAGUPTA
koti (Pali.

^7^^ A

S'ramana, transof

lator (A.

D. 386-550)
s'dstra.

the

or or
or or

or
(incorrectly)

Nirvana

DHARMADEVA
S'ramana
ghararaa,
of

jg

or

or

Nalanda samtranslated (un-

(1.)

An

ascetic

of

who

der this name) 46 works (A. D. 973-981), and under the

Ceylon, founder (circa 400 A. D.) of the Dharmaguptah

(m^^'U

"'

name Dharmabhadra ('Hi^)


72 works (A.D. 9821,001).

^ branch ft"tnB) of the SarvdstivddAh (2.) A


^^'^^l'

mm^

"'^

DHARMADHARA
or or
djfia)

native of southern India who translated (A. D. 590616) many works into Chinese.

or
'74^^^

or

(Dharmapra-

DHARMAGUPTA BHIKCHU
ICARMAN

or '^yfe (1-)
(A.

A S'ramjitransseveral

na

of the

West who
D.
367)

m^itmM

Title of a compilation

by a

lated

disciple of Hinen-teang.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

45

DHAKMAGUPTA BHIKCHU- DHARMAMITRA S-^^v^


NI KARIklAN

gg^Jt-E
""

or

)^MB'}i
lation

^'^^^ ^^

^'^^-

^^J^

lit.

flourishing

of
lit.

the law,

or

by Giiiiavarmati, A.D.

431.

the man with connected eyebrows, teacher of dhyana.

^gf^]^^
of

DHAEMAGUPTA
E9-^^'|^
lation

VINATA
(A.

S'ramana

Cabul

Title of a trans-

by Baddhayas'as D. 405) and another.

translated (A. D. many works.

who 424442)
Iff r^E

DHARMANANDI
or
x\
,.
.

^h

DHAKMAKAIiA

^^^g

'SW
S'ramana
works.

^^^'

^ *^ '^'^

of

native of Central India, the translator of a book on discipline (Pratiraokcha of the Mahasamghika vinaj'a) introduced in China (A.D.
fii-st

translated' (A. D.
five

Tukhara who 384391)

DHARMAPADA
^(!)

(Pali.

Dham-

mapada). Title of 4 versions of a work by Dharmataata,

250).

DHAKMAKARA
or
(1.)

^^

mmM

{^ Dhai-mapada
224,
(2.)

;^'^

iit.

religious nature.

honour. (2.) A previous incarnation of Amitabba, when a disciple of Lokes'vararadja. (3.) A native of Baktra, follower (A.D. 630
title of

S^g *l^ a ^ pits Dharmapadavadana


^

gatha A.D.

siitra

A.

D.

290306,
(q.v.),

(3.)

Avadana
maA.

sutra

^
or

(4.)

jj^
D,

Dharmasamgraha
siitra,

of the

Hinayana School.
(Tib.

hartha gathA

9801001.

DHARMAKAYA
sku)

Cos kyi
spiritual

j^^
(1.)

lit.

the

DHARMAPALA
S(

body.

The

qualities (v. ing to the

the 3 Tiikaya) belongfirst of

body

of

every
spiri-

Buddha,
tuality.

viz.

luminous

(2)

The 4th

of

the

the law, native of Kantchipura, who preferred the priesthood to the hand of a He is famous as princess.

mA

Ut.

guardian

ol

Buddhakchetras.

DHARMAMATI or g
lit. xAv.

g
mind xuiuvA
of

Iff the
of

a dialectician, an opponent of Brahminism, and author of four works (translated into Chinese A.D. 650710).

law!"^}!.')

The 8th son

DHAJRMAPHALA #>
S'dkya Dharmaphala

Tchandra snrya pradipa. (2.) A S'ramana of the West who translated (A. D. 430) two works.

oi

M
who

S'ramana

of the

^^ West

introduced in China (A.

46
D.
207)
the

PART

I.

nfi;?|s:|E^2
sutra
(a

sections (A.D.

67);

(2.)

M:
1^^'^

Mfitdhyama ityukta bic^raphy of S'akyamuni).

ii
first

^'

Maffi"'^^*-

DHARMAPRABHASA ^^0^

Dharmarakcha,

the law. Buddha who, in the Ratuavabh4sa Kslpa, will appear in Suvis'uddha, when there will be no sexual difference, birth taking place
lit.

briglitness

of

Tukhara, who alphabet in China and translated (A. D. 266317) some 175 works (3.) M:i^
;

a native of introduced the

^^ '^TC
or

(Indu

Dharma Aranya)
correctness of
seveal
;

lit.

through anupapidaka.

the law, translator of

DHARMAPRADJNA
madhara.

works
v.

(A.

D. 381396)
or

(4.)

DharKTua

or or

or
lit.

DHARMAPRAVITCHAYA
(Pali.
lit.
lit.

prosperity of the law,

Dhamma

yitchaya)

-se.

translator of 24

works (A.D.

discrimination

414-421);

(5.)

jj^
(A.

lit.

(second) bodhyanga discrimination, viz. i.e. the faculty of discerning truth and falsehood.

the
v.),

(q.

guardian of the law, works lator of 12 1,0041,058).

trans-

D.

DHARMAPRYIA ^^^^TflJ
or

DHARMARADJA jj^

Ut.

M.m&
lit. lit.

^^'
y^Jfe

S-^rf". or love of the law or


or

king of the law (religion). Epithet of every Buddha.

goodness

of

the

DHARMARATNA jr^^
treasures
lective

lit,

S'raraana from law. (1.) India, translator of the Da8'a.sahasrika (A. D. 382) and of a work on the vinaya (A.

of

name

law. Colfor all sutras.

the

DHARMARUTCHI
^
law,
law.

^f^^
hope
of the

D. 400).
the

(2.)

An

Hinay&na Baktra (A,D. 630).

adherent School from

of

or

;^^ or j^^
Name
(1.)

lit. lit.

joy of the

of three

persons,

DHARMARAKOHA. Name
five

of

viz.

a S'ramana of south;

persons, viz.
lit.

(1.)

^^7^

em

India, translator of three

Indn Dharma Aranya

(Tib. Gobharana or BhAi-ana), K4a'yapa (with translator Mitaflga) of the sutra of 42

works (A.D. 501507) (2.) a S'ramana of southern India who changed his name (A.D.

684705)
v.),

to Bodhinitchi (q. translator of 53 works

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
the (died A. D. 727) (3.) subject of a legend, a fictitious contemporary of Kche;

47

mamkara Buddha.

DHAEIVIAS'ALA

^^^S?

or Punyas'&la or WH-^ lit.


e.

nature) originate according to the Niddnas and are originally not the self. The 4th mode of recollection Smrityupasth&na). (v. One of the 37 Bodhipakchika

human

dharma.

dwelling of happiness, i. an asylum, or dispensary.

DHARMAS'OKA
salung
ligei

(Mong. Ghaschan)
to

nomihu

DHARIMASANGITI

SUTRA

'^PSfW
As 'oka on
vikrama

"T^

name given
or or

^Jfeis^ Title of a translation by Bodhirutchi (A. D.


515).

his conversion.

DHARMAS'URA
or
s'ura

Dharma-

S'akyadharmathe

DHARMASANGRAHA
Tf^^^

translation

e mm^mi by

SUof

^.^^
t

or

j^^^^

lit.

brave

^^^
of

Aanapala

(A.D. 9801,000).

the law. native of Chihli, of the surname Li ^^^ who

DHARMAS'ARIRA T^^flJ
Greneral term for all
(q.

and brought

visited India (A.D. 420453) to China the

s'ariras

Y.)

DHARMAS'ARIRA

SUTRA
Title of

SIB^l
sutra.

Avalokites'vara

^^ffi*M
book.

mahasthamaprdptavydkaran a

PHARMASATYA
of the law.
Pai-thia,

^^

DHARMATCHAKRA
or
lit.

jg |^
the
law.

the

wheel
of

of

The emblem

Buddhism as

A S'ramana from
in

who introduced
of the

China (A.D. 254) the

^|g

a system of cycles of transthe propagation of which is called iS'74:^


migration,
lit.

Elarman
nikaya.

Dharmagupta

turning

tiie

wheel of the

law.

DHARMASIMHLA

^|

famous

dialectician

DHARMATCHAXRA PRAVARTANA SUTRA. Title


of

Kustana.

DHARMASMRITY UPASTHANA (P&li. Dhammdnupasremember ^MWS. that the constituents


^'*-

two translations, viz. (1.) A.D. 25- 220,

A. D. 710.

DHARMATRATA ^0fB^or

(of

or

48
lit.

PART
saviour of the law.

I.

Sacred
(q.
V.)

relics,

s.

s'arira

Dative of Gandhara, maof Vasumitra, ternal uncle and author of 7 works (translated into Chinese A. "D. 663

1001).
SUTRA
Title 421).

DHARMATRATA
of

DHYANA

DHATUGOPA v. Stupa. DHATUKAYAPADA S' ASTRA M%\mm^^j^m


Title of a
(or

mm^mwm
a
v.
v.

Buddhabhadra

translation by (A. D. 398

work by Vasumiti-a Purna), translated by Hiuentsang, A. D. 663.


(Tib.

DHRITAKA

Dhitika)
lit-

DHARMAVARTI
Buddha.
mas'uia.

ji#i&
Kas'yapa

or

DHARMAVIKRAMA
^^
increase

Dharjr^

DHARMATIYARDHANA
lit,

of

the

law.

penetrating correct measures. The 5th Indian patriarch, born at Magadha. a disciple of Upagupta. He converted the heretic Mikkhaka and died (circa 286 B. C.) by ecstatic contemplation.

ai

Official title of

Kuudla.

DHRITARACHTRA
law.

(Siam.

DHARMAYAS'AS
or

'f^^

lit.

^^^p^ fame the


of

Thatarot. Tib. Mong. srung. tetkuktchi)

Yul

bhkor

Ortchilong

native of Cabul, trans(1.) lator (A. D. 407415) of several works. native (2.) of India, author of several works (translated into Chi-

^^^S^
of

controller

the

kingdom.
of the Lokapalas,

The white guardian


East, one of the
Pis'atchas.

nese A. D. 9731058).

DHARMOTTARAH ig|^^
gP
law,

a king of Gandharvas and

m^^
the

DHRITIPARIPURNA
lit.

EJCy^S

the

:^T^

lit.

the firm and com-

School of the superior of the or |^.^A|^ lit. the


the law.

conqueror of School founded by Dharmottara, a famous expositor of the Vinaya.


School of

Buddha plete Bodhisattva. expected to appear as Pad ma vrichabha vikrdmin, attending on Padmaprabha.

DHRUVAPATU
|i:P

DHATU
and

or gglS-g ,^||5 ex-

or

-^^
A

^fctSSK^
lit.

constantly

plained by
real or

^^

1^**
lit.

^^"^

intelligent. king of Vallabhi (A. D. 630), son-in-law

4^-^

raised.

of S'iladitya.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.

49
region of

DHVADJAGRAKllYtJRA
ecstatic meditation (v.
dhi).

(ggr|B').

The

first

Dhyana
Sam4-

(||!]||),

comprising

the heavens called Brahma parichadya, Brahma purohita

DHV AD JAGRAK Y ^ R A
:E

and Mahabrahma, was


to be as large as one

said

DHARANI
Title

i^^^^m
(Tib.

whole

universe ~^

The second Dhyana


)

a translation by Danapdla, A.D. 9801000.


of

DHYANA
Mong.

Dyan)
'

mnM
lit.

abstraction, or

MM
or

^^^^
^^

Sgorapa. or

^^^ made to com(f prehend the heavens Parittabha, Apramabha and Abhasvara and to correspond
in size to a small
chiliocos-

SI
Ht.
litlit.

JJJ^^

(^]^:3p^). The next Paritthree Brahmalokas,

mos

fixed abstraction, or

0B

contemplation,

^-[^

Apramanas'ubha tas'ubha, and S'ubhakritsna, were assigned to the


third

Dhyana
as

One exercises in reflection. of the 6 Paramitas, abstract intended to contemplation,


destroy all attachment to existence in thought or -wish. From the earliest times Buddhists taught four difierent degrees of abstract contemplation by which the mind should free itself from all
subjective and objective trammels, until it reached a state or of absolute indifference
self-annihilation
of

(^'^^)
The
flffi),

and described

resembling in size a middling chiliocosmos ^tti^^V


fourth

Dhydna

(|g gg

equal in proportions to

a large chiliocosmos
@i,\

('jc^
re-

was formed by the

thought,

perception and
times,

will.

In after

when

the

dogma

of

metempsychosis became the ruling idea and a desire arose to have certain localities

corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state, the 18 Brahmalokas were divided into 4 regions of contemplation

Brahmalokas, 9 namely, Punyapiasava, Anabhraka, Vrihatphala, AsanAtapa, Avriha, djnisattva, and Sudars'aua Sudris'a, Akanichtha. The first region, being of the size of 1 uniconsidered verse, was also to comprise, as every universe does, 1 sun and moon, 1 central mountain (Meru), 4 large continents and 6 Deva-

maining

the Consequently second region, being equal to a chiliocosmos, had to be numbering 1 as counted second Dhjana with 1,000
lokas.

50
first

PAET
Dliy&nas, 1,000 sons and 1,000 Merus, 4,000 continents and 6,000 Deval6kas. Likewise the third region was now described as being formed by the third Dhydna with 1,000 second

I.

worlds.

'When fate (5?-^)

mocms,

fourth

comes to an end, then the Dhydna may come to too,' an end but not
sooner.

DIGNAGA or Mah&dign&ga -^
j^j||
lit.

Dhyanas, 10 millions, of first Dhydnas, 10 million suns and moons 10 million Merus, 40 million continents and 60
million Devalokas. The fourth region was made up by the fourth Dhy&na with 1,000 third Dhy&n as, 10 million

the dragon of the or

great region

Mahadigna-

gdrdjuna

Ht. ;;^ JgJ f | ;^ the dragon tree of the great region. Author of several works translated into Chi-

nese A.D. 6481,000.

second Dhydnas, 10,000 kdt'is


of
first

DINABHA JIJIJ^ A
worshipped
Persia.

deity
in

suns,

Dhydnas, as many moons and Merus,


kotis of continents kotis of Devalo-

by

heretics

40,000

DIPAMKAKA
kara. Tib.

(Singh.

Dipan-

and 60,000'

Marmemzad) i&TH]

But having once given kas. to those 4 Dhydnas a place in cosmology, the Buddhist mind logically proceeded to

11^
of

lit.

the

Buddha

of

fixed

light.

The 24th predecessor

make

them

participate

in

those changes to which every universe was believed to be subject by the rotation of kalpas (see under Asamkyea). Consequently it was
said that,

S'akyamuni (who foretold the coming of the latter), a disciple of Varaprabha.

DIRGABHAVANA

SAM-

GHARAMA
had
*

every

'

the course of' kalpa of destruction


in
"^^'^*'^^^

A monastery, near fM^'fim^ Kustaua, with a statue which


transported
itself*

^^^BM

(SST)

^ ^y^^^ ^ ^^

kalpas, the

fii-st

Dhyaua

is

thither from Kharachar.

destroyed 66 times {& 1 kalpa) by fire, the second Dhydna 7 times by water, and the third Dhyana once (during the 64th kalpa) by wind. The fouith Dhyana, corresponding fo a state of absolute indifference, was declared to remain untouched

DIRGHAGAMA v. Agama. DIRGHAGAMA S^TRA


compilation of 30
translated A.D. 413.

34 Sutras,

by Buddhayas'as

dIrGHANAKHA or Agnivais'ydna

by

all

the revolutions of the

(Pali.
lit.

nr

Aggivessayana) long claws. An

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

61

Arhat, uncle of S'&riputtra.

Djalavdhana, reborn as R4-

hula. DIRGHANAKHA. PARIVRADJAKA PARIPRITCH- DJALANDHARA ^8^11 TCHA ;B:;R%S;WRgg Ancient kingdom and city in
Title of

a translation, A. D.
or

700.

the Punjaub, now Jalendher, Lat. 31^1 N., Long. 75**

DWAKARA il^fpfg
g
ffi|

38 E.

lit sunshine.

A S'ra-

DJALAVAHANA
flowing water.

mana of Central India, translator (A.D. 676688) of 18 or 19 works author of a new


alphabet.

^^J^

lit.

physician,

son of Djatimdhara, reborn as S'dkyamuni.

DJAMBALA

(Tib.

Dz^m bha

DIVYAS'ROTRA
basota)
ear.

^S

(PdH.
lit.

Dib-

celestial

Citrus acida.

Abhidjna, understand any ability to sound produced in any universe.

The

2nd

DJAMBU
Dz^m
or

(Singh.

Damba.
*ree

bu) J||t|j

Tib. or ^|jj^>

Pffffi

with

triangular

leaves,

perhaps

DIVYATCHAKCHUS
Dibbatchakkhu)
celestial eye.

(PaU.
lit.

the Eugenia jambolana.

^Hg

DJAMBUDVIPA (Singh. DamXom phnDjambugling or Djambudwip. Mong. Djampadiwa.

The

djna,

instantaneous

any object in any

1st Abhiview of universe.

Siam.

thavib. Tib.

DJALADHARA GARDJITA GHOCHASUSVARA NAKCHATRA RADJA SAMKUSDMITABHIDJNA

budip)
'

BgPflfi^I^ or
'

ii^^m
One

^^ mum
4 conti-

'

of the

^^^5g^^:^
wisdom

lit.

floweiy

of the ruler of the constellation of * the sound


of thunder clouds.* A fictitious Buddha of the Priyadar-

universe, of of our triangular (v. Djambu) shape, situated S. of the Meru, the southern continent, designation of the inhavited world known to Buddhists, ruled

nents

s'ana kalpa.

DJALAGARBHA
treasury as G6p4.
of

^^

of
lit,

lit. king by Narapati ( A men) in the E., by Ga-

djapati

(J&^P
in

lit.

king
S.,
lit-

of

water.

Second
reborn
Ut. ful-

elephants)

the

by
king
the
lit.

son of Djalav&hana,

Tchatrapati

(^^)
in

of the parasol jewel)

in

DJALAMBABA y^^^
ness of water.

W., by As'vapati

(M^

Third son of

king

of

horses

the N.,

52

PART

I.

grouped including, around the Anavatapta (lake) and the Hira&laya, (1.) the countries of the Huns, Ui-

and

DJATARU PARADJATA PATIGGAHANA VERAMAN!


refrain from acquiring or possessing uncoined or coined gold, silver or jewels. The 10th rule for novices enforcing (v. Sikkhapadani), strict poverty.
lit.

gurs, Turks,
(2.)

etc. in the

N.,

Corea, Japan, in the E., (3.) northern India (27 kingIndia (10 eastern doms),

China,

and some islands

kingdoms),

southern

India

(15 kingdoms) and central Indian (30 kingdoms) in the S., and (4.) 34 kingdoms in

DJATI

lit.

birth.

One

of

the

W.
Title

PJANGULI VIDYA

Amoghavadjra, translation A.D. 746771.

mmMMl by
mary

^|^^ of a
lit.

the 12 Nidanas, birth, taking place according to the Tchatur Toni (q. v.) and in each case placing a being in some one of the 6 Gdti.

DJATIKA
gold-cash.
flower.

djarAmavana

decrepitude and death. of the 12 Nidanas, the pritruth of Buddhism, i.e. recognizing that decrepitude and death are the natural products of the maturity of the 5 Skandhas.

^^ One

^^ HH An
or

lit.

odoriferous

DJATIMDHARA
holding water. who adjusted

^^

lit.

physician

and

diet

to

tlie

prescriptions seasons

reborn as S'uddhodana.

DJAYAGUPTA

DJATAKA
lit.

or Djatakaraala

^^p^^

teacher of Hiuen-tsang in Snighna.

when

adventures of original (former) births. Books detailing previous incarnations of


saints.

DJAYAPURA ^5P^|| A
city

DJATAKAMALA
compilation
of

now in the Punjaub, Hasaurah, 30 miles N.W. of Lahore.

S'ASTRA
14

DJAYASENA

Djatakas

of S'dkyamuni

by Aryasura, commented on by Djinadeva, translated A.D. 9601127. by

^M

ggp^J^

or

^'t-

conquering array.

Yedic scholar of Surachtra,

disciple of S'llabhadra.

DJATAKA NIDANA -j^^^

Title of a translation

DJAYENDRA VIHARA Ell^'&M^ A monastery

^p
of

Dharmarakcha, A.D. 285.

Pravarnaseuapura (now Srinagar) in Cashmere.

SAKSKRIT-CHINESE riCTIONABT.

53
given
(2.)

DJETA

^^^ or j^P'g or '''-^'"^^^ SKK^i^ of Prasenadjit,


raara.

An
Bud.

epithet dha.
of

to

every

I^IIS

origiBal

Son owner

native

Andhra, author of
s'&sti-as,

of

the

park

some
A. D.

translated

557711.

Djetavana.

DJETAVANA VIHARA

^^
or
the

DJINABANDHU
or

M,WW,

^^^-

^f^^ ^^^ ^^^


An
of

garden
fields,

tliat

was given
lit-

orious and intimate. herent (A. D. 650) Mahay ana School.

adthe

DJESTAMITRA
or
of

0;^

lit.

victo-

fJ^^Hc
fight

park

and

victory

An eloquent rious friend. priest of Nalanda (A.D. 630),


author of the
jtED

(Djetrivana), or

J^fg^^

5Jg7^]^^^
translated
A'

of Djeta. lit. the monastery vihira of seven storeys, in the park which Anathapindaka bought of prince

Sarvastivada vina-

va samgraha, b. 700.

Djista

and gave

to

S'akya-

DJINAPUTRA 't^lP^PgS
or

muni.

^^H^

lit-

ost victo-

DJETAVANIYAH
s'ailah
,

rious son.

native of Par-

_.PJP

or Djetiya or P^JS

vata, author of the

^ =j^5^
s'astra

^fjfl^

Yc^atcharyabhumi karikd, translated by

Hiuentsang, A.D. 654.


School
the dwellers Djeta, or
of

on

mount
lit.

School of Djetrivana. A subdivision of the Stavirah


School.

^^^

DJINATRATA or WfWM[,

Jg^R^g^
^^- "^^^* victo-

An adherent rious saviour. (A.D. 630) of the Mahdsamghikah School.

DJIHVA
(1.)

^
of

lit.

tongue, taste.
5

One

the

the organ of taste. of the 6 Yidjnanas, the sense


of taste.

DjiVAKA H^^jjn ^^ (incorrectly) ^j^'or }^Indi-iyas, able to revive. A physician, (2.) One illegitimate son of Bimbisara

tm

by Amradarika, who resigned


the succession Adjatas'atru.
in

favour of

DJINA
ffe

^Jg
most

or

or
jjjl^p

^
(1.)

lit.

victorious.

DJIVAKAHRADA

^ -^

yft,

54
life-savmg pond. near Mrigadiya.
lit.

PABT

I.

A tank
Cfliang

light

of

knowledge.

dis-

DJIVASDJIVA (Tib. cbang chou) -^-^ A


bird,

an opponent of Brahminism.
ciple of S'ilabhadra,

singing

DJNINAS'RI
happy omen

famous by the sweetits note.

^ :^ J^
(1.)

lit.

ness of

A
or
dgi
Kt.

S'ramana

of knowledge. of India, trans-

DJNANA ^JP
knowledge.

lator

(about A. D. 1053) of

Supernatural inof

two works.

tuition, as the result

sa-

DJNANATCHANDRA
H
lit.

madhi.

moon

of knowledge.

DJNANABHADRA

^ IP g^
sage. (1.)

Name
char

of a prince of

Khara-

who entered
(A.
of

the priest-

^R A
ma ?),

^*"

^^ ^
of

hood
lit.

native

yj^^^
or

(Pad-

moon

D. 625.) (2.) wisdom.

^j^
Name

of the (hei-etical) author of the

translator (A. D. 558), with Djnanayas'as, of a s'astra on the Pant^ha vidya. (2.)

ka

nikaya

das'apadartha

A
in

native of

jj^^

^^1^

s'astra, translated

by Hiuen-

"^yfe co-translator (with

others) of the

^^ Mparinirv^na
665.

^)^^^$
sutra.

tsang, A. D. 648. Perhaps the two names refer to one and the same person.

latter part of the

Ma- DJNANAYAS'AS
D.
or

A.

^^

lit.

fame

g^p |fp ^
of the pi-

djRanagupta MiKft^
or

taka, or

J^

virtue. native of Gandhira, translator (A. D. 561 592) of 43 works.

^ A

lit.

determined

th^ conqueror. A native of Magadha, teacher of Yas'ogupta and Djiiagupta, cotranslator (A.D. 564572) of 6 works.

^^

lit.

name

of

DJNANAKARA

:5ea^

lit.

ac-

DJNANOLKA ^'jgH^C
'

^^*-

of cumulation knowledge. Eldest son of Mahabhidjnadjndnabhibhu, reborn as Akchobhya.

the samadhi called the torch degree of wisdom.' of ecstatic meditation.

DJ^ANAMUDRA
lit.

^fp^^
'

DHARAN! DJNANOLKA SARVADURGATI PARIS'ODHANi.


lations,
viz.

the sam&dhi called the seal of knowledge.' A degree of ecstatic meditation.

Title of 2 trans-

DJNANAPRABHA

^*

|g JgjKE
and
others,

by

%^^^M^ Devapradj n
691,

lit.

A. D,

anad

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

55

DJYUTICHPRAB'HA

g jgM by Danapdla 9801000


Title of

j^pg
Brahmin

A. D.

-^k>^
called

lit.
'

the great

light

and

bright.'

djna:nottara bodhisattva paetpritchtcha.


3
translations,
viz.

fictitious

Buddha connected

with the Amitabha legend.

DRAVIDA or Drdvira M A kingdom between


Madras and the Cauveri.

iM by Dharmarakcha,
285,
(2)

A, D.

-Xm-^i^^
(3.)

by

Nandi, A.D. 420.

'j^^

DEIDHA g^SSIf A
dess of the earth.

god-

Danapala, A.D. 980- 1000.

DRONA
pounds).
or

picul

(133^

DJNATAKA
Sadvahana

Hf^^ag
}^

India, king of patron of Kagardjana.

^ ^ 3^ southern
l^fjJ^flD

DEONASTUPA
11^

stupa containing a picul of relics of S'akyamuni's body


(stolen

^ f^ ?^
Mong. Rachi"'

DJUPINGAS
tics,

Here-

by a Bhramin).
(Tib.
rtsizas.

who wear rags and eat

DRONODANA RADJA
Bhudh

putrid food.

DJVALAPRAS'AMANI DHARANI Title of 2 translations,


viz. 'a.)

"

prince of Magadha, father of

MMi
)

ME

Devadatta and Mahdn^ma, uncle of S'akyamuni.


695.

chananda about A. D.
(2-)

P'feliJS^? ^y djra, A.D; 746771.

sapMtt* AmoghavaThe
in spring.

DRUMA

11^

king of Kinnaras.

DUCHASANA
A

^^p^^^

DJYAICHTHA ^gprg
last

monastery in Tchiuapati.

month

DJYOTICHKA

{|fn
re
of

^^Ht.
A

^^^^^

or

DUHKHA V. Aryani satyant. DUKULA n^\^m Fine silk. DUNDUBHISTARA RADJA


(Tib.

s^henative

Rnga byangs Idan

pa)

of

the

stars.

Radjagriha
all

who gave
the poor.

(B. C. 525), his wealth to

lit.

sound

Name

of celestial drums. of each koti of Bud-

das taught by Saddparibhuta.

56

PABT

I.

DURGA.

^^

or

Bliira&

or

tinent; four such composing

Mariclii. The wife of Mahes'vara, to whom human flesh was offered once a year in

a univerise.

autumn.

E.
EKAS'RI^GA RICHI
nil

DUS'TCHARITHA(Pali. Burm.
Duzzaraik)
-4-55.
lit.

ten

A.

^^**

*^

unicorn-richi.

^^

taking life, theft, and adultery (2.) four deeds of the mouth, i.e. lying, exaggeration, abuse
i.e.
;

wicked deeds, viz. deeds of the body,

(1.)

three

Au

ascetic who, ensnared

by

a woman, lost his riddhi.

fiKAUYAHARIKAH (Singh. Ekabhyoharikas) j^i^HJt^


language. School which repeated the teachings of the Mahasamghikdh.
of

and

ambiguous

talk

(3.)

three deeds of the mind, i.e. coveting, malice aud unbelief.

mmmnu -m^ ^^^^^ - m-mn^ A


^^
^^-

one

DV ADAS' ABUDDHAKA
TRA.

SU-

Title of 2 translations,

EKOTTARAGAMAS
tarikdgama
v.

or

Ekot-

Agama.

ELAPATRA
Djnanagupta, A. D. 587, and

^HJ^Pli^
(1.)

Naga

m
tract

who
A.D. 711.

DVADAS'ANIKAYA

S'AST-

consulted S'dkyamuni rebirth in a higher sphere. (2.) A palm tree, formerly destroyed by that

about

Naga.
lated 408.

by N^ardjuna, transby KumAradjlva, A, D.

F.
FERGHANA ^J_b
Province and city
stan,

DVADAS'AVIHARANA TRA +i:3gg Tbe


S'akyamuni
(to

SUlife of

or
in

^^
Turke-

on the upper Jaxartes.

his

12th

year), translated ka, A. D. 392.

by Kaloda-

G.
wonderful soimd. A Bodhisattva, master of 17 degrees of samadhi, residing in Vairotchana ras'mi pratimandita.
fictitious

DYARXTATl
ancient

^^^j^ kingdom, on

An GADGADASVARA

j^^

lit.

the up-

per Irawaddy.

DVIPA

(Siam. Thavib)

ja

|^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

57

GADJAPATI

V.

Djambudvipa.

GAHAN

An ancient {ig ia kingdom, W. of Samarkand, now a district of Bokhara.


lit.

retinue of Dhritarachtra others.

and
lit.

GANENDRA
the

GANDHA
:^
of smell.

(Singh. fragrance.
;

Gandhan)

One
the

of

Buddha. The 733rd of the 1,000 Buddhas of the Bhadra Kalpa.

dumb

;f;oJ|^f^

the Chadayatana

sense
Ht.

GANI:S'A

v.

Vindyaka.

G.ANDHAHASTi
of

^
^
of

gang!

(Siam.

Khongka)

m
river

incense elephant. The 72nd 1,000 Buddhas of the

te%^"
by ^7ji^

ISM
lit.

explained

Bhadrakalpa.

GANDHA MADANA
lit.

(Mahabiiadra)
jjj

or

happy by

"1^*0^

of

inoenae moantaiu. One 10 fabnloos mountains


to

(known
dhism),

Chinese

Budthe

the

r^ion

Anavatapta lake.

GANDHARA ^pg||
cient kingdom in the of the Punjab (about

or

lit. that which came from heaven (sc. to earth, gam-ga). The Ganges, which drops from S'iva's ear inio the Anavatapta lake, thence passes out, through the

^:^

mouth

of

the

silver
falls,

cow
after

(gomukhi),

and

North Dheri

and Bajoor), famous as a centre of Buddhism. S'dkyamuni, in a former life, lived there and tore out his eyes to benefit others. See also

India, ocean, superstition ascribing to the water of the Gauges sin-cleansing power.

permeating

into the ' heretical

eastern southern

'

GANGADVARA ^^pj
lit.

f^

the

gate

under Kunala.

Ganges.

the river famous devalaya,


of

GANDHARVAS

or Gaudharva Kayikas (Singh. Gandhai-wa.

the present Hurdwar.

GANGI

^i^

sorcei-er

of

Siam. Thephakhon than)


or

t^

the time of Kas'yapa Buddha, a former incarnation of Apalala.

rwi'
<>r
lit.

$IP6

explained by

p^^

GANGOTTAROPASIKA PARIPRITCHTCH'A fgjnj_t

^:^

smelling incense, or by lit. feeding on incense.

(^^^^

Title of a trans-

Demons

(superior to men), living on Gandha madana the musicians of Tndra; the

by Bodhirutchi, A. D. 618907.
lation

GARBHA SUTRA.

Title

of

58
translations, viz. (1.)

PART

T.

H-^^^ by Dbarmarakcha,

IX 303, (2.) iiajJS A.D. 384-417, (3.) ^|||JnJ


rutchi, A.
(^)

existence, viz, devas, men, asuras, beings in hell, pretas and animls. The latter three are called lower paths ("TC
' '

D.

618907, and
A. D.

GAUTAMA
Siam.

(Singh.

Gautama.
or

Samonokodom

IftiftAS^i 618907.

Phrakodom. Tib. Mong. Goodam)

Geoutam,
or

^C&^

GAKUDA
Siam!
or

(Singh.
thogs)

Gaiunda.

Jg^
lit.

explained by

^jji^p
most

BLlirut, Tib.

Mkalding

on earth (gau) the

Phreng

^{^^
or

explained
i
lit.

by

-A.

a bird with golden

victorous (tama). (1.). The name of the sacerdotal S'akya family. (2.) An ancient richi, member of that family. name of S'akyamuni. (3.)

wings. Monstrous birds (superior to men), the enemies


of

Nagas.
is,

The Garuda, king


in

GAUTAMA DHARMADJNANA lE^ ^^^^ffllR or


Dharmapradjfia
or

of birds,

the

constant

Brahminism, companion of

Vishnu.

^
eldest son

or
of

The

Gautama

GATCHI

kingdom, the region of Rooand Balkh between ee, Bamiaa.

Jl^

An

ancient

Pradjnarutchi

Yangchuen, 582) of a work on Karma.

governor of translator (A.D.

GAUTAMA
TCHI

PRADJNARU^^'

GATHA
jg

or
>J,flP'g

explained by

hymns and

chants, or

^^ ^^ p^ by M
or
lit.

^^^m^^^ Var4A Brahmana


of

nas'i, translator (A.

D. 538

543) of some 18 works.

^2
or

lit.

singly

raising

chant i. (to be Geya).

e.

detached stanzas distinguished from


Metrical

GAUTAMA
lit.

SAMGHAD:&VL

narratives purport. Gathas of 32 works are called Arydgiti.

hymns with a moral

the assembled devas. A translator native of Cabul, (A.D. 3S3 398) of some 7

works.

GATI
Six

GAUTAMi
(Tib. Grobai rigs

drug)

m>^m
B^-^
or

or

m-m
in-

explained by
telligent

ht.

conditions

of

sentient

woman,

f^^^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
ruler

59

Kt.

of

the

nuns.
pati.

title of

assembled Mahapradjdex-

1^1 ;p^^j:jLM GDmmentary (on the preceding work), by Vasu-

GA.VAMPATI '|g^^{
plained by Jh.p\
lit.

bandhu,

rumi-

translated (A. 535) by Bodhiratclii.

D.

nating like a cow. A man bom with a mouth like a cow (in expiation of sins committed in a former life).

GAYATA

m^^
;"

native

the 20th Indian patriarch, teacher of Vasubandhu died A. D. 47. or

of northern India,

GAYA ^n^ A city of Magadha GEYA 1^7^


(N.

-mm
Odes
See

lit

W.

of

present

Gay ah),

Buddha

became where S'akyamuni (v. Bodhidruma).

repetitional chants. (1.) Metrical interpolations, repeating the sense of preceding

GAYAKAS'YAPA (Singh. Gayakasyappa) fn;Jf)^||^

prose passages.

(2.)

in

honour
Gatha.

of

saints.

also

brother of Mahakas'yapa, originally a fire worshipper, one of the 11 foremost disS'akyamuni. See ciples of
also Samantaprabhasa.

GHANAVYUHA SUTRA ^ ^gxjg^^ Title of a translation

b^ Divakara, 618907.

A.

D.

GAYAS'ATA ftltTi^^
native of

^tM.^
of

(Madra),

GHANTA
large

^^

or

^
used

A
in

descendant

Udra Kama

gong or

bell

monasteries.

laboured, as the 18th Indian patriacli, among the Tokhari Tartars, and died (B. C. 13) ' by the fiie of ecstatic meditation'.

GHANTISUTRA $t^|%|f A transliteration by Dharma'

deva, A. D.
V.

GHA.ZNA

973981. Hosna.
or
lit.

GAYAS'IRCHA SUTRA.
of

Title

4 translations

viz.

(1.)

^
^y

GHOCHA J^^^

^Jj^g^

Kumaradjiva,

A.

D.

384

*":(2.)
^3)

^^\iimi
;

Bodhirutobi, A.D.

386534;
^y
(4.)

Vinltarutohi, A. D, 582
hii-utchi,

^mmmmMi
A. D. 693.

wonderful voice. An Arhat, author of the Abhidharmamrita s'astra, who restored the eyesight of KunAla by washing his eyes with the tears of people moved by
his eloquence.

-kmMm\iimi^y^GAYAS'IBCHA SUTRA TIKA

GHOCHAMATI
meaning
dipa.
of

lit.

son of Tchandra

noise. The 7th siirya pra-

60

PART

I.

CHOCHIRA ^i
<^^

^
^''^^'

lit.

guardian

of

the

pati of Kdus'ambi, who gave S'akjamani the Ghochiravana (Singh. Gosika) park J||gjp

wmm ^

ground. A title of Yas*odhara. See also Djalagarbha.

GOPALA ^^J^H

(1.)

A naga

king of Pradipa prabhapura,


converted by S'stkyamimi. (2.) An Arhat of Vdisaka, famous who taught as an author, the existence of both ego and non-ego.

(the

modem
(Pali.

Gopsahasa,

near Kosam).

GHRANA
Ghanan)

Ghana. Singh.
lit.

the

nose.

One

of the 6

Vidjadnas, the

GHUR

organ and sense of smell. An or Ghori

GOPALI

gg

JII^J^TflJ

person,

perhaps identic with Kukali.

kingdom and city between Koondooz and Cabnl,


ancient

near Khinjan.

GOS'IRCHA TCHANDANA 4^ "M* tl Copperbrown

GITAMITRA

singing friend. A S'ramana of the West, translator (A.I). 317420) of some 25 works.

m^

|g^g

or

sandalwood, such as found on

|^
*^"

""'

MM

^^-

the mountains of Uttaraknru, which continent is said to be shaped like the head of
'

a cow.'
wood.

The first image of S'dkyamuni was made of this


or

GODHAls YA v. AparagodAna.

GOKALI

V.

Kukali.

GOS'RINGA J^ggUfl

GOKANTHA SAMGHARAMA lS#^l!in^ ^ monastery


in Sthanes'vara.

Jh^

lit.

cow's

horn.

mountain, near Kustana.

GOLOMA
hair.

^^
ig

GOVIS'ANA
lit.

jaBftUlP An
the region

cow's

ancient kingdom,

snbdivision of a yo-

djana.

of S. Ghundowsee, Moradabad, in Rohilcund.

near

GOMATI
river

Goomth, which rises in Rohilcund, and falls into the Ganges below Benares. (2.) A monastery (A. D. 400) in
Kustana.

^^

(1.)

The

GRAHAMATRIKA DHARATitle
of

translation

by

Dharmadeva, A.D. 973981.

GOPA

(Tib.

Satshoma
J^yj^ ^ 4^

Mong.
or

GRICHMA Jlf^
heat.

lit.

gradual

Buraiga)

tha and

The months Djy&ichAchadha (from the


the
1st, to

LLWn explained by

^^fS

16th day of

the

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

61

15th day of the 3rd Chinese moon).

interaction of which is cause of all variation in forms of existence.

the the

GHRIDHEAKUTA (Pali.
djakabo)

Ghe-

^MKlSlij

^-

GUNABHADRA ^^l^f{^
IS
sage.

or

f^^
A

lit.

virtuous

vnlture peak. (Giddore) near

famous

for

its

mountain EMjagriha, vultures and

follower of the Mahis'asakah in kapis'a (2.)


(1.)

Brahmana

of

Central

India, translator (A.D. 435

caverns inhabited by ascetics. where Pis'una, in the shape of a vulture, hindered the
meditations of Ananda.

443) of some 78 works.

GUNADA Jjjg;^

Author of

GRIHAPATI
elder.

(Singh. Gihi)

pradjiidparamita sutra s'astra, translated (A. D. 683) by

wealthy

house-

Divakara.

holder; proprietor.

GUNAMATI
:fg^
dom.
lit.

Jlll^^g

or

GROSAPAM V. Bhagardma. GUHYAGARBHARADJA SUof a translation (A.D.

goodness and wis-

who

native of Parvata, lived Vallabhi, a at

980

noted antagonist of Brahminism, author of the

1,000)

by Danapala.

^;f||^

GUHYASAMAYAGARBHA
RADJA SUTRA
translation (A.D. 9801,000)

s'astra, LakchanAnusara translated (A. D. 557569) by Paramartha.

GUNAPRABHA
by Danapala.

^
vati,

or

^-f(^

lit.

light

of

goodness.

GUNA ^||5
or ffe:^
ciple.
lit.

or

lit,

atom,

the active prin-

A native of Pardeserted the HinaMahdyana yana for the School, assailed the former
who
in

Nature, looked upon as an active principle, operating in the Chadayatanas. term of the heretical Samkhya philosophers, designating 3 stages of evolution, 3 worlds, 3 forces, the

many

tracts,

and compos-

ed

the Tattva satya and other s'astras. Bumouf identifies him with Gunamati.

GUNARATNA SANKUSUMITA
PARIPRITCHTCH'A

62

PART
Title

I,

of a translation
tchi,

by Bodhim-

A.D. 618907.

DUNAVAEMAK

J^JI^g^j^

goodness. A and merit prince of Kubh^. (Cashmere), translator (about 431 A. D.) of 10 works.

when 30 years having become an Arhat, lie transported himself miraCentral India culously to where he laboured (until A. D. 209) as the 23rd patriarch under the name Padmaratna.
hermit, and
old,

HAMI p^^.

or

^gjj; An
city,

ancient kingdom and N. E. of lake Lop.

GUNAVRrDDHI
or fig ^^
lit.

^^^im

HANDJNA

advance of good-

^^ A

city

somebirth-

ness. S'ramaiia of Central India, translator (A. D. 492

where in India,
place of Revata.

the

495)

of 3 works.
v.

HANSA SAMGHARAMA
wild

g
A

GURUPADAGIRI
tapadagiri.

Kukkugoose
monastery.
-^^

GURDJDJABA ^jffM

ancient tribe (which subsequently moved S. and gave the name to Gujerat) and kingdom, in southern Kadjpootana, around Barmir.

monastery on Indras'ilaguha, the inmates of which were once saved from starvation by
the charitable self-sacrifice of a wild goose.

HARALI |g*I|| ^
the finest down.

fabric of

H.
HAHAVA
V.

HARCHA VARDDHANA
^^

Ababa,

HAIMAVATAH
of

J**6
li'-

MSchool

increase of joy.

mmmM m^
Name
of

^
"*

of

U li|ffifP

kink
tector
625).

of

Kanydkubdja, proBuddhists (A. D.

dwellers on the snowy mountains. A subdivision of the Mahasamghikah School.

HARITI
^''

or

Ariti

(Tib.

Hph|,^||J
'^*^^''

HAKLENAYAS'AS |||jfj^5 ^^^ A Brahmana, born in


the
into

rog ma) p^-^lj^

or
^'^'

& demons, A^h A


of

woman

of

palace

of

the

king of

He divided himself 1,000 individuals but made all the others invisible by his own splendour. When 22 vears old, he became a
Tukhara.

Radjagriha who, having sworn to devour ever}' baby in the place, was reborn as a Rakchasi and, having given birth to 500 children, devoured one evpirv dav. was until she

SANSKJRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

63

converted by S'Akyamuni and became a nun. Her image is now in every nunnery.

School of the Staviras treating of the cause, or Hetu<


the subdivision of the Sarvdstivadah.
causes.

HARIVARMAN fpfjjj^^ A native of India, author of


the
Iro s'&stra, translated

School which treats of

j^ 5J

Satyasiddhi

(A.D. 407 418) by Kumdradjiva.

HlrrUVIDYi S'ASTRA
BQIl^
lit.

g
ex-

the treatise

HASARA
the

capital of Tsaukuta, perhaps

H ^ H The
lit.

2nd
the

modem Guzar

on

plaining the causes. One of the Pmtcha vidyd s'astras, a tract on the nature of truth

Hehnend.

and

error.

HASAT

fore-arm.

The
lit.

HE VADJRA TANTRA

16,000th part of a yodjana.

HASTIGABTA

^^^^
A

the ditch (formed by) the monument elephant's fall. of S'^kyamuni's power in flinging aside a dead elephant put in his path by Devadatta.

^g by Dharmarakcha,
Title of

a translation

A.D. 1004
(perhaps

1058.

HippA gin A city

the modem Elilla Assen, Lat. 34 13 N. Long. 68" 40 E)

HASTIKAKCHYA
Title of

StTKA.
viz.

on a mountain on which S'dkyamuni, in a former life,


sacrificed

two translation

himself

to

save
or

mitra, A. D.

^WtM^M.420479,

byl>l^arma-.

Takchas.

and

HIMATALA
^IjjTC
mountains.

[10

lit.

below the

^f ^ snowy
9.

Dharmarahcha, A. D. 265
316.

An ancient

HASTIKATA

^^
(of

dom under
lit.

kinga S'akya ruler

the

elephant corps army).

an Indian

(A.D. 43), N. of the Hiudookoosh, near the principal source of the Oxus.

HAYAMUKHA v. HELMEND ||
river, rising

Ayamukha.

HIMAVAT

^P

SlU
India.

^**

(Siam. Himaphant) ^^^y mountains.

and
moon.

falling

in Afghanistan into lake Ha-

The Himalaya, Hindookoosh, and other mountains N. of


lit.

HETUVADAPURVA STAVI HINAYANA

/J>

the

small conveyance, i.e. the simplest vehicle of salvation. The primitive form of the

PABT

I.

Buddhist dogma,

tlie

fiist of

SygT

lit.

the river

Vati.

the 3 phases of development through which the Buddist system passed (v. Triyana), corresponding with the first of the 3 degrees of Arhatship (v. S'rdvaka). The characteristics of the Hinayana School, of which the Chinese know 18 subdivisions, are the preponderance of active moral asceticism and the absence of metaphysical speculation and mysticism.

river rising in

Nepaul and

flowing past the modem

Kus'inagara, or Gunduck. Chinese texts confound it with the Nairandja-

Gandaki

na.

HOMA JI^J A
HOSNA
the
v.),

city (perhaps

the modern Humoon) on the eastern frontier of Persia.

or

Ghazna
of

%
(q.

HINATANABHIDHARMA /]
of philosophical the Hinaydna School, now consisting of about 37 works, the earliest of which, the

Tsaukuta the modern Ghuznee.


capital

The

m canon

HRI ^^PS
lit.

explained

by ^^
mystic

the heart. sound, used, in


litanies

mudra
comfort dead.

s'astra,

^iPMM was

Gunanirdes'a
into

sorcery and accompanied with manipulations, to the souls of the

translated

Chinese, A.D. 25220.

HROSMINKAN
gli^n

or
5R:

HINGU

MM

12

Semen-

An

Assa

foetida,

noted product of Tsdukuta,

ancient kingdom, the region of Koondooz, Lat. 35 40 N. Long. 68 22. E.

HIRANYA PARVATA j^t^ HUCHKARA


city of

mm^Jmm
^"^

A-

ancient kingdom, noted for a volcano being near its capital (the present Monghir, Lat. 25 16 N. Long. 86 26 E.)

Cashmere, the modern Uskar, on the Behat.

HUDJIKAJ^ S^J:1)t
cient

^^"
of

kingdom,

S.

W.

Balkh,
zdjau, 65 E.

HIRANYAVATI
or Adjitavati

or

Hiranya

the region of DjuLai. 35 20 N. Long.

/=fg^fl^jg
'

HUMI

tribe of

Tam-

Mmmk
jg
lit.

explained

invincible, or

lit. by by ^^jl,^j^{g gold sand Vati or by

w^f ^

asthiti

^^

HUPIAN i PS 32 IR

The an-

cient capital of Urddhasth&na, N. of Cabul.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

65

I.

of the secular power, protec-

iCHADHARA

(Pali.

Isadhara.

Isliadhara. Singh. Tsinthon. Tib. Sciol

Siam.
darin)

Buddhist any saint. Further particulars Sakchi, see under S'akra,


S'atamanya,
Traiyastrims'as,

tor of the inferior to

church,

but as

explained by

^|^

lit-

bulg-

Vadjra.

lit.

ing on a pivot, or by ^i|| A chain of revolving. mountains whose peaks resemble linchpins. The second
of of

INDRADHVADJA ^^fg image of Indra. A fictitious


lit.

the

concentric

circles

contemporary of S'4kyaTnuni, being Bud(fiia of the S. W. of our universe, an incarnation of the 7th son of Mahabhidjiia djnana bhibhu.

mountains the Meru.

surrounding
or

mS'VAKU VIRUDHAKA

Videhaka (Singh. Amba or ram Tib Bhu Okkaka. ching pa hphgsskyespo)

mDRANILAMUKTA
(Indra)
blue

SMM @ ^ explained by ^ ^ ^ ^ a
(azure)
(pearl),
i.e.

g]

P'g

pearl

(Kama king). A descendant of Gautama (q. v.), the last


of Potala of the Kama (god of love) dynasty. When he heai-d that his four sons, whom he had banished for the sake of a concubine, refused to obey his summons to return, he exclaimed

king

called Indra (because it is fabuthe lord of pearls). lous jewel forming the basis of the throne of Indra (v.

Nyagrodha).

INDRAS'AILAGUHA

g]

P'g

^J^^
S'akra, or

lit.

the

cavern

Hjj (S'dkya),
'

meaning
'

to say,

is it

possible

Thenceforth
called

Htby /]>J[E^;gj4 isolatsmall the mountain of

his descendants were the race of S'akya,

A cavernous rocks. ed mountain with rock temple, near Nalanda.


INDRYA
(Pali.

INDRA

(Siam. Phras
or

in.

Tib.

Dvango

or Bdosogs Kaus'ika. Mong. Khurmusda

Indrayas)

or Pantcha Indrydni lit. 5

^if^
by

kutchika or
lit.

Khurmusda
ruler, or

tegri)

roots,
lit.

explained

supreme
ruler.

by

lit. A popular god of by adopted Brahminisra,

productive of life. One of the 37 Bodhi pakchika dharma, 5 positive agents

^^

producing sound
viz. (1.) faith v.

moral

life,

Buddhism

as

representative

S'raddendriya,

66
enei-gy

PART
v.

I.

Viryendriya, Smritindriya, meditation v. ecstatic (4.) Samadliindiiya, (5.) wisdom V. Pradjnendriya. These 5 Indriyas differ from the 5 Balas (v. Bala) only by being, in the latter case, viewed as negative moral agents the growth of preventing
(2.) (3.)

the Afghans.

memory

v.

IS'ANAPURA
s'iva)

(lit.

city

ancient

^ i^^Mmm kingdom Burmah.


in

of

ISCHKESCHM fg |g
An
Osus.

ancient kingdom uear the principal source of the

^ J^

evil.

ISFIDJAB
(Indu) or
sc.

INDU fp^
>fjfjti

(Indica

regio) or

^
"a
(sc,

^^ ^
^
ex-

white river city. A city in Turkestan, on a small tributary of the Jaxartes.

Q tI^ :^
Khas'a.

lit.

the

(Sindhu, Scinde)

or

ISKARDU

V.

(Hindu)

or

^-^
the

plained by

lit.

moon
of of

iS'VARA >(^||^)^|g
dependent
reign).
(1.)

or

because

India
-BK

illumine the world), or

the saints the rest

existence

(sove-

glP^gHl^f^
explained
region
the

(Indravadaua)

by

^^

lit.

(guarded by) Indra. General term for India which is described as resembling, in shape, the moon at her half, measuring 90,000 U in circumference, and placed among
other
also

given to Avalokites vara and S'iva, other popular deities. (2.) A S'ramana of the West, who made (x\.D. 426) a translation (lost since 730 A. D.)
title

of the Samj^uktabhidharma bhihridayas'astra. (3.}

kchu

of India,

commentator
translated

kingdoms
the

like
stars.

the

by

NagArdjuna,

moon among

See

(A. D.

590616) by Dhar-

Djambudvipa.
v.

magupta.

INDU DHARMA ARAN ^A


Dharmarakcha

IS'VARADEVA
sovereign deva.
of S'iva. (2.)

g;g^
(1.)

lit.

A name

A
or

deity revered

INDUS

V.

Sindh.

by the Pamsupatas.

INVAKAN

or Khavakan or Avakan (Afghan) or Vakhan

ITtYUKTAS
yflbn

Itivrittakara

S#-
'

^^

-Kit
An
of

^"

or ^-fffi*

ancient

explained

by

;i;^

lit.

kingdom, the S.E.


nistan, the

Afghaof

original

home

original events. One of the 12 classes of Buddliist literature, biographical narratives.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

67

K.
KACHANIA ^||ft^5S An
ancient Idugdom, W. of Samarkand, near Kermina. lit. corruption.

KALANTAKA v. KALANUSAMN
Jji^
ing) a
lit.

Karandaka.

Tchandana
black

%^^^^
(yield-

hard

dust.

KACHAYA

^g

species of sandalwood (Styrax benzoin).

There are 5 spheres

of

cor-

ruption, viz. (1.) the kalpa existence of any /T|\ or


univei-se, (2.)
(

KALAPINAKA ^JmMmm\f^

city

of

Magadha,

near

doctrinal views
of

Kulika, S. of Bahar.

(3.)

miseries
(.jg
),

trans-

KALABUTCHI

migi-'atioD

versal

life

ff (^ ^)^ and

(4.)

uni(5.)

^ ^ S'ramana
g^

^J^:^^ or
true
joy.

lit.

of the

West,

who
one

destiny {^).

KACHAYA i^^i^^

^^

^
lit.

The

(A. D.' 281) sutra.

translated

explained

by

^'^^
or
(after

KALASUTRA (Siam. Kalasuta)


lit.

garments. clerical (coloured) vestments.

dyed

black ropes.

The

KA.CHGAB
the
*lt

second of 8 hells where the with loaded are culprits


heatedochains.
or Kuravikaya

-j^^J>

name

of the capital)

An

ancient
regio),

^ kingdom KALAVINGKA
modem
an
^

(Casia

the

Cashgar.

KADJINGARA
Kadjughira
BirW-lS

or Kadjinga or
(P^li.

-^mMj
bird,

^^-

'^^.^'
li*--

Kadjanking-

voiced

or

-jjij^^

iraraortal bird.

The Cuculns
'

An

ancient

melan

leicus.

dom, in Agra province, near Farakabad, the modem Kadjeri.

KALAYAS'AS ndb^ lit. ever


S'ramana

^%^^
famous.

KAKUDA KATTAYANA
-tUM ^^
in
^^

Jjg

of the West, translator (A.P. 442) of 2 works.

^ Brahmins

who opposed S'akyamuni, called Kabandhin Katyslyana


the

KALINGA llil^fljn An
kingdom,
nursery
of

ancient

S. E. of Kos'ala,

heretics;

the

Upanishads

of

the

modem

Calingapatam.
or

Atharvaveda.

KAIiA 0^

lit.

a season.

A KAURADJA ^4^IJ

division of time,

4 hours.

68
:*

PART
or

I.

??

tf

lit.

the

quarrelsome king. of Magadha (reborn as Kaundinya), converted by the stoicism displayed by Kchdntirichi when the latter's hands and feet were cnt off, owing to the king's concubines having visited the
richi's hermitage.

king

KALODAKA
or

^yk

jJSMSPttl
lit-

ti

(kala)

Vivarttasiddha, Samvartta, Samvarttasiddha), corresponding with the 4 seasons of the year and equal to 80 small kalpas or 1,344,000 years. Every small kalpa or Antara or interim kalpa (Singh. Antahkalpaya. Tib. Bar gyi bskal pa. Mong. Saghoratu or Sabssarum or Dumdadu Galab) is divided into a period of increase (J'^)
ta,

and decrease

water (udaka). A of the West, translator 383) of one work.

S'ramana
(A.I).

(^^).

The

former (Tib. Bskalpa bzang


successively ruled by 4 po), Tchakravartis, called kings of iron, copper, silver and gold), is divided into 4 ages (iron, copper, silver, gold),

KALODAYIN
man
with

^fmMlJt?"^ or
black S'akreborn as
of)

a face

lustre.

disciple

of

yamuni, to be Saraantaprabhasa.

KALPA

(Pali.

Kappa.

Tib.

Bskalpa. Mong. Galab)

"

plained

m&mt ^7
;^

m -^

^j]^
^^^^
1^*-

which human life during gradually increases to 84,000 years and the height of tbe human body to 84,000 feet. The kalpa of decrease (Tib. Bskal pa ngan pa) is divided into 3 periods 1'^'%) of
,

^
re-

distress (viz. pestilence, war,

great period (not to

be

ckoned by months and years). A period during whick a physical univeree is formed There are and destroyed. kalpas gi-eat (~}c^) ^^^
small kalpas
great

(/J^gJ\ or mahakalpa Siam. Mahakappa. (Pali. Mahakab. Tib. Bskal pa cen po), or period elapsing from the moment when a universe the moment is formed to when another is put in its 4 into divided is place, Asaihkhyea kalpas (v. Vivart-

Every

kalpa

famine), during which human to 10 years life is reduced and the height of the human body to 1 foot. There isdistinction of 5 another kalpas, viz. (1.) the interim (Antara) kalpa, divided, as above, into a period of increase and decrease ; (2.) the kalpa of formation v. Vivartta; (3.) the kalpa of continned existence v. Vivarttasiddha; (4.) the kalpa of
destiuction, v. Samvartta
;

(5.)

the kalpa of

continued destruction V. Samvarttasiddha (6.) the great kalpa v. Ma-

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
hAkalpa.
gives, (1.)

69
of India (contem-

third

divisicu
/"Pjl

Antara kalpas

1^ A native
porary of

Padmasambhava)

who opposed the Mahdydna ^)^ (2.) Vivartta kalpas (^ School in Tibet. ^), (3-) Samvai-tta kalpas ?j^^\ and (4.) Mahdkalpas KAMAPURA >Jn]^^iiS An 0^^)^ A fourth division ancient kingdom, the modem
gives,
(1.)

Antara

kalpas
years,

Gohati, in western Assam.

(/j.^)
(2.)

of 16,800,000

KAMBALA ^|$|| A
of fine wool.

fabric

Middling kalpas (tb*n)


336,000,000
of

of

years,

(3.)

Mahakalpas
years.

KAMKARA

1,344,000,000

j;^ || meral, equal to 10,000,000,000.

nu-

KAMA V. Mara. KAMADHATU

KANADEVA ^n |p ||
or

^A

Kamaloka

or Kamavatchara (Tib. Dod pai khsmajg^fi lit. the re-

gion of desire. (1.) The first of the Trailokya, the earth and the 6 Devalokas, constituting the physical world of form and sensuous gratification. (2.) All beiDgs subject

India, a Vais'ya by birth, disciple of Nagardjuna; laboured (B. C. 212161), in Kapila and Pataliputtra, as the 15th Indian patriarch, a great op-

native

of

southern

ponent of heretics.

The

Butea

frondosa.

See

metempsychceis on account of the immoral chato

also Palas'a.

racter of desire.

KAMALADALA

KANAKAVARNA PURVAYOVIMALA GA SUTRA

NAKCHATRA RADJA
SAMKUSUMITABHIDJNA
king
of

Title of a translation (A.

^^^^

D. 542) by Gautama Pradjnarutclii.

the

constellotion

KANAKAMUISI

(P41i Konalga-

pure flower and Buddha of wisdom, A fictitious Buddha, to appear in V4irotchana ras'mi pratiraandita.
(called)

mana. Siam. Phra Konarkham. Tib. Ger thub. Mong


Altan tchidaktchi)

T^n^niD
lit.

KAMALANKA
An

jjg

Jg aM

plained by
cluse

-^^
as)

a re-

ancient kingdom, in Chittagong, opposite the mouth of the Ganges,

(radiant
of

gold

KAMALAS'IK^

ijm

AiU f^p-

^M^
TjpBa.
I I

the Kds'yapa family, native of Subhanavati, the 2nd of the 5 Buddhas of the Bhadra kalpa, the 5tb

Brahman

70
of

PART

I.

7 ancient Buddhas, who converted 30,000 persons when human life lasted 30,000
the
years.

the modern Canouge, where the 1000 daughters of Brahmadatta, who refused Mahavrikcha, became deformed.

KANDAT
of

^
4o

The

capital

KAPALIRAS
nas
^J[g
lit.

Tamasthiti,

Kimdoot,
Ishtrakh.

the modern above miles

^ ^ ^^
lit.

or

Kapaladhdriexplained by

(wearing a) head-

gear of skull bones.


tical (Shivaitic) sect.

A here-

KAPILA ^Ji;,^
conqueror Tochari, great part of India,
a patron
of

or

^^^Jj
who,

the
"^O

The
(<1-

red-coloui*ed richi. founder of the S^mkhya

of Buddhism, who built the finest stupas in the Punjab and in Cabulistan. He reigned, B.C. 15 to 45 A.D., when the 3rd (or 4th) synod met in Cashmere and revised the

philosophy,

several centuries before S'akyamuni, composed the heretical

-\'^^

Samkhya-

canon

lated

finally.

karika bhdchya s'astra, trans(A. D. 557569) by Paramartha.


(Pdli.

KANTAKANAM
DJA
or

AS'VARA-

(Singh. Kantaka)
lit,

^|^^

KAPILAVASTU
lavattu.

Kapi-

Min

king of horses.

The horse by which S'akyarauni escaped from home.

Singh. Kimbulvat. Siam. Kabillaphat. Tib. Serskya ghrong. Mong. Kabilik)

KANTCHANAMALA

^
of

^^
or

lit.

(wearing)

headgear
explained by ^If city of wonderful virtue yellow dwelor by ^1^
IS*

pure gold. The wife of Kunala, noted for her fidelity to her disgraced husband.

lit.

KA.NTCHIPURA
or

lit.

^^te^

1'^

capital

of

ling.

Dravida, the modern Condjeveram, near Madras.

KANYAKUBDJA

f^^^^

ancient city, birth place of S'akyamuni, destroyed during the lifetime of the latter, situated (according to Hiuen-tsang) a short distance N.W. of present Gorucpoor, Lat. 2646 N. Long. 8319 E.

An

backed maidens. A kingdom and city of Central India,

KAPIMALA A natixe

^ Bi
of

Patna,

13th

SANSKRrr-CHINKSF. DICl'IONARY.

71

Indian patriarch, teacher of Nagardjuna, died (by samddhi) abont A. D. 137.

southern

Kos'ala, born in answer to prayer addressed a to the regent of Scorpio


;

KAPINDJALA IIADJA
sant king.

disciple

of

S'akyamuni

en-

^ ME Name
^

lit.

pbea-

tered the priesthood as

Ma-

hakapphina

to be reborn as

of S'akya-

Saraantaprabhasa.

muni, since, in a former life, he appeared as a pheasant


(phoenix)
to conflagration.

KARANpA

extinguish

or Karandaka or Kalanda (Siam. Karavek)

KAPIS'A

5Sn#|5

Ancient
of

kingdom and city, in the Ghurbend valley, N. E. of Opian, S. of the Hindookoosh, where a Han prince was once detained as hostage.

sweet voice (Cuculus mewaked which lanoleuGUs), to warn him Bimbisara


against a snake.

KARANDAHKADA ^^P'g
irf]

KAPITHA

^JJ^tft^ (1.) cient kingdom, also called Samkas'ya, in Central India. persecutor (2.) A 13hraman, of Buddhists, reborn as a fish,c on verted by S'Akyarauui.

An-

pond near

Karanda

venuvana, a favourite resort of S'akyamuni.

KARANDA VENUVANA

KAPOTANA ^:{^mM An
cient

park (called after the bird Karanda), dedicated by Bima sect of asthen to S'akyamuni, for whom he built there the vihara called Karandanivasa (Singh. Veluvana).
bisara
cetics,
first to

M Pt H* H

'^^^

^''"'^'^

kingdom, the modern Kebud or Keshbud, N. of Samarkand.

KAPOTIKA SAMGHAIiATSlA
lit.

A pigeon monastery. vihAra of the Sarvastivadah, where S'akyamuni, in the form of a pigeon, rushed into a fire to convert a sportsman.
or Kamphilla

KARANDAAT^tJPL^
Title

SUTRA
D.

of a translation, A.

9801,001.

KARATCHI KARAVIKA

V.

Khadjis'vara. or

Khadiraka

KAPPHINA

^J

(Siam. Karavik)

^^^^^
^^
of 7 con-

9,M
by
tion

^"^

^^

MitW^
lit.

explained
constella-

the

Scorpio.

king

of

i#7tciii mountain.

^**

^j^^^^"

The 3rd

72

PART
centric circles of rocks which

I.

surround the Meru 10,000 by separated hig^; feet oceans from the 2nd and 4th
;

KAMAVARANA RANA ^ai:


Title
of

PRATISAby Dharma-

translation

circles.

Djn&nagupta and gupta, A.D. 590.

KARCHAPANA
plained

f^^d-Pf. ICARMAVARNA VIS'UDDHI

SUTRA
by

RS

lit.

an ounze.

Title of a translation,

'^m^mMm A. D.

weight, equal to 80 tikas or 175 grains.

Rak-

350431.

KARMA
or

(Tib.

Da. byed)

^Sg
f^i^
or by

I^HMIft
lit.

explained by

KARMAVIBHAGA DHARMAGRANTHA f^|ft^glj f^

#.S^;fS^Se
A.D. 25220.

of trans-

retribution, or

by

lation (total abstinence tract),

lit.

the law of action,


lit.

action.

The

11th Nidaua, the 4th of the 5th Skaudhas viz. (the reaction, moral of) sultant which ethical term Chinese

KARMAYA v. Tchatur Toni. laRMIKAH tl^m^

lit.

Buddhism

substitutes for the

metaphysical term Samskara. Karma is that moral kernel

the School of Karma. A philosophical School which taught the superiority of morality over intelligence.

any being), which alone survives death and continues


(of

KARNASUVARNA (PAli. Lata)


j3^
lit.

in transmigration,

golden ears.
in

Ancient

kingdom

Gundwana, near

KARMADANA
khun
balat)

(Siam.

Tscho
or
lit.

Gangpoor.

f^0\l^^^ explained by ^jj^ I^JP


expert.

KARPUEA f^:f^^
H^
lit.

or

||
The

The

sub-director

of

naga brain perfume.

a monastery.

Camphor.

KARMASIDDHA PRAKARA- KARTIKA NA S' ASTRA. Title of 2 2nd month


translations
of
viz.

^f
in

IJ

jg

3|P

autumn.
Stjof

Vasubandhu,

a ^

tract

by

KARUNAPUNDARIKA
TRA

by Viraokchapradjna A. D. 541. and ^^fi!tll ^^


Hinen-tsang, A. D. 681.

^mm
JlS> "=4^

Title

/un

translation cha, A. D.

by Dharmarak397439.

SANSKRIT- CHINESE DICTION A.RY.

73
the
7

KAS'A jjn$ ^ ^^^

^ grass

the

6th

of

ancient

(Saccharura spontaneum). A broom made of this grass, used by S'akyamuni, is still an


object of worship.

Buddhas, a Brahman, bom at Benares. His father was Brahmadatta, his mother Dharmavarti /BtJ- ^\ his
tree was the Nyagrodha, his disciples were Tissa /a y^\ and Bharad-

KASA'NNA ^^Hip A
modem
Koorshee.

king-

favourite

dom, 300 U S. W. of Kharison the Oxus, raiga, the

vadja

(^

|2

^^

He

KAS'APURA
A
kingdom,

5|n^;fif||
the

probably

between country and Oude.

Lucknow

KAS'i

V.

Varauas'i.

KAS'MiRA ansi?Ba
^^

converted persons 20,000 whilst human life lasted 20,000 years. S'akyamuni was formerly (as Prabhapala) his disciple and received from him the prediction of future Buddhaship.

asg^aii

^"

|g Cashmere, anciently, called Kophene (v. Kubhana), through converted was Madhyantika and became, during Kanichka's reign, the of northern headquarters Here the last Buddhism. synod assembled and hence with saturated Buddhism,
Shivaitic

as KAS'YAPAMATANGA m mm ^^mm^ ^
or
or or
(1.)

A disciple
of

^
of

(Matanga)

S'akyamuni

ideas

and

rites,

spread to Tibet and thence to China.

reborn as a Central India, famous as an expositor of the Suvarna prabhasa, followed Mingti's Indian embassy from Tukhara to China, and translated (A. D. 67), togethei with Dharmarakcha, the first Sfttra into Chinese, viz.
(2.)The

same,

Brdhmana

KAS'YAPA

V.

Mahakds'yapa.
(Pali.

KASTAPA BUDDHA

of 42 Sections.

Kassapa. Singh. Kasyapa. Siam. Phra Kasop. Tib. OdsruDg. Mong. Kasjapa or
.

KAS'YAPAPARIVARTA.Title
of

4 translations

(of the

same

Grerel zadiktchij

^Jjp^y^

or
lit.

Sutra), viz. (1.)

Mp^^j^

fj^-^ who) swallowed light (viz. sun and moon which caused his body to shine like
(one

j|n^

explained by

A. D. 25-220;

The 3rd of the 5 Buddhas of the Bliadra Kalpa,


gold).

420;

mm nmJEm

(4.)

^^ f^mi^m
(3.)

74

PAKT

I.

^g A. D. 9801,000. KAS'YAPA TATHAGATA


same as Kas'yapa Buddha.

Mahdkatyayaua,
the

Abhidharma
s'astra,

prasthana

author of djadna to reappear

KAS'YAPIYAH
jAs)

Kas'or yapanikaya (Tib. Kachyapri-

(2.)

Buddha Djambiinadaprabha. Name of many different

^H^pIfPgl^

or

^ KATYAYANA
persons.

S'ASTRA
or

KOCHA anJSg^^A

fjiT^^K

lit.

the School

work on the Abhidharma by K4ty4yana.

feeding on light. (1.) Another name of the Mahasamghik&h, also called ^^ f- 1^

KATYAYANIPUTRA

tfl^

^^
Mongol

subdivision of the (2.) A Sarv^stivaddh. also See

The son of Mahdkatyayana, author of 4 philosophical works.

Suvarchaka.

KATUN
or Katapu-

-pj

KATABHUTANA

term for 'queen' or

^^A
j^
lit.

'princess.'

KAUNDINYA
of extremely

^fi SR

^Pla"^ed by

lit.

demons
or

g^
^S-

Kondanya)

bad odour.

A class of Pretas.
Katch

by

WM
"^

''

*6]PP
lit.

(Singh. or .^ jjQ explained

JU

^^

a utensil for

KATCHA
An
Cutch.

(holding) fire or
ffi?

by

;il^^
of

ancient

kingdom

tributary

to Malava,

now
v.

the peninsula

time in
(1.)

S expounding
prince
of

chief

his

the law.

Mngadha,

KATCHANA
V,

Yas odhard.

KATCHTCH'ESVARA
Khadjis'vara.

^ The garment
>jDjf|JI or ed by "^'ffiff
literature.
lit.

of merits.
<>'

and chief disciple of S'akyamuni (v. AdjnatakdunA grammarian, dinya). (2.) mentioned in the Pratis'akhya siitras. (3.) Vyakaranakaundinya (q. v.) See also under Kalirddja and Kalidatta.
uncle

KATYAYANA aB^fffSR

KAUS'AMBI
(Pdli.

^J^
A

explainof

or Vatsapattana Singh. Kosarabi. Kosamba) |I5 ? or jg,


ffi]

ornament

K3
ancient

":

msi^iii A"
either

(1.)

S'dkyamuni,

disciple of also called

city,

the

modern Kusia near Kurrha,

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

75

or the modern Allahabad.

Kosam near
JfJ

KAUS'EYA ;^ Silk

^^

KCHANTIDEVA IJE' A richi who taught ^kyamum

m?

or

g;

gymnastics.

from wild

silk-

KCHANTI PARAMITA
lit.

KAUS'IKA PRADJNA
PARAMITA ^^j^, '^""^'"'^
Title
of

worms.

enduring

insult.

The 3rd

of the 6 Pdramita (q. v.), the virtue of patient equanimity.

translation (A. D. 980

KCHANTIRICHI ^^/(]j

lit.

1,000) by Danapala.

KATA

(Singh.
lit

Kayan)

or ja.

the body.
tlie

gn ^ One
See

the richi who patiently suffered insult. Sakyamuni, in

of suffered

a former life, being a richi, mutilation to convert

the 6 Ayatanas, the body, i. e.

sense of

Kaliradja.

toucli.

ChadAyatana and Vidjnana.

K AYA SMRIT Y UPASTHANA


passana) (Pali. Kaya rupa -^ fe.yr^ lit. remembrance
of the impurities of the body. One of tlie 4 categories of

explained by
lion's patience.

gjjjJSLiTJ^

lit.

native of Hiranyaparvata, follower of the Sarvastivadah.

KCHATTRIYA

Smrityupasthana (q. v.), the knowledge that all corporeity


is

impure.

M^M ^
The

^iJ^Bf IJBP
^^^'

or

o^"

explained JlJ^lJ
la.ndowners.
of

iffli
caste

warriors

and

KCHAMAKARA BODHISATTVA SUTRA #^^:^g


Title of a translation,

kings, pure

Hindus by des-

A. D.

cent, forming, next to the Brahraans, the only caste

222280.

from which
forth.

Baddhas come
species

KCHAMAYATI VYAKARANA SUTRA 'j^^g^^ KCHAUMA


ffiSffi
lation

Title of a trans-

of

hemp.

by 519524.

Bodhirut<;hi, A.

D.

KCHUNADEVA
Hindu
deity Tirthakas.

KCHANA ^(Jll^ A moment, the


90th part of
a

worehipped by

/^

thought,

the 4,50Qth part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 births and as many deaths
occur.

KCHUNAHILA A mountain in
KESHINI
hair.

^ ^

||5 pjj

||

Tsaukuta.
lit.

much

Name

of

a Rakchasi.

76

PART
or f^jfjp

1.

KHADGA ^^^
igfn
jkh
forests.
lit,

or

explained by
solitary

^g|lj
in

(Kasioi) on the Paropamisus. Others point to Cashmere (Remusat), Iskardu (Klaproth),

dweller

Kartchou

(Beal).

The

rhinoceros.

KHADIRA
|a
or

j^B^M

^pgH explained

or

^^ by
The
also

KHAVAKAN v. KHAVANDHA
Sirikol lake.

Invakan.

^^pg

An

ancient kingdom and city, the modern Kartchou, S.E. of

Djambu Mimosa
Karavika.

cateclm.

mountains. See

KHOTAN

V.

Kustana.
ancient

KHADJIS'VARA
yStfeM
chie.

or Katchtches'vara or Karatchi

KHULM

M^M^ An

j^^

"^^^ capital of Vit-

kingdom and city, between Balkh and Koondooz, near


Khooloom.

chalapura, the

modern Kuraor

KHAKKHARAM
P^'JIli
lit.

Hikkala

explained by

mu-

^
of

district of

Tukhara, S.

Talikhaa

a staff of tin. The metal wand of the Bhikchn (originally used to knock at the
doors).

KTKANA
Khaka
tribe.

district

of Afghanistan, the valley of Pishin, now inhabited by the

KHAJS^
for
*

-pj^ A Mongol
prince.'

term

KiMS'UKA gi;|^an
or

^^-

KHARACBLAR

Kutche

J^

Ancient kingdom and

city,

plained by ffiijj^^ li*. the treasure (red as the beak) of the macaw. The Butea frondosa. See also Kanaka.

in eastern Turkestan.

KHARISMIGA

KINNARA
Miham
A
lit.

(Siam. Kinon. Tib.

Ancient kingdom (Kharizm) on upper Oxus, forming part of Tukhara.

%^\Y^^^

tchi)

^|K|1
men
or

^"^

^ffi^ Despirits. doubtful (homed)

not

KHAROCHTHA ^^^^^^
explained by
of

mons (dangerous

|gj^
an
richi.
"^"^

lit.

(hav-

to men), the musicians (represented with horse heads) of Kuvera.

ing the) lips of

ass.

Name

KUCHTA MANAS v. VidjMna.


KOCHA KARAKA
v.

an ancient

Adhid-

KHAS'A ig^C

ancient tribe

harma kocha karaka.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

77
to

KOKALI

or Kukali or Gok&li

meral,

equal

10,000,000.

See also Lakkha.

lit.

one

of

bad time.

Tte parent
latter

of Devadatta, the

KOTLAN
lake.

JnfDflJlg

An

ancient

(son of Gopali.

being called Kokaliya Kokdli). See also

kingdon, W. of Tsuugling mountains, S. of Karakul

K6KILA|^^||orJ6j^|| KOVIDARA Jj^jUP'gl A bird, probably same as Bauhinia variegata.


Kalaviiigka.

The

KOUTA
or
father

^^^
''

or

KRAKUTCHTCHANDA
^fl|,J^

(Pali.

-la^pt
of

i^M ^

Mahamaudgalya-

yana.

Kakusanda. Siam. Phra Knkusom. Tib. Hkor vah djigs. Mong. Ortchilong ebdektchi or Kerkessundi)

^nH^.l^ft

KONKANAPURA ^^^JR^

An modem

ancient kingdom, the

Goa

and

North-

t^g
J^f^
jP
explained by
lit.

Canara.

KONTODHA ^|^|?g An
cient

an-

p;fifj (one who) readily

makes the
first of

kingdom, the modern Ganjam, on the East coast of

India.

right decision. The the 5 Buddhas of the Bhadrakalpa, the 4th of the 7 ancient Buddhas, native of

KOSALA

Kos'ala Kosol) 'I'^I^IS or


or

(Singh.

^^nh^
ly,

Kchemavati,

des-

^1^^

(1.) Southern Kosala or Dakchinakosala, an ancient kingdom, the present GundAvana Berar. (2.) Northern and Kosala or Uttarakosala, an ancient kingdom, the modern

cendant of the Kas'yapa famison of iiffi|^ (Singh. Ag-

gidatta)

and

^tI^

(Singh.

Oude.

]^ f^ and HJ^;^ (Singh. Wadhura). His favourite tree was the Sirisa
(Singh. Sanjawi)

Wisakha), teacher of

he converted 40,000 persons,


Dictionaries or
whilst

KOS'AS YM.-^
repertories.

human

life

lasted

40,000 years.

KOTI
f^

(Pali.
""^

Kathi)

^.Jg

or

KRIS'NAPAKCHA
of

M-^

lit-

JfijSfi
lit.

:^J&

explained by

ten

myriads.

nu-

the black portion. A division 15 days. See time, 14 S'uklapakcha.

78

PAJBT

I.

KRIS'NAPURA

v.

Mathura.

hak4s'yapa is believed to be living even now.


or

KRITYA

(fern.

Kritya)

explained ^7

raons digging

^ up

F* J^ ^i*- ^^~ corpses, or

^^^ KUKKUTARAMA

Kuk-

kutapada samghdrama

^R3

lit

bought (slaves). (1.) A class demons, including Yakchakrityas and Manuchakrityas. (2.) A term of contempt, applied to mischievous persons.
of

chichen foot park. A monastery on Kukkutapadagirl,


built

by As oka.
or

KUL.4PATI 15||4;j[g
z^
lit.

KROS'A
J#
lit.

j^^^

or

J^^J^
-^2fc.^
big
ox.

landlord.

^
of
li

title

honour.

explained

by

the lowing of a

KULIKA ^i^^JM A
S.W.
of

city 9

the 8th part of a Yodjana, or 5 li.


of

measure

distance,

Nalauda in Magadha.

KULUTA
State,

gg^ An
in
its

ancient

KUBHA Hg^
phes (Kabul).

The

river

Ko-

famous for
the

northern India, rock temples;


Cooloo,

modem

N.

of

Kangra.

KUBHANA|J3^JJ5orpj^
the (v. Elas'mira), Kophene modern Kabul.
.

KUMARA ffij^H
lit.

or

KUKALI V, Kokali. KUKEJAR -^-g-g A country KUMARA BHUTA ^|0||


W.
of Khoten, 1,000 li from Kaschgar, perhaps Yerkiang.

of a certain king. (2.) General appellation of royal princes.


(1.)

a youth.

Name

^:f

#^
lit.

explained

by

a youth.

A child of about

^^

KUKKUTA PADAGIRI J^J^


"t/SP^SUj
^' Gui-upadagiri

10 years.

MM.Wt\U
$^P
iJj
lit.

e^Pl^i^^d by

KUMAEABUDHI ^|0||ft
H
or

^^

lit.

youthful inof

chicken

foot

telligence.

S'ramana

mountain, or by ^SJ&lJj ^^^' woli's foot mountain, or by

the

West,

369371)

translator (A. of the

D.

\JQ^^^

-^C?

ill

lit.

Buddha's

foot

4?i\|^ explanation of an abstract of the

A mountain 7 miles S.E. of Gaya, in which Mftmountain.

4 Agamas by

Vasubhadra.

SANSKRIT-CHINELE DICTIONARY.

79

kumIradjiva
filS~h
4a
or

;^|g

patriarch, died A. D. 22.


pa

KUMBHANDAS
^ (abbrev.)

or

Kumbhan-

ji^^

J^ -4- explained by
youthful

^ A

^
son

dakas phan)

(Siam.

Thepa Kura-

^1

[:^ or

^i

lit

and aged.
(of

=^'plained by

ex-

native of

Kharachar,

R^^

^^^

scrotum

of Kumdrayana and Djiva, disciple of Vandhudatta, Vi-

malakcha

and

Suryasoma,

monstrous size). A class of monstrous demons (perhaps of identic with the

great expositor of the Mahayana, carried as prisoner to

^^
or

Fah-hien).

China (A. D. 383), where he was styled one of the 4 suns


'

KUMBHIRA ^H)t||
crocodiles; or

^
l^*'-

of

Buddhism,'

introduced

new alphabet and


some 50 works.

translated

by

^al

KIJMAEALABDHA J^^||

^^
lit.

explained

by

a youth. A follower of the Sdutrantikah, author of many philosophical


gift of

^g
or

boa-dragons. a monster with scribed as the body of a fish, but shaped like a snake and carrying
'

A crocodile,

de-

pearls in its taiV;^ identic with the

^i^Pf
as

or
'

2i^WMM
feet long.'

described

work.s,

a four-footed crocodile, over

KUMARARADJA -J^^
ZZ. or

^Hb*-^
or

li*-

^ crown^'^^

20

piince,

KUMIDHA J^^P^ An
N. of Badakchan.

an-

^}^-^Zr^
(1.)

son of a Dharraavarti.

An

cient kingdom (Yallis Comedorura), on the Beloortagh,

epithet of Buddhas of royal descent. (2.) An epithet of Mandjus'ri.

KUNALA
dhana i^
;

or

Dharmavivar-

KUMARATA
plained by

or
ex-

father As'oka (who succeeded As'oka,


;

The son of of Sampadi


226

^"j^

lit-

cbief of

deva in Paranirprinces. raita vas'avartin, reborn in Tuchita, disciple of Kaus'ika, reborn in a Brahmaloka, rebom among the Tukhara as in a Brahman, laboured
Central India
as
the

B.C.) ; of Gandhara his eyes, beautiful as those of the bird

Kunala, were gouged out by order of a concubine of his See also Ghoaha. father.

KUNDIKA

19th

explained by

or ||^ if^^ or

80

PABT
a watering pot. The water of the bhikchu.
s.a.

I.

lit.

city.

bowl

KUNDINTA

Kaundinya.
Perfume,

The ancient capital of Magadha, 14 miles S. of Behar, deserted by Bimbisara


in

KUNKUMA

prepared from the Turmeric (rhizome) plant, either Curcuma longa or Curcuma aromatioa.

^^

favour of Rddjagriha (6 miles farther West).

KUS'ALAMULA SAMPARIGRAHA SUTRA

^i^
417.

^^^

Title of a

translation

KUNKUMASTUPA

m-^^
(covered

by Kumaradjiva, A.D. 384

with a paste of Kunkuma), in honour of Avalokites'vara,


at

KUS'INAGARA
maka
(Pali.

or Kus'igraKusinara. Singh.

Gay a.

KUNTI

rfj

Name of a certain

Cusiuana or Cusinara. Tib. Rtsa mtchogh grong) i^F*

Rakchasi.

KURANA

^^15 An ancient

plained

by

kingdom, originally a district of Tukhara, the modern Garana (with mines of lapis lazuli), S. of Robat.

Jl-^^M

^'*^-

KURUDVIPA s.a. Uttarakuru. KURYANA or Kuvayana ^^|] KUSTANA JgiiiajR


cient kingdom, N. of the upper Oxus, S. E. of Ferghana, the present Kurrategeen.

the birthplace of 9 scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kusiah, 180 miles N. of Patna the place where S'akyaraimi died.
;

or

KUS'A

^
lit.

explained

^^ ^^ J^ by "^'p;^
or or

^" ^ fflM *^ metropolis of Tartar (Tochari) Buddhism (since A. D. 300), until the invasion of Mohammedanism the modern Kho-

^31

ten.

grass of lucky augury. Sacred odoriferous grass, Poa


cynosuroides.

KUSUMA i^p^^

^ The
or

white China aster.

S^

KUS'AGARAPURA
"y limn the city of or
jhjbjj?

Kns'a grass palaces, lit. the mountain

^^^

^^J|
li*-

KUSUMAPURA
|g
;fg^":^

Y0^0^W
lit.

the city

of palaces of flowei's. The ancient name of PAtaliputtra.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.

81
683.

XUSUMA SANTCHAYA S^Tof a translation (A.D.

by Divakara, A.D.

LAMBA
386
chasi.

^^
A

certain

Bak-

534).

KUVAYANA
KXJVERA
IiADA
V.
V.

v.

Kuryana.

LAMBINI see Lumbinl. LAMBXJRA or Lambharn "g


^ji|H
sent

Vais'ramana.

mountain (with a

Lara.

famous Nagahrada), the preLaspissor, in Kohistan,

N. of Kabul.

L.
LADAKB
Tibetans.
(Tib.

liAMPA

or

Lampaka >^yj^ An

Ladag)

^J^

The upper Indus valley, under Cashmerian rule, inhabited by

ancient kingdom on the Laghman mountains, N. of the Kabul, E. of the Alingar and W. of the Kunar rivers.

LANG ALA 5g:}g|g An ancient


tribe of Shivaites in western

LAGHULA s,a. Rahula. LAHUL V. L6hara. LAKCHANAS (Pali. AsstdakuSingh. nu. lakshana)
signs.

Pundjab (now located near Katch Gandava, in Beluchistan).

Maha purusha
^^

^-f-^lffl ^^^The marks visible on


(Singh. Lakhan. Tib. exor

LANKA

(Tib.

Sing ga glin)
ex-

^or^lJnor^^^H^
plained by yf\"pT>^
^^^-

the body of every Buddha.

^^'

liAKKHA
Laksh)

^^^
Lara.

^^^

plained by -|-|| lit. 100,000. The 100th part of a Koti.

mountain inhabitable. (1.) in S.E. corner of Ceylon with a city of demons (Laiikapuri). (2.) The island of Ceylon.

LAIiA

V.

lai^kIvatIra
(Tib.

sx)tra.

LALITAVISTARA
cer rol pa). translations
of

Rgya

Title of 3
tise,

Title of several

translations of a polemical philosophical trea-

of

biography
(1.)
-fcr
(^^*-

S'akyamuni,

viz.

' ^mi ^'^mi Samanta prabhasa

based on the teaching have been given by S'&kyamuni on mount Lankd,


said
viz.

to

sutra),

by

(L)

Dharmarakcha,

A. D. 308;

^
chi,

by Gu^abhadra, A.D 443,


A. b. 513,
(3.)

wmmtk^mM
;^^jf

82

PABT

I.

Ari^ by

S'ikchananda, A.D.

LABA

700704. or Lada |g

a translation by L&karakcha, A,D. 25220.

(1.)

Malava
(2.)

LOKAPALA

g ^
-jg:

lit.

^|g

lit.

southern Lara.

Vallabhi

-^UM

lit.

northern

guardian of the universe. Title given to valorous deities and saints, as the Tchatur Mahiiradjas,

Avalokites'vara,

and

LATA LAVA

s.a.

Karnasuvarna.
or

others.

Igg

900th part of a Takchatra, equal to 1 minute and 36


seconds.

H^
nit.

The

LOKATATIKA

S&tlWP'B i^ Jit. wicked


J'lMifc^hi^

or Lokayata ^^Pl^i^^d by
talk

or

^ by

^** l^^r^tios

who

LIKCHA
djana.

lit.

The
T6-

131,712,000th part of a

LIMBINI V. Lumbini. LINGA S'ARIRA s. a.


makaya.

Dhar-

LITCHHAVI
Tib.

(Singh.

Lidschawji)

^^

Lichawi. or

^'M
hy The

or |j|lJ|5^ explained
lit.

follow (the ways of) the world. brahrainical sect of ' teachers who injure their pupils and return acts of kindness by wicked replies,' corresponding with an atomistic sect (attached to the atheistic doctrines of the Tcharvdkas) of * pupils who injure their teachers and return acts

-+|_L.

mighty heroes.

of kindness

by wicked que-

of mlei-s Vdis'ali, the earliest followers

republican

Ties;
lit.

called

^J&tlSPPt
f^ij^
lord

Antilokdyatikas.

of S'akyamunl.

LOHARA

or Lahul

LOKES'VARARADJA
jg-f||g
of the universe.
(1.)

Kingdom and tribe (Malli, who subsequently moved S.


and founded Malava), anciently N. of Kuluta.

Name
(2.)

of

a certain Buddha.
thet

Epi-

LOHITAKA V. Eohitaka. LOKADJYECHTHA (Siam. LdKOTTARAVADENAH


Lokavithu.
yi)

of Avalokites'vara and other deities and saints.

Tib. Ndjig rtenglit.

-|]|*^

honoured

by
of

the \miverse. every Buddha.

An

epithet

LOKANTARIKA v. Naraka. LOKANUVARTANA SI^TRA

School of those who pretend to have done with the world. subdivision of the Majidsamghilah, attached to the

Hin&y&na School.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.

83
(Pali.

LUMBINI

or Lirabini or Lavir I or Lambini (Mong. Lampa) m^ ^ f^ MfflJtM or n\

MADHYADES'A

Madj-

djadesa. Siam. Matxiraa prathet) ii lit. the middle

kingdom.
or

Common

term for

j^J^jj^

lit.

the place of

Central India.

delivery

The park

(v. PratiraokcLa). in which May& gave birth to S'dkyamuni, 15 miles

MADHYAMAGAMA Agama. MADHYANTA VIBHIGA


v.

E. of Kapilavastu.

S' ASTRA.

Title of 2
viz.

works
tj

by Vasubandhu,
ii^^Bllfro

(1.)

translated

by

M.
MACHA ^^^
"a
lit.

Paramartha, A. D. 557 569,

and

(2.)

^tp)^^

translat-

explained

by

ed by Hiuen-tsang, A.D. 661.

pea.

weight, equal
lOfg

to 5 Raktikas (Troy).

grains

MADHYANTA VIBHAGA S'ASTRA GRANTHA ^cfl

MADHAKA or Madhuka ^j^


explained
pleasant
latifolia.

^ A work

ascribed to

Maitreya, translated by^ Hiuen-tsang, A.D, 661.

by
fruit

^J^

lit.

MADHYANTIKA(Tib. NimaigAn
Arhat
of Dahala, disciple

The Bassia
converted

of Ananda, who MADHAVA v. Mdthava. Cashmere. MADHURA Jl pleasant, MADHYIMAYANA


lit.

A king of Gandharvas. MADHURASVARA


pleasant sound.
of Gandharvas.
(1.)

tfi^

lit.

lit.

(2.)

^ kiiig A son of

and Sumetra, converted by Ananda.


Sudhira

the middling conveyance (sc. to Nirvana). An abstract category, unknown to Southem Buddhists, in which are classed all systems poised be-

tween Mahayana and Hindyana, It corresponds with, the state of a Pratyeka Budself

MADHYAMIKA ^|^ft^ A School, founded by Nagardjuna, teaching a

dha who lives half for himand half for others, as if


*

system

of sophistic nihilism, which dissolves every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis

in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others.'


sitting

and denies both.

MAGADHA

mm

or

84
or
lit.

PABT
[5^ explained

I.

by

ghocha, Simhadhvadja,

Aka-

vii-tuous conqueror
^^*-

sapraticlithita, Nityaparivrita,

Indradhvadja,
dja,

Brahmadhva-

or by
ling.

MjM

starry dwel-

(1.) A richi, reborn in beaven, who gave the name to South Bahar. (2.) A kingdom of Central India (Southern Bahar), the cradle of Buddhism (up to 400 A. D.). covered with viharas and

Amitabha, Sarvalokadhatu padra vodvega pratyuttima, Taradlapatra tchandanaMernkalpa, gandha, MeMeghasvararadja, gliasvara, Sarvaloka bhayastambhitatva vidhvamsanahara, and S'akyamuni.

therefore called Bahar.

MAGHA

M^

MAHABODHI SAMGHARimonastery
ligence.
of

The

second

winter month.

intelgreat vihara near the

MAHABALA ^i^-f] A
mana
niddna sutra

S'ra-

Bodhidruma

at Gdya.

of the West, a translator (A.D. 197) of a Tchary^

MAHABRAHMA -j^^^^
A
title of Brahma, as lord of the inhabitants of the Brah-

{^f7;^|Eg,

life of

S'akyamuni.

malokas.
(Singh.

MAHABRAHMANAS MAHABHADRA v; Gangd. Mahabrahmas. Tib. MAHABHEM HARAKA PA- pa tchen po) H^^
RIVARTA
of

Tchangs
lit.

great

;^J^g

Title

a translation by Gunabhadra, A.D. 420479,

Brahma. The 3rd Brahmaloka, the 3rd region of the 1st

Dhydna.

MAHABHTDJNA BHIBHU

DJNANA^'*-

MAHABRAHMA SAHAMPATI
V.

conqueror of all-pervadiug wisdom. A fabulous Buddha, whose realm is Sambhava, in the Maharupa kalpa. Having spent 10 middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation, he became a Buddha and retired again in meditation during kalpas, for 84,000 which time his 16 sons continue (as Buddhas) his teaching, being incarnate as Akchobhya, Merukuta, Siihha-

^^B

Brahma Sahdmpati.

MAHADANDA DHARANi -^
Title of a translation, by Dharmadeva, A.D. 973981.

MAHADEVA
-4^^
lit.

great deva.

wmm
(1.)

or

former incarnation of S'&kyamuni, as a Tchakravartti. (2.) An Arhat, author of many


S'&stras,
(3.)

who

fell

into heresy.

title of

Mahes'Tawi.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DIOTIONABY.

85

MAHADllVi ^fqffl^gp

orj

light').

Brahman

of

Ma-

Tfj^^

lit,

the

deva

of

gadha, disciple of S'&kyamuni, after whose death he con-

Title of Mahes'vara's merits. See also Bhima, Mariwife. chi, Sarasvati.

voked and acted as chairman


(Arya, Sthavira,
first

J*;^) of

the

MAHADHARMA
wonderful
Eliniiaras.

law.

^^ A

Ht.

king

of

MAHAKALA

(Tib.

Nag

po

tchen po. Mong. Jeke charra) spirit lit. great

synod. He was the canon, first compiler of the and the first patriarch (until 905 or 499 B.C.), and is to be reborn as Buddha Ras'miprabhasa. See also K^s'yaplyah.

-^JA^

MAHAKiSTAPA SAMGHITI

king.
of

(1.)

disciple of

Ma-

hMeva, now guardian deity monasteries. His image


(with black face) is placed in the dining hall. (2.) A title of Mahes'vara.

S WT ^ #
ate
ti-anslation

^'*^ ^

(A.

D.

541)

by

Upas'unya.

MAHAKATYAYANA
ydyana.

K&t-

MAHAKALPA v. Kalpa. MAHAKARUNA PUNDABIKA SIJTEA. Title 'of two


translations, viz.

MAHAKAUCHTHILA
or

or

IS
lit.

H^

(one

explained by -j^ who had) large

-j^^^^
^^^-^'^'^'

knees.

'^mui and
552.

^' ^'

yamuni,

^y Narendraya-j^f^^^^ s'as and Dharmapradjna, A.D.


or Kds'yapa Tib. Ods-

disciple of S'dkmaternal uncle of S'ariputtra, author of the


s'astra,

Samghatiparyaya

MAHAKAYA -j^^
body.

Ht.

large

MAHAKAS'YAPA
(Singh. Kasyapa.

rnng tchen po. Mong. Gascib)

A MAHAMAITRI SAMADHI

king of Garudas.

^^
B.

lit.

samdahi

^
of

of

great

^^^JSO^HgPS
dhdtu)
lit.

(Kas'yapa-

benevolence.

degree

explained

by

-^-)V^

ecstatic meditation.

(he who) swallowed light, (' because his mother, having in a former life obtained a relic of Vipas'yin in form of a gold-coloured pearl, became radiant with gold-coloured

MAHAMANDARAVA
tT/J*!

fnT

s.a.

Mandarava.
I

mahamandjIjchaka
V.

Mandjuchaka.

86

TART

I.

MAHAMANI VIPULA VIMAN A YIS' VA SUPE ATIS-THITA GUHYA PAKAJ^IA RA-

HASYA KALPARADJA
DHARANI.
Title of 3 translations, Tiz. (1.)

.\ by which he viewed >P^ S'akyamuni in Tuchita and made a statue of him, and went to hell to release his

J^JJ^I?^

mother. He died before his master, but is to be reborn Buddha Tamdla patra as

^ J3
j|M

^i

A.D. 706,

bj and

Bodliirutchi,
(3.)

tchanda nagandha. (2.) Name of two great leaders of the Buddhist Church who lived
several centuries later.

^^^j^

MAHAMAYA
by Amoghavadjra, A. D.
rikd

or

Maya
or

or Mat-

746771.

MAHlMATI ,l^^r^
-)r*^
tioned
sutra.
lit.

^ (MiyiMaya)
or

0fnf^^

0||)|g

devi) or

great wisdom.

^ mother by ^
^q
lit.

0i|]^

(lady

or

j^^

lit.

or Buddha, explained lit. illusion, or by -j^

fictitious

Bodbisattva menLafik^vatara in the

great mystery, or
lit.

^^

great purity.

by The

MAHAM AUDGALYAYANA or
Maudgalydyana or Maudgalaputtra (Singh. Mugalan. Tib. Mouh dgalyi bu)

M^^

immaculate mother of S'aklatter yamuni, whom the and converted in visited She reappeared on Tuchita. her son's death and bewailed
his departure.

^mmm$
dgalaputtra)
or

^^

mmh

MAHAMAYA SUTRA
^^^Ttf
tion,

Title of a

transla-

A. D. 560577.

j^3f]>[(j|]g

MAHAMAYURI VIDYARADJNI SUTRA.


Mudga
(lentil),

Title

of

of his lived exclusively on lentils'. The left-hand disciple ^1.)

because one maternal ancestors


'

translations, viz. (1.)

-j^^"^

tra,

A. D. 317420, (%)

(1^f^'&^)
also
called

^^

S'dkyamuni,
distin-

Kolita,

by
(3)

S'rlmitia, A.D.

317420,

guished by magic power

:*c^fe?Li^M

SANSKBIT-CHINESE DICTIONAKT.

87
5 translations,

by Kuradradjiva, A.D. 384

RA.. Title
yiz.
(1.)

of

;;^Jt|^S by

by Samghapala. A. D. 502

i^ by Amoghavadjra,
6f8-907, and
(6.)

A. D.

^^J^^

Dharmarakcha, A. D. 41G by 423; (2.) bhadra, Fah-hien and Buddha A.D. 217-418; (3.) ^glrj^

J;,^^mi

AHAMUTCHILINDA or MuMtchilinda ^Infgi^ajPt


explained

tsang, A.D. 652; (4)

j^^

306.
by

Kaga

place of redemption. (1.) A king, tutelary deity of a lake (near Gay a) at which S'akyamuni engaged 7 days in meditation under his protection.

f||^g

Jit.

MAHAPRADJAPATI

or

Gdu-

tm&Mi&ik

^^pi^i^^d by

^^1^
love, or

lit.

path of great
1^*-

by

-)c^^

great

A mountain (2.) parvata) (Mahamutchilinda and forest surrounding that


Mahi.
(Singh.

lord of

life

lake.

by -^-^ The community (of nuns). aunt and nurse of S'akyamuni, the
first

(Pradjapati), or lit. superior of the

MAHANADA v. MAHANAMAN
hanam4)
first

woman

admit-

Mathe S'ak-

0fpf;| Dronodana radja, one


five

son of
of

ted into the priesthood, first superioress of the first convent; to reappear as a Buddha called Sarvasattva priya
dars'ana.

disciples

of

yamuni.

MAHANDHRA
-jc^^^Sj^
ri.

or Mahendri or Kadjamahend-

MAHAPRADJNAPARAMITA SUTRA ^IJ^i^HP^ i^ A collection of 16 Sutras,


expounding the philosophy the Mahay ana School.
of

city,

near the

mouth

of the Godavery, the present

Radjamundry.

MAHANILA ^fpT/gg
plained

MAHAPRATIBHANA -^^
ex-

by

-^^^
A

sQ.

lit.

one who discourses

lit.

precious large blue pearl. stone, perhaps identic with

pleasurably. dhisattva.

fictitious

Bo-

Indranila mukta.

MAHAPRATIHARTOPADES'A

MAHAPARESnilVANA SUT-

;^gf ^-f-

Title

of

88
translation

PART

I.

by

Bodhirutchi,

Garudas.

A.D. 618907.

MAHARUPA
signs.

-j^i^

Ut.

great

MAHAPKATISARA. VIDYARADJNi

M^itmmm
a translation by
746

The kalpa of Mahdbhidjna djnandbhibhu.

MAHASAMBHAVA

FgM
771.

Title of

Amc^havadjra, A. D.

great completion. fabulous realm in which innumerable Buddhas, called Bhichmagardjita ghochasvararddja, appeared.

^^ A

lit

MAHAPURNA -f^^
and
fuU.

lit.

great

MAHASAMGHA VINAYA

king of Garudas.
the Mahdsamghikdh, translated by Buddhabhadra, A.D. 416.

MAHAPURUCHA LAKCHANANI
V,

Lakchanas.

MAHAPURUCHA
397-439.

S'ASTRA

a work -^^m by Devala, translated A. D.


Ti^le oi

MAHASAMGHIKIh or Mahasamghanik^ya
or
I
*

MAHARACHTRA
An
ancient
of

N.W.

J^fpfjljfg kingdom in the the Deccan; the


v.

Mahratta country,

(priesthood). after the 2nd synod (B.C. 443), in opposition to the Mahasthavir^h School. Followers of Mah4-

great School,

^ ^ assembly

^f|"ff ^gf
School of the

lit.

formed

MAHARADJA

Tchatnr ma-

haradja kayika.

MAHARATNAKUTA SUTRA -4-*g^^^ A collection of


49 Sutras, arranged by Bodhirutchi.

kas'yapa. Their textbook is the Pratimokcha. After the 3rd synod (B. C. 246) this School split into 6 branches, V. Purvas'ailM, Avaras'ailah, HdimavatAb, Lokottara vadiudh, and Pradjnaptivadindh.

See also Dharmakala.

MAHARAURAVA(Siam. Maha- MAHASANNIPATA


roruva)

^^^D^ or ^Di]- or
great crying.

~h\i^

lit.

The

division of the Sutra pitaka, containing Avad^nas


(q- V.)

5th of the 8 hot hells, where 24 hours equal 800 numdane 3'ears, surrounded by volcanoes which bar all escape.

MAHASARA
near Patna.

An-

cient city, the present Masar,

MAHARDDHTPRAPTA j^q^ MAHASAHASRA PRAMARlit.

at

pleasure.

king of

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.

89

4-^

Title of a

translation

MAHATCHAMPA
An
ancient kingdom in Bur-

by Danapdla A.D. 9801000.

MAHASATTVA J|[I^^'f ^
or

mah.

^^^^ The

perfected

mahatchIna
lit.

Bodbisattva, as gTeater(Maba) than any being (sattva) except Buddhas, or as using the

great

China.

Name

of

China (since the Tsin dynasty, A.D. 265). See Tchina.

Mahayana
ings.

to save other

be-

MAHATtoJAS ^j^^^
great dignity and virtue.

lit.

MAHASATTVA KUMAKA
KADJA
lit.

A
lit.

king of Garudas.

J^fg-^;S=E^ MAHAVADI
doctor
of of

the great being and royal


Title of S'akyamuni.

philosophy.

Title

prince.

eminent scholars, especialof the SaVais'echika sys-

MAHAS'KAMANA
lit.

J^^f^
Epi-

ly of expositors

the great S'ramana.

mkyd and
tems.

thet of S'dkyamuni.

MAHAS'KI SUTRA
Title
of

^^^
by

MAHAVADJRAMERU S'lKHARA KUTAGARA DHA-

translation

Anw^havadjra, A. D. 746
771.

translation

mmmmi by

^e
v.

of

Danapala,

MAHASTHAMA
naprapta

-4^1^^^^ A MAHAVAIPULYA
ya.

or Mahastha-

D. 9801,000.
Vaipul-

Bodhisattva (perhaps MaudgalyAyana) belonging to the


retinue of Amitabha.

MAHAVAIPULYA
SAMADHI

MAHASTHAVIRAH
virah.

v.

Stha-

MAHASANNIPATA BODHISATTVA BUDDHANUSMRIIT

16^*;^^

MAHATAPANA MAHATARAKA
explained
cer of the

v.

Pratapana.

0fft0||
^i*--

l>y iM"'B*

o^-

Title of a translation by Dharmagupta, A.D. 589618.

road.

An

official

MAHAVAIPULYA

M.IHA-

guide or escort.

MAHATCHAKRAVALA -f^^

SANNIPATA BHADRAPALA SUTRA -^-)J^^^

lit.

the great iron enclo-

^^^
by

Title of a

transla-

sure.

The

larger one of the

tion

Djnanagupta
f

and

two Tchakravalas.

others, A.D. 594.

90

PART

I.

MAHAVANA SAMGHARAMA

mmmmMm jkh^
lit.

^^

the

monastery of

is

of a Bodhisattva, who, being able to transport himself and others to Nirvana, may be

famous the great forest. monastery, S. of Mongali.

MAHAVmARA VASINAH
School of dwellers in large A subdivision of the Mahdsthavirali, opposing the
viharas.

compared with a large vehicle -ASchool formed by Nagdrdjuna, which flourished especially in Tchakuka, but influenced more or less the whol Buddliist church.

H^^y

The

system

characteristics of this are an excess of

Mahdyana

doctrines.
S'

MAHAVIBHACHA i^^l[:^i^tm ^
cal

ASTRA
by

piiiiosophi.

transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation

(Hindyana) treatise Bnddhasa.


|

MAHAVmARA

monastery in Ceylon,
400)

where Fah-hien (A. D. found 3000 inmates.

MAHAYRIKCHA RICHI -^
j^Ylli great tree.
lit.

the hermit of

the

An

Vayu, whose sembled a decayed Kany&kubdja.

ascetic called body finally retree.

(Samadhi and Dhydna) in place of the practical asthe Hinay^na ceticism of School. It is not known to Buddhists as a Southern separate system, though it appears to have influenced Singhalese Buddhists, whom Hiuentsang classed among the followers of the Mahayana S'ramana of School. (2.) the West, translator of the Viuaya of the Sthavirdh, A.D.

See

483493.

mahItana
lit.

BHTDHARMA

MAHAVYUHA
gi'eat

ornament.

^^^ The

SAMGTTI S'ASTRA
phical treatise translated by A.D. 652.

-^^

kalpa

of

Mahakds'yapa Buddha.
(Moug. Jeke Kii)

by Asamgha,
Hiuen-tsang,

MAHAYANA
great

lit.

by 0M^^ explained conveyance.

(1.)

^^ A

MAHAYANA BHIDHARMA

later

form of the Buddhist dogma, one of the 3 phases of its development (v. Triya-

SAMYUKTASAMGITI S'ASTRA i^m^Vik^B


Att^^ A
commentary on
the preceding work, compiled by Sthitamati, translated by

na), corresponding to the 3rd degree of saintship, the state

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
Hiuen-tsang, A. D.

91

64:6.

mahatanadIiva
IRS:
^)^ who
lit.

the deva of the

pented, became an Arhat, and went to Ceylon where he founded the Buddhist church
still

flourishing there.

Mahayaiia School. Epithet of Hiaeu-tsang or

(M^^

MAHES'VARA
or
ex-

[^

travelled (A. D. 629

645) through Central Asia and India, author of the -j^*


Record of WestKingdoms, published under the T'ang dynasty, A. D. 648 ; translator and editor of some 75 works on the

plained

i^J

sovereign, or

g ^by

;g' nt.'great
^Ir

lit.

H^S^IB
em

Mahayana system. Mokcha deva.

See also

MAHAYANA SAMPAKIGRA-

HASlSTRA^^^i^A
collection
treatises

king of devas. Shiva, "a deity with 8 arms and 3 eyes, riding on a white bull and worsliipped by heretics ; " the " Lord of one great chiliocosmos," who resides above Kamadhatu. Hiuen-tsang specially noticed Shiva temples (built of blue sand stone) in the Pundjab.

of

philosophical

on the Mahdyana system, by Asamgha, translated by Paramartha, A. D.


563.

MAHES'VARA DE^^A -^g


;;fc^
dent
Shiva.
lit.

the great indepen-

deva.

An

epithet

of

MAHAYANA YOGA
s'astra.

v.

Yoga

MAHES'VARAPURA
Central
India,

or Mat-

MAHAYANOTTARA TANTRA S'iSTRA**5^_^^


^fiffl
Title
of a translation

Ancient city and kingdom in


the

present

Macheiy.

by Ratnamati, A. D.

508.

MAHI or Mahdnada ^^pT (1.) A small tributary of the


Nairamdjand,
(2.)

MAHENDRA
PHP'S
^'

(P41i.

Mahinda.
or

in

Magadhtt.

Singh. Mahindo)

^|IgK^

^ ^MHPtli by explained iSMHKft A young-

The modem Mbye, flowing into the gulf of Cambay.

fr^

lit.

gi-eat ruler.

MAHINALA ^J| A

vihara

er brother (or son) of As'oka who, as viceroy of Udyana, led a dissolute life, but, when fallen into disgrace, he re-

on Ceylon, near Anuradhapura, famous when Dharmagupta lived there.

MAHIRAKULA

mmM^

92

PART
explained
of

I,

mking
king

by H^lfe^
great
tribe.

lin-

Byampspa mgon po or Chamra. mong. Maidariv;|^i|6


Tib.

who persecuted Bud-

in the Punjab (A. D. 400), fled, when defeated by Baladitya, to Cashmere, assassinated its king and persecuted Buddhists there until " hell swallowed him up."
dhists

mWi'^um^ ' sair


explained by

S^R^

li

he

whose name
fictitious

is

charity.

MAHIS'ASAKAH
sikas

or

J^pfe^^ilinM

Mahis'aor

the School of the earth transformed (i.e. by the influence of Buddhism), or by J;bhgj^ lit. the School of
lit.

the rectified earth. subdivision of the Sarvastivadah.

Bodhisattva often called a principal Aditja, figure in the retinue oi S'dkyamuni, though not a li istorio disciple. It is said S'akyamuni visited him in Tuchita and appointed him to issue thence as his successor after the lapse of 5,000 years. Maitreya is the expected Messiah of the Buddhists and even now controls the propagation of the faith. A philosophical School (7f/{4^

lit.

School of the five-fold

MAHIS'ASAKA VINAYA Jg
translation by Buddhadjiva, A.D. 424, the standard code
of the foregoing School.

nature) regards him as their founder. Statues were erected in his honour as early as B. C. 350. See also Avalokites'vara,

Purnamaitrdyani and

Mandjus'ri.

MAHORAGA
tchen
po)

(Tib.

Ltohphye
or

MAITREYABHADRA A native of Magadha,


lator of 5

^^
trans-

0gg^||flJ
0ftcffj
lit.

works (A.D. 1125).

M^i^
or by

or

or

^ maitr:eya CHA.
v.

pakipritcht-

Title of 3 translations,

^1^

boa

spirit.

class of like a boa.

demons, shaped

A.D. 25-220,

(2.)

MAITRAYANIPUTTRA
Purna maitr&yani
putra.

two by Bodhirutchi, A. D. 386534.

mw

the latter

MAITRiYA

(Pdli.

Singh. Maitri.

Metteyo. Siam. Phiai.

maitrI:ya

vyakarana.

8AN8KMT-0HINESE DICTIONARY.
Title of 3 translations, viz. (1.)

95

MALAKUTADANTI ^^Ht. curved teeth. A certain Rakchasi.

^mmm^mi 317-420. and ^^^


^-

maradjiva, A.D. 314417,

(2.)

MALASA ffcH^ ^ ^ally i


the upper Punjab.

(3.)

my^f&^M.
ip: lit.

^^- '''

MALAVA
Ancient
India,

or

Ldra

maiteIbala RADJA 5g^


the

^J^^
Central

King

of strength

in State the present

Malva,

of

carnation

former inS'akyamuni, when he shed his blood to feel starving Yakchas.


affection.

famous

for its heretical sects.


V.

of

MAIilYA

Malakuta.

MAKARA 0tg||
A MAKHAI
also

or

MALAYAGIRI "^^^HIP ill (1.) A mountain range S. 0.-^ of Malakuta. (2.) A mountain
fish.

monster shaped like a

(Mong. Gobi)

X^ The

^J

on Ceylon with a city (Lanka) of Yakchaa on its summit.

desert of Grobi.

See

Navapa.

MALLA
_U
lit.

^M
the

explained by

--h

MALADHARI

mighty heroes. Epiinhabitants


of

]|| jg.

Ht.

thet

of

MALAGANDHA VILEPANA MALMKA ^^ij

holding a necklace of pearls. A certain Rakchasi.

Kus'inagara and P^va.


or

DHARANA MANDANA
VIBHtlSA NATTHANi
yj^

plained by

^^j]
plum.

ex(1.)

lit.

The wife of Prasenadjit. (2.) The narrow leaved Nyctanthes


(with globular berries
2fe:\
.

thou shalt not adorn thyself fragrant of with wreaths flowers nor anoint thy body with perfume. The 8th Sikch^pada.

the flower,

now
lit.

(musk) because of

called Casturi its odour.

MANAS
stitutes

the mind.

The

MAIAKUTA j^H^lue
Malaya by *^ 0B of light and

^^

6th of the CSiadayatana, the mental faculty which con-

^il^

explained

man

as an intelligent

lit.

the kingdom

and moral being.


"VidjMna.

See also

cient State

Anbrightness. on the coast of

Malabar, once (A.D. 600) the headquarters of the Nirgranthas.

MANASA

or Manasvin

^^[^
lit.

explained
of

eflBux

by the mind

^^tH
(sc.

of

94:

PART
large

I.

Brahma), or by -j^^

lit.

folia,

body. (1.) The lake Mauasa sarovara (or Anavatapta). (2.) The tutelary deity (ndga) of
that lake.

madder yielding the (munjeeth) of Bengal.


or Mafidjunatha

MANDJUS'RI
or

MANAVA ^J|5 _
^>]f)j|

or

(Manavaka) or

m
53P|5

Mandjudeva or Mafidjughocha or Mandjusvara (Tib. Hdjam dvyaug or Hdjam


dpal)

^aK

(Naramana)

or

explained ^kW\ (^aramava) by or man by A lit. a

^^

a young Brahman. General designation for a Brahman youth (lit. a descendant of Manu).
lit.

^^

-xnuM X pm by 7^
^-

^I^S^IJ
"M*
lit,

or

^J^

^^"

or

explained

i^-rfcr^

wonderful lucky
lit.

omen

or by

M>^
(1.)

wonder-

ful virtue.

legendary

Bodhisattva, also styled Mahamati /-jh:^ lit. great wis-

MANDAKA P^^j|n
nini's

T^lemen-

dom),

Kumara

radja (q.

v.)
lit.

tary sounds (so called in Pd-

and

^^^|^^=

grammar).

MANDALA
circle

^:^
continents
(2.)

(1)

The

of

around
circles

the Meru.

Magic

arms and 1,000 alms-bowls. It is said, that he attended many Buddhas in a (fabulous) universe called Ratneya (^ PFreligious king with 1,000
lit.

used in sorcery. (3.) Circular plate (with 5 elevations representing the Meru and the 4 continents) placed on every
altar.

MANDARA
by

or Mandarava

PtM explained by ^^
according with the

^
lit.

precious family), E. of our world ; that he was in the retinue of S'akyamuni, and composed many Sutras; that the daughter of Ssigara obtained Buddhasliip through his teaching; that he is now a Buddlia, called

ng^^^

wish, or

lit.

^ct^^fS

1^**

wonderful
of

celestial flower.

One

the

5 shrubs of Indra's heaven, Erythrina the resembling fulgens or Erythrina Indica.

the Arya of Nagas, and resides on a (fabulous) mountain; somewhere in the N. E. of our universe, called
ilj
lit.

the

pure and cool

^^

MANDJtrCHAKA

|^^

or

lit.

pliable.

Rnbia

cordi-

mountain, attended by 1,000 Bodhisattvas. Mandjus'ri has become an object of worship in all the churches of Northmost but ern Buddhism,

SANSKBIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.

95

especially in Shansi (China). Fah-hien (A. D. 400) found Mandjiis'ri generally woi-sliipped by followers of the MaLay ana School, whilst Hiuentsang (A. D. 603), who saw at Mathura a stupa contain-

KCHETRA GUNA VYUHA,


Title of

two

translations, viz

chananda,

A. D.

618607,

Mandra, A. D. 602557.

ing the remains of Mandjus'ri's body, connects liis worship especially with the Yogatcharya School. It is supposed that Mandjus'ri lived 250 years after Sakyamuni's The deatli, i.e. B, C. 293. Mahayana School treated the dogma of Mandjus'ii as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom, identifying him -with Vis'vakarmau, and giving him
(as the personified wisdom) the same place in their trias of Bodhisattvas (with AvaloVadjrapani) kites'vara and wliich Brahma occupies in The the Indian Trimurti, Yogatcharya School placed Maiidjus'ri among their seven Dhyani Bodhisattvas, as the

MANDJUS'RI NAMA SANGI^M


Title of a translation

by

SuvarnadhArani, A.D. 1113.

MAND.TUS'RI PARIPRITCH-

TCHHA.
translations,

Title
later).

of

two

by Divdkara (A

D. 983 and

MANDJUS'RI

SADVRITTA

GUHYA TANTRA RADJASYA VIMS'ATIKA KRODHA VTDJAYANDJANA


iM
Title of a translation. A.

D. 9821001.

spiritual

son of Akchobhya
identified

Buddha, and

him

MANDJUS'Ri
STRA.
tions, viz.

VIKRipiTA

with Vadjrapdni. A later Mahayana branch of the School / ^^ School

Title of 2 transla-

W^

of

one nature), which asserts

that all beings have the same uatui'e as Buddha, claimed Mandjus'ri as their founder.

by Dharmarakcha, A. D. 213, and ;k:ffi^ffiP1 iM by Narendrayas'as, A.D.


583.

P iTEt

^^i^^f^

The son of an Indian King (circa 968 A. D.), who came to China but was driven away again by tne intrigues
(2.)

MANDRA
(lit. (lit.

or

weak sound) or B/
grand but weak).
of

of other priests.

mana

^'^

A S'ra(Bunan,

MANDJUS'RI

BUDDHA

Siam ?),

translator of 4 works.

96

PABT
Mongali.

I.

MANGALA

V.

M ANI
jfi"^
larging,

Manura The

Fg or
iit.

by 4fii&
lit.

^J^ explained by
stainless, or

^MM

^fiL
pat-

21st (or 22nd)

riarch, author of the

Vibha-

cha
(until

increasing and enor

vinaya, who laboured A.D. 165) in Western


origi-

by

^ZM^
(v.

India and Ferghana;

for pearls, lit. general term or by 'b\rm'0f' li*- felicitous


pearls.

fabulous pearl

nally an Indian prince, then disciple (or according to Hiuen-tsang the teacher) and successor of Vasubandhu.

Sapta ratna) which is ever bright and luminous, therefore a symbol of Buddha and
of his doctrines, whilst

MANOYIDJNANA
mind

DHATU
The

among

Shivaites it is the symbol of mani the Linga. See also

Om

and knowledge. sphere of thought.

pad me hum.

MANTRA (Tib.

Gsungs sngags)

MANOBHIRAMA
]oy
of

^
lit.

lit.

The realm where Mdudgalyayana is to


mind.

explained by ??
spells,

lit.

magic
rid-

be reborn as Buddha.

or by

^5P

Ut.

MANODHATU

^^

the

world of the mind. mental faculties.

The

Short magic dhi mantra. sentences (generally ending Sanskrit with meaningless
syllables),
first

adopted

by

MANODJNA
GARDJITA
replete nnds.

S'ABDABHI

followers of School, then

^^f^jf
to

China by

the Mahayana popularized, in Vadjrabodhi. See

lit.

also Dharani.

with
is

The Kalpa

wonderful soin which

MANUCHA KRITYA ^^J^


like men. Domestic slaves, introduced in Cashmere Madhyan(1.)
(2.)

Ananda
Buddha.

reappear

as

Demons shaped

manodjRasvara sound of music. A


Gandharvas,

m^ m.
king of

tika.

MANUCHTA

(Pali

Manussa)
or

^mi^
MANORPnTA
irn-^
lit.

^^'gf'J'ftfc
with the

or Manorhata ^Pl^id by

4^

Pali.

^ ^ (Manuchydnam. ^ Manussdnam)
or

^^^^
by

in conformity (hita)

mind (manas), or

by

A
lit.

lit.

explained a man, or by ^fe"


^fe'

rational or

:^

8AN8KBIT-CHINESE DIcmONABT.

97

lit.

intelligent.

Human
beings

or divine human form.


ings,

bein

MARGA
(Pali.

MANUKA V. Manorhita. HAKA or M&raradja KamadMtu or Papiyan (Siam. Phajaman. Burra. Mat or Manh. Tib. Bdudsdig tchau or Hdodpa. Mong. Scliimnus)

or As'thanga marga Attangga magga. Siugh. asutangikaraargga. Arya Siam. Mak. Burm. M^ga)
of correct path, o'

lit.

" AiEil^ ASm^8 portions the holy or A TP P^


l^**

or
lit.

^M
lit.

explained by

the murderer, or
lit.

;^Jfe

obstructing

^M 4^^ by ^ and
;

8 correct gates (sc. to Nirvina). Eight rules of conduct, the pre-requisites of every Arhat, the observation of

hindering virtue, or hy If^jM


Jfe,

destroying virtue
radja
;

or

0^ MAra by SS,^
explained
love;
or

or
lit.

j^^
sinful

which leads to Nirvana Details see under Samyagdrichti, Samyaksamkalpa, Samyagvak, Samyagadjiva, Samyagvydyama, Samyaksamadhi, Samyaksmriti and Samyakkarmanta.

J]J^^
by

Papiy&n,

MARGABHUMI S^TRA Jg

explained

g)i[|f^ lit. Kamadhdtu radja. The god of lust, sin and death, represented with 100 arras and
riding on
resides,

^g
8

Translation (A. D. 14

170) of a work

by Sam-

gharakcha.

an elephant. He with the Marakdyi-

MARGAS'IRAS
The

tin

kas, in Paranirmita vas'avaron the top of Karaadlidtu.

third month of autumn (9th to 10th Chinese moons)

^%^^
or

He

assumes various monst-

MARTTCHI ^115^

rous forms, or sends his daughters, or inspires wicked men (like Devadatta, or the Niigranthas) to seduce or frighten saints on earth.

or Maritchi deva

^^
bodiii(1.)

sattva

In

Brahmanic

^f IJ5:^^^ mytholc^,

MARA KAYIKAS ms.


the subjects of Mdra, or

lit.

the personified light, ofepriDg of Brahma, parent of Surya, ancestor of Maha-

^
tree

~^^~tC
ters of

^^*

^^"^ ^^^ daugh-

Mara. Mara's subordi-

kas'yapa (q. v.) (2.) Among Chinese Budliists, the goddess of light who holds aloft sun and moon, the protectress
styled also war a-^id Queen of Heaven Mother of the Dipper Jj*^

nates.

against

MARDJAKA
(perhaps

^pf^g;^
banyan)

^^

which

splits into 7 pieces

when felled.

and

identified

wdth Tchuudi

PART

I.

(q.v.)

and
wife

with
of

Mfthes'vari

MATANGI SUTRA.
4 translations,

Title

(the

The
"d^

Mahes'vara). magic formula, Il^^?f Ij


32g = pT

}^

om

^g

viz. (1.)
;

A.D. 25220

^^
j^

of

(2)

Maritchi

svaha, is attributed to her, and Georgi, who calls her Mha-lhi-ni, explains the name as * a Chinese transcription lioly of the name of the Amohg virgin Maiy'. (3.) Chinese Tauists, Maritchi is styled Queen of Heaven and,

^ 265316.
Madhu

265-420; (3.) ^^ftlg A.D. 222280 (4.) by Dharraai-akcha, A. D.


;

^aS^

MATCHIVARA

v.

Mahes'vara.
or
of of of

MATHAVA

with her husband

(-i|-5(!5c
of

^^MM
(the

-^

lit.

the

worthy deva

aborigenes
Kos'ala,
S. of

m
in

or

Madhava

tribe

the Dipper) and 9 located in Sagittarius.

sons,

Megasthenes)
Nepaul.
to

Mathai living N.

MARITCHI DEVA DHARAKI


Title of a translation (A. D.

name
tipura.

and They gave the Mathura and MaRohilcund,

MATHURA or

Madhurd
""'

502557).

MARUTA
of

Rudra;

^^ demons
a moon.
also

The sons
reigning

m or

or

mm m%m
by
ifL

J^^

in storm

plained
lit.

^ ;^

lit.

MASA H
month.

A lunar

Krichnapakcha and S'uklapakoha.

See

peacock city (Krishnapura), Ancient kingdom and city


(the modern Muttra), birthplace of Krishna (whose emblem is the peacock), famous for its stupas.

MASUBA SAMGHARAMA

monastery of lentils. An ancient vihara, some 200 li S.


E. of Mongali.

MATI

p^

ht.

rational.

MATANGA ARANYAKAH
class
of

Eldest sou of Tchandra surya pradipa.

MATTPURA
cient

^r^mm
(the
;

An-

kingdom

modern

Aranyakah (q. v.), hermits living on cemeteries,


forbidden to approach a village within hearing distance of the lowing of a cow, and
called after the caste of
taiiga (outcasts).

Rohilcund) and city, ruled (A. D. 600) by kiugs of the the home of S'udra caste

many famous
plained

priests.

M&-

MATISIMHA ^Jgff tSf


by Ygjfi^^

ex-

lit.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

99

lion's

given
talent.

to

intelligence. men of

Epithet
superior
translation by Dharmarakcha, A.D. 265316.

MATRIGKIMA
plained by
city.

(Pali.

Matugamother

MAYURA (Singh.

^g
(Tib.

S^l^
lit.

Moriyanaga) Ancient capital of

The female

sex.

the the

Maurya (Morya) princes, modem Amrouah near

MATRIKA

Yum

or

nio)^|l^5jnor
explained by
;ff

0g^
lit.

Ma MAYURA RADJA 0|g||3


the

Hurdwar.

W
it

mother of karma. Abhidharma lit. the mother of karma.

The Abhidharma
called

because
(q.

pitaka, so explains
*is

or IJL^^^P ^^^' peacock king. A former incarnation of S'akyarauni, when, as a peacock he thirst, with famished sucked out of a rock water which had miraculous healing

power.

how karma
productive karma.'

v.)

mother

of

the fresh

MiGHA DUNDUBHI SVARA


RADJA i^
bolts.

MATRITCHETA ^ggPl^l] |j:t A native of India, author


of the Buddhastotrdrdhas'ata-

king of clouds and thunder-

^ Mm

jS: rrr

=t:

m.
lived,

Buddha who

during the kalpa Priyadars'arealm (fabulous) na, in a called Sarvabuddha samdars'ana.

lated A.D. 708.

MEGAHSVARA
lit.

MATUTA TCHANDI J|g


black teeth.
chasi.

^g;g
A

lit-

cloud sovereign.

(fabulous)

certain

Rakor

Buddha who

lived,

N. of our

MAUDGALAPUTTRA
galydyana.

universe, an incarnation of the 13th son of Mah&bhidjna

M&udgaly ayana v. Mah&maud-

djin^bhibhu.

MEGHASVARARADJA
;feqp
clouds.
lit.

MAYA V. Mahdmaya. MAYA DJALAMAHATAlSfTRA mahIyIna GAMBHIRA NiYA GUHYA PARAS'i

sovereign king

gg
of

A (fabulous) Buddha

who

lived, N. of our universe, an incarnation of the 14th son of Mah^bhidjna djna-

stoA

^^mw
^

udbhibhu,

lx3E Title of a translation,


A. D. 9821001.

MERIT

V.

Sumeru.

MERUKALPA or

Merudhvadja
the
sign
of

MAYOPAMA SAMADHI

MW

lit.

100
Meru.

PART

I.

(fabulous) Buddha N.W. of our universe, an incarnation of the

lator (A.

D. 705) of the

^
ma-

who

lived,

12th son of djoandbhibhu.

Mah&bhidj5a

mala suddha prabh&sa hddhdrani sutra.

MERDKtjTA ^jglg li*- ^^^ summit of Meru. A Buddha


an incaniation of the 2nd son of Mahabhidjna djnandbhibhu.
of Abhirati,

MITRASENA
Gunaprabha,
Hiuen-tsang.

A
a

disciple of

teacher

of

MLETCHHAS
who do
dha;

^^^

People

MIKKAKA

5^jg5jn The Indian partriarch, who trans6th

not believe in

Bud-

infidels.

ported himself from Northern India to Ferghana, where he died by samddhi, B. C. 637 (or 231). See also Vasumitra.

MOKCHADEVA "^X^^^^
The
title

(deva of liberation)

given

by followers of the Hinayana School to Mahayanadeva.

JillMAHA

^1fi^%
U.

Ancient

kingdom, 70

E. of Samar-

kand, the modern Mnglim in Turkestan.

MOKCHAGUPTA ^jc^i.^^ A priest of "Kharachar, a follower of the


School, whose ignorance hdydnadeva exposed.

MIMAMSARDDHIPADA
li,

(Pd-

Madhyimayaua Ma-

Wimansidbi pada) ^^/f^


lit.

JRL

the step of meditation

and
lit.

reflection,

explained

by

MOKCHAIjA |[^||X
//

^*

|S

S'ramana

of

Kusta-

oversatiated

by the

j)rac-

tice of balancing and measuring (truth and error). The 4t]i Riddhipdda, viz., absolute renunciation of intellectual step to magic activity, a power.

na, translator of one Sutra, author (A. D. 291) of a new alphabet for the transliteration of Sanskrit.

MOKCHA MAHAPARTCHAD
V.

Pantchaparichad.
or

MINGRULAK :=p^
sources, or

lit.

Biugheul

&^ ^
of

1,000

MONGAU
na,

Mangala

^Jg
of

Ancient capital of Udy&-

lake coimtry, 30 Talas.

U E.

now Manglavor on
the

MITRAS'ANTA 5g|5g^J or ^-fe lit. calm friend. A MOTCHA


S'ramana
of

Swat, in Pundjab.

N.

the the

^jg A

species

of

Tukhara, trans-

Ficus religiosa.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DIOTIONART.

101
lit

MRIGADAVA
iia.

(Singh. Isipata-

Burm. Migadawon)

pg

explained by jjg;^
of

Jg

original text books

Bud-

dha's words.

park N. E. of patk. Var^nas'i, favonied by S'&kdeer

MteASAMBURU
thilnipura

or

Mula*-

yamuni now; S&rangan4tha


near Benares.

^|i ^SR^ An-

MRIGALA
plained

by j^
lit.

^IJ

lit.

^^^ deer,

ex-

cient kingdom of Western India, tributary of Tcheka; the modem Monltau.

or

by

J^^

king of deer
of

(Mrigarddja). Epithet of S'dk-

MtJLASARVASTIVADAIKAS'ATA KARMAN i^;;^^


of a translation, A.

yamuni
a former

and
life.

Devadatta

(each having been a deer in

D. 618

907.
lit.

MUDGA
til.

^^
(Tib.

Tartar len-

Pliaseolus mungo.

mulasarvastivIda NIKATA VINAYA GItHA


work ^ A Hinaydna
of the ya, translated

MUDRA
"^^^^
plained

Pad

sskor)

-^
^^-

on the Vinaya

-g * # M S ^^ )^pn
^i**

by Vais'akh-

A,D. 710.

seal of

the law.

system of magic

gesticulation, consisting in distorting the fingers so as to imitate ancient Sanskrit characters of supposed magic efficacy ; a product of the Yogatcharya School.

MUNGALI V. MUNIMITRA

Mongali.

^^ A
of

native

of India, author

the

/*

Buddha
stotra, translated
la,

s'rigona

by D&napd-

A. D. 9801000. or

MUHURTA

J^ Of |g

A MUNI j^;g
Mahamuni
Vimuni

period of 18 minntes.

MUKTA (P&li. Mntta. Tib. Mutig). H ^ Jewels, especially


pearls.

^^^1^
Buddha.

0;g

or or

^J^fe An
or

epithet

(sage) of every

MULABHIDHARMA
TRA
Mahdsamghikdh.

MUNKAN
S' AS-

Mungan

J^^
of

i^:^i^mmm
:m:

province of Tukh4ra, on

the upper Oxus,

W.

Baor

philosophical treatise of

the

dakchan.

MULAGRANTHA

Mm

MURDDHABHICHIKTA
Murddhadja

^E^^

or

102
or

PART

1.

g)^^

I^Tj
tlie

^^^-

washing

NADI
jjjg^

the top of

head.

A cere-

ll^lg
lit.

or

mony, common in Tibet in the form of infant-baptism, administered in China at the investiture of high patrons of
the church, e. g. to the Emperor Yiian-tsung (A.D. 746)

^tn^'^W
ness. A.

Punyopaya ^^Plaiiied by

progeny of happi-

S'ramana of Central India, who brought (A. D. 655) over 1500 texts of the

Mahdy^ua

and

Hinaydua

by
rite).

Amoghavadjra,

and

to

statues of

Buddha
prince styled

(as a daily

Schools to China, fetched medicines (A. D. 656) from

A
is

thus

bap-

Kwaulun, and translated


D. 663) three works.

(A.

tized

or

^^

!Jl[

^|5^ig^
Murddhadja
or MusaMasaragalla)
or

NAGA
Nagha,

(Burm.
Tit.

rddja.

Nat. Siam. Klu. Mong. Lus)

MUSALAGARBHA
ragalva
(Pali.

spirit, or

h|^
II
lit.

lit-

dragonsignify(2.)

^W/^

or

0f_J^||

1^
^

demon, explained as
ing, (1.)

dragons,

explained ^7

ffl^

^^*-

^
(3.)

lit.

elephants
lit.

(nagaga)

jewel of violet colour, or

by

yfN^

persons exempt

loured like a cornelian. One of the Saptaratna, either an

ammonite or agate or See also As'raagarbha,

coral.

MUSAVADA VERAMANI
^1$;;^
lies.
lit,

transmigration. from The term Naga was perhaps originally applied to dreaded mountain tribes, and subsequently used to designate monsters generally. The worship of Nagas (i. e. dragons
in

abstaining from
of

The 4th

the

S'ik-

and serpents) China and

is

indigenous

flourishes even

chapada.

now, dragons being regarded

MUTCHILINDA
V.

PARVATA

Mahamutchilinda.

N.
NADIKAS'YAPA
An
(Burm. Nadi Kathaba. Tib. Tchu wo odsArhat,
disciple

as mountain spirits, as tutelary deities of the five regions (i. e. 4 points of the compass and centre) and as the guardians of the 5 lakes and 4 oceans (i.e. of all lakes

ipoM^
of

and seas). The worship of Nagas has been observed as a cl)aracteristic of Turanian The Aryan Budnations.
dhists, finding it too popular, connived at or adopted this

brother of Mahakas'yapa ; to be reborn as Buddha samanta prabhisa.

S'akyamuni,

worship.

All the most aucient

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
Sutras

103

and

biographies

of

Buddha mention Nagas, who washed Buddha after his


birth,

NAGARADHANA ^]^^^^^
a[^

An

ancient

vihara

in

conversed

with

him,

Djalandhara.

protected him, were converted by him, and guarded the relics of his body. Chinese

NAGARDJUNAor Gagakrochuna
(Pali.

Buddhists view mountain Ndgas as enemies of mankind, but marine Nagas as piously inclined. Whilst the Burmese confound Devas and Nagas, the Chinese distinguish them sharply. According to an ancient phrase (hI^/VSK ^i*Nagas, Devas and others
classes
of
beijigs,

Nagasena)

Jj^'^^

guna
or or

tree (Pentaptera arjuna)


lit.
lit.

h|^ h|^
:

Naga the great, Ndga the con-

of

the eight classes) there are 8

always

enumerated

following order, Devas, Nagas, Eakclias, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas,

in the

Kinnaras,
also Sagara,

Mahoragas. See and Virupakcha.


lit.

NAGAHRADA ||^

dra-

gon-tank. General term for all sheets of water, viewed as dewelliugs of Nagas.

NAGAEADJA |
gon
king.

^
of

lit.

dra-

Epithet
spirits

guardian

many of whom are to have been converted


embraced monastic
life.

of all waters, believed

and

queror native of Western India, a hermit living under an Arguna tree, until, converted by Kapimala, he became the 14th patriarch, famous in Southern India by dialectic 'subtelty in disputations with heretics, chief representative of the Mahayana School, first teacher of the Amitabha doctrine, founder of the Madhyamika School, author of some 24 works, the greatest philosoplier of the Buddhists, viewed as " one of the 4 suns which illumine the world." He taught that the soul is neither existent nor non-existent, neither eternal nor non-eternal, neither annihilated by death nor non-anniliilated. His principal disciples were Deva Bodhisattva and Buddhapalita.

NAGARAHARA

or

Nagara

city (Dionvso30 miles W. of Jellallabad, on the southern bank of the Cabul river.
polis),

kingdom and

In a monastery near Kosaia, he cut off his o"wti head as an offering at the request of Sadvasa's son(B. C. 212 or A. D. 194j. He is now styled
a Bodhisattva.

NAGASENA IR

^Jfe

Jrt

104

PART

1.

Bhikchu, author of a Sutra

same name A.D. 317420).


of the

(translated

NAKCHATRA RADJA RIDITA ^5;|g


sports of the
star

VIKthe

lit.

king.

NAGNA

or

MAHANAGNA

degree of Sam4dhi.

plained by
OT by

g^
lit.

lit.

naked

-^fip^

spirits of

great power. Warlike spirits (or bardes) of supernatiiral strength, who appear naked.

NAKCHATRATARA RADJAsun and DITYA g g ^ stai-s. A degree of Samadhi. NALANDA ||^j[^ [J'g explained
lit.

^y

NAHUTA ^[^^^ A numeral


term (100
millions).

without wearying. The Naga (deity) of a lake in the Amra forest near Radjagriha.

MMM

^'^'

be^olent

NAIRAMDJANA(Singh. Niranjara.

Burm.

Neritzara)

NALANDAGRAMA near village FgM A samghardma.

J^jtlJ^g Nalanda

^
lit.

explained by

:^^^faf NALANDA

SAMGHABAMA

the river without cheer or brightness, or by

^^f^^

of the

unwearied benefactor.

lit. the river without brightriver (Niladjan) ness. (1 ) which flows past Gayd. (2.) river (Hiranjavati), which flows past Kus'inagara.

monastery, built by S'akraditya, 7 miles N. of Radja-

griha, now called (i.e. vihdragi-araa).

Baragong

NAMA9
Naraau.
or
or

(Pdli.

NAIVASANDJNA SAMADHI

Tib.

Name. Burm. Nama) i^|g

^N*^^

lit.

fixed

(medita-

thinking. tion) degree of Saraddhi, rising above thought.

without

explained

NAIVA SANDJNANA 8A^-

by ^-jj^ humbly trust (adore). Ave of the Buddhist,


used in the
litm-gy,

lit.

The

DJNAYATANAM

v.

Tchatu-

rarupa brahmaloka.

NAKCHATRA RADJA 8AMKU SUMITABHIDJNA ^


lir^
lit.

flower of the

star

daily the invocation of the Triratua, and in incantations, whereboth Buddhist and fore Tauist priests and sorcerers called lit. are "^ gip
in

king. fabulous Bodhisattva. follower of S'akyamuni.

masters of naoah.

NAMARt)PA ^g^

lit.

name

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

105

One of the 12 signifying the unreality of both abstract notions and material phenomeand form.
Nidana,
na.

(Niraya) explained by
lit.

;^^
pre-

prison

under the earth,


lit.

or

by

^Rf^

the

NANDA
N&ga
The
ta)

(Tib.

Dgabo)

|||pg
lit.

fecture of darkness. General terra for the various divisions The hot hells of hell. (1.)

explained by

Jfe||p^

(^^)

which

(see

joy of virtuous views. king (Singh.

(1.)

Nando

pannanda). A person (2.) Sundarananda. called (3.)

Nanda (Siugh. Sujasupplied S'akyarauni with milk. See also Bala.


girl

Samdjiva, Kalasutra, Safhghata, Raurava, Mahar^urava, Tapaua, Pratapana, ank Avitchi) are situated underneath Djambudvipa in tiers, be-

who

NANDAYARTAYA
varta
(Pali.

or Nandya-

Sl^ote.l^^
^fefc
right.
lit.

Nandiyavatta) explained by
to

ginning at a depth of 11,900 3'6djanas, and reach to a depth of 40,000 yodjanas but as each of these hells has 4 gates and outside each
antechamber-hells, 4 gate there are altogether 136 hot
hells.
(2.)

rotating

the

conch with spirals running to the right, a mystic symbol of good omen.
or
of the

The

cold

(^'^\

8 in number

hells (see

NANDI >^|f 1^ joy. A grihapati


translator
(A.

West,
of 3

D.

419)

works.

Arbuda, Nirarbuda, Atuta, Hahava, Ahaha, Utpala, Padma and Pundarika), situated underneath the 2 Tchakravalas and ranging shaft-like one beneath the other, but
so that this shaft is gradually widening down to the 4th
hell

NANDIMITRA ^^^^^
Author
of the

and

then

narrowing

translated

A,

D.

317420.

NARAD ATTA v. Katyayana. NARAKA (Pali. Miraya. Siam.


Narok. Burm. Niria. Tib. My-

Mong. Tamu) (nara) explained by A


alba.
(ka),
lit.

^^^
Sf.

again, the fii-st and last hells having the shortest and the 4th hell the longest diameter. The dark hells, 8 in (3.) number, situated between the 2 Tchakravalas ; also called ^vivifying hells

(fg^),

or

by

able, or

pT^ ^ by
of

men's wickedness,
lit.

unenjoyinstru-

^^

lit.

cause any being, dying in the first of these hells, is at once reborn in the 2nd, and so forth, life lasting 600 years in each of these hells. (4.)

ments

torture;

or

yIB^

The

cold

Lokantarika

hells

106

PART

I.

(iSSt

^^**

^^^^

"^

^^^^

edge

added
females
tank),

special

hell
lit.

for

10 in sc. of the universe), number, but each having 100


millions of smaller hells attached, all being situated outside of the Tchakitivalas. (4.)

placenta

The 84,000 small Lokantarika hells

(^ ,].

small hells on the edge, divided into 3 classes, as situated on mountains, or on water, or in deserts. Each universehas the same number of hells, distributed so that the northern continent contains no hell at all, the two continents E. and W. of the Meru have only the small Lokantarika hells, and all the other hells are situated under the southern contiuent (Djambudvipa). There are different torments in different hells the leugth of life also differs in each class of hells ; but the distinctions ma'de are too
faiiciful to

^ g^

lit.

consisting of an imFrom of blood. this hell, it is said, no release is possible, but all the other hells are mere purgatories, release being procured when sin has beeu sufficiently expiated or through intercession of the priesthood.

mense pool

NARAPATI

V.

Djambudvipa.
^>(||jp

NARASAMGHARAMA

^
An

lit.

the monastery of men.

ancient vihara

near the^

capital of Kapis'a.

NARASIMHA IRIiff fnT An


ancient city (Nrisinhavana ?) of frontier E. near the

Tcheka.

NARAYANA

or Narayanadeva

explained by MB.^^ A ^ the originator /^


lit.

of

be worth enumerating. The above hells constitute one of tlie G gati of transmigration and people are reborn in one or other class of hells according to their previous merits or demerits. It is not necessary that each individual should pass through all the above hells. The decision lies with Yama, who, assisted by 18 judges and hosts of demons, prescribes in each case what hells and
tortures are appropriate. His sister same performs the duties with regard to female
criminals.

human

life

(Brahma, or by
hero
(nara)
of

^-fi-jlit.

lit,

divine power,

or by

^fj]

firm and solid. (1.) An epithet of Brahma as creator.


(2.) A (wrong) designation of Narendrayas'as.

NARENDRAYAS'AS Jj^^Jf ^gj]/^ A native of Udyana, 'translator


(A.

D. 557

589) of

many
tree.

Sutras.

NARIKELA
cocoanut

|[5^lJ|ij||

The

Chinese fancy has

NARIKl:LADViPA An island,

several

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAItY.

107
ancient

thousand li S. of Ceylon, inhabited by dwai-fs who have human bodies with beaks like cobirds and live npon
coanuts.

f^'ftO^ An
tooth,

vibara
of

near Baktra, possessed of a


basin

and

staff

S'akyamuni.

NAKMMADA
tcheva.

jjffjcP^g river Nerbudda, forming the southern frontier of Barukaor


Basiasita ^i&
of

The

NAYAKA XA^eiP

^^-

*1'^

NAS'AS'ATA
-^fflf^
ha

guide of devas and men (Nayaka deva manuchydnam). An epithet of S'akyamuni. See Manuchya.

A Brahman
became

Kub-

NEMEVIDHARA
minthon)

(Siam.

Ne-

the 25th patriarch fin Central India) and died (A. D. 325) by
^

who

J^

E.

5# explained

what
grasps, or
fish

earth
lit.

samadhi.

natchtchagita vadita
at:sukadassana veraiiSIS
lit.

by ^^I^[Jj

mouth mountain.

(1.)

thou shalt not take

with a curiously shaped head. (2.) The lowest of the seven concentric mountain ranges (600 yodjanas high)
fish

part in singing or dancing in musical or theatrical performances, nor go to look on or listen. The 7th of the 10 S'ikchapada.

which encircle Meni.

NEPALA jgf^lg An
China, noted
for

ancient

kingdom (now Nepaul). E. of Khatmandu, 10,000 li fi-om


the

NAA^ADEVAKULA

amal-

^4B^

An

|^m| ancient city

gamation of Brahminism and ancient Buddhism, which


took place there, also as a station in the route of Indian

(now Nohbatgang) on the Ganges, a few miles S. E. of Kanyakubdja.

and Chinese embassies, and


as possessing
fire

NAVAMALIKA
explained

gated flowers. A used for scenting


Mallika,

^^f by ^^
|[^
lit.

(naphtha)

i]

wells,

varie-

IsICHKLES'A
no

pei-fume
oil.

M^aii

^^*.

See

NAV.U>A |p3^^^ or IP* state of an Arhat. now called ^ffi (Pidjan). NICHTAPANA An ancient kingdom on the or ^'1^ lit.
eastern border of Gobi.

return to trouble and vexation. Freedom from passion, a characteristic of the

burning.

See

Makhai.

NAVASAMGHARAMA

^^

Cremation, as performed in China at the funerals of


priests.

108

PAET

I.

NIDANA

KSR
j^
mental

Rten brel) explained by


(Tib.

jg
of

tral Asia.

-j-^H NIRARBUDA
explained by
ing
blisters.

lit.

the
(1.)

12
of

causes

jg || j!^ pg ^SU. lit. burst(1.)

existence.

The

funda-

dogma

Buddhist

The 2nd

thought, the concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence through 12 links (see Djaramarana,
Djati,

Upadana, Bhava, Yedana, Spars'a, Chadayatana, Naraainipa, Vidjnana, Samskara and Avidof ya) the understanding which solves the riddle of
Trichna,
revealing the inaninity of existence and pi-eparing the mind for Nirvana. (2.) AU sutras or pamphlets written for some special reason (nid^na), either to answer a query, or to enforce a precept, or to enliauce a doctrine.
life,

large cold hell (v. Naraka), where cold winds blister the skin of criminals. (2.) The 2nd of the 10 cold Ix)kantarika hells (v. Naraka). (3.) numeral, equal to 1 fol-

lowed by 33 cyphers.

NIRGRANTHA
or

or

*i|^
tered
clothes)
lit.

or
(sc.

/f<^
by want by

lit-

unfet-

of food or

or

^]f^^\^^^
(1,)

nude

heretics.

NIDANA BUDDHA
tyeka Ruddha.

Tirthaka (q. v.), a son of also Djnati and tlierefore called Nirgranthadjnati /IS

s.a.

Pra-

J^K^'il)'
fatalism,
of clothes. (2.) of Nirgrantha.

"^^^

*^"^^'*
fast-

recommended
the

NILAKA]$fTHA -rpjgrp^||
Title
of a translation, concerning the ritual and ceremonies used in the worship

ing and condemned

use

The

followcsrs

NIRMANAEATA
&L
lit.

(Tib.

spnil

of Avalokites'vara.

a body capable

of

NILANETRA
NILAPITA
or or

v.

Deva.

Nilapitaka

azure collection. A collection of annals and royal edicts.

^^^

^^

jg
the

'lit.

transformation. (1.) One of the TrikAya (q.v.), the power of assuming any form of appearance in order to propa-

gate Buddhism. (2.) The incarnate avat&ra of a deity (Tib. Chutuktu. Mong. Chubilgan).

NINYA

^Jg A

See also Anupapi-

city in

Cen-

daka,

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

109
from
all forms begin with passion and

NIRMANAEATI
manaratti. Siam.
di. Tib.

(PAH. NimNimmanara-

entire freedom
of existence,

to

Hphrul dga)

J^^.
ru:^
^^^^^

y\yM
or

m /m >^
^^^'

exertion,

freedom from all a state


to
nil

of

indif-

ference

sensibility.

^^f-f^^C
in

who
tions.

deliglit

transforma-

Positively they define Nirvana as the highest state of


spiritual
bliss, as absolute immortality through absorp-

5th Devaloka, 640,000 yodjanas above the Meru. Life lasts there 8,000 years.
situated

The

tion

of

the

soiil

into itself,

NIRUKTI

but preserving individuality so that e.g. Buddhas, after


entering

V.

Pratisamvid.

NiiTana,

may

re-

NIRVANA

(PaU. Nibbdna. Siam. Niphan. Burm. Neibban. Tib. Mya ngan las hdas pa i.e separation from pain.
i.e.

appear on eai-th. This view is based on the Chinese translations of ancient sutras and
confirmed by traditional sayings of S'akyamuni who, for
instance,

Mong. Ghassalang etse angkid


shirukasan misery)
plained

^^
by

^^g JH^gJ
life

escape from or exlit.

said
*'

moments
(&=(')

'

in his last the spiritual body immortal." The

separation from
(i.e.

and death exemption from trans-

Chinese Buddhist belief in Sukhavati (the paradise of


the

West)
is

and

Amitabha

[ijgf'^Jfg from trouble and lit. escape vexation (i.e. freedom from
passion, Kles'a
nirvana),
lit.

migration), or

by

Buddha

but confirmatory of the positive character ascribed to Nirvana (yB^\

or

Parinirvana

(I^^B^)
The
esoteric

and

by

[|[^g^^

absolute-

Mahapariuirvana ^4-

ly complete moral purity, or

^^ yB
or

^).
complete extinction of animal spirits, or by
lit.

(2.)

philosophical view of

^^

the

Nirva-

non-action. (1.) The popular exoteric systems j^ree


in defining Nirvana negatively as a state of absolute ex-

na is based only on the Abhibharraa which indeed defines Nirvana as a state of


absolute
annihilation.

But

this view is not the result of

emption

from the

circle

of

transmigration, as a state of

dogmatology. The Schools which advocate this nihilistic view


ancient
philosophical

110
of

PAET

I.

Nirvana deal
all

in the

same

cient

kinadom, between Taras


in Turkestan.

way with
and
i.e.

with

historical facts positive every

and Kodjend,

dogma:

to them maya illusion and unreality.


all is

NYAGRODHAjglJj^orJg

NITYA PAKIVEITA

continuous extinction. A fabulous Buddha living S. of our universe, an incaraation of the 6 th son of Mahabhidjna djnanabhibhu.

^^

lit.

plained

by

^|^;jg-

lit.

tree without knots (and described as being the highest The Pious tree of India.)

NIVAKTTAN'A STUPA

mw
S'akyaparted

Indica.

^^Jjt

lit.

the stupa erected

NYAYA ANUSAEA S'ASTRA


I'fMIE^Iffl
s'asti'a.
^^^"

on the spot where coachman muni's) from him.

*^^ orthodox
s'astra.

designation of the

Abhidharma kocha
i|5

NIVASAXA
j|b^[^

explained
rt.

^^^Mby
Mg iM
term,

NYAYA DVARA
S'ASTRA
translated

TARAKA

The coloured

^ A work by
(A.

BBJIEanife
Mahddignaga,
D.
648)

garment (without buttons or


girdle) of a S'ramana.

by

Hiuen-tsang.

NIVKITTI

A NYAYA PRAVES'A TARAKA


S'ASTRA

philosophical

non-act-

ing self-existence, opposed to Pravritti ^Ifi'^ constant


action.

mmKiFMm

work by Samkarasvamiu, translated (A. D. 647) by

Hiuen-tsang.

NIYATANI YATAGATI MUD-

RAVATAEA

Title

of

translations, viz.

(1.)

two y^i^\

O.
OCH
or

or

Usch

,g|g
IS

or

by

Pradjiiarutchi,

and

(2.)

(Yingeshar). An ancient kingdom N. of the S'itd.

1S it

"'

NIYUTA ^\i]^^ A
equal to 1,000 koti.

numeral,

OM

or

aura

p^

or

^^^ A

miTCHIKAN
(Nudjketh)

or

Nuchidjan

^f^-^

An

an-

mystic interjection, of magic and sin-atoning efficac}', used in prayers and in sorcery, originally derived by Tibetan

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

Ill

Buddhisis from later Hindooism (a standing for VisliDu, u for Shiva and m for Brahma) and introduced in China by the Yogatcharya School.

patmaya.

(3.)

The

7th,

of

the 8 cold hells (where the cold produces blisters like lotus buds).

PADMAPANI
lokites'vara.

see under

Ava-

OM

MAIs^I

PADME HUM

PADMAPRABHA

^^

>j^

*b1^4I^^^*- Tibetan
character able to ward off noxious iiiflueuces. A set of six Sanskrit sounds (lit, thou jewel in the lotus, hum !) of mystic and magic import, used in prayers and in sorcery, inscribed on amulets, cash, tombstones and at the end of books, and (especially in Tibet) most commonly addressed to Avalokites'vara. These 6 syllables are sometimes applied to the 6 gati and to the 6 paramitd. They are moie popular in Tibet than in China where another set of 6 syllables

The name under which Sariputtra reappears as Buddha.

PADMARGAA Pf^^^^JB
A ruby. PADMARATNA
pearl.
yas'as.

V.

Haklenor

PADMA SAMBHAVA
Padma byung
yan
lit.

(Tib.

gnas, or TJrg-

padma)
the

^^^Jtgjli
superior

lotus-born

teacher.

A Buddhist of Kabul

(Urgyan) who, invited by king Khri-srong'^^B^'illiM.^


Ide-btsan, introduced in Tibet

(^^fp]' namah Amitabha)


same

is largely

used in the

sense.

D. 740786) a system magic and mysticism (saturated with Shivaism) which found its way also to Ciiina.
(A.
of

P.
PADMA
or

PADMAS'ILA

^^^ A
^^bi

Bo-

dhisattva, author of the

^j^
A

#^
lit.

explaiaed by

^il>'>^
^^:jfg
(1.)

hridaya

vaipulya prakarana s'astra.

red

The

lotus waterlily,

flowers.
lotus,

nym-

PADMAS'RI
S'akyamuni
as
;

phaea, and specially the rose coloured species (Nelumbium speciosum). (2.) A symbol
of

Bodhisattva in the retinue of


re-incarnation
;

of S'ubhavyiiha

to re-appear
radja.

Buddhaship,

s,

a.

Rakta-

Buddha S'alendra

112

PART

I.

PADMA TCniNTAMANI
DHARANI SUTRA.
of

frondosa.

See also Kanaka.

Ttile
(1.)

PALI

translations,

viz.,

J^^lJ

village,
li

with an

ancient stupa, 90 of Baktra.

N. N.

W.

M by

S'ikchananda, A. D.
(2.)

618-907;

Hit^^ffi

PALI

^ m ^^
PI
(i.

lit.

the
the

ancient
ancient
of

dialect

e.

of

country).

The vernacular

by Ratna tchinta A.D. 618

Magadha, or Mag;idhi Prakrit.

PAMIRA /^^|g
of

The plateau

dhirutchi, A. D. 709

(5.)

^
into

MtwMl
PADMAVATI g
of
;

Pamir, the centre of the Tsung-ling range, including Anavatapta lake.

t5

A wife

PAMS'UPATAS

or Pas'upatas

As'oka, transformed a Tchakravarti

explained by ^ytj^c^l^^

^i^-

PADMA VRICHABHA
RAMIN
name under which

VIKThe

^ ^^ff

Dhrilipari-

purna reappeai-s as Buddha,

heretics who besmear themselves with ashes. Shivaitic sect of worshippers of Mahes'vara, clad in plain rags. Some shaved their heads.

PADMA VYIJHA BODHISATTVA


Bodhisattva

A fabulous PANASA
in

or

Djaka
or

worshipped
Year's eve.

or

^j^i^

^^^^

^^ Jp

China on

New

PADMOTTARA
Name
of the

^^^
Buddha
ex-

Artocarpus integrifolia See also under Udurabara.


(jackiree).

The

729th

of the present

Bhadva Kalpa.

PAL A A

or Satamana
Jj-

yFt^
a 10

PANATI PATA VERAMANI 'T^^:^ lit. kill no living


being.

The

first of

the S'ik-

plained by
raua.

lit.

catty.

chdpada (10 rules

for novices).

weight, equal to

dha-

PANDAKA )g:^^
ajn

or

4^}^
by

PALAS'A
by
a

yf^^^
lit.

explained

Ul't
lit.

explained

^p^

eunuchs.

General
(pro-

^:fg;^
red
dye).

a tree

with

term for

(1.)

Pandakas
have

red flowers (also said to yield

perly so called) ^^^:P

who,
per-

The

Butea

though impotent;

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTION ABY.


feet

113

organs

C2.)

Irs'apanda'^^o

explained
ness
lit.

by

kas
are

#^ljg>^^^ai
impotent
;

emption from

^^J^
all
(4.)

ex-

conscious-

except

when

jealous

(3.)

Chandakas

(samdjiia),

^ J^
ex-

^"ilin

"^^os

organs are in^'^^

emancipation explained by

(mokcha)
moral ac(5.)

^ffjj^

complete ; (4.)Pakchapandakas

emption from
tivity
lit.

all

month males and month females Runapandakas JS^"


half a half a

"W Xi5:^&

^''^

^^^

(karraan),

^^

for
(5.)

intelligent views, explain-

^^

ed

^^

from

by ^ifflsOl^ exemption all knowledge (vidjnana).

>jjp

who

are

emasculated

PANTCHA
Indrya.

INDRYANI
v.

v.

males.

PANDITA ^i^ A

(Tib. Pan-shen)
title (scholar,

gj PANTCHA KACHAYA
chaya.

Ka-

teach-

er), given to learned (especially Tibetan) priests.

PANTCHA KLtS'A
lit.

PANINI

J^fjJ^jg

A Brahman

dull
lit.

messengers,
5
serious

^^^
or hincupidity,

(B.C. 350) of

alatula, editor

jS.St'^
drances.

of the Vyakaranam, author of a Sanskrit grammar.

Five moral imper-

fections, viz. (1.)


(2.)

-^

PANTCHABHIDJf^A
Pancha abignya.
natural
talents.

11^ anger, (3.)

(Singh.

fool-

Tib.

Phung-

ishness, (4.)
(5.)

4^

irreverence,

doubts. Victory over the

See under

these 5 vices constitutes

Abhidjna.

5 virtues or Pantcha

s'ila.

PANTCHA DHARMA KAYA PANTCHA MAHARHATCHthe spiritual TCHATANI ^'g-;^^^ i'^'^^


lit.

in five portions. Five attributes of the Dharma

body

kaya,

viz., (1.)

t^
all

The 500 great Arhats (1.) who formed the synod under
Kanicbka supposed authors of the Abhidharma mahavibbacha s'astra.
,

lit.

precept,
ex-

explained
(nipa), (2.)
lity,

by

^^\^
lit.

emption from

materiality tranquil-

explained

by
all

^'^j^
sensatious

PANTCHANADA
0|-U:^ Ancient

exemption from
(vedand),
(3.)

lit.

wisdom,

or Bhida kingdom (now the Pundjab), called Bhida


after its capital.

114

PART

I.

pantchInantarya 5;^
lit.

SSIfffl

commentary by

the

rebellions.
viz.

Five

Sthitamati, translated

by Di-

matricide, parricide, killing an Arhat, causing divisions among the priesthood, and shedding the

deadly

sins,

vakara (A.D. 685).

PANTCHA VERAMAnI jj^


lit. 5.

blood of a Buddha.

The first half precepts. of the S'ikchapada.

PANTCHA
Pantcha

PARICHAD or varchika parichad or Mokcha mjahaparichad &J^


or

PANTCHA VIDYA S'ASTRA

^PR

lit.

the

luminaries.

The 5 elementary schoolbooks


of India. See S'abda, S'ilpasthana, Tchikitsa, Hetu, and Adhy^tma vidya.

^-4--^
-jr-^
quennial

i^ig^jg^iia
explained by
the
lit.

'-

"^^
quin-

US;

great

clesiastical

assembly. An ecconference held once in 5 years, established by As'oka for the purpose of
confession of sins and moral exhortations.

PAPIYAN V. Mara. PARADJIKA or Ph^radjika


or

vltT:^.^
exfirst

explained by 4eE^ lit. treme (measures). The

PANTCHARAOHTRA
tchasattva
v.

or Pan-

section of the Viuaya pitaka, regarding containing rules expulsion from the priesthood.

Punatcha.
see

PARAMA BODHI
under

PANTCHAS.'ILA
Paiitcha Kles'a

|^||
JpJ|

PI
lit.

explained by

PANTCHA
Skandha.

SKANDHA

v.

state correct intelligence. (v. of superior intelligence

Bodhi).

PANTCHA
S'ASTRA

SKANDHAKA PARAMALAGIRI ^m^M :^^ explained by M|l^


lit.

lated 647).

work of Vasubandhu, transby Hiuen-tsang (A. D.

tain

the dark peak. S.W. of Kos'dla,


built

mounwhere

Sadvaha

a monastery

PANTCHA
S'ASTRA =^ ^M A
Prill

SKANDHAKA for Nagardjuna. KARIKA 5^^ PARAMANU ;^^|gg


commentary

lit.

an

T^F

by

atom

Vinitaprabha.

measure of length, the 7th part an Anuof dust.

PANTCHA SKANDHA PULYA S'ASTRA

VAI-

PARAMARTHA
or

^^^

J^H^^P'^
styled

^1$

also

jfy^^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

115

^
D.

[W* Gunarata.

A S'ramana
some
50

of Udjdjayana, translator (A.

548569)

of

ly the path in which the saint walks, viz. (1.) Ddna, charity, (2.) S'ila, morality,

works.

PARA MARTHA DHARMA


VIDJAY ASUTRA.
2 translations,
viz.,

Title of

Y&^|S
Gautama
D.

Kch^nti, patience, (4.) (3.) Virya, energy, (5.) Dhyana, contemplation, and (6.) Pradjna, wisdom. Sometimes ten Paramitds are counted

-f-^
(7.)

~^^ffi^l5
Pradjnarutchi
550),

by
(A.

by adding

Upaya, use of

534

and

gupta (A.D. 586).

MAMMS
3

i^^^^ Djnana^^

proper means, (8.) DjMna, science, (9.) Pranidhana, pious vows, and (10.) Bala,
force of purpose.

PARANIRMITA VAS'AVARTIN
(Pali. Wasawarti. Siam. Paranimit. Tib. Gjan hphrul dvang byed or Bab dvang

PARAMARTHA SAMVARTI
SATYA NIRDES'A SUTRA.
Title of
(1-1

translations,

viz.

SM by Dharmarakcha
289),

^wf^mmmm
(A.D.

phpugh.

Mong.

Bussudum

chubilghani erkeber or Maschi baya suktchi ergethu) yitr

(2-)^;f (i)tM:^J*g

^mSi^

or

by Kumaradjiva (A.D. 301 409), and (3.)

A.D. 420479.

^p^^Rj

whilst others are transformed,

remain independent, or devas

PARAMARTHA SATYA S'ASTRA


Vasubandliu.

^^=^^ A work by
ilJ
lit.

who control the transformation of others. The last of the 6 Devalokas, the dwelling of Mdra, where life lasts 32,000 years.

PARAMITA

^^
(to

6 means of passing
explained
arrival
at

Hg^

or

PARASMAIPADA |^||^gg A form of conjugation, each


tense having a peculiar termination for the transitive voice, so-called (lit. words for another) because the action
is

Nirvana),
lit.

by
the

SJ'S^^

other shore (i.e. at Nirvdna), but with the note, " it is only Pradjna- (the 6th virtue) which carries men across the Saiisara to the shores of Nirvana." Six cardinal virtues, essential to every Bodhisattva, but representing general-

supposed to pass (parasmai)

to another.

paratchittadjnIna
(Pali.

Parassa
-A^ilN

yaMna)

lit.

tchetopariyd the minds

116

PAET

I.

of others. The 5th of the 6 Abhidjnas, intuitive knowledge of the minds of all other beings.

of the

Brahmaloka the 1st region 2nd Dhyaua.


;

PARITTAS'UBHAS
Parittasubha.

(Singh.

PARAVA
by
/iS

JjJ
lit.

|g

^
^IJ

explained

hung)
purity.

A^

Tib.
lit.

Dge

tchlimited

pigeon.

rock

The 7th Brahmaloka


region
of

temple in the Dekkhan, dedicated to Kas'yapa Buddha.

the

1st

the

3rd

Dhyana.

PARIDJATA J^
palace).

sacred shrub (growing in a circle in front of Indra's

^^ A

PARIVRAJIKAS

(Singh. Pari-

brdjikas)j|5||J.(5||/2;3^or
explained by

jML:f-j- lit.

(those

PARINIRVANA
or

^^g
U^ by
or

or

who) walk about everywhere. Sliivaitic sect, worshippers who wear of Mahes'vara,

l^iljgggllS

explained

stillness

of sense),

and extinction or by
stillness,

clothes of the colour of red They shave the head soil. excepting the crown.

(fec.

lit.

PARNAS'AVARI

DhIrANI

complete

lit.

the passase of extiuc-

^ mkisi#ae by Amogof a translation havadjra (A. D. 746771).

Uon,

or

by
lit.

ilHIfi^ and escape from

final

^^^^^ PARSA JgJiJ^


termination
the
or
ji^

or

J^IU^jr
situated

bonds

ffif-

Persia,

of trouble and vexation. The 2nd degree of Nirvana, cor-

responding with the mental


process
of

resigning

all

thought

(t?JP^).

See

tinder Nirvana.

"near the western ocean," the principal mart for precious stones, pearls and silks, at its capital possessing (Surasthana) the almsbowl of The favourite S'akyamuni. the country is deity of
Pars' vika or Arya p^rs'vika yFl?33;5]gi^ or

PARINIRVANA YATPULYA Dinabha. SUTRA :fj^^j]imi PARS'VA or


of 6,000 stanzas delivered by S'dkyamuni previ-

work
to

-^
C-

lit.

the

Arya (who used


bhikchu).

ous

his

entrance
(Tib.

into
to lie)

Nirvfilna.

on his side, or -^ H-

PARITTHABHAS
bsal or
lit.

Od

tchhung)
light

6d A^-^

(Pai-s'va

Brahman

of

limited

The 4th

nally called

M^

Gandhara, origilit- ^o^n

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICnONARY.

117
tlie

with difficulty. As a Bhikchu, he swore to remain lying on his side till he had mastered the 6 Abliidjnas and 8 ParaHfc is counted as the raitas. 9th (or 10th) patriarch (died B.C. -36).

lit.

the city of
flower,

son of

tlie

Patali
lit.

or

g^PFiji?

PAEvATA

^^^

or

the city of flowers (Pus'papura). An ancient city originall}' known as Kusuraapura, where the 3rd synod (B. C. 246) was held; the present Patna.

J^||

>fj^^ Ancient province and city of Tcheka, 700 U N. E. of MulustLanipura, perhaps

PATRA
^

J^^^ (Peito /B^^ (Peito leaves)


lit.

tree)

or

modern Futtipoor (between Multan and Lahore).


the

^;|^
'h^;^
palm,

leave tree, or

m
A

lit.

meditation

tree.

PARVATI

s.

a.

BMma.

PAEYAXGKA
i/I<

BANDHANA
or
;

Borassus flabelliformis, often confounded with the Pippala. See Bodhithe

.?fmff4i/U

druma and

Tala.

phrase binding a cloth round the knees, thighs


sacved

PATRA
Patra.

(Pali.

Patto.

Singh.

and back, as seated on the


hams.

Burm. Thabeit. Tib. Lhuug bsed. Mong. Baddir


or Zogosa)

PiETATKA

fi5

Ancient kingdom (now Birat, W. of Mathura), a centre of


her;tical sects.

M 3g ^ II
Pams'upatas.

a:
The

almsbowl (patera) of S'akyamuni to be used by every Buddha, first preserved


taken to China, Ceylon, to the heaven Tuchita, to the palace of Sagara (at the bottom of the sea), where it awaits the of advent Maitreya, whereupon it will divide into 4 pieces, each of which is to be guarded by a MaMradja, as with its absolute disappearance the rehgiou of Buddha will perish. (2.) The almsbowl of every Budhist mendicant.
at
Vais'ali,

^S

J^^^
^^

or

^
(!)

then

PAS'UPATAS

Gandhara,

Persia,

V.

PATALA

or Patali (Tib. Skva-

explainea by
or

^::fg;^
lit.

lit.

tree whose flower emit steam

by

^Jg^l
suave

the

tree

of the son-in-law.

The Big(trumpet

nonia
flower).

olens

PATALIPUTTKA

or

Kusuma-

pura (Tib. Skya nar gyi bu)

PATRA DEVA
conjurors.

|^^ The deva


invoked by

of the almsbowl,

118

PABT

I.

PATTIKAYA A division
army.

lit.

infantry.

of

of every Indian

powerful

demons (vampires), more than Pretas. The


V.

retinue of Dhritarachtra.

PAUCHA

^^

The

first

of

PIS'UNA

Mara.

the 3 winter months, beginning on the 16th day of the 12th (Chinese) mooo.

PITAKA
Burm.

(Singh. Pitakattayan. Pitagat) n^ lit. a

receptacle.

PHARADJIKA v. Parddjika. PHATCHITTYA DHAMMA


(P^U)

canonical writings. pitaka.

General term for See Tri-

r&

Pachiti),
L*t.

explained

^a

ffi

(Singh.

by

^ ^^
cient

pitA putra samagama ^ "iP -^ Title of a


translation (A.

fall (into hell).

section

D.

562)

by
An(in

of the Vinaya, containing 90 prohibitions.

Narendrayas'as.

PITAS'ILA

PHATTOESAISTTA
s'aniya.

v.

Pratide-

^^^H kingdom and


U N.
li

city

Sindh), 700
vakila,

of
S.

Adhya-

PILINDAVATSA $gS|pg^
D|

300

W.

of

Avanda.

An

Aibat, one of the dis-

POGHADHA
j^
lit.

or

Upochana
^fg
>fi]

ciples of S'akyamuni.

explained

PILUSALAGIKI
ill

J^H^J^
"^

J^^LLI

mountain

(S.W. of Kapis'a city), the guardian spirit of which was converted by S'akyamuni.

mutual confession of sin. The ceremony of confession, performed on 1st and 15th of every month.
or Potaraka (Tib. Ri Ghru hdzin) ^Rfe* or

^ ||

;flj

POTALA
or

PILUSARA STUPA ^j^Cj^ A stupa erected


As'okha on the top
ragiri.

^g^ by
vrikcha

Potala or

M|Jg
-ff

:^P0J^55n
explained
^^^^^

or

of Pilusa-

^ or Pippala

PIPPALA

8S
^
^^'
(1.)

by

/h F^
flowers.

white

poi-t

(now

^^^3L names
of

^^^

^^ *^

many

Ficus

religiosa.

See under Bodhidruma and


Patra.

PIS'ATCHA

(Tib.

Scha

za)

Tatta) at the mouth of the Indus, a centre of ancient S'akthe home of trade, yamuni's ancestors(2.) A mountain range (Nilgherries ?) E. of Maldya mouniains, S.E.
of

"k^M

""

B#^^

Malakuta.

The

original

class

resort of Avalokites'vara. (3.)

6ANSKRIT-0HINESE DICTIONARY.

119

The

island

of

Pootoo (near

Ningpo), a centre of the worship of Kwanyin (v. Avalokites'vara).


(4.)

See Vasuddva.

PRABHIJTARATNA

The

three-

peaked

near Lhassa, with the palace of the old kings


hill

^H^H^or
seven

^^^ ^g One
/-J-

of

of Tibet,

now

the seat of the

Dalai Lama (who is an incarnation of Avalokites'vara). (5.) A fabulous resort of Bodhisattvas, "somewhere in the western ocean."

the Sapta Tathagata, patron of the Saddharma pundarika who divided himself into
'j^) difto labour in as ferent places, and appears sometimes in the form of a

Buddhas

"^ many

Stupa.

See Ratna vis'uddha.


;p|

POTTHABHA
The sense
Chadayatana.

(Pali.

Pottaban.
lit.

Singh. Phassa)
of

fS

touch.

PRADAKCHINA

jg The

touch.

See

(Brahmanic and Buddhist) ceremony of circumambulating a holy object with one's right side turned to it.

PRABHAEL^RAMITRA orPrabhamitra^lJ
or

^ Jg^lg g ^
A
S'rama-

BH"^

or -j^:g

PRADANAS'URA A Bodhisattva in
of S'akyamuui.

^^1
the retinue

Central India, na of a caste, who by Kchatriya came to China (A. D. 627) and translated 3 works.

PRADIPADANIYA SUTRA

mm,m'mwmm e
V.

of

PEABHAKARA YARDDHA
NA-;r
?,
lit.

a translation (A. D. 558) by Narendrayas'as.

or

4^-^j^
of of

one who causes

PRADJAPATI
pati.

Mahapradja-

increase of light.

The

father

Karcha varddhana, Kanyakubdja.

king

PRADJNA

(Pdli.

Panna. Singh.

PRABHAPALA 0B of incarnation former A

H ^ t^
S'akhe was a dis-

yamuni, when ciple of Kas'yapa Buddha.

Pragnyawa) ]|^^ explained lit. intelligence. (1.) by The highest of the 6 Parami-

^^

PRABHU

(1.) A term in philosophy, primordial existence,

iA, intelligence, the principal means of attaining to Nirvana, as a knowledge of the illusory character of all

TC^

(2.)

title of

Vishnu
j|:^|J

(the suu)

J^HJh

or

existence. S'ramana (2.) of Kubha (Calaul), translator (about A.D. 810) of 4 works,

120
author of a

PART

I.

new

alphabet.
(Pali.

translations of the 10th Sutra of the Mahapradjnaparamit^,


viz. (1.)

PRADJNABAKA
la)

Panof
in-

nabala. Singh. Pragiiyawaba-

:M by

M^^^mms: Bodhirutchi D.
(A.

^"/l

lit-

power

telligence.

Wisdom,

one

of

618-907) ;{2.)^lj|^|^
dhi(A.D. 723730); (3.);^

the 5 Bala.

PRADJNABHADRA ^^"^^ K'tM: A learned priest from


Tiladhaka, native of Balapati. adherent (about 630 A. D.) of the Sarvdstivadah.

Amoghavadjra
771)
;

(A.

D.

746

(4.)

i^m^+mm

PRADJNADtVA
learned

m^

la (A.D.

9801000).

and

pious priest of

Mahdbodhi samgbarama.

PRADJNAPARAMITA SUTRA s.a. Mahapradjna paramitd sutra.

PRADJNAGUPTA b=; A learned or

Brahman,

teacher of Siladitya.

PRADJJ^APARAMITa SAMKA.

PRADJNAKARA ^^^^^ or ^'^ A learned priest of


Navasamgh&rama, native (about 630 A.D.) of Tcheka.

m^^mmm
a
translation 1001).
(A.

YAGATHA f^-Qr^g
^itie

D.

982

PRADJNAPRADIPA

S'AST-

PRADJNAKUTA
fictitious

Bodhisattva, living in Ratnavis'uddha, attending on Prabhutaratna.

Nag^rdjuna and Nirdes'aprabha (^ nn p^\ translated (A. D. 630632)' by PrabhAkaramitra.

PRADJNAPARAMITA

|^^
J|J

SIS?&^

explained by

PRADJNAPTIPADAS' ASTRA
Dharmarakcha
1058).
.;|t

^^

lit.

landing

on

the

other shore. a means to

Intelligence as reach Nirvana. See Pradjna and Paramita.

maudgal3'4yana, translated by (A. D. 1004

PRADJNAPARAMITA
DHAS'ATIKA.
Title

AR- PRADJNAPTIVADINAH
of

m&mMf^

or

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

121

which demption or
School

discusses
illusions.

re-

of

salvation by vows. The virtue (faithfulness in) prayers

and vows.

subdivision of the Mah^Lsamghikah.

PRADJNATAEA j|^^^||
The 27th patriarch, native of laboured in Eastern India Southern India; died A. D.
;

PRAOTAMUIiA A A TTKA Xh^^ lit.


book
(by

S'ASTRA
discourse

on

the (due) mean {i.e. Madhyamika). The principal text

Nagdrdjuua

and

467.

PRADJNITNDRYA

(PAli.

Pan-

Nilanetra) of the Madhyamika School, translated (A. D. 409) by Kumdradjiva.

nendriya. Singh, Pragnyawa indra) jj^ The organ of

PRASADA

(Singh. Poega. Tib.

intelligence
of the 5
life (v.

(v. Pradjna), one organs (or roots) of

Dgedun gji du khang or Mtchhod khang or Du khang)

Indrya).

^^^Pl:
lit.

explained by

PRAGBODHI J^H^
explained
anterior
tions.

the hall. The assembly hall (in a monastery); the

by
to

m? Jp

lit.

confessional.

correct

percep-

PRAS'ANTA V IN IS 'KAY A

gadha, ascended " before upon Bodhi,"

mountain in MaS'dkyamuni which


entering

PRATIHARYA SAMADHI SUTRA ^|J3||^.^^j^


iM. Title of

a translation

(x\.

PRAHANA j^
Convei-sion
clesiastical life.

or

and entering

^%^
ec-

D. 663) by Hiuen-tsang.

PRASJENADJIT
Singh.
thanadi.

(Pdli.

and
rgyal.

PRAKARANAPADA VIBHACHA S'ASTRA ^^^Bj A philosophical y/h

Pasenadi. Burm. PaTib.


Grsal

^ ^ by
treatise

Mong.

Todorchoi
or

Ilaghak-

Skandhila.
cer-

PRAIiAMBA B^t;^'^ A
tain Rakcliasi.

explained by B

lit.

Con-

qneror of an armj".

king

PRAMITI
-g.

^flj^^
of

or

S'ramana

Central

India, co-translator (A. D. 618 907) of a Sutra.

of Kos'ala, residing in S'ravasti ; one of the fii"st royal converts and patrons of S'akyarauni ; originator of Buddhist idolatry (by having a

PRANIDHANA

g|

lit.

statue of Buddha his death).

made

before

122

PAKT
(Pali.

I.

PIIAS'RABDHI sadhi) j^ lit.


of misery) ot

Pas(sc.

of

an abstract of the Maha-

removal
Ht.

samgha vinaya.

^W'
gjj:

the

PRATIMOKCHA
Title
of

SUTRA.
(of

Bodhyanga
lit.

(called)

removal,
;)g

2
viz.

translations

explained by
the

moving
tion.

cutting off and reof trouble and vexastate of tranquillity.

fg

works on
vinaya),

the

Sarvastivada

^^
J>.

+f|^Jt

See Bodhyanga.

by Kumaradjiva (A. 404), and 1^^^:^^-^]

PRATAPANA

or

Mahatapana

(Siam. Mahadapha) -jc*)^^ lit. the hell of great


or

PRATISAMVID
sambhida.
bhidd)

(Pali.

Pati^'^'

burning,

^^
(?41i.

lit.

ex^i**

treme heat, or

~)^^^

unlimited (forms

m^M^
of)

Singh.

Pratisam-

Four modes

of

great flame and heat. The 7th of the 8 hot hells, where life lasts half a kalpa.

characteristic viz. (1.) Ai-tha (Pali.

wisdom. knowledge, Arhat, of an


lit.

4ffP

T^ m

Attha) unlimited

PRATIBHANA
na)

^sB*

lit.

Patibhdpleasant dis-

knowledge
laws) ;(2.)

of the sense (of the

Dharma (Pali. Dham

courses. (1.) hisattva, one

A fictitious Bodof 14 Deva worshipped in of

ma) *^^-|^^ li*'- unlimited knowledge of the canon


(3.)

Arya
China.

^^^
(2.)

One

the

or

^Ml^^
;

Nirukti (Pali. Nirutti) s^J lit. unlimited

Pratisam,vid (q.

v.).

PRATICHTHANA
PRATIDES'ANIyA
tidesaniyd.

knowledge of agreements or ;JS>^ lit. facility in explanaPraydga.


tions
(4.)

v.

(Pdli.

Pha-

Patibhdna)
lit.

Singh,

Patidesa-

^^M^l^

Pratibhdna

(Pdli.

nidhamma)

J^HJUt-^/g
by
fpjf^'fg

V
lit.

explained

unlimited knowledge of pleasant discourses (sc. on the 12 Nidanas).

confession of sins before others. section of the Viuaya concerning public confession of sins.

PRATITYA
S'ASTRA
samuppMa.

SAMUTPADA

PRATIMOKCHASAMGHI K A VINAYAMULA ^J^ik:^

(Singh. Paticha Tib. Rten tching hbrel barbhyur pa) -|^ "" g^

Mitm

XftSK^*

Translation

by Buddhabhadra (A.D. 416)

^ *^ Dvadas'a (twelve) nidanas. A translation by S'uddhamati (A. D. 508634).


^'^'

^'^^*''^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.

123

PRATYMa BUDDHA

or Pratyelja Djina (Pdli. Patiekan. Singh. Pase Buddha. Burm. Ptetzega. Tib. Rangs saDg dschei. Mong. Pratikavudor Ovoro Torolkitu) M|fef|

and
at

city

(now

Allahabad),
of

the

junction

Yamuna
(Pali.

and Ganges.

PRAYA

S'TCHITTA
by

Phatchittiya)

^^|gi|^

Xatlpft
plained

dually intelligent, or

^% by ^^ by
'"
lit.
lit.

^-

explained
(into hell).

lit.

fall

indivijg]

section of the

Vinaya, concerning 90 mis-

demeanours

of priests.

J^
or

lit.

completely intelligent,

by

^^

PRETAS

intelligent

(Siam. Pret. Burm. Preitha. Tib. Yidwags or


Birrid)

as regards the Nidanas. degree of saintship (unknown to primitive Buddhism), viewed as one of the 3 con-

Yid btags. Mong.

^
by

veyances to Nirvana (v. Madhyimdydna), and practised by hermits who, as attaining


to Kuddhaship individually(e.i.

^^ One
of

^^

5M^
lit.

explained

huugry demons.
;

of the 6 Gati

36 classes

demons with huge bellies, large mouths tiny and


throats, suJBfering, unappeasable hunger, and living either in hell, in the service of Yama, or in the air, or

without teacher and without saving others), are compared with the Khadga and called Ekas'ringa richi. As crossing Sansdra, suppressing errors, and yet not attaining to absolute perfection, the Pratyeka Buddha is compared with a horse which crosses a river, swimming, without touching the ground. Having mastei-ed the 12 NidAnas,

among men
at
night).

(but visible only

Avaricious and rapacious men are to be reborn as Pretas.

PRITHAGDJANA
thudjana)
verted, as

(P41i.
lit.

Pu-

^^

solitary

(extr aecclesiam).

he

is also called

Niddna BudNI-

The unconcompared with the

dha.

Arya.

PKATIEICA
H^iffl
350
ydna.

BUDDHA
of a

DANA S'ASTRA

^ ;^ ^

PRin
ya)

Translation (A. D.

(Pdli. Piti.
lit.

joy.

Singh. PritiThe 4th

431)

Abhidharma

work on the of the Hina-

Bodhyanga, spiritual joy and content, leading to Sam^dhi.

PRYADARS'ANA
joyful

^^

lit.

PRAYAGA or Praticbthdna |t
S-Wtto
-^^^^*

view.

The

(fictitious)

kingdom

kalpa of S'ubhavyuha, Meghadundubhisvara and others.

124

PART

I.

PUCHPADANTI |p A flowery teeth.


Bakcbasi.

Ut.

PtJDJASTJMIRA

%m^^
Areca

certain

JS A

learned Arhat of Sala-

ribhu, disciple of Ananda.

PUCHPAGIRI SAMGHARA- P'&GA

MA
monastery on ;;mount Puchpagiri in Uda.

j^^
;

(Pinang).

catechu

betel nut palm.

PULAKES'A
king
(A.

D.

^A a H jg Maha630j
of
richi.

P0CHPAKUTA SUTRA.
of

Title
(1.)

rdchtra.

4
rJJI

translations,

viz.

222280);
' .

PTJLASTYA An ancient

^mm&m

/i1

IT.

g
;

(A.

D. 317-

PUNATCHA
or

4^0)

(3.)

^1

or Pantchasattra Pantchardchtra <^i^C||

g
^^
(A.

(A.

D. 317420)

(4.)

Ancient province and city (now Poonah) of Cashmere.

D. 9801,000).
(Tib.

PUNDARIKA
rgyal)
^Ij

PUCHTA
^fe

Skar
or
(1.)

ma

or

m^ B

or

g^^
richi.

j^^

or
of of

-4r or

^5^^

^^

^pgTflJ or
lit.

explained by
great (or

(comet).

an ancient
stare.

Name (2.) Name

a constellation formed by

The last of the white) lotus. 8 large and cold hells, where the cold lays bare the bones of criminals Uke white lotus
flowers.

PUDGALA
||or

^
lit.

^r) ^ (or^g

^/[^^ PUNDARA VARDDHANA


or

explained by

g)^
lit-

affectionate

>&'[# beings, or by
entering

dom and

city

(now Burdvan)

in Bengal.

Jji?^

several

PUNYABALAVADANA ^W^
a translation (A. D. 1000) by DdnapAla.

paths. (1.) Human beings as subject to metempsychosis. (2.) Personality (as a philosophical term).

987

PUDJA
lit.

(Singh.

Poya)

^^

PUNYAPRASAVAS
happy
living
birth,

to support

Offerings, substitute for the Braliraanic


sacrifices (Yadclma).

and nourish. as the Buddhist

or
(1.)

devas.

^^ The

jg^

lit.

lit-

10th

Brahmaloka.

(2.)

The

1st re-

gion of the 4th DhyAna.

SANSKRIT-0HINK8E DICTIONARY,

125

PUNTAS'Alil
Houses
of

refuge,

^^^^ PUKJA MITRA


literature.

for

the

or Putnomita

sick or poor.

PUNTATARA
explained

^^^^ by
Jfl[]

|^

^*-

arch, son of a king of SouthIndia, laboured in EastIndia, died (A.D. 388) by

em em

merit and -virtue. (1.) the 24 Deva Arya

One

worshipped in China. (2.) S'ramana of Cabul, co-translator (A. D. 404) of the SarT&stiv4da vinaya.

^^ PURNNA A
PURNA

of

Samadhi.
V.

Bala.

(Singh.

Punna)

v.

Pur-

namaitrdyaniputtra.

PUNTAYAS'AS
11th)
;

^$ ^ ^ % The 10th

PURNA KALASATA
jtC

(Siam.

Bat keo inthanan) ;^^"fjp


explained by

(or

}^^

lit-

died B. C. 383 a descendant of Gautama; bom in P&taliputtra laboured in Vdrands'i; converted As'vaghocha.
patriarch;

full jar.

One

of the

mystic

figures of the S'ripAda.

PtTRNAMAITRAYANI (PUTTRA)
or Maitrdyaniputtra or

PUNYOPAYA
orNadi

mn$,WS9
explained
birth.

jmA

^{^
Ht.

by

happy

A
ed by

S'ramana brought to China


of

Central
(A.

India;

D. 663)

3 works.

j^j^^

!>*

son of

PUR ANA

V.

Dharana.

completeness
charity

and iPurna) (Maitr&yani), or by


''' ^-^

ptjRANA KASYAPA
the
;

g^

mBcm-k'p

maternal 6 Tirthyas descendant of the Kas'yapa family brahminieal ascetic opponent of S'akyamuni.
;

of completeness and of the lady of dignified beauty, or ^^ til litby

^B^'

^^

complete view.
;
;

disciple of

PURANAS gJlJI^
(or
ijfc lit.

or
;;flj

Bhava S'akyamuni by a slave girl illtreated by his brother, he engaged in


son of
business, forsook wealth for hia the priesthood, saved brothers from shipwreck by

j^\ JlJ^ explained by


complete.

class

of

Brahmanic,
philosophical

mytholc^cal,

conquering

Indra

through
for

and

ascetic

Samadhi;

built a vih&ra

126

PART

I.

S'akyamuni
dliisattva,

became a Boexpected to reap;

pre-existence of oneself
others.

and

See Abhidjna.

pear

as

Dharmaprabhdsa

Buddha.

He

is

often

con-

PURVAS'AILAH

founded with Maitreya.

PURNAMUKHA avadAna
S'ATAKA

%W\U

m
^'^'

*^

^^

School of the eastern mount.

-gr
^

Title of a translation (A. D. 223-253) of 100 legends.

One of the 5 subdivisions of the Mah^samghikah.

PURVAS'lUiA SAMGHARAPUPiKA

PARIPRITCHTCH-

HA

rjlJ-^ Title of a Sutra, translated (A. D. 405) by Kumdfadjiva.


.

*^

^ih:^

lit.

temple

of the

eastern mount. on a hill E. of tcheka.

monastery

Dhanaka-

PUENAVARMMA

^
by

y^0
lit.

J|J

PURVAVID]EHA
(Singh.

explained

y^

complete helmet. A king the last descendant of As'okha.*


of

Magadha,

or Videha. widesa. Siam. Buphavithe Thavib. Tib. Char lus gii pag dwip. Mong.

Purwa

Dorona oulam

dzi

beyetou

PURUCHA
^rU

or

-4^^
self.

^g
(lit.

or

dip)-^llJttllSr'^BSflJ

master)
lit.

explained by
spiritual

f^^
The

-the

mn
ijii lit.

'

ftsfpf

"

ffi^

spirit

which, together with Svabhdvah, produces, through the successive modifications of

island of
spirit,

conqueroi-tf

of the
lit.

or by

Guna,

all

forms of existence.
;(irj^;^J>;^ capiof

^g

PURUCHAPURA
tal

|S pr -j^;^^ Ancient
(now Peshawur)
dh&ra.

Gan-

separate from the body. One 'of the 4 continents (of every universe), E. of the Meru, semicircular in shape, the inhavitants having also
semi-circular faces and " seeing the sun rise before we see it."
Pataliputti-a.

PURVANIViSANU 8MRITI DJNANA (PAli. Pubbeni PUS'PAPURA V.


v&saniigatamnSjiem)
lit.

^ >^

destiny of the dwellings.


of
all

Knowledge

PUTANA ^^J|5 A
Pretas

class of

forms of

who

control fever.

SAN8KBIT-CHINESE DICTIONABY.

127
Tib.

PUTCHEKAGIRI |[i A mountain

^
in

|S|

Eastern

Tin

kundi,

Dchal poik
'"

India on which Avalokites'vajra appeared.

His?

'

EE^M

"'

city of royal residence, at

Tlie palaces. of the foot

R.
RACHTRAPALA A Bodhisattva among demons. RACHTRAPALA PARIPRITCHTCHHA.
translations,

gg^^
(1.)

Gridhrakuta, of the Magadha princes from Bimbisara to As'oka meeting place of the the fii-st synod (B. C. 540)
;
;

modern Radghir
Bahar)

(S.

W.

of

venerated by Jain pilgrims. See Kus'dgarapura.

Title

viz.

of 2 or Radjag^^ RADJAKUMARA pnttra (Tib. Ghial sres. Moug.

by

Djnanagupta
(2.)

Khan kubakhuu)
radja.

s.a.

Kumara
v.

(A.D.

589-618);

^^
viz.

RADJAMAHENDRI
handhra.

Ma-

by Dharmadeva (A.D. 973


981).

RADJAPURA
sijtra.
4 translations,
(2.)

radjavavAdaka
Title of

^HHffiH

Ancient city and province (now Rajoar), near S. W. frontier of Cashmere.

-^79);

^^^
D. 642);
1,000).

by Hiuen-tsang
(3.)

ja^TJr.m^ RADJATA V. Rupya. (A, RADJAVARDDHANA

^^^^
King
(A,

^ J^
of

of KanyAkubdja, son Harchavard hana.

by Ddnapila

D.

980 RADJAVAVADAKA

StJTRA

RADJA BAUENDrI KETU


"+i

^^

]|^

The

prince

who

of a translation by Danapala (A.D. 9801000).

possessed the Devendra sa-

maya.

RADJAGIRIYAS
yagirivdsinah.

s.

a.

Abha-

RADJAGRIHA

RAHAN or Rabat v. Arhat. RAHU (Tib. Sgra gtchan) |g B or ^^^[^ explained by stoppage. A king PJ^
lit.

or Radjj^riha-

of Asuras,

who seeks

(in the

pnra (Pali, Rddjagaha. Singh. Rajagahannwara. Burra. Eadza^a Mong. Vimaladjana

shape of a dog) to devout sun and moon, and tlms


causes ecUpsea.

128

PABT

T.

RAHULA

or Rahulabhadra or Laghula (Burin. Raoula. Tib. Sgra gtchan hdsin. Mong.

explained

li* by demons which devour men, or by "pT-^ lit. terrible. (1.) The aborigines of Ceylon, by cannibals dreaded as

^\^

s^

or

^-^
lit.

explained

by

^Rg

(be who) upset the


(viz.

ancient mariners, extirpated by Simhala. (2.) The demons attending Vais'ramana, in-

hindrances

of

Kahiis

against his birth). The eldest son (by Yas'odhara) and disdesciple of S'akyamuni
;

voked by

sorcerers.

RAKCHASi
and

^XM
or
;

^^

cendant of GAutaraa RahugaVaifounder of the nu bhachikah; now revered as patron saint of novices; to be reborn as the eldest son of every Buddha, especially of Ananda. See Djalambara.
;

daughters Rakchasa demons, invoked by sorcerers.

RAKTAPATMATA
jki^

^/^
one of

The red

lotus

the figures of the S'ripada.

RAKTAVm
explained by
soil.

RAHULATA |||g||^

The

^^^^
^f]^
li^-

i'^^

of native 16th patriarch, Kapila, laboured (till B. C. 113) in S'rdvasti. See Samghanandi.

samgharama, erected

RAIVATA
Revato)
or

or

Revata (Singh.
or
or

near the capital of Karnasuvarna, on the spot where a Buddhist priest from Southern India defeated a heretic
in public disputation.

RAKTIKA
im
lit.

or

Retti

:^ explained by

explained

by

^ -^

|||J^
lit.

the constellation (2 stars in Pegasus) called " the house."


(1.)

An
2i6

seed of (the Guuja) creeper. Indian weight, equal to


grains.

A Brahman

hermit; one
disciples
(2.)

of the principal S'akyamuni ; to

of

RAMA
or
of

or

Rdmagrama

be reborn as

Samanta

prabhasa.

^^

]^^

Ancient city (N.W.

native of Handjna, president of the 2nd synod (B.C. 443). member of the 3rd (3.) synod B.C. 246).

Goruckpoor) and kingdom, and Kapilavastu between


Kus'inagara.

RAS'MmiRHARA
RATHI
or
translation
(A.

8AMGI-

RAKCHASA

or Rakchaa (Tib. Srin boi din. Mong. Manggu) "'

e of a tH^*?^# by Bodhirutohi
D. 618907).

Prabhd sMhaud

m^-^M

mm

m:t

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTION ABY.

129

RAS'MIPRABHASA
lit.

and brightness. The name under which Malight

^^

name under which S'Akyamuni's 2,000 disciples,


A

and

to be reborn See Mahdvyuha and Avabhasa.

hdkds'yapa

is

as Buddha.

especially Ananda, will reappear as Buddha at different points of the compass.

S'ATASAHASRA RAS'MI PARIPURNA DHVADJA


whose
feet display innumerable luminous figures (like the The name under S'ripdda). which Yas'odharA is to appear as Buddha.

ratnakCta
section of the

pitaka, including the Maharatnakuta, and the Ratnakuta sutra some 36 other works.

5^35 Sutra

RATNAKUTA
of

StJTRA
viz.

Title
(1.)

translations,

EATHAKAYA ^|| the chariot corps. A division of


lit.

mmMi and
(2
)

^- 25-220.
595.

an Indian army.

by Djiianagupta, A.D.

xm&^im.
'|Jf|J5j
lit.

RATTPRAPIJENA ^,^g

lit.

RATNAMATI
H or
tentions.

or

The kalpa complete joy. during which Maudgaly4yana is to appear aa Buddha.

^-^
(1.)

precious inof

The 4th son

EATNA V. Sapta RATNADVlPA


island
of

ratna.

g^
of

Tchandra surya pradipa. (2.) A S'ramana of Central India, translator (A. D. 608) of 3
works.

lit.

treasures

(pearls).

Ancient
i^Ceylon).

name

Simhala

RATNAM^GHA
of

DHARANI

RATNAGHIRI
cious

Ijlj

lit.

pre-

a translation by Amc^ha vadjra (A.D. 746771).

mount. A near Bddjagriha.

mountain

RATNAMtGHA
Title of 3

SUTRA.
viz.,

RATNAKARA
treasure store.
of Viis'dli,

g^
(1.)

translations,

lit.

native

Mandra and Samghapala


D. 803); (2.) by Dharmarutchi
BH^iKf
(A.

(A.

contemporary of S'akyarauni. (2.) The 112th Buddlia of the Bhadra kalpa.


lit.

ft^gMg D. 693)
D. 10(X)

RATNAKirrU g;fg
cious figure. (1.) Sapta Tathfigata.

pre-

by Danapdla, Dharetc. (A.

One

of the

marakcha
1010).

(2.)

The

130

PART

I.

RATNAPARAS'I

g|
D.
of

Title of a translation (A.

are but where 24 hours equal to 4000 years on earth.

397439), forming part


the Mali&ratnakuta sutra.

rIvANA H'^JI^
BR A King
v.

or

RATNASAMBHAVA
lit.

precious birtli. (1.) One of the Paiitcha Dliy^i Buddhas, attended by Ratnapani. (2.) The realm of S'asiketu

g^

of Simhala.

^H

RAVI

TrAvati.
v.

rI:VATA

Rdivata.

RICHI
Tib.

(Burm. Racior rathee.

Buddha.

Drang

srong)

AU

lit.

RATNASTKHIN
or

v. S'ikhia.

immortals,
gati

^_

lit.

the

RATNATCHmTA

fnfffi^f ^^
lit-

of immortals. A man, iman transformed into

'j*^

precious
of

thought.

S'ramana

Cashmere, translator (A. D.

693706) of 7 works.

ratnat:edjobhtudga
RtJDJA
superior dignity and virtue.
of

mortal, by asceticism, and meditation. Nagardjuna, who counts 10 classes of richis, ascribes to them only temporary exemption (for 1,000,000 years; from transmigra-

R|@i precious king


lit.

A fabul-

ous Buddha, living E. of our universe, attended by Samantabhadra.

but Chinese Buddliists (and Tauists) view them as absolutely immortal, and distinguish 5 classes, viz. (1.)
tion,

Deva

richis

^YJj

residing

RATNATRAYA v. Triratna. RATNAVABHASA (1.)


lit.

precious brightness.
of

g^ The
of

on the 7 concentric rocks around Mem, (2.) Purucha richis (or Atman) Jfp

^^

roaming
(3.)

about
richis

in

kalpa
(2.)

Dharmaprabhasa.
lit.

Nara

the air, dwellYllj

^fe"^

possessor of

ing as immortals
(4.)

among men,

treasures. S'asikelu.

Tlie

kalpa

Bhumi
(5.)

richis

^
in

^|||

residing on

earth

RATNAVIS'UDDHA
lit.

The precious purity. fabulous i-ealm of Prabhiitaratna.

g^

and

Preta richis

caves,
/j|[|

roving demons. These richis form a 7th gdti (q. v.) or a 7th class of sentient beings.

RAURAVA
flij,

(Siam. Roruva)
or

or OiJ-Bf

H^^

^
lit.

RIDDHI
lit.

(Pali.

Iddhi.

Moug.

Riddi chubilglian)
will.

^Dl^Jfr
of spirit
(1)

8 crying. The 4th of the large hot liells whei-e life lasts 4,000 (or 400) years.

a body (transmutable) at

The dominion
matter,

over

implying

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

131

body which exempt from the laws of gravitation and space, and assume any (2) power to shape or from and to trapossession of a
is

KOmNILA ^^
ancient

15

HlK

^ An
visited

monastery,

by S'akyamuni; the

modem
in

verse space at

Roynallah, near Balgada, E. Bahar.

will.

RIDDHIMANTRA t^^

ROHITAKA
or
or
lour, (2)

or

Lohitaka

^
by

to gain or exercise the power of Riddhi.

tnMK prayers used

Incantations

The ruby or balas-

ruby.

RIDDHIPADA
pado. Tib.

(Pdli.

Kdzu

Iddhihphrul gyi
^'^'

ROHITAKA STTJPA ^^ng^

rkang pa)

EatomJE

^j^
W.

a&^fKr^
lit.

explai^d

the red stupa.

A
li

steps to Kiddlii. Four modes of obtaining Riddhi, by the annihilation of desire, energy, memory and meditation See Tchhanda, Virya, Tchitta and Mimamsa riddhi pddr..

slupa built by As'oka, 50


of

Moiigali, where Maitiibala radja fed stai-ving Takchas with his blood.

ROHITA MUKTI
gpT

gjipjg

RIDDHI SAKCHATKRI TA
(Pali.

g ^ Red

pearls or rubies.

See Sapta ratna.

Iddhippabhedo)
the

ijn}!

|il

-H

lit.

power

of

the

ROHU ^Hjlf^
RUDRA
(Tib. Tu |ggn A name

Ancient pro-

supernatural

The power shape or form


the
third djnas.
of

(riddhi) steps. to assume any


(see Riddhi),

vince and city of S. of the Oxus.

Tukhara,

lang)

^[{/g
lord

the

Abhi-

of Shiva, as

REDDHI

VIKRIDITA

SA-

ruler of the wind, and of the Khumbandhas.

degree of samadhi,

"the

called idle sports of spiritual

RUDRAKA RAM^\PUTTRA ^SM^"?* ^^' K^draka the


son of Rdma. A Magadha, a teacher
(Tib.
(1.)
;

richi

of

penetration."

of S'ak-

RIG VEDA

mm

yamuni.
lit.

hymns

of praise. The most ancient portion of the Veda, consisting of a collection of hymns (Sanhita; and a number of

RUPA
foim.

Gzngs)

Ht.

The perception

of

form

prose works (Brahmanas and


Sutras).

one of the Chadayatana. (1.) Form, as one of the aggregates of the >&
physical body. See Skandha,

132

PART

I.

RUPADHATU or KupAvatchara
(Tib.
lit.

chunis).

Gzugs-kyikhams) -fe^M
Tlie
of
tlie

SADDA

V.

S'abda.
(Pali.

the region of form.

SADDHARMA
dharama)
wonderful

Sadthe
called

Trailokya; the world of form, comprishing 18 Brahraalokas, divided into

2nd

^^

^H^

lit.

law.

A
(also

fabulous

4 Dhyanas, where

Mahabrahmd

life

lasts

from 16,000 kalpas down to half a kalpa, and the height of the body measures from
16,000 yodjanas down to half a yodjana, the inhabitants being sexless and unclothed.

Sudharma), devotee of Mahabhidjnadjndnabhibhu.

SADDHARMA
TARA
sutra.
s.

LANKAVALaiigk&vatara

a.

RUPYA |g
2nd
lit.

lit.

silver.

The

SADDHARMA PRATIRUPAKA -^ jJ^ law of images.


lit.

of the

Sapta Hatna.

The 2nd

of the 3

stages

of

KUTCHERA

KETU

^ |g

development

wonderful banner. fabulous Bodhisattva.

through which Buddhism passes under each Buddha, the first being Jp j^
lit.

the

ligion,

S.
S'ABDA
dan)

period of ti-ue the 2nd ^^7^

relit*

or

Sadda
;

(Pali.

Sad-

the period of fanciful religion, the 3rd ^:fe>^ lit. the period

lit.

sound. The per-

ception of sound

one of the

Chadayatana.

S'ABDA

^^
lit.

VIDYA
lit.

S'ASTRA

ira

lucid treatise on

In the of declining religion. case of S'akyamuni, the 1st 200 period continued for years after his death, the 2nd lasted 1000 years, and
the 3rd will last 3000 years,

sounds.

VidjA etymology by Ans'uvarmma.

of the Pantcha S'astras, a work on

One

whereupon Maitreya renews


this triple process, and each of his successors likewise.

SADAPARIBHtjTA'

never slighting (others;. famous (1.) A Bodhisattva, for his unselfish meekness. (2.) A former incarnation of S'akyamuni, when he displayed unselfish meekness

^^^

SADDHARMA PUNDARIKA SAMADHI ^a^H^ (!)


of samadhi, mastered by Vimalanetra. (2.) Title of a translation (of a portion of the Saddharma pundarika sutra), A. D. 427.

A degree

though slighted by Bhadrapala (with 500 Bodhisattvas), by Sirahatchaudra (with 500 Upasakas) and by Sugata tchetana (with 500 Bhik-

SADDHARMA PUNDARIKA
SUTRA.
lations,

Title of 4 transforming the standard books of the Lotus School

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

133

by

Dharmarakcha
(2-)

mmmtmm
-^
(4.)

(A.

D.

286),
i}^(3.)

daughter (8 years whose old) became a Buddha under

complete, A.D. 265-316),


djiva (A. D. 406).

by Kumara-

He

p^n

S^^&WMI^

^y Djnanagopta and Dharmagnpta (A. D. 589618).

Mandjus'ri. of said to dwell in a palace of pearls at the bottom of the sea, and is worshipped as a god of rain.
the
tuition
is

SAGARAMATE
Mah&ydna
in

^^ A

priest

of Ndlanda, defender

SAPDHAKMA PUNDARIKA
SUTRA
2
S' ASTRA.
*

the disputations
of

Title of

with heretics.

translations

dhn's preceding work,

Vasub;incommentary on the
of
viz.

SAGARAMATI

PARIPRIa

M^')^
(A.

TCHTCHHA Jg-f^^^^
Pplrf^nangTitleof
translation,

dliirutcbi

and others 386534) and

by Dharmarak-

D.

j(J?'^^^^

cha and another (A. D. 1009 1058), of a chapter from the Mahavaipiilya mahasan-

mati and another (A.D. 508).

nipdta sutra

("^"^^^r^
PATitle
viz.
(1.)

SADDHARMA
UPASTHANA
Title
of

SMRITYSUTRA. SAGARA NAGARADJA


viz

translations,

RIPRITCHTCHHA.
of

JEffi^^g

^y Gautama.

translations,

Pradjnarutchi (A.D. 539), and

i^m^ltrmi
Jfe

byDhar-

marakcha

(A.

D. 265

316),

madeva (A.D. 973981).

SADVAHA >g>^^fpj
or

or

^|
of

(A.V. 618937),

(3.)

3jj

lit.

guide

goodness or truth.
xia.

king of Kosala. patron of Nagardjn-

^-T^M

by Ddnapila (A.D.

9801000).

SADVAHANA
SAGAIiA

v.

DjMtaka.

VARADHARA SAGARA BUDDHI VIKRipiTABHIname under which The Ananda reappears as Buddha, in djayanta,

V. S'dkala.

SAGARA ^J||or^
One
of

Auavanamita
during the

vai-

the

24 Deva Arya

kalpa

134

PAET
s'abdabhigardjita.

I.

Manodjna

3AHA

or Sahaloka or Sahalokadhatu (Mong. Ssava jirtino' p^BoT or tchu) explained by i^{g-^^

sort of any deity (according to the Tantra School). (4.) Female energy (Yoni).

^
lit.

^^
of

S'AKALA
Sangala)
tal

(Pali. Sdgala.

Singh.
capi-

^f^M

The

the world of suffering, or

^y

^iit#-ttl5.

"'
.

^^

capital

a chiliocosmos. The inhabited portion of every universe, including all transperaons subject to migration and needing a Buddha's instruction, and divided into 3 -worlds (v. Trailokya) ruled by Sahdmpati.
Sarapati)

of Tcheka and (under Mahirakula) of the whole Pundjab. The Lagala of Ptolemy. The modem Sanga near Umritsir.

S'AKRA
Sekra)

(Pali.

Sakka.
or

i^
Lord

gjlg

l^^

Singh. or

or

^i^^
of

explained

SAHAMPATI (Singh.
y.

(Indra)

Devas, or

Mahdbrahma Sahampati.
or S'aikchya (Pali. exlit.

S^Mtc^
dra) or

(S'akra

Devenexplain-

S'AIKCHA
Sekhiya)
plained

ed by

^^j^nll/g
to
to

^^^

Jg||;jggl
lit.

S'akia

hy rM'^M.
be

one
or or

the Lord (Indra) of Devas, or

who

ought

^^^
lit.

subjects

study, studied ;

explained by

g|>^

Trayastrims'as. epithets of Indra q. V.) as rules of the Devas.


lit.

king of

Common

wicked deeds. (1.) Cateespecially laychumens, novices. See Arhan. (2.) A


section of the Vinaya, called laws for the community of being a disciples

S'AKRADITYA
lit.

sun of

the
of

ruler

(S'akra).
(after

^^jjj

Magadha

king S'dkya-

series of

100 regulations for

muni's death).

novices.

SAKRTDAGAMIN
or
S'akti

SAKCHI
(1.)

or

S'as'i

^X The
itself

or

IS;;^
hare

0^^- sacrifice.)

(P41i. Sa. kaddgami. Singh. Sakradag&mi. Burm. Thakagan. Tib. Leneik cir honghaba)

^MS

(which

threw

into the fire to save starving people), transferred by Indra to the centre of the

mt^ mm^m .^ coming


'
^-

plained by

lit.

once more.
of

The 2nd degree

moon.

(2.)

A
(3.)

Vematchitra.

name The

of

con-

saintship (v. Arya), involving rebirth among devas

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

135

and among men, whereupon


Arhatsliip is reached.

School.

S'AKYAMUNI
rauni.

S'AKYA
j-

(Singh. S4kya. Burm. Thakia) JgjUg explained by


lit.

Mong

(Burra. ThakiaShakja thubpa. Shigamunior Burchan

Tib.

charily or g-g,^-^

bakshi)

lit.

cliaritable.

The

ancestoi-s

^7^

^^j^Jg
explained

or

by

^
lit.

|g/[---

and descendants of Iks'vaku Virudhaka (q. v.), viz. 5 kings


of the Vivartta kalpa (M/^TT

(S'akya)

^|j^

(Muni)

ii)
mata

li^^<5^<i t)y

Mahasam;

(;^^^^)
(^
19

5 Tcha-

kravarttis

headed by Murdhadja {'j^^h

|| |^

jj
be-

^)
ing
the

"kings, the

fii-st

Tchetrya
last

(J^^j and
(-jr'l^)
;

mighty in charity, seclusion and silence. The last of the Sapta Buddha, one of Sapta Tath^ata, the 4th of the 1000 Buddhas of the Bhadra kalpa. The name by which Chinese books refer to Gautama Buddha. The Lalitavistara and the popular aphorisms of

Wang Puh
tell is

Mah^deva
;

(5^>|f0

5000 lungs 7000 kings 8000 kings; 9000 kings; 10,000


;

^n*^lllB)
of his life,

the story

which

an indis-

kings

15,000 kings

11,000

kings, the first being Gautama (q.v.) and the last Iks'vaku (q. V.) who reigned at Potala,

reigned Kapilavastu, after the destruction of which 4 surviving princes founded the
at

and whose 4 sons

pensable key* to the understanding of Buddhist doctrines. Some 5000 Djatakas (q.v.) are on record, in the course of which he worked his way up through as many different stages of transmigration, from the lowest spheres
life to the highest, practising all kinds of asceticism

kingdoms of Udyana, Bamyau, Himatala and S'ambi.


See also S'akyamuni.

of

and exhibiting in every form (v. Maitribalaradja, Kapindjala


etc.)

S'AKYA BODHISATTVA im

A
pala.

title

of

Praba

radja, Mayura radja the utmost unselfishness

S'AKYA

BUDDBA ,s

S'ak-

yamuni.

S'lKYA MITEA
|
or
friend

^
ixjwerful
of

t^,S lit. An author


on

and charity. Having attained to the state of Bodhisattva as Prabhapala, he was reborn in Tuchita and there considered where he ought to be reborn on earth to become Buddha. The S akya
(q.v.)

com-

family of Kapilavastu

mentaries

philosophical

works of the Madhyimayana

was selected and in it Maya, the young wife of S'uddho-

136
dhana,
earth.

PART
as

I.

the purest on lu the form of a white elephant (v. Bodhisattra) he descended and entered through Maya's right side
into her

and his body possessed 80 forms of beauty, which were interpretfigures (v. S'ripada),

ed by Asita as the characteristic marks of Buddhaship,

womb

(8th

day

of

He
dha.

was named SarvArthasid-

the 4th moon, B.C. 1028

or

622), where he was visited thrice a day by all the Buddhas of the universe (v. Prabhuta ratna). On the 8th

Maya having died 7 days after his birth, Mah^ pradjapati (q.v.) nursed him. When 3 years old, he was presented in a Shiva temple,
the statues of Shidid obeisance to the infant Buddha, who was then named Devatideva.
all

day of the 2nd (or 4th) moon, B.C. 1024 or 621, Maya, standing in Lumbini under an As'oka (or Sala) tree, painless gave birth to a son who stepped out of her right side, being received by Indra (the representative popular of religion) and forthwith bapti7.ed
(v.

when

vaitic

deities

he was 7 years old, Arata Kdlama and Rudrakararaa taught him the Pantcha Vidya S'astras, and Kchanti deva taught

When

Murddhabhichikta)

by Naga kings. Thereupon the newborn babe walked 7


steps towards each of the 4 points of the compass and, pointing with one hand to heaven and with the other to earth, said, with a lion's voice (v. Simhandda), " I have received the body of my final birth ; of all beings in heaven beneath above and the heavens, there is none but

him gymnastics.

(JgJ^^^)

When

10

years old, he was peerless in strength, hurled an elephant to some distance (v. Hastigarta),

and opened an

arte-

sian well (v. S'arakupa) by the discharge of an arrow. He was married to Yas'odha-

myself to be honoured." At the moment of his birth an Udambara flower sprouted up, and a series of 42 miraculous events (earthquakes, flashes of fivo coloured light,
lotus flowers etc.) announced to the universe the biith of

con19 years old, he was converted through S'uddhavasa deva who presented himself successively in the form of an old man, a sick man, a corpse, religious mendicant, and ex-

ra and cubines.

took

several

When

Buddha.
;

His skin exhibited

32 fanciful tracings (v. Lakcliana) on the soles of his feet there were 65 mystic

him disgust regarding domestic life. His father sought to diveit his mind, by sensual excitements and by proposing to him the career of a Tchakravartti as a military conqueror of the world, but, strengthened by
cited in

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAKT.

137

S'uddLavasa dava,

lie

over-

come the temptations of lust and ambition and fled from

Unmoved

Mara's 4 beautiful daughters. he continues in Samddhi, until he reaches at

home
day

of

in the night of the 8th the 2nd moon, B. C.

Brahma,

1003 or 597. Yakchas, Devas, Indra and the Tchatur Maharadjas assisted
his

Bodhi (q.v.), and becomes a Buddha, in the night of the 8 th day of


last the state of

He cut off to escape. locks and swore to save humanity from the misery of
him
death and transmigraAfter a brief attempt to resume study under Arata, he spent 6 years as a hermit on the Himalaya, testing the
life,

tion.

the 12th moon, B. C. 998 or The spirits of the earth 592. forthwith announce the glad tidings to the spirits of the atmosphere and those again report it to the spirits in the various heavens. Heaven and Seven days earth rejoice. merchants, afterwards two

Trapus'a
lika

efficacy

of

Brahmanic

and

(J|||)

and Bhalby,

meditation. Dissatisfied with the result, he


Shivaitic

(j?jj ^Ij),

passing

Arata and Rudraka and then repaired to Gaya, where he practised ascetic self-torture. [About that time his son Eahula was bom.] Having spent 6 years at Gaya, on a daily allowance of one grain of hemp (opium ?) and one grain of wheat, and seeing the uselessness of such determines to he fasting, strike out a new path hencevisited
forth.

present him with offerings of Soon honey. barley and he gathers round himself 5

Devas minister
of

needs

threatens

to the his body, which to break up, by

Kaundinya, BhadVachpa, As'vadjit and Mahanama. With them he starts from the Bodhidruma (B.C. 997 or 592) and preaches his new gospel at Mrigadava, where his 5 disciples attain to the state of Arhat and 1000 persons are conIn the course of the verted. following year, he preached
disciples,

rika,

bathing him with perfumes, and induce Nanda and Bala (q.v.) to nurse him with rice boiled in milk. Resting on a couch prepared by Indra tinder the Bodhidruma, he
gives himself up to Samadhi (q. v.), whilst Mara and his armies endeavour, in vain, to tempt him in various disguises and finally through

Naga kings (i. e. popilar worship of The year 995 or 589 snakes). B.C. is marked by the converchiefly

to

against

sion of S'ariputtra

and Maud-

new

galyayana with 250 others. In the course of the following year Anathapindika presented Buddha with the DjetavaIn the year 991 or 585 na. B.C., a victory having been gained over Shivaisra by the conversion of Angulimdliya

138

PAET
his
followers, Buddha to Trayastrims'as

I.

and

ascended
ther,

in order to convert his moand stayed there 90 days. Meanwhile Prasenadjit, frightened by his prolonged absence, ordered

Maudgalyayana and the deva Vis'vakarman, transformed as artists, to ascend to Traiyastrims'as and to take a likeness of S'akyamuni. Tliey did so and carved, in sandal wood, a statue which
thenceforth became an object of worship. Here we have the origin of Buddhist idolatry.

On

S'akyamuni's

re-

turn, the statue lifted itself into raid-air and saluted him,

whereupon he uttered a prophesy which was fulfilled


K.as'yapa Mdtanga took statue to China. In 990 (or 584) B.C. S'akyamimi visited Magadha and converted Yatsa. In the following year he predicted the future of Maitreya, and iu the next year he revisited Kapilavastu, when he preached to his putative father. From the year 983 (or 577) B.C. to the time of his death,
that
lie

in 977 (or 571) B. C. and Pradjapati admitted to rights of priesthood together with other women. When S'akyamuni, in the year B. C. 949 or 543, felt his end drawing near, he went to Kus'inagara. Heaven and earth began to tremble and loud voices were heard, all living beings groaning together and bewailing his departure. On passing through Kus'inagara, he took his last meal from the hands of one of the poorest (Tchuuda), after refusing the offerings of the richest. Declaring that he was dying, he went to a spot where eight Sala trees stood in groups of two. Besting on
his right side, he gave his last instructions to his disciples, reminding them of the immortality of the Dhar-

when

gave particular attention to doctrinal exposition, delivering the Samyuktasantchaya in 983 (or 577) B. C,
982 Suvarnaprabhasa and Saddharmapundarika in 950 (or 644), and the Parinirv&na sutra in 949 (or
(or 576), the
543).

kdya, and then engaged contemplation. Passing mentally through the 4 degrees of Dhydna, and thence into SamMhi, he lost himself into Nirvana and thus his earthly career was ended. His disciples put his remains into a coffin which forthwith became so heavy that no power on earth could move
in

ma

the Pradjnaparamitd in

But his mother Mdya suddenly appeared in the air, bewailing her son, when
it.

the

coffin

rose

up,

the

lid

Ananda was converted

sprang open and S'dkyamuni stepped forth for a moment with folded hands to salute On attempting his mother.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.
cremation, his disciples found that his body, being that of a Tchakravai-tti, could not be

139
not
yet up.

Buddhism
fficiently

is

su-

cleared

The
en-

year
tered

when S'akyamuni

consumed

by

common

fire,

jet of flame burst out of the Svastica on Lis breast and reduced his body to ashes. If the above semilegendary account is at all trustworthy, it indicates that S'akyamuni's mind is supposed to have gradually developed, departing step by step from the popular re-

when suddenly a

Nirvana is, according the accounts, Chinese to 53rd year of King Muh of
the

Chow dynasty, that is to say 949 or about 749 B. C, Buddhist Southern whilst tradition fixed upon the year 543 B. C, but modern exand inscriptions cavations, coins indicate the year 275 B.C. as the year of Buddha's
Nirvana.

ligions

of his time,

Brahmi-

nism

Shivaism, until, he without premeditation, came to found a new religion, being' even pushed to laying a sort of preliminary foundation of an ecclesiastical system. As a teacher, he ap-

and

S'AKYASIMHA (Mong. Sliakin un arslan) Jg^^gft^


^i*^-

S'akya the lion. A title of S'akyamuni. See also Simhanada.


see

S'AKYA TATHAGATA
Tathagata.

pears to have been liberal and tolerant, countenancing,


the inconsistently, deities those of worship which were too popular to be discarded, though he assigned to them a signally
rather
inferior position in

S'AKYA YAS'AS J^

^Jp

native of India, author a the Has^adanda s'astra of (*'*siated A.

^
D

^ ^vm
or

his

own

711).

system.

ever, Shivaitic,

Immoral sects, howwhether Brahmanic or

SAL A

plained

he fought resolutegenerally conquering ly, through magic power rather He than by disputations. every almost remodelled Brahmanic dogma, substituting atheism for pantheism,

ous, or

^g J4^|g by gg| by g^ ^^h by


or
exlit.

solid,

lit.

most

victori-

%-^'^

lit-

and honoured

families.

(1.)

large timber tree, Shorea robusta, sacred in memory of S'akyamuni's birth and

and ethics for metaphysics. His teachings were in later years further developed by the Mahayana, Madhyimiyana, Yogatcharya and other The chronology of Schools.

death.
S'arika.

(2.)

bird,

s.

a.

SALARIBHU

Ancient kingdom of India.

SALA

^ j^ ^ ^ RADJA g^ ^ ^

140

PABT

I.

epithet of every Buddha, " most victorious " over See Sala. vice and passion.

An
as

One
v.),

of the 7 Bodliyanga (q^ the mastery of abstract

contemplation and

trnnquil-

S'ALATURA ^|||g|g or ^9I Ancient city in Gandhara, now Labor near birthplace of Panini.

Obind

variously defiued, as perfect tranquillity (Hardy), mediabstraction (Tumour), or self-control (Bumouf ). The
tative

S'ALENDRA RADJA
i^nr Name
as Buddha.
of

i^M

S'ubhavyuba

term usek

Samadhi
ethically,

it

sometimes
it

when

de-

See Sdla radja.

S'ALISAMBHAVA
Title
of

moral self-deliverance from passion and vice


signates

SUTRA.

translations, viz

(JW SS

^"^*^')

^^^ some-

D,

222280),

(2.)

times metaphysically, when it is interchanged with Dhyana (q. v.) and signifies abstract meditation, resulting in physical and mental coma and eventually in Nirvana. " He consumed liis body by

50

(A. D. 317420),

(3.)

Agni
is

(the fire of)

SamMhi,'*

the saint's standing epitaph.

SAMADATTA MAHARADJA SUTRA ^^mm^^t^ A history of S'akyarauni (as


a descendant of Maha saraadatta maharadja -4-zr-^^ nr) from the origin
world
to
of to

This love for qnietistic selfannihilation, traced back to

Maudgalyayana, arisen through


reaction
ties of

may

have

a natural against the austeri-

the
his

moral asceticism which characterized primitive Buddhism. The Mahayana School hairnumberless invented
splitting distinctions of different degrees of Samadhi.

his

visit

putative father,

SAMADHI

(Pali.

Samato)
or
lit.

01S
or by

or

^^j^

explained by

^ ^^
fixity,

Dhyana
(q.

(q.v.)

and Samapatti

are practically the preliminary steps leading to


V.)

^^
P
lit.

lit.

sam-adha,

Samddhi.

self-possessed,
lit.

or
;

by
or

correct fixity
lit.

>Ah

samadha, explained
stop breathing,
lit.

TP^ SAMADHIBALA ^ -^ Ut. power of fixity. The 4th ^^^ the of the 5 Bala, the power of
ecstatic meditation (v.

Samd(PabV

by
or

jI-

by

^ is

dhi).

listless.

SAMADhInDRIYA

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

141
(Tib.

SamadLi

indra)

4th the root of fixity. of the 5 Indriya, the organ meditation (v. ecstatic of

i^ ^The

lit.

SAMAPATTI
hdjug pa)
plained

Snoms par
exlit.

by

^ ^ 1^ Ig
g^ ;^

SamMhi).

SAMADJNA SAMGHARAMA
-^
for)
lit.

the monastery
(lit.

(built

seeking to enter fixity. The process by which absolute mental indifference (sams) is reached (apatti) a degree of ecstatic meditation, prepara;

Samadjna

the lumi-

tory to

Samadhi
or

(q. v.).

nous sage). A W. of Kustana.

viliara,

60

li

SAMATA
P0|l:t

Samatata
of

Ancient kingdom, at
the

^^

SAMAKAN -^f^-^ or f^S agR Ancient province and


city of

the mouth putra.

Brahma-

Bokhara, now

Sam(Tib.

SAMA VEDA SANHITA


B^
or

arkand.

SAMANTA BHADRA
zangyo)
or

^^

^
of

lit.

s'astra
lit.

peace, or

Togmai saugas-rgyas kuntub-

HftPtlSKII
lit.

:d&^
lit.

general sage or
(1.)

Wjl(^ and chants. The third part of the Yeda, a collection of hymns to be sung at sacrifices.

hymns

-frff

great activity.

One of the 4 Bodliisattvas of School, yogdtcharya the author of the g^J^i[^N^

SAMAYA
period. year.

(Tib.

Dous)

^^^p
lit.

explained by

^g^
season

short
the

of

>^ Bodhi

hridaya s'iladana

sutra (translated

by Amogha-

vadjra, A. D. 746771) and of many dharani, patron of

SAMBHAVA -^^
city.

lit.

good

the

pundarika. fabulous Buddha, residing in the E.


(2.)

Saddharma

realm of MahaBudbhidjnadjiianabhibhu
Tlie

dha.

SAMBI
dom

SAMA^^TA MUKHA DHARANI

^5g
v.

Ancient
S.

kingof

(v.

S'akya),

the

SUTRA ^P^rtfS SAMBODHI JpJM A dharani delivered by


S'akyamuni at
Vais'ali,

Hindookoosh.
Bodhi.
v.

SAMBODHYANGA
dhyanga.
^/fbrt

Bo-

SAMANTA PRABHASA M. SAMBHOGA


HH lit. general brightness. The name under which each
of the 500 Arhats re-appeai-s

or Sambutta

^
of

An

ancient

richi

Mathura.

as Buddha.

SAMBHOGA KAYA ^^IJJQ

142
or

PART

I.

ijn^
of

compensation. (1.) The of the 3 qualities (v. Trik^ya) of a Buddha's body,

^^

lit.

the body

church. gha.

(3.)

Same

as

Asam-

2nd
viz.

SAMGHA BHADRA ff-^J^


|5fe^ ^^

^^K

^^^'

sage

reflected

spirituality,

with his merits. The 3rd of the (2.) Buddliakchetras.


coi-responding

na

of the priesthood. of Cashmere,

S'rama-

follower of

SAMDJAYA
vairatti

or

Samdjaya
or

gpKtl?

TBHSa

^m,

the Sarvastivadah, author of 2 philosophical works, translator (Canton, 489 A. D.) of the Vibhacha vinaya.

SAMGHABHEDA
One
of the

g^fg-

lit.

king of Yakchas. (2.) (1.) One of 6 Tirthyas heretical


;

breaking up the priesthood.

PantcMnantarya.

teacher

of

Maudgalydyana
(Siara.

SAMGHABHEDAKAVASTU
IRjI^f^M- Title of a translation (A.D. 719) of a portion of the Vinaya.

and

S'ariputtra.

SAMDJTVA

^^ The
hells

Sanxipa)
re-birth.

or

Wv^

lit.

1st of the
(v.

8 large hot Naraka), whence

each, after death, is by " rebirth" removed to the 2nd hell (Dalasutra).

SAMGHA BHUTI
ghavars'ana.

s.

a.

Sam-

SAMGHADfeVA
or

SAMDJNA
(P41i.

or

Samdjnana

^^

let.

deva

of
title

the
of

nya.

Tib.

Sanuana. Singh. SanDu-ses) *B lit.

priesthood honour. (2.)


vars'ana.

(1.)

Same

as GAuta-

Consciousness, as thought. the 3rd of the 5 Skandha.

ma Samghadeva and

Sanigha
(Singh.
-A-

BAMGHA
Wn
(1.)

(Burra.

Thanga
or

Tib.

SAMGHAIS'ECHA
Samghadisesa)
tion of

Dkon-mgoc
Chubarak)

^^ The
(at

gsum.

Mong

f^M^

sec-

^J^
as-

the Vinaya (13 comsocial relations of priest-

corporate

mandments regarding
and sexual
hood).

sembly
Saihgha

of

priests, also
(

least four) called Bhikchu

U'^f^), Q^der a

SAMGHAGARAMA
gh&rama.

s. a.

Sam-

chairman (Sthavira or Upadh-

empowered to hear yaya), confession, to grant absolution, to admit persons into the priesthood, etc. (2.) The third constituent of the Triratna (q.v), the deification of the

SAMGHANANDI ff^HJ^
The 17th
hermit
of S'ravasti,

patriarch, a prince who lived as a near the sources of

the Hiranjavati, until Rahulata, let there by seeing the

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
of 5 Buddhas, appointed him his successor.

143

shadow

mana
(A.
(2.)

the priesthood. S'ra(1.) of the West, translator

saMghapala
^'

ff^'^g
.^
(Samgiia
lit-

ft ft
the

Eft

varman) or
of

^^
D.

armour

priesthood.
(of

(1.)

An

Tibetan (under translator descent), the name jg- |gj of 3

Indian S'ramana

M-orks

(A.

225).

(2.)

Burmese S'ramana, who troduced a new alphabet


50

in-

D. 402-412) of one work. The 3rd of the 8 large liot hells (v. Naraka), formed by 2 ranges of moveable mountains which compress the criminals into an unshapely mass. Life lasts there 2000 years, but 24 hours, there, are equal to 200 years on earth.

of

SAMGHATI
sivura.

(Singh. Sangala-

characters in China and translated 10 works (A. 1). 506-520).

Burm. Tingau. Siam. Languti. Mong. Majak) 4&


exphiined by
or

SAMGHARAKCHA
^Ij

fg-fljlll
of

S'ramana

India

lit.

united,

by "^

lit.
lit.

double, or

by
oj

(700 yeai-a after the NirvAna), author of 4 sutras.

ff^ldfe

a robe

made

SAMGHAEAMA
Kut
or Ssiima)

Samghagarama (Burra. Kium. Siam. Vat. Tib Dgon pa Mong.


or

f'ft^(^)
by

sundry scraps. The composite priestly robe, reaching from the shoulders to the knees and fastened round the waist. See Kachdya and Uttarasamgliati.

|j^g| /Jip^ park of the priesthood, lit. or by f&j^ lit- dwelling of priests. (1.) The park of a
monastic institution. (2.) monastery or convent, s.
vihara.

explained

SAMGHATI SUTRA DHARMA PARYAYA i^tiicm


Title
of

translation

by

A
a.

Upas'unya
ghapala.

(A.

D. 538).
a. a.

SAMGHAVARMAN

Sam-

SAMGHASiNA ff^^jp SAMGHAVARS'ANA or Samgha bhuti or f@''fl^-5^ A S'ramana of fl^Jg (ov^)


India, author of 3 works.

or
^-

^3^

lit.

manifestation

SAMGHATA ff ^1 .P6
plained by

^k

lit.

dant
lit

gooduess
lit.

or

abun-A.

S'ramaof tlie priesthood. na of Cabul, translator (A.D. 381-385) of several works.

See Samghad^a.

union of

tlie

priesthood
of

SAMKAKCHIKA
samghdti.

s.

;i.

Uttard-

or

^If^

clattering

lU

PABT
(PdH. Samkassa.

I.

SAMKASTA

Tib. Sgracben)

f^'f^'^

or

SAMOTAfA V. Samatata. SAMPAHA ^f^fpf Another


name
for Malaga.

l&'^fl^^ or Kapitha. Ancient

Kingdom and city in Central India, now SamkaBsam near


Canonge.

SAMSKIRA

lit.

(Tib. Du dyed) action (karma).

SAMKHYA
rfegP
lit.

(PdU. Safikha)

ov

l^f^

or

discoursing on numerical categories, explained by

^ U^

metaphysical term, variously defined as illusion (in Nepaul), notion (Tibet), discrimination
(Ceylon), action (China).

SAMSKRITA >^
ma
or

lit.

Brahor

who
discourse on the meaning of the 25 tattvas (truths). The heretical atomistic School (v. Kapila), which explains nature by the interaction of

^^

lit.

Bralimanio

(alphabetic)

writing,

M:3E

lit.

the Indian language.

Sanskrit, the classical

Aryan

24 elements

with purucha, modified by the 3 gunas, and teaches the eternity of pra-

language of India, probably never spoken in its most systematized form, in which it was the accomplishment of
the Brahmans, whilst, among the people, it degenerated
into Prakrit, a

dhana

(^'^j

self-trans-

forming

nature

and

the
souls

eternity of (purucha).

human

which

is

Pdli.

specimen of The most

SAMKHYIKA
Art\^
course
gories.
lit.

m^
who
numerical

Ht.

general calculations or |^i|^


heretics
dis-

ancient Chinese texts seem to be translations from Pali, the more modem texts from Sanskrit. Hiuen-tsang found (about 635 A. D.) in the Pundjab little difference be-

on

cate-

The followers Samkhya School.

of the

SAMKHYAKARIKA v. Kapila. SAMMATIYA or Samraatah


or

or

or

lit.

the

School

of

correct
viz.

calculators.

Three divisions

of the

Hindy&na School,

KAurnkullak&h, Avantik&h and Vatsiputtriy^h

tween Sanskrit and Pali.' Various alphabets for the transliteration of Sanskrit characters into Chinese were introduced by Dharmarakcha, Mokchala, Kuraaradjiva, Buddhabhadra, Samghapala, Mah&y&nadeva, Divakara, Sikchanada, Amoglia, and other alphabets were sanctioned by Chinese emperors, Yen-tsung (A. D. 1031), Kangbi (A. D. 1662) and Kien-lung (A. D. The Devanagari form 1750).
of writing Sanskrit

was early

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTION A-UT.


introduced in China, by
of Tibet,

145

way
in

and

is still

used on

charms,
sorcery.

amulets,
V.

and

Marga, the vow of incumbent upon every Arhat or monastic. See Bhikohu.
of the 8 povei-ty,

SAMVADJI

Vridji.
deity,

SAMYAGDRICHTI (Pdli. Samm4ditthi.


drishti)

SAMVARA ^lyfH A
SAMVARTTAKALPA
derek<^ap)
lit.

Singh.

Samyak
correct

worshipped by followers the Tantra School.

of

JS

lit.

(PaU Samvatta kappa. Mong. Eb-

^^

or

.^^
Ma-

view or ability to discern the truth. The 1st of the 8 Marga, the possession of orthodox views ; an attribute of each Arhat.

tde

kalpa of destruction

SAMYAGVAK
vatcha.

(PAU.

or

annihilation.

The

Singh.

SammaSamyak walit.

hakalpa of the destruction to which every universe is subject, in the course of 64 small kalpas, fire being at work periodically in 56 small kalpas, water during 7 and wind during 1 small kalpa, until the whole, with the exception of the 4th Dhyaua, is annihilated.

chana)

Tp sal

correct

speech, explained as ability to avoid both nonsense and The 3rd error in speaking. of the 8 Marga, the ability, characteristic of an Arhat, of exactly any repi*oducing sound uttered in any universe.

SAMVARTfATTHAHI
KALPA (PAH.
Sanvattatthahi

SAMYAGVYAYAMA

(Pali.

kappa.
galab)

Mong.

Chc^hossun
lit.

Sammavayamo. Singh. Samyakwyagama) ]^j^ lit.


correct and subtle virya or incessant practice of asceticism. The 5th of the 8 Marga, based on the 3rd Paramita ; asceticism, as a characteristic of an Arhat.

if ^JgJgJ

the

in-

creasing (period of a

small)

That of destruction. period in each of the 64 divisions of a Samvartta kalpa during which the force of destruction fire, (resp.
kalpa
water,

SAMYAKKARMANTA
correct
life,

(PAli.
lit.

increases in intensity, followed by a period of decrease (j^v^).

wind)

Sammakammanta) TP-^

SAMYAGADJrV'A
madjiva.
jiwa)

iPali.

Singh.
lit.

slmSamyaka
by The 4th

Tp^

explained as strict observance of purity. The last of the 8 Marga, honesty and virtue, as a characteristic of an Arhat.

the correct

profession, explained

SAMYAKPRAHANA

(Pali.

lit.

mendicancy.

Sammapradhana. Singh. Samyakpradhana) ng Jp ||jfj lit.

146

PART

I.

four correct efforts. One of the the 37 categories of Boclhi pakchika dharma, comprehending a fourfold eftbrt, viz. (1.) after the birtli of for birtli evil to stop its ever, (2.) befor6 the birth of evil to prevent its birth, (3.) before the birth of karma to cause its bii-th, (4.) after the bii-th of karma to cause its continuous development.

of the 8 Marga, religious recoUectedness, as a, characteristic of every Arhat.

The 7th

SAMYUKTABHIDHARMA
HBIDAYA S'ASTRA
Wj;['djrS|jm -^ translation (A.

^^

D. 434), by Ssmghavarman and others, of a philosophical work by Dharmatrata. SAMYUKTAGAMA v. Agama.

SAMYAKSAMADHI
SammdsamAdhi) Jg

SAMYUKTA PITAKA
lit.

(Pali.
lit.

m^
(q.

the miscellaneous

collec-

tion.
v.),

supplementary part

correct samadhi, or absolute mental coma. The 6th of the 8 Marga, the attainment as a v.), of SamMhi (q, characteristic of an Arhat.

of the Chinese Tripitaka

including

'^
^ifr

5:tiSK^
works of
![{'+

miscellaneous

Indian authors and


doctrinal

SAMYAKSAMBODHI v. Anuttara.

expositions

by

SAMYAKSAMBUDDHA (Pali.
Sammasambuddha. Summasamphutto)
lit.

native (Chinese) authors, the latter being subdivided into

Siara.
-

laneous collections in the canon under the

'"^^^^i^^MMXMVSM included

Ming

correct

and equal knowof

dynasty

(A.

13681644)

ledge.
titles of

The 3rd

the

10
at-

S'dkyamuni, an tribute of every Buddha.

SAMYAKSAM.KALPA
lit.

supplements of tlie northern canon added, with their case marks, from the southern
canon.

(Pali.

Singh. Samradsamkappa. Sarayakkalpanawa) j ffl Att


correct
free

SAMYUKTAVADANA
RA.
viz.

SUTof
(q.v.),

thinking,

or

mind

from

wicked

Title of collections of
(1.)

translations

Avadauas

The 2nd of the 8 Marga, decision and purity


thoughts.
ol thought and will, as a characteristic of every Arhat.

H^B^lJj
(2.)

A. P.

25-220,

Lokorakcha, A. D.

by ^^%il 147-186.

SAMYAKSMRITl
or
recollection

(PAli.

SamKumaradjiva, A.D. 405.

m&sati. Singh. Samyak mti) 7p-^ lit. correct memory,


of

the

law.

S'ANAKA

I^flKifin

plant.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICnONARY.
the fibres of which are woven into robes for priests.

147
UdyAna.
v.

river of

SANKAKCmKA
chika.

Samkak(Singh.

S'ANAKAVASA

or S'anavasa or S'anavasika (Singh. Sambhuta Sinavasika) f^lKjltP


'

SANKRANTIVADAH
Samkantikds)

f'-F'Mj^^
of

mm mmmm
Sl^Slfi:
e^PJai^ed
willing

^^

ra

by

^HR
(1.)

g
of

Another name
trantika School.

the

Sau-

lit.

to serve.

younger
(2.)

brother
of

SANSARA
Tib.
tion,

(Singh.

Sangsara,
Ht. rota-

Ananda.
born

The 3rd

patri-

Khorba)
the

f^jg

arch, a Viis'ya

MathurA,
after

explained by
lit.

100

years

the

with identified Nirvana, Yas'as, the leader at the 2nd synod.

^
as

^^"^
birth

ocean of

and death.

Human

existence,

S'A"NAIS'TCHARA

'or

Sani

7!;iilStSli
4- Ig
regent.
lit,

explained by
or
its

a circle of metempsychosis.
v.

continuous

SANYADATTA
muni.

Kanaka-

Saturn

SANDHINIR
SUTRA.

SANSKHITA V. Samskrita. SANVARTTA v. Samvartta. MOKOHANA SAPTA BUDDHA (Tib. Sangs


rgyas rabs bdun) 4-"Y^ The
viz.

Title of 5 transla-

tIons,viz.(l.)gg^.^J5i^5 by Bodhirutchi A. D. 386


534.
(2.)

seven Buddhas of antiquity, Yipas'yin, S'ikhiu, Vis'vabhu, Krakutchanda, Kaand Kds'yapa nakarauni, S'akyamuni, the latter having rather popularized and syspre-existing retematized ligious ideas than invented a

^^~r^^?

:^mMm.mm by Gunabha(3.)

dra A. 420479,

;jg^
(4.)

^^ by
A.D
.

the same, ^

-j^

new

religion.

by Paramdrtha,
(5.)

557-589,

m
645.

by Hiuen-tsang, A. D,

^^g

SAPTA BUDDHAKA
J^'l^^ An
Sapta
the

^^
SUT-

account of the

Buddha, taken from Mahanidana sutra.


Title of 3 translations,

SANDJAYA v. Saradjaya. SANDJNANA v. Samdjnana. SANGA V. Samgha. SANGALA V. S akala, SANIRADJA

SAPTA BUDDHAKA
RA.

mj^mm

602-657,

(2.)

Jn2Sfe:^j|g#

148
:Pjnu

PART

I.

Gunabhadra,
(3.)
]

Buddhist temples.

A.D. 587,

:m

PI

deva, A.D.

973981.
S'AS-

SAPTATATHAGATA PURVA PRANIDHANA VIS'ifeCHA VISTARA ^g||i3Eg^^^


*^^^^*^ i^^MMfM^' a portion of tion D.
(A. 707) of the Mah^pradjnaparamita.

SAPTADAS'A BHUMI

TRA

s.a.

Togdtohdrva bhumi

s'astra.

SAPTA RATNA

^^sl^^
^^^*

S'ARADA

(Tib

Tsa dus)

6^^
of

'tis
(1.)

^'*'^

jjn.

lit.

excessive heat

The

treasures.

The

insignia

a TcLakravartti, viz. a tcLakra of gold, concubines, horses, elephants, guardian


spirits, soldiers

hot season (16th day of the 3rd moon to 15 th day of the 5th moon).

S'ARAKUPA

4|^

lit.

arrow

the

inani.

(2.)

and servants, For another

An artesian well fountain. opened (near Kapilavastu)


by an arrow shot by S'akyamuni.

treasures, not necessarily belouging to a Tchakravartti, see Suvarna,


series
of

Rupya, Vaidurya, Sphatika, Rohitamukti, As'magarbha and Musai-agalva.

S'ARANA V. sarasVati
or

Tris'arana.

i^Mi^Ujrg
lit.

SAPTA RATNA PADMAVI-

:i
the
also

KRAMIN Jig-{^g^
name
of

Tiie

deva of great disci-imination.

Rahula bhadra as

The

Buddha.

wife of called S'ri.


v.

Brahma,
S'ravasti.

SAPTA TATHAGATA ^j^q S'ARAVATT The Buddhist substitute SARCHAPA

or

S'ers'apa

^
or
(1.)

for the 7 richis of the Brahmans, an arbitraiy series of

"^^
A
na. (2.)
pai-t of

lit.

mustard seed
of

seven
viz.

(fictitious)
(1.)

Tathagatas,
(q.
(q.
v.),

Amitabha Amritodana radja

the 10,816000th part of a yodja-

measure

length,

v.),

Abhayamdada
(q.v.),

(q, v.),
(q.v.),

Vyasa
Ratnaor
con-

A weight, the a Raktika.

32nd

Surupaya
lit.

^^^y*

(||ki?5iH||gp
precious

BS^

queror),
(q. v.),

and Prabliuta ratna which names are in


on
a

SARDJARASA j I II 11^ A kind of gum. S'ARDULA KARNA -^Hg^


explained
tiger's

by

H&

lit.

Bcribed biUar

heptagonal
i^

(-t in

* g i#)

ears.
of

The

original

name

Ananda.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

149

S'ARIKA
TflJ

or S'ari or Sala
or

ox

^^IJ

long-legged bird.
of

^H The
(2.)

Shari)

(1.)

tf ^0
or

^^Ijg or ^^ij or ^^ ^tll^ (s'ailram)*


^jgl
lit.
lit.

explained by
/g.

solids,

wife

Tichya,

S'ariputra, birdlike eyes.

mother of famous for her

lit.

particles

of

bones, or J&.
relics

body. Bodily

S'ARIPUTRA

or S'arisuta or S'aradvatiputra (Pali. Sariputta, Singh. Seriyut. Barm. Thariputra. Tib. Sham by or Saradwatu by or Nid
rghial)
SSI or

or ashes (left after cremation) of a Buddha or saint. They are also called Dhatu or Dharma s'arira, and Stupas preserved in

worshipped.

^|lj^
S'arika,

(or

.,_

son
lit.

of

the son of

jmmmm ^ ^One ^
"^
or
S'arira.

%)^

SARPAHRIDATA
daneva.

v.

Tchan-

SARPAUCHADHI
or

^^

ht.

snake medicine.

^^^^

of the principal

S'akyamuui,

disciples of whose " right


;

!Name of a samgharama in Udyana, built on the spot where S'akyamuni, in a former djataka (as Indra), appeared as a snake which sacrificed itself to save starving and sick people. See Sumasarpa.

hand attendant " he was born


at Nalandagrama, the son of

Tichya

(v.

Upatichya)

and

S'arika, he became famous for his wisdom and learning,

composed 2 works on the Abhidharma, died before his


master, but as Buddha
is to

re-appear
in

Padmaprabha

SARVABHAYA PRADANA DHARANI ft^M-'W


translation (A. D.

Viradja during the Maharatna


pratiinandita kalpa.

980-1000)

S'ARIPUTRABHroHARMA SARVA BUDDHA SAMDARS'ASTRA ^^Ij^pofffllt* An reputed work of S'ari-

by Danapala.

S'ANA J|_^^g;Pg^ The realm of Megha dundubhisvara


radja.

putra, translated (A. D. 415)

by Dharmagupta and Dharmayas'as.

SARYA
M: f^i^
(A.

BUDDHANGAVAT
I
Title of a translation

IDHAJIANI PARIPRIT-

S'ARIPUTRA

CHTCHHASUTRA

^
(A.

^^\\

D. 691) by Devapradjfia
others.

R^^R^ Title

of a translation

and

D.'?!?420). S'ARIRA (Pali. Sarira. Mong.

SARVADA

^^^
or
all.

^JJ

"

sacrificinar

S'

150

PART
in

I.

tyamuni, who,

a former

TiRNA

djdtaka, resigned his kingdom and liberty to save others.

g-^jjtrHi^m

SARVADJNA k^M:^
^J] ligence.

or

lit.

universal

Buddha in the W., an incarnation of the 10th son of Mahabhidjnadjnanabhibhu,


fictitious

intel-

The

which Buddha.

mental state in S'akyamuni became

SARVA PUNYA TAMUTCHTCHAYA SAMADHI. (1.) A


degree
called

SARVADJNA DEVA

of

Samddhi
^;5
all

5J @

(q.

v.),

the

accumulation of
lit.

merit and

f^
deva

or

-i]]^

virtue. (2.) Title of 2 transla-

of universal intelligence
epitliet of

t^ns,

viz. (1.)

An

every Buddha.

SARVADUEGATI PARIS'OBHANA UCHNICHA VIDJAYA DHARANI. Title of 6


translations,
viz.
(1.)

JH^^
(A.

by Dharmarakcha D. 265316), and (2.)

^%^^^

^--fc:!])@tiHfi^f?by Kuraaradjiva (A. D. 2^4

517). f^^ SARVA RUTA


(2.)

KAUS'ALYA

dhapali (A. B. 676),

j*

interpretation of the utterandegree ces of of all beings,

A. D. 710A3) llTf g^li-g by Divakara, A. D. |S

of

Samadhi.

JgM

618-907,
the same.

(4.)

^BmM
(6.)

SARYARTTHASIDBHA

(5.)

flfSMM

g^^^ ^^ Bharmadeva
-j^

or Arthas'iddhi or Siddharta (Pali. Siddhattu Burm. Theddhat)

K^|lJftt^,Pt

A. D. 973981, and

explained by
lit

by the same.

SARVA LOKA BHAYASTAMBHITA VIDHVAMSANAA


the N. E., an incarnation of the 15th son of Mahabhidjnadjufictitious

the realisation of all auguries. Name given to the newborn S'dkyamuni (with reference to the miracles

_^^^

which happened at his

birth).

SARVASATTVA

PAPADJAall

Buddha

in

HANA --tU^-^-fe^tit^

lit,

departure of
evil

beings

from

anabhibhu.

SARVA LOKA DHATUPADRA vodv::ga pratyut- SARVASATTVA PRIYA BAR-

migration). adhi.

paths (of transdegree of Sam-

SANSKRrr-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

151

s'ANA
lit.

^]:j]^^^M.m
Buddha
at

and

(6.)

VAtsiputriydh

(q.v.)

the

whose

appearance all beings rejoice. (1.) A Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and, in another dj^taka, burned
cinders, his arms to whereupon he was rebom as Bhechadjya radja. (2.) The name under which Mahaprad

SARVA TATHAGATa" ^q||


Tathagatas

A sacred all phrase, ocHnmou in litanies.


!

both

SARVA TATHAGATA VIchayAvatAra gip^^


tion,

japati

is

to

be

reborn

as

A. D. 350431.

Buddha.

SAKVASATTVA TRATA |^ .^ lit. saviour of all. A


fictitious

S'AS'ANKA RADJA
or

lit.

king of tl^'moon.

^^
Name

jjg

Mahabrahma.

SARVASATTVAUDJOHARI
subtle vitality of all beings. A certain Rakchasi.

A king (dethroned by S'ilddityaV who attempted to destroy the Bodhidruraa.


S'AS'IKETU

^j^

of

Subhuti as Buddha.

S'AS'ORNA
atom
hair.

sarvastivadAh j^
School of
all
lit.

5|^^g

lit-

an

prf

dust on a hare's measure, the 22,688, 608,000th pai-t of a yodjana.


of

beings, or

s'astadI:va
-[JT

manuchya-

SS"^$K MP rami

the School which

NAM

existence of discusses the everything. A philosophical School, a branch of the Vai-

3l^^gi(i li^- teacher of devas and men. One of the 10 epithets of a Buddha.

S'ASTRAS
a^
fillB

bhachika School with which


generally identified, the sanction of claiming Rahula and teaching the reality
it

lit

(Tib. Bstan btchos) class of discourses,

is

Buddhist writings, doctrinal

and philosophic

disquisitions,

of all visible
split,

phenomena.

It

from contradistinction in sutras (^^) and works on the


vinaya

200

Nirvana,

Schools, (q.v.), guptc4h sarvastivadah

years after the into the following viz. Dharraa(1.)

SAT

i'h'j^

(^). The incomprehen-

(2.)

Mula-

sible entity.

metaphysical

'

"^1

'^

^^
and

asserting that every form

of being has its inherent root origin. (3.) Kas'yapiy&h


(q.v.) (4.)

S'ATA BUDDHA NAMA SUTRA g^:gigj A transD. 581618) Narendrayas'as.


lation (A.

term.

See Asat.

by

Maliis'asakAh

(q.v.)

152

PAKT

I.

S'ATADRU
India,

^ ^ mNorthern Ancient kingdom


15:
of

(1)

S'AUTRANTIKAIJ
tavad^h
(Pali.

or

or SautrdnSankrantivadah

noted for
(2.)

its

mineral

wealth

The
lit.

river Sutledj.

Sutta vada.Tib. Mdosde dzin)^|J-P].J||^g|^orj^

S'ATAMANYA
bjiu)

(Tib.

I'g

j^

Brgja mighty in

(Sutraka)

or

^ggj^
lit.

ht.

the

deeds.

Epithet of Indra.

Sutra School, explained by 'j#


those

S'ATAPARNA
kattana)
chariots.
first

"^

(Singh. Suklit. lord of

who

Kadjagriha,

synod
S'

near cavern, in which the held its sessions


phi-

recognize but one Pitaka, viz. Sutras, or by ^i||rfk ^^- ^h


school which speaks of (moral) emancipation. An atomistic School founded, 400 years after the Nirvana, by KumaralabdIt regarded trayaniputra as

(543 B. C.)

S'ATA

ASTRA -g^ A

ha.

Purnamaiits

losophical work by Deva Bodhisattva, annotated by Vasubandhu, and translated (A.

patron

saint,

and rejected

all S'dstras.

D. 404) by Knmaradjiva.

SEMENGHAN v. Hrosminkam.

S'ATA

ASTRA VAIPULYA S'ERS'APA s. a. Sarchapa. JKSIw'^ a philosophical SIDDHA or Siddharta v. SarvarS'

work by Deva Bodhisattva, translated (A. D. 650) by


Hiuen-tsang.

thasiddha.

SIDDHA KALPA
takalpa.

v.

Vivart-

SATATASAMITABHIYUK SIDDHA VASTU 5Rr TA -^Mjg ^it constant and chapter The first
SATRUCHNA 8ATTADHLKARNA SAMATHA (paii) ^jsmm ^^- 7
laws, abolishing disputes. section of the Vinaya.

iiij\

-#
of

^^ a
-W-

subtle energy. A fictitious mentioned in Bodhisattva, the Saddharma pundarika. v. Sutrichna.

syllabary (inl2 chapters) attributed to Brahma (^^).

SIDDHI
rfe

(Tib

Dngos grub)

Magic powers, obtainable

by samadhi.
Nalanda,

A S'IGRABUDDH A ^ |^A priest


of

famous

for his

SATTVA KACHAYA
lit,

^^j^
beings

intelligence.

the corruption of all beings.

S'IKCHANANDA
lit.

An

"^XM^t

epoch

in

which
v.

all

degenerate.

SATYA SIDDHI
man.

Harivar-

A S rajoyful student. mana of Kustaua, >v ho (695 A. D) introduced a new alphabet

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
in China works.

153

and

translated

19

lit.

a gem. A precious stone, probably coral.


or

S'IKCHAPADA
kbapada)
-f-3ri^

(PAH.
lit.

Sik-

S'lLABHADRA
|g
sage.

10 pre-

series of 10 rules cepts. for novices, the transgression

of which constitutes (Das'akusala sins

the

10

-U

learned priest of Nalanda, teacher (A. D. 625) of Hiuentsang.

^^

p M^

IWr

lit.

disciplinary

^.'\

Particulars Panatipata,
(3.)

see
(2.)

under (1.) Adinnadana,


(4.)

S'lLADITYA

Abrahma

tchdriya,

Musadava. (5.) Suramereyya madjdjapa madatthdna, (6.) Vikalabhodjaud. (7.) Natchtchagita Tadita visiikadassana, Malaghanda vilepana (8.)

^g A
or

/llpsrjS^
sun
of discipline.

lit.

brother of Radjavardhana, who, under the auspices of

dharana loandana vibhusa natthand (9.) Utchtchasayana mahasayana, and (10.) Djatarupa radjatapatigghahaca. See also Pantcha veramani and Pantchanantarya.

became (A. D. 600) king of Kanyakubdja and conquered India and the Pundjab. He was the most liberal patron of Buddhism,
Avalokites'vara,
re-established the Mahamokcha parichad, built mauy stupas, composed the /\-jr
3Ks: "^p

S'lKHI

p^ov ^ ^ plained by j^' flame


lit.

^ :^ %H /^ ^#
pm,

As'tamahas'ri

ex-

tchaitya samskrita stotra, and specially patronized Hiuentsang and S'ilabhadra.

(s'ikhd),

(1.)

fictitious

Mahdbiahraa (mentioned

in

the Saddharraa Pundarika). (2.) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, being the 2nd of the Sapta Buddha, who was

S'lLI'ASTHANA VIDYA S'ASTBA 33} 5^ or 55 0^ lit.


illustra ion of
]Cfj :iPJ

i^

lit

mechanics, or the s'astra on

mechanics,

or

born in Prabhadvadja

;^

ftfr

lit.

(-)^;(;B

^t) who

as

Kchattriya,

and

convei-ted

sons, whilst life years.

250,000 perlasted 70,000

mathematics. One of the Pantcha vidya s'astras, a work on arts, mechanics, dual philosophy, and calendaric calculations.

SILA

J3|

or PI

the paramita 10 strict osbervance of the Trividha dvara, resulting in perfect


;

The 2nd

of

SIMHA

V,

Simhala and Udayi.

SIMHABHIKCHU
jg.
rch, successor
s'as.

^^

If.

j^

purity.

The 23rd or 24th


of

patria-

S'lLA

(Tib. Chel)

p^g or

Haklenaya-

154

PART

I.

SIMHADHVADJA gjjj A fictitious Buddha


nabhibhu.

^
in

;{:|

the S. E., au incarnation of the 3rd son of Mah^bhidjiiadjiiA-

iug, being equal, in pow^ over demons, heretics and misery, to the power which has the lion's voice over animals. See S'akyasimha.

SIMHAGHOCEA gjp ip SIMHANADIKA SUTRA. A fictitious Buddha in the Title of 2 translations, viz.
S. E.,

an incarnation

of tne

4th son of Mahdbhidjuadjiianabhibhu.

by Buddhos'anta

(A.

D.

624),

SIMHAHANU (Pdli.
kabana.
Tib.

Sifihahana

m by
'^

DivEtkara (A. D. 680).

Singh.

Siughahanu.

Sengghe ligram. Mong.


lit.

Oghadjitou arsalan) gm Jjp^

SIMHAPAEIPRITCHTCHUA
pBiM-ffi:!*^
Title of a ti*anslation (A.

zp

king with a

lion's

jaw. The paternal grandfather king of of S'akyamuni, a Kapilavastu, father of S'ud-

B. 618907) by Bodhirutchi.

dhodana, S'uklodana, Dronodana, and Araritodana.

SIMHAPURA

jtlifl^ll
gjp

SIMHALA fl-finH.
son of

(1)

-^
'Jg-

Ancient province and city (now Simla) of Cashmere.

Simha

(jg- gpT or
lit.

SIMHARAS'MI
lit.

:^ -^

fm

or

^1 :p

lion),

learned opponent (A. D. 630) of the


lion's
light.

merchant of India, who, being ship- wrecked on Ceylon, was ensnared by Kakchasis, but
delivered

Yog^tch^rya School.

by Avalokites'vara (appearing as a magic horse).

SIMHASANA
W^\
lit.

gj]]

^^
throne

(or

lion's

(or

One Rakchasi having followed him to India, and slain the


king of his native country, Simhala succeeded to the army to an led throne, Ceylon and destroyed all the Rakchasis there. (2.) Tlie
lit. the kingdom ^M -"7in Ceylon, Simha) kingdom of See Simha. founded by

couch).

royal throne,

sup-

ported by carved lions.

SIMHATCHANDRA gjji^^ lion's moon. A Bhikchuni


lit.

(converted

SINDHU
C^ygr
(1.)

(Tib. Sindhou.

by SadapAribhuta). Mong.
-fg

Sidda or

Childa)

o'

-:^|| or /QjgJ- explained by


lit.

Ratnadvipa.

river of verification'

The Indus (Sanpu)

said

SlMHANADAgi|jIJlliJ[
lion's howl. I3uddhist

lit.

the

preach-

to rise from lake Anavatapta Sirikol), through " the (or

SANSKBIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY,

155
or

mouth of the golden elephant" S'lTAVANA


the "W., to flow around the lake and then into the S, W. ocean. (2.) Ancient kingdom (Sindh), often visited by S'akyamuui. See Vitchapura.
in
of

/^^^1[^

men and women,


cold forest.

or

jjdjr lit.

A cemetery.

^ ^

See S'mas'anam.

SINDHUPAKA

Perfume from a plant S'lVIKA /=> B^ A former 'gin which grows on the banks djataka of S'akyarauni, when (para) of the Indus (Sindhu). he was a Bodhisattva.

^g

S'lVA
JjJ

V.

Mahes'vara.

||

SIRISA /^|IJ^j^ The Mimosa


siricha (acacia;.

SKANDHA
Gou lang

(Pali.

or

Khanda Thung po)


lit.

S'IS'UMARA :^
lit.

JUC

^M

or

Wh
ng"
lit.

or

^^

^^
^^

Tib.

5 bundles, or

[^ lit.
5

5 instincts, or

a crocodile. See Elhumbira.


(Tib. Sida.

S'lTA

Mong. Chida)

Five attributes (Pantcha skaudha) of every human being, viz, (1.) vedana, form, i-upa, (2.)
aggi-egates.

^explained by

^M

lit.

cold

liver. (1.) A river which issues from lake Anavatapta, in the " diamond E., through the lion's mouth," flows round the lake, then loses itself in the ground and reappears on the As'makuta mountains as the source of the Hoangho. (2.)

perception, (3.) samdjnd, con sciousness, (4.) karman (or

samskara),
vidjnana,

action,

and

(5.)

knowledge.

The

these 5 attributes the quickening moment of birth and constitutes apersonal being. Full maturity of the Pantcha skanof

union

dates

from

dha

is

succeeded by Djarama-

The noi-them
Siricol, the

outflux of lake

rana.

modem Yarkand

which flows into lake Lop, and thence underneath


daria,

SKANDHARATNA
dhara.

v.

Sugan-

the desert of Gopi, until it reappears as the source of the Hoangho.

SKANDHILA
s'astra.

^^;^|| A

native of Cashmere, author of

SITATAPATRA

DHARANI

tha Vibhacha prakarana pada

S/SIS "^^^^^ ^ * translation by Amoghavadjra (A. D 746


771).

S'LOKA

or Anus'tubh

^^^ff

The common Sanskrit epic

156
metre, formed

PAST

I.

by 32

syllables,

ia 4 half-lines of 8 or in 2 lines Chinese of 16 syllables each. identify it with Gatha.

S'MAS'ANAM
burial

or

(according to modern Brahmans), or the Ampeius (vine), ar Sarcostema viminalis, or the gogard tree, or Triticum aestivum. (2.) Same as Soma Deva.

ground.

SOMADEVA
or

See S'itavana.

SMRITI
Smirti)

1^

+0
ITT ITE
of

'J3

lit.

the deva of the

(Pdli.

Sati.

Singh.

-^

lit.

recollection.

moon. The regent moon. See Tchandra.

the

of memory, the 3rd of the 5 Bala, the 1st of the

The power

SONAGHIPtI

V.
lit.

Suvarnaghiri.
contact.

7 Bodhyanga.

SPARS'A
(Pali. Satin-

The

SMRITENDRYA

driya. Singh. Satiindra) ;g;;|g The lit. the root of memery. organ of memory, tha 3rd of

sense of touch, sensatioh, the 7th of the 12 Nidaua, See also Pottabha.

SPHATIKA
or

or

the 5 Indrja.

SMRITYUPASTHANA
Satara satipatthana. Thatipathan)

(Pali.

explained

by

Burm.

white pearl, or

mit^lA^^'^

J^ by 7k ^R

^t,
^^^*

dwellings of memory. One of the 37 Bodhipakchika dharma,

water crystal. Rock crystal, the 4th of the Sapta ratna.

comprehending 4 objects on which memory should dwell. Particulars see under Kdya smrityupasth4na, Vedanasmrityupastliana,

SPHITAYARAS
Kapis'a, 4o
li

or Saptavars'a

from Opian.
(PAli.

Tchitta smriand Dharma tyupasthana, smrityupasthana.


or Soraana (Tib.

S'RADDHABADA
bala. Singii.

Sadabala)
faith.

/^ -+i
The

lit.

Sardhdwa the power of

SOMA
by

Suama)

1st of the 5 Bala.

jjfi-

-^^

;jjg

lit.

the flower
(su)

which
'

mind (mana),
lit.

exhilarates or

the

S'RADDHARALA DHANAVATARA MUDRA SUTRA


of

by

3p
by

^
(1.)

headgear
plant,

of flowers.

a translation

(A.

D. 504)

affected

moon and

sacred the juice being used at brah manic sacrifices the Asclepia acida or Cyuanchum viminale
;

the to Indra,

by Dharmarutchi.

S'RADDHENDRYA
indra)

(PaU

Saddindriya, Singh. Sardh&wa

m ig

lit.

the root of

BANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

157

faith.

The organ

of

faith,

thos.

Mong. Scharwak)

the 1st of the 5 Indrya.

M^}&iim

orm^

^
he

lit.

SRAGHARA
S'

v.

Aryatara.
(Pali.

RAM AN A

Saman.

Burm. Phungee. by ^i
or

Tib.

Dges
or

^
root tU

^ P^
X
lit, lit.

explained by
monastics, or

[j-j

by

Sh M>

toiling (from the

sram,

to

tire),

lit

stop
lit.

the

or by breath

who heard the voice (so. of Buddha). (1.) All personal disciples of S'akyamuni, the foremost of whom are called The Mahas'ravakas. (2.) elementary degree of saintship, the first of the Triyana, the S'ravaka (superficial yet in practice and understanding) being compared with a hare crossing Sansara by swimming on the surface.

or by

,\\

I'estful

(from

S'RAVANA
hottest

quiet). sam, to the root Ascetics of all denominations, the Sarroanai or Samanaioi or Germanai of the Greeks.

(from of the 16th of the 5th moon to the 15th of the 6th moon).
or S'ai-avati (Pali. Savatthi. Singh. Sewet. Burm. Thawatthi. Tib. Njandu jodpa or Mnan yod. Mong. Sonosor cho yabui)

^^^^ month summer

The

S'RAVASTI

Buddhist monks and priests " who have left their the quitted and families
(2.)

passions."

S'RAMANERA
nera.

(Pali.

Sama-

^Sffi
^'^

Singh. Samanero ganninanse.

where one
tt^jM,
^^*'

^^ M #1 M
^^'

g||^^,lg
^'^-

explained
*^^
""'^y

hears

things,

or

Samanen or Nenor Burm. Scien. Tib. luksit. Mong. Schabi or Bandi.


Siam.

^^

^^^^ conduct, or
prolific
^'^-

lit.

vii*tue,

or

Bandi)
a

M II SXft^ g ll 7^by ^^ ^ ^man kingdom ^||| W. JE ^ JI JM Sg-^ ^y


""^

*^^ duelling

explained

lit.

of zeal, or

(S'ravasta) with the note, " also called Kosala." Ancient (500 li N,
of the richi

^^-

;!?^

phkined

lit.

J/j

woman
The

of

energy

and

zeal.

religious novice, whether who has male or female, taken the vows of the S'ik-

Kapilavastu) and city same river of the name), a favourite resort of S'akyamuni, a deserted ruin
of

(near a

in

600 A. D., situated near Sirkhee or near Fuzabad.


-jg

ohdpada.

S'RECHTHI
(Pali.

lit.

a merlita-^^

S'RAVAKA
Sing.

Savako.
Tib.

chantprince, or
elder.

-#^

Srawaka.

Nan

title

given to prom-

158
inent laymen.

PART

I.

TH^^^M
jp^ij or

Title of a

transla-

S'RI (Tib Dpal)


|IJ

tioCA. D. 385431.

or

j^

^Ij or

S'RIKCHETRA
delta
of the (near Silhet i.

dtb
lit

|S Ancient kingdom
e.

g g
|ij

ji^

in the

An lucky omen, (1.) exclamation frequently used


in liturgies and sorcery.
(2,)

Brahmaputra
S'rihatta),

title

given to

many

deities

(Sarasvati, etc), also used as prefix or suffix to names. (3,) An abbreviation for Mandjus'ri.

S'RIKEITATI ^|IJ|g5|^ rp Ancient name of Kashgar.

S'RIMALI DEVI SIMHANADA.


Title
of

2 translations,

S'EIDEVA

;fijtr
title of

or
vara.

A
hisattva,
lanetra.

Mahea

hadra, A. D. 435,

(2.)

S'RIGARBHA

;{ also called

BodViraa-

-^ by

Bodhirutchi,

^g

A. D. 618907,

S'RIMATI BRAHMA^^i PARA.

S'RIGUNARAKTAMBAEA |^

##^
iidi

S'raraana

of

IPRITCHTCHHA,
2 translatios,
viz.

Title

of

Icdia,

author of the

gf^
buddha

(1.)

^"^

"M*^^^ by

Dharmarakcha,
(2.)

A. i?: "265-315.
3A.
Arv'a

^g
or

matrika pradjaapararaita namahartha s'astra, vagatha translated (A, D. 10001058)

rutchi, A.

D. 618907.

S'RIMITRA ^7flJ^>
or

by Dharmarakcha.

W>
Iriend

S'RIGUPTA ^Ij fr^5a^ An euemy muni, whom lie


kijl

of S'akya-

Q^
sought

oi-

or "=^1^

lit.

lucky
India,

prince

of

who

to

by

fire

and poison,

became a priest and translated (in Nanking) 3 works, A. D. 317322.

S'RIGUPTA

SUTRA

^|^
S'RIPADA f^gj;
Footprinta
of

translation (A. D. Nare ndrayas'as.

583)

by

of

Buddha, with tracings


figures,

65 symbolic
^^f>t

S'RIKANTHASUTRA

S'RIVASTAYA

|lj ft;

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
or ^t"^lit. lucky omen.
raystic (star-like)

169

A
of

part of a yodjana.

diagram

good augury, the favourite symbol of Vishnuites and


Jains.

sthanI:s'vara
-fj^lS Ancient
city
ral India.

kingdom and
in Cent-

(now Thunesur)

SROTAPANNA
Singh.

(Pdli.

Sofcapan.

Sowan. Tib Gyun du

STHAVARA KALPA
Vivarttasiddha.

s.

a.

zhugpa)|H^^^Jj5J[^or^

explained

by

A j^
not
to

8THAVIRA
^^^

(Pali.

brtan)

H<rS^-^
-g*
lit.

lit.

Thera. Gnas great dis-

one "who has entered (apatti the stream ^srota) i. e. of holy living. The elementary class of
saints,

ciple (so. of

Ruddha), or

&
the

jg-

who

are

be

^
i.

head
i.

of

local priesthood

e.

Saihgha
chair-

rebom in a lower gati, but to pass, in ascending gradation, through 7 births among men and devas, until they reach
Nirvana.

sthavira, or

U/U

lit.

man
of

e.

Maha
the
all

Title of

sthavira. (1.) earliest leaders


(2.)

Buddhist assemblies.
priests

See Arya.
(Pah.
lit.

SROTRA

Title of licensed

who
and

are
to

to

preach

Sota.

Singh.

become abbots.

Sotan) 'K.

the ear.

The

organ of hearing, one of the Chadayatana.

STHAVIRAH
ft tt f 15
o"-

or Sthavirani-

kaya or Sthaviriyas

^ S^
'"

SRUGHNA
cient

on the upper course of the Yamiina, near Sirinuggur.


city

^^W]M kingdom and

^^^-

the School of the chairman. One of the 4 branches of the Vaibh^chika School, founded

^u
About

S'RUTAVINS'ATIKOTI
explained
lit.

by
B.

Katyayana.

246

^mm&^m: by

C,

it

sp

it

into 3 divisions,

ft':?
~P^ -j^

vasinah, Mahavih^ra \iz. Djetavaniyah, and Abhayagiri


vasinah.

he (at whose birth his father) heard (of a legacy of) 200 kotis (of pieces of gold).

worshipper of

Siarj'adeva,

STHIRAMATI wisdom. A learned


Nalanda

lit

solid

priest of
lit.

converted by Maudgalydyana.

STITHAMATI
S'RUTI fK J^ A measure
of

quiet wisdom.

The teacher

^ ^1
ii

of

length, the2,214,067,584,000th

Djayasena, author of 3 s'astras.

160

PART

I.

STOTRA

or

Metri-

cal eulogies.

STEIVrVARTA

VYAKARATitle
(1.)

NA StTRA.
translations,
viz.

of

II{M)f||

~j=t'^^M
A.I>.

^y Dbarraarakcha. 265-316. (2.)


^^ ''^

^^^
by the

^^:icM.
same,
(4.)

^'""^' (^-^

ftmU^'itli
n

the remains of S'akyamuni. The ruins of a stupa at AnurAdhapura (Ceylon) are supposed to date from B. C. 161 to AX>. 137. All ancient stupas wei-e built in the shape of towers, surmounted by a cupola and one or more (parasols). The tchhatra Chinese stupas, built since 25-220 A.D., have no cupola but 7-13 tchhati-as.

IkMUi^Mf
STUPA

DharmayaA. D. 384417, (5.) s as, ^y ^^'^'maraitra, A. D, 420479.


by
or Thupa or Dbdtugopa (Singh. Dhagobab. Burra. Prachadi. Tib. Mtclio rten or

SUBAHU KUMARA
Title of

SIJTRA

two

translations, viz.

S'ubhakarasiraha, A. D. 724,
(lit.

Subahu paripritohtohha).

SUBAHU PARIPRITCHTCHHA.
Title of 3

Gdmig
wnrghan)

rten,

Mong.
or

Ssu

translations

^j^^^

imf^

^fc or W^Sl-^i^ or JJl'*^^ or or explained by

^^

Dharmarakcha, A. D. 265
316,
(2.)

jX^

-^^^j^m

^j^
of

lit.

precious tower
(relics),

or
or

tower for precious

same date and (3.)" (2.) "44^. i^ -^ by Kuraaradjiva, A.T>. 384417.

^^

j;^

by mausoleum (tumulus), or by a tchaitya. Towers or lit. pyramids of varying shape,


Buddhist
s'ariras,

or.

j^

lit.

orthodox

^ ^
oi-

SUBANTA or Sumanta |^^^ A grammatical term (of


Panini,) designating nouns.

SUBHADRA

originally

sepulchres,

cenotaphs, and

now

then mostly

gj^

mere symbols
body consists
tu3,

of

Buddhism.
that, as the

The legend says

of 84000 db4As'oka built 84000 dbdtugopas (of brick and there-

120 ous sage. pears old, who, converted by S'akyamuni, entered Nirvana a few minutes before him.

^ ^f #M A Brahman,
(or
lit.

)ja;|5'g

virtu-

fore not durable) in different parts of India, to preserve

S'UBHAKARASIMnA

i^^jj^

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

161
virtue

or J^gfjl^

lit.

pure Hod, or

or
or

(W)^:
fearless.

lit.

(virtuous aud)

^^ ^^

lit.

and

luck,

lit.

birth of emptilit.

priest of N41anda,
of

ness, or

descendant

^"^

virtuous
of of dialec-

Amritodana, who translated (A. D. 716


724) 5 works.

profession. (1.) A native S'ravasti, contemporary

S'&kyamuni, a famous
tician.

S'UBHAKRITSNAS
Subhakinho.
or
or

(Singh.

Ged

Tib. rgyes) "glit.

I^e
fpf

rgyas
J[5

iB^

general puriiy.

(2.) A priest of Burmah, translator of the Mahayanaratnamegha sutra (lost in A.D. 732).

The 9th Brahmaloka, the'Srd region of the 3rd Dhyuna, where the body is 6i yodjanas high and life lasts 64 kalpas.

SUDANA
virtuous
/or

or
I

Sudatta
or
P3
!

(or
lit.
>>

indeed
lit,

or

^Jji

^\

virtuous teeth (or

S'UBHAVASTU

^^^^
Udydna.

S'akyamuni, in a former djataka, as a prince who forfeited the throne by


liberal alms-giving.

body).

(Soastos, Swat) of

S'UBHAVYUHA fij^^^^ SUDARS'ANA rsana. Siam. (1.) A king, during the Priyadars'ana kalpa, of Vairotchana ras'mipratimandita, who, converted, together with his w^ife Yimaladatta, by his sons
or

(Singh.

Suda/f||:Bfi

Suthat)

or

Vimalagarbha and Vimalaneti-a, was i-ebom in the time of S'akyamuni as Padmas'ri Bodhisattva, and is to reappear,

^ (JJ'^) ^
lit.

^1^ virtuous,

explained by
or

by

-kz

J^

lit.

benevolent, or

by

(|i lit.

mount

of

virtuous

during the Abhyudga

radja kalpa, in Vistirnavati as S'alendra i-adja. (2.) The father of Kwanyin. See Avalokites'vara.

appearance. The 4th of the 7 concentric rocks around Meru, 5,000 yodjanas high and separated, from 3rd and 5th circles, by oceans.

SUDARS'ANAS

SUBUTI

(Tib.

Rab hbyor)
or

# ^^
lit.

i^'

ft)

virtuous appearance, or lit. virtue and tnith,

--

#^

dassa. ba)

^^

Tib.

(Singh. SuChintu mthong


or

lit.

appearance. The 16tli Brahmaloka, the 7th region of the 4th Dhyana, where life lasts 4,000 great
virtuous

162
kalpas and the body yodjanas high.

PART
4,000

is

explained

by^^
The

Ut.

hus-

bandmen.

caste of farm-

SUDATTA gfe^^
or ^"fefe
lit,
lit,

or

^^m

ers (in India).

virtuous donor,
cheerful giver.
of

or

AK'fefc

SUDRIS'AS (Singh. Sudassi. Tib. Gyr nom suang ba)


Jfe^-fe
ous
lit.

Original
dika,

name

sometimes

Andthapinconfounded

(form of) virtu-

with Sudana.

S'UDDHAMATI
of

Pratitya translated by Bodhirutchi (A.D. 508534).


the
s'astra,

^^ samutpada
(Singh.

Author

appearance. The 7th Brahmaloka, the 8th region of the 4th Dhyana, where the body is 8000 yodjanas
high, and life great kalpas.
lasts

8000

SUDDHAVASADEVA

SUGANDHARA
dharatna
of the
v.),

or

Ghatikara. Tib. Gnas gtsaug lit. the mahi Iha)

^g^

^^^

Skan(q.

|g Author
by

Abhidharmavatara

MM^~f clean
the

deva of the pure dwelling, or ^**" ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^

translated (A.D. 658)

Hiuentsang.

The guardian S'akyamuni, who brought about his convei-sion.


vase.

angel

of

SUGATA

v.

Svagata.

SUGATAMITRA

SUDDHARMA
S'UDDHODANA
(Singh.

;i^ f

ijgflfl^^.
^"-

king of Kinnaias.

RAD J A

learnfriend of Tathagata. ed priest of the Sarvastivadah (A.D. 640) in Cashmere.

^B

''

in*k

*^

Sudhodana. Burm, Thoodaudana. Tib. Zas gtArighon sang ma. Mong.


idegeth,,,

SUGATA TCHETANA jgg^


f&
of
lit.

-mmmmm
rice,

a novice

who thought
Ppasaka,

Buddha.

An

king of pure
lit.

or

y^^

pure Brahman. A S'akya king of Kapilavastu, son of Sirnhahanu, husband of Ma-

who, having slighted Sadaparibhuta (q. v.) in a former birth, was converted through the same (then S'akyamuni) and became a Buddha.

hamaya, putative father of S'akyamuni. SeeDjatirhdhara.

SUGHOCHA
(1.)

(Tib.

Sgra snan).

M*-^ A

sister of

Kwan(2.)

S'UDRA

(Tib.

Dmang

rigs)

yin.

See Avalokites'vara.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

163

dha

of the present kalpa.


(Tib. Gtsangris)

SUKHAVATI

paradise in the West, or

^^

former djataka of Sakyamuni, when, as a water serpent, he sacrificed his life to provide medicine. See Sarpauchadhi.

4-

lit.

the

pure

land.

land, in

some universe

in the

SUMATI
son

the Nirvana of the common people, where the saints revel in physical bliss for aeons, until they re-enter the circle of transmigration.

West,

m " #*
of

(Tib.

Blogros bzang) The 2d Tchandra surya

pradipa.

See under Amitdbha.

SUMATI DARIKA PARIPRITCHTCHHA. Title of 3


translations, viz.
(1.)

SUKHAVATI VYUHA.
of

-f^^Q'

Title
e.

raany

translations,

g.

^M^tcS
cha,

^^ DbarmarakA.D. 265316, (2.) Y*

radjiva,

A.D. 402, and

W'M

tsaug, A.D. 950.

mmmS:m

by Hiuen-

^^ by ^I tJI Kumaradjiva, A.D. 384417


19'
rutchi,

^^
(Tib.

A.D. 618907.

S'UKLAPAKCHA

^^
lit.

Half

a month. See Kris'napakcha.

SUMATIKRITIkhapa)

S'UKLODANA RADJA
Zas dkar)
of white

^^g
the
of

Tsong
refor-

The

(Tib.

mer

of

Tibetan
the

church,

Q^3
rice.

king
of

founder

=^ |g

prince

Kapilavastu, 2nd son of Simhanu, father of Tichya, Devadatta and ||& 0 /jm

Yellow Sect (A. D. 450), worshipped as an incarnation


of Araitabha,
in

now

incarnate

Naudika.

every Bokdo gegen Chutuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received (A.D. 1426) the
title

S'DKRA
The

planet Venus.

^ |g H
or

or

-j^Wf^^
radja.

Maharatna

dharma
>|g

SOMAN
Ancient

Chuman

SUMERU
Miem
po.

kingdom (between Chagaman and Sayad) in


Transoxania.

or Meru (Burm. mo. Tib. Rirab Chun-

Mong.

Siimraer

Sola)

SDMANTA v. Subanta. SUMASARPA 1^ 4^


the

5^j{j>jgjJ| lit. mountain of wonderful height, or -tpf-^flit. lit.

suma

(water) serpent.

good light. The central mountain or axis of everv

164
universe, the support of
tiers

PART
the heaven, surrounded concentric circles of

1.

of

by 7 j-ocks -^-VlJIj ft^


the

S'akyamuni a murderer. (2.) king of Yakchas. (3.) The wife of Sunanda.

forming

StJNURIS'VARA
-fj^SS
Laiigala.

centre round which all heavenly bodies revolve. It rises out of the ocean to a height of 84,000 yodjanas,

The ancient

^^^^
capital of

S'tJNYA
Sunna.
lit.

height is 168,000 yodjanas, as it rests immediately on the circular layer of earth, which, with its lower strata (a layer of water and a layer of Avind), forms the foundation of every world. Its diameter is greatest where it emerges from the ocean, and at the top, but smallest in the middle. One
its total

but

or S'unyata (P&li. Tib. Stong panyid)

emptiness. The illusoriness and unreality of all phenomena, all existence being but like a dream, phantom, bubble, shadow, dew or
lightning.

S'UNYAPURUCHPAS A heretical branch


Mahay 4na
School.

^;jfg
of

the
a.

side of it is formed of gold, the 2nd of silver, the 3rd of Lapis lazuli, the 4th of gla.ss. It is covered with fragrant shrubs.

SUPANTA
Sumanta.

or

Subanta

s.

SUPRA

BUDDHA
the

(Singh.

SUMERUGARBHA
SgijgM
tion
(

Supraboddha. Tib. par legs rtogs pa)

Chin tu

Title of

transla-

^J^M.
and
Tlie

lit.

virtuous

A.D, 558) by Narendra-

intelligent

s'rechthin.

yas'as.

father of

Mahamayd.

SUMUNI

gitis'astra

^^ Sarvadharma MmmMM 980 m=^


Author of the
i-atnottara

sam-

SUPRATICHTHITA TCHARITRA ^^ff A Bodhisattva

who rose out of the earth to salute S'akyamuni.


(Tib.

translated (A. D.

1000) by Danapala.

SURA

Khambu)

SUNANDA
lit.

or

Sundarananda

Rice brandy, as distinguished

^^
An-

lovely.

' ^ m) Nanda, the hus-

from Madja
grapes.

^R^,

wine of

band
in

of

Sundara,

so called

SURACHTRA

contradistinction

from

Ananda.

flj n?g (Syrastrene) cient kingdom in Gujarat, now Surat.

SUNDARA
(1.)

Jj^P'gH A Brahman who

(or

^|J) called

SURAMEREYYA MADJDJA PAMADAITHANA ;f;fj(Jg

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

165

Drink no wine. The 5th the Pantcha veraraani and


the S'ikchapSda.

of
of

regent of the sun "worship-

ped by
devas

heretics."

(3.)

The

inhabiting
life

the

SURANGAMA SAMADHI j^

where
(4.)

lasts

500

sun, years.

m-W^m^mi, (suran
'j^
lit.

Title

learned priest (A. D. 640) of the MahasamghikS.h


in Dhanakatcheka. locynth.
(5.)

heroic,

gana

Co-

;|;H

lit.

like) of

a translatian

(A.D. 3S4-417) by Kuraaratljiva,

SURASKANDHA 4\^M^m^
or

SURYAGARBHA SUTRA ^itie m-x-:H^

a translation (A. D, 565) by

mm

^
of

Narendrayas'as. ^JS A king of Asuras. SURYARAS'MI ^j^^'j^ SURATA PARIPRITCHTCH-

The

HA.

930th Buddha of the present

Title of

translations,

kalpa.

220265, and (2.) ^jl[|^ by Bodhirntchi, A. D. 618907.

SURYAVARTA Q j^ A degree
of

^^

Samadhi.

SUSAMBHAVA
as

SURES'VARA
SURE
W.

;^

former djataka of a king in the

^^ A S akyamuni.
time
of

fabulous king contemporary of S'ikhin Buddha.


^7J:|J of Kashgar,

S'ikhin Buddha.

Ancient kingdom,
(A.

SUSIDDHIKARA SUTRA ||
the Tantra School, translated by S'ubhakarasimha, A. D. 724.

peopled D. 600) by Turks.

SURUKAYA j($^^ A
tious

ficti-

person one Sapta Tathagata.


;

of

the

SUTCHINTl

SURYA
Phra

DEVAPUTRA SUTRA ^g^^^-^g Title


D. 265
316) by Dharmarakcha.
(Pali.

(Pali.
atithi.

Suriya. Siam. Tib. Nima)

of a translation (A.

|^

SUTRA
BPJS:^ ^ The
lit.

Sutta.

Burm.

(Suryadeva) or

g
(1.)

Thoot.
^

Tib.

Mdo)
"""^

deva of the sun.

sun (circumference 135 yodjanas, diameter 51 yodjanas), moving at the rate of 48,080 yodjanas a day, for 6 months in a more northerly and for 6 months in a more southerly direction. (2.) TTie

i^^

explained
together
lit.

B by ^
or

^'gl^

i^Wklit.

strung

(sutra),

tablets,

^ ^^ ^
or
writorigi-

ht.

documonts.
ings nally
(v.

Canonical

Sutrapitaka),

aphoristic,

expanded

166
in
later

PART

I.

sutra),

yeare (v. Vaipulya containing words of generally S'akyarauni and begiuaing with
lit.

School of the good year. Auother name for the K&s'yapiydh.

this

is

what

Jp^^^ heard
I

SUVARNA (Pali.
^^^>
gold.

Suvanna. Tib.
^'

(Etanmaya srutam).

MfSiM
One
of the

Sapta ratna.

^"-

SOTRALANKARA S ASTRA SUVARNA BHUDJENDRA :kj&^& ^ philosophical. ^1;^ A king; patron of


work by As'vaghoclia, translated (A. D. 406) by Kunadradjiva.

the Suvarnaprabhasa.

SUVARNA DHARANI ^||a


'tlKk -^
of

SUTRALANKARA
of

f^ A

(foreign

?)

S'ramana,

translator of several works.

the

teaching;?
Scliool,

the

SI-VARNAGOTRA
golden family, or

Tantra

translated (A.

by Asarhgha, D. 030633)

by Prabhakararaitra.

-fr^

lit.

StJTRAPITAKA
or

kingdom

of

women.

king-

i^m'
collection

dom, famous
of

for minerals

and

1^ iM
v.),

lit.

Butraa.
(q.

One
the

of the Tripitaka collection of all


v.),

for its throne succession confined to women (W. of Tibet.

S, of

Kustana. E. of Sampah),
Title

Sutras (q. the firat division of the Chinese canon, andsdivided into Mah&yana sutras (-jc^^Y

forming

S'UVARNA PRABHASA.
of 3 editions of

a textbook

of the Tantra School, viz. (1.) translated (A. I).

Hindyana sutras (/J>^^^) and Sung or Yuen dynasty

-^it^Mi
D. 703,

397439) by Dharmarakcha,
(3.)

mm)UTRICHNA
i||^5K
tween
cand.

IM
or Satruchna or

compilation

^^itm 3
of

in-

complete

translations,

by

Osxuchna or Umtippa
Ancient

^^K
be-

city,

Djnanagupta and others A.D. 597, by ParamArtha A. D. 552 and by Yas'ogupta A.O.

Kojend

and

Samar-

557581.

SX3VARCHAKAH ^^^ijfai
or
or
""'
lit.

SUVARNA RAS'MI KUMARA sOTRA f^^mM

m fP pR ^

-pM

Title of a translation,

AD. 980-1301.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAHY.

167

SUVARNA SAPTATI A TRA '^ +


tical)

S'AS(here-

side,"

who

had

his

Kapila, exthe 25 tattvas (v. Samkhya) translated (A. D.

work
;

m by

name

plaining

5575(59) by ParamAiiba.

changed, by S'akyamuni, to Duragata, and is to re-appear as Saraantaprabhasa Buddha. (2.) A title of every Buddha, in the sense =#|W|* lit. one

SUVARNA TCHAKRA ^|^ A golden disk which falls


from heaven at the
investi-

whose every sigh


or /[\tI^ lit one

is

praise,
is

who

ex-

empt (from
or (Mjy^
plete, or
lit.

transraigi'ation),

absolutely comlit

ture of a Tchakravartti (q.v.) of the highest rank, who

[IJ^p,^

one

thereby becomes a

-^S^^

who has accomplished every


good thing.
or

Suvarna tchakra

radja.

suyikrInta
SIJTRA

vikrami SVAHA
srung)

Svadha
or

gg

05^i|5rA||

Translation (A. D. 565),

by Upas'uuya, of a portion
of the Mahapradjiiaparamita.

SUVIS'UDDHA m.
future realm of bhasa.

The Dharmapra-

exclamation, may the race be perpetuated," used at ancestral (Brahmanic and

^^ - ^^ An

]g^ fpf

(Tib.

|pf

Gji or

'^mn "

Buddhist)

sacrifices.

SVAPKA NIRDES'A
IZ.-^
Title of

j^g^

SVABHAVAH ^^ g-

a translation

or

g '^
The

(A.D.

265316)

by Dhar-

lit.

self existent nature.

marakcha.

original nature of beings, of their exisSee Purucha. tence.

as the source

SVAS'AYA

M:

Name

of

s'rechthin, a

contemporary of

SVABHAKAYA
raakaya.

s.a.

Dhar-

S'akyamuni.

SVASTIKA

SVAGATA
Sukhato.

or Sugata Tib. Legs

(Siam. hongs)

(P^li. Sotthika or Suvathika. Tib. Gyung drung or Gzagsang) jfi ^r

^M
'"

ft^ (or g) or ^^ (or ^ a) ti(^*l) K(V explained by ^^k well


'^

lit.

-^mn^z^m accumulation innumerable


by
of

come,
Arliat,

or
"

Jfe
(1.)

il

lit.

well

virtues in one lucky sign, or

departed.

An

unfortunate

born

on the road

^y ft^li^fP ^^^- *^ symbol stamped on Buddha's heart.

168

PART

I.

mystic diagram (the (1.) cross cramponee) of great antiquity, mentioned in the Ramayana, found in (rock temples of) India, in all Buddhist countries, among Bonpos and Buddhists in
Tibet and China, and even among Teutonic nations (as the emblem of Thor) (2.) One of the 65 figures of the
S'ripkla. (3.) The symbol of esoteric Buddhism. (4.) The
special

TAGARA
by
or

(Tib.
ffl)
lit.

^m (^ by
tree,

Rgya spos) |S explained


root perfame,
lit.

yfC^

putchuck.

indigenous in Atali,
;

from the wood of which incense is made Vangueria spinosa or Tabernae montana
coronaria.

TAILA PARNIKA
da neva.

s. a.

Tchan-

worshipped

mark of all deities by the iW

TAKCHAKA
A
king of Nagas.

or

Lotus School

of China.
lit.

SVAYAMBHU
taneity.

term

philosophical the self-existent being.


ifa

g^ A

spon-

TAKCHAKA

Og

j!j

J^

The

2,250th part of an hour.

TAKCHASTLA

SVAYAMBHU S'UNYATA

^
;

lit.

emptiness

and

spontaneity. A philosophic term the self-existnce of

IBXilall
^i| T*"

or Takcha sira ^ Tchutya sira ^

Ancient
(Taxila,

Iringdom and city now Sirkap near

ifi:

the unreal.

SVAYAMBHUVAH(Tib. Rang
the Marga of automatic Buddhaship. The method of attaining independently to Buddhaship, without being taught.

Shah dheri), where Buddha made an almsgift of his head.

TALA
(;gf).

or

Talavrikcha

(1.)

The

fan

palra,

flabelliformis, or Borassus Lontarus domestica. (2.) A measure of length (70 feet).

S'VET.\PURA ^IPJ^^pjH TALAS A monastery near Vais'ali.

or Taras

D||t}f

(1.)

S'VETAVARAS

v.

Aruua.

T.
TADJIKS 1^-^ An
tribe,

Ancient city, 150 li W. of Mingbulak, in Turkestan. (2.) A river, issuing from lake Issikol and flowing N. W. into another lake.

ancient

TALEKAN
kingdom

UJJ^IlJ'^

Ancient

once settled near lake

and

city

(now

Sirikol.

Talekan, in Ghardjistan).

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAKY.

169

TALILA
Ancient
(in the

:m
capital
of

or

UdN'ana,

lowest of the 3 guua.

D4rel valley, occupied by Dai-ds), famous for its statue of Maitreya.

TAMASAVANA :^^^^^f, or ^;ki^ dark forest. A


lit.

TAJVIALA
ferous

shrub,

An odori-^gH Xanthochymus

pictorius.

TAMALA PATRA ^0||S^


explained
sage-like

by
and

^^^
leaf
of

50 li S E. of Tchinapati, at the junction of the Vipas'a and S'atadru, perhaps identic with the Djalandhara monastery in which the 4th synod (B. C. 153) was held.
monastery,

lit.

TAMASTHITI
See Kandat.

i^^

by

ficinalis.

:^ ^ ^The

stainless,

or
of-

Ancient province of Tukhara


(inhabited by ferocious tribes).

13etonica

the

Lauras cassia, from which an ointment (malabathrum) was made.

TAMRAPA

^y^

The
Five

7th

part of a S'as'orna.

TAMALA PATRA TCHANDANA GANDHA

TANMATRA jj^y
ments,
earth,
ether.

ele-

^mm

Mahaydna

taught by the later philosophy, viz.,


fire,

mmri^
lit.

explained

by

water,

air

and

stainless nature.

(1.)

of our universe,

Buddha, residing N. W. an incarna-

TANTRA
efficacy,

p^

Supernatural

formulae, of mystic or magic

tion of the 11th son of hAbhidjiiadjiiandbhibhu.

Ma(2.)

The name under which Mahamaudgalyayana is to reappear as Buddha in Manobhirama during the kalpa
Ratipurua.

and necromantic taught by the Yogatcharya School. See Upabooks,


des'a.

TANTKAYANA
kyi

(Tib.

Snags

theg

pa)

-^|

The
a.

Mahatantra

School,

TAMALIPTA
or

or (Pali. Tamalitti)

^^M^

Tamalipti

Yogatcharya.

TAP ANA
or

(Siam. Dapha)
lit.

(or

j|^)

0^J[g

An-

cient kingdom, and city (now Tamlook, at the mouth of the Hoogly), a centre of trade

^^^
or
life

jj^^
hell of

the

burning

roasting.

The

with Ceylon and China.

6th of the 8 large hot hells (v. Naraka), where 24 hours are equal to 2600 years on
earth,
yeai-s.

TAMAS

l'^ of darkness, the

(1.)

The

principle

lasting

16000

radjas |^.

(2.)

opposite of Stupidity, the

TAPASU TARU J|;^

The

170

PART

I.

tree of the aucient anchorites (Ingudi), or Sesamum orientale.

MUDRA

SUTRA.
viz.,

Title
(1.)

3 translations,

of

TAPASVi

(Tib.

Skah
all

thub)
or
j^^

^ gm Buddhist)
tions.

Ascetics
of

(Tauist

A. D. 420479,

(3.)

denominaS'Akya-

j^

TARA

or Tair

inuni, in a

^ || former
wife

nas'ri,

A.D. 1053.

djatalca as

TATHAGATA
SUTRA
tions,

GARBHA
of

a Bodhisattva.

Title

transla-

viz.,

TARA p^H
(1.)

(1.)

(Tib. Sgrol ma).


of

-^^^Jq
A

Parvati,

Mahe431, (2)

s'vara. (2.) Name of 2 goddesses of the Tantra School, known in the history of

-x-:fj^iiwM
bhadra,

by Buddha 317420.

m
viz..

Tibet as the white and green Tara, incarnate in the 2

Srongtsangampo. The planet Venus.


vrives of

(3.)

TATHAGATA GUNA DJNANATCHINTYA VICHAYAVATARA NIRDES'A.


*

TARABHADRA
rabhadra.

v.

Arya,

Ta-

Title of
(1.)

2 translations,

:Ain*tSI?
589618, and

TARAS

V.

Talas.

TARKA
A

S'

ASTRA Jn Jf

work on dialectics Vasubandhu, translated D. 650) by Paramartha.

^
by
(A.

gupta, A. D.

yT

^y S'ikchananda, '618907. A.d!

m ^M^

TATHAGATA
gshegs

(Tib.

De

bjin

TATHAGATAGUPTA ig
Jl
lit.

Toguntba. Mong. chilen ireksen) '[fl^ftll^^g (or

^ ^a guardina
the

in

mmm
one who
world)
his
is

g)

or

^^^tlS
^

(1.)

Tathagata. king of Magadha, son

^^

>fj|

^^Mm

Buddhagupta, of of S'akraditya. (2.)


priest
(A.

grandson

A learned
of

D.

640)
in

the

(in

coming into the like the coming (of

Sarvastivaddh, parvata.

Hiranya-

predecessors). (1.) The highest epithet of a Buddha. See also Sapta Tathagata.
(2.)

TATHAGATA MAHAKARUNIKA NIRDES'A -j^^^^


Translation
(A. D. 291) by Dharraarakcha of the first two chapters of the -j^-^!^

Abbreviation

for

TathS^atag u pta.

TATHAGATA

DJNANA

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

171

-^^iW
(A.D.

Mahavaipulya masvitra,

hAsannipata

translated

397439) by the same.

SYANTIKE TATHAGATA DUCHTATCHITTA RUDHI ROTPADANA ^g^^


lit.

vas existed, viz. at Lumbini, Buddha-gaya-Vardnas'i, Djetavana, Kanyakubdja, Radjagriha, Vais'alii and the S&Ia grove in Kus'iuagani. (2.)
All places worship.

and

objects

of

shedding the blood of a Buddha. The 5th of the Pantchanantarya.

TCHAITYA PRADAKCHINA

TATHAGATA

TCHINTYA
Title
(1.)
viz.,

VJW^^
chananda.

Title

of

GUHYA
of

tion ""(A.D. 618-907)

a translaby S'ik-

NLRD|:S'A.

translations,

TCHAICAS
tribe near

Dharmaralicba, A.D. 280, and

A warlike ^f^ Samarkand.


(Pali.

TCHAKCHUR
Dhar^~)c^^^, marakcha, A.D. 10041058.
another

Tchak-

khun)
first

Ig

lit.

the eye.

The

TATTVA

SATYA S'ASTRA
FpBB

Chadayatana, the eye as an organ of sensation hence


;

Tchakchur dhatu,
faculty of sight,

4>nl^^^ ^^^^;5s- or A philosophical work


Gunaprabha.

HgM,

the

by
^"-

and TchakBEIajr

chur vidjnana dhatu,


53,, first

TCHADJ

^^

perception by sight, the Vidjnana.

^^^EM

cient city (now

Tashkend) in

Turkestan.

TCH^^KCHUR \^S'ODHANA

TCHAGAYANA
TCHAITBA
month
Burm.

Ancient province city (now Chaganian) in Tukhara.


^||

^ fP and
qa
.

fyf

|R

YA^^^gg
(Tib.

Title

of a translation (A. D. 317

420) by Dharmarakcha.

First

TCHAKRA
lit.

Khor

lo

jg

in spring.
(Pali.

TCHAITYA

Dzedi.

Tchetiya. Tib. Mchod

a wheel. (1.) The symbol a Tcliakravartti, a disk (according to his rank) either of gold or copper or iron,
of

or

jg:

or

jH

(l.j

which
place

falls

from

heaven on
;

(with or without some monument) sacred as the scene of some event in the life of Buddha. Eight such Tchait-

originally a symbol of destruction later a symbol of divine authority. (2.) One of the figures of the S'ripada.
his investiture;

172

PART

I.

TCHAKRAVALA

(Singh. SakChakravan walngala. Siam. Tib. Hkor yug) ^Jd

^f

shore in the West, the resort of birds with gold-coloured wings and spotted yellow

plumage."

f^Slij ^

<3ouble circle of

TCHAMPA

yitr

Ancient
in

luouutains (one higher than the other) forming the outer periphery of every universe and running concentric with the 7 circles (see under Meru) between which and the Tchakravala the 4 continents are
situated.

kingdom and

city

(now Cham-

panagur, near Boglipoor) Central India.

TCHAMPAKA
(1.)

Jgl^^
with

_ or
fragrant,

A
A

tree

flowers, Michel ia district in (2.)

champaca. the upper

TCHAKRA VARTTI RADJA


(Burm.

l?undjab.

Hkor

los

Tsekia wade. Tib. sgyur bai) Tff^ (or

TCHANDANA
"^fe;

(Tib.

Tsaudan)
for into
lit.

i^

General

appellation

m)
by

mmimj&mmm
ht.

for

sandal

incense, etc.)

wood (used and divided

Tchakra
lit.

radja, or

Rakta tchandana

^J^^

red sandal wood, or Pterocarpus santolinus, Tchandaueva king who turns the wheel (q.v.) and Gos'ircha (q.v.). (Tchakra.) A military conor Sarpa TCHANDANEVA queror of the whole or a hridaya tchandana or Uraportion of a universe, whose gasara ^;j:j|^'^. White symbol is the Tchakra (q. v.), sandal wood or Sandalum and who is inferior to Budalbum. dha who, as a Dharma tchak-

^^

the holy

ra

vartti,

uses

tchakra
world.

(q. v.) to

the Dharma convert the

TCHANDRA
i:B

or Tchandrad^va (Siam. Plira chan. Tib. Zlava)


{"'

TCHAKUKA

Ancient (now Yerkiang) in Bokhara.

^ kingdom

(or

J/f )>&]^ and city

m^

M)
or

TCHAMADHANA
or
v/fi

-dt^

(Niraat).

^j^J^.f;J|S Ancient
S. E.

deva, the moon. (1.) the regent of the moon which is said to be 50 yodjanas in diameter and 132 in circum(2.) The devas inhabiting the moon, where life

mm ^ Soma mm
<"
lit.

deva of

ference.
lasts

kingdom and city, on border of Gohi desert.

500 years.

TCHAMARA "^^Ig A
'*

tree sea-

TCHANDRA BHAGA jjg^

which

grows on the

SANSKBIT-CHINELE DICTIONAHY.
Clienab (Acesines) Puudjab.
the

173
native of Censchool fellow of

in

lunar lion.
tral

India,

TCHANDRA DIPA
DHISUTllA
557)
Title of a translation

SAMA(A. D.

Srmharas'mi.

^^HiftS TCHANDRA Dn*A or


to

SURYA PRATchandrarkadipa

by

Narendrayas'fts.
several

TCHANDRA GARBHA VAIPULYA stTRA ^;^^

Buddhas, one

of

kMHmH
translation
(A.

Title of a

D.

566)

by

Narendrayas'as.

the father of Mati, Sumati, Autauaraati, Ratnamati, Vis'echamati, Vimatisamudghatin, Gliochamati and Dharmamati.

Avhom

was

TCHANDRAKANTA ^
A

pearl which sheds tears in the moonlight.

^^
A

TCH.\NDRAVARMA
priest of

Jg

Nagarandhana.

TCHANDRAKIRTI
Deva.

see under

TCPIANDRA VIMALAStlRYA

TCHANDRAPALA

m^
^

PRABHASACHI J^ ^^ 0^ :J^ A Buddha whose realm


resembles Sukhavati.

learned priest of Nalanda.

TCHANDRA PRABHA |j^g TCHANDROTTARA dArIKA ||j^$IJgor J^ VYAKARANA StjTRA ^


lit.

moonlight. S'akyamuni, iu a former djataliM, when he cut off his head (e-t Tackchas'ila) as an alms offering to Brah-

JL^S
tion (A.

"^^^^^

^^ * transla-

D. 591) by Djimna

gupta.

mans.

TCHANDRA PRABHA

TCHANGKRAMANA
BOTchangkramasthana Tchankama. Burm.
zengyan)
platforms

or

DHISATTVAVADANA SUTBAf^i^^^t^^g
Title of a translation

(PAli.

Yatana
Raised

^^ff jpg

(A. D.

973- 981

by Dharmadeva.

TCHANDRA
RA RADJA
kotis
of

PRABHASVA-

Bfl

The name under which 20,000


beings
attained
to

0fl

or corridors for peripatetic meditation, sometimes built of costly stones (Ratna tchangkraraa) after the model of the Bodhimanda.

TCHANSTCHA
*^^o

(Pali.
^^-

Tchiu-

Buddhaship.

TCHANDRA

SIMFfA

^[J'g

A Brahman
niating
stigation

mmmm
girl

who, calumin-

mm

Buddha
of

at the Tirthyas,

was

174
swallowed up by
hell.

PART

I.

y^)

^
lit.

li<^-

dwelling in (ab;

TCHANS'UNA

^^^
city

The
or

solirte)

ancient capital of Viidji.

TCHARITRA ig||JfB||
^^^ftg
ture.
lit.

non-existence (4.) Naivasandjiiana saiidjiiayatana (Singh. Newasannya nasannyayatana) |^?m

^^|p^^

of depar-

J^

a dwelling (or state of

of

A port, on S.E. frontier Uda, lor trade with Ceylon,

TCHARYAMARGABHITMI SUTRA j^rf}^mi ^


work

by

translated

(A.

Samghai-akcha, D. 284) by

mind) where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness. Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd and 80,000 in the See 4tli of these heavens.
also under

Dharmarakcha.

Vimokcha.

TCHATURABHIDJNAS
1^
H.

[g

ACHATURDYIPA
4 continents
verse, situated
of

The
every
uni-

Four

of the G Abhi-

djiias (q. v.).

TCHATURANGA BALA
KAYA
of

pg

^ The

4 divisions
viz.

between As'vakarna (q. v.) and the Tchakravalas, and facing each a different side of the Meru.
small islands are atcontinent. tached to each Particulars see under Purvavideha, Djambudvipa, Godhanya, and Uttarakusu.

an Indian army,

Has-

Two

tikaya, elepliant corps ; As'vakaya, cavalry ; Rathakaya, chariots ; Pattikaya, infantry.

TCHATUR ARUPA BRAH- TCHATUR LABHA SUTPvA MA LOKA or Arupa dhatu

^i/b^
unreality.

lit.

4 heavens

of of

translation (A. D.
b}'

265- 316)

The 4 heavens

Dharmarakcha,

Anipa dhatu (above the 18 Brahmalokas), viz, (1.) Akas'anautayatana (Singh.


the

TCHATURMAHARADJAS
(Pali,

Akasananchayatana)

i/ti (

Tcliatur

Tib.

Rgya

Maharajika. tschen bjihi rigs.

Mong.
('Ir)

Macharansa)

liraited)

unreality

(2.)

Vi-

gg -4^ Pour demon kings,

djnananantdyataua

Winyananchayatana)

^ (^
;

(Sing.

who

limited) knowledge (3.) Akintchanydyatana (Singh. Akinclmiinyayatana) ^(Bff

guard the world (v. Lokapala) againat Asuras placed each on one side of the Meru and watching each one quarter of the heavens. Amc^ha Introduced their worship in China, where their

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

175

images

adon\

gates. Particulars

the temple see under

(A.D.
of the

25220) of a portion Madhyamugama.


gg

Virudhaka, Virupakcha and Dhanada.


Dhrrtara6htra,

TCHATVARA SIJRYA8
lit.

MAHARADJA TCHATUR KAYIKAS 29^5^ lib. the


devas of the Tchatur Maharajas. The inhabitants of 1st Devaloka, situated the on the 4 sides of the Meru. They form the retinue of the Tcbatnr Maharadjas, each of whom has 91 sons and is attended by 8 generals and 28 classes of demons. Life lasts there 500 years, but 24 hours, there, equal 50 years on earth.

the 4 suns. The 4 luminaries of the ancient Buddhist church, viz. As'vaghocha, Deva, Nagardjnna KuniAralabdha.

and

TCHATVARI SAMGRAHA VASTUNI gg J| ^j^ lit. 4


methods
of pacification.
(1.)

Four
Dftna
Pri-

social virtues, viz.

yavat^hana
speech,
(3.)

^M

al"^sgiving,

(2.)

=51

loving

TCHATUR SATYA S' ASTRA nq 3^ A philosophical

Arthakriya ^llfy conduct which benefits (otliers), and (4.) Saraanarthata j5|

co-operation (with

and
na.

for others).

lated

work bv Vasuvarraan, traii.s(A. D. 557569) by


Paramartha.
or
lit.

TCHHANDAEA.

Burm. Tsanda. Hdun pa tchan)


.

(Singh. ChanTib. (or

TCHATURTONI
ba
of)

Karmaya
Tib.

^ J

(Singh. Karmaja.
bzi)

Skye
(modes
of en-

gg-^

4
of

yamuni's coachman.

birth.

Four modes
course
viz.,
(1.)

TCHHANDALA
ed by
or

(Tib.

Gdol

tering the migration,

trans-

B^ /^
an HR

(Tib. Mnal las) from uterus, as mammalia, (2.)

^^|J^
JE.

lit.
lit.

butchers,

by

wicked
|jf|j

people,

or

by

4^

(Tib.

Sgo na

las)

from

j^

lit.

(those who have to carry) a

an egg, as birds,

(3.)

Q^dj^

Tib. Drod gser las) from moisture, as fish aud insects, Tib. Rdzas to) (4.)
(jj^

warning flag. The lowest, most despised, caste of India,

hood

but admitted to the priestin the Buddhist church.


(Singh. Tchandidlii pada)

transformation, as Bodhisattvas. See also Anupa-

by

TCHHANDA RIDDHI PADA

padaka,

TCHATUS

SATYA SI5tra

lit.

the step
of
1st

of
all

desire.

Renunciation
as the

desire,
of

Translation

condition

su-

176

PART

I.

pematural power.
dbipada.

See
v.

RidDja-

TCHINAPATI
hore),

Ancient kingdom

^ Jp

-gl ]g (near La-

TCHHATRA PATI
mbudvipa.

said

TCHIIKA ;^>Jn
dom
Puudjab.

first kings were 640) to liave come from China.


(x4..D.

whose

Ancient kingin

(near Uraritsir)

the

TCHINARADJAPUTRA

^
Han
for

TCHIKDHA ^jj^^
kingdom and

Ancient

^
ar^

lit.

prince

of

the

city (now Cliittore) in Central India.

(dynasty). Indian the pear tree (as from China).

name

imported

TCHTKITSA VIDYA

S'ASillustra-

TCHITRASENA

TRA J^ "^

0fl

li*'

tion of medicine.

gf||^|
PADA

king of Yakchas.

treatise

on magic prescriptions, one of the Pantcha Vidya s'astras.

TCHITTA
(fciiiigh.
lit.

RIDDHI
Tchittipada)
step
of

;^^

the

TCHINA
Rgya
or

Sg

or nag)

Maha tchina (Tib. ^||^ or J||p


jWfl*
explained

Renunciation of the 3rd condition of supernatural power. See Riddhi.


pada.

memory. memory, as

or

by ffl"^ lit. Reflection. The name by which China is referred to in Buddhist books, since the Ts'in (^\ dynasty

TCHITTA SMRITY UPASTHANA(Singh. Tchittanupada)


iug in mind that bii-th and death continue incessantly. One of the 4 objects of Smrity upasthdna, recollection of the transitory cliaracter of existence.

"

(B. C.

349202).

TCHINADEVAGOTRA J||p
=^^
lit.

the solar deva of

Han
of

descent.

The

fii^st

king

Khavanda, born, through the


influence of the solar genius, of a princess of the Han dynasty (B.C. 206 A.D. 220) on the way, as bride elect,
to Persia.

TCHH^ARA
j^^lj ^
(N.E.
(A.

red garment;

A dyed, j^^H Kachaya.


s.

a.

TCHULYA
heretics.

or

Tchaula

Ancient

kingdom

of Madras), peopled D. 640) by semi-savage

TCHINANI ^Ipfj^
by

explained

31

from China. The Indian name for the peach tree.

3fe

lit-

brought

TCHUNDA
ftS'x^^

(1.)
lit.

jgpg

o"^

;fc

born on the road

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.
side.

177

One
of

of

the

earliest

S'akyamuni, to be reborn as Baddlia Samanta prabbasa. (2.) f^ (or

disciples

|g Jj/
fore

A concubine of As'oka,
of Kun&la.

the rejected lover aad there-

enemy

|^)

\^:

native of Kus'inagara from

TILADHAKA
Gaya),

or

Tilasakya

whom

S'akyamuni accepted
raonasteiy (now Thelari, near

his last meal.

TCHUNDI
Brahmanic

W.

of Nalanda.

Ji

(1.)

In

mythology, a vindictive form of Diirga or Parvarti. (2.) Among Chrnese Buddhists identified with
Maritchi.

TINANTA

or

Tryanta

jfgjg
to

Verbs

(according

Panini).

TIRTHAKAS

or Tirthyas (Tib.
/^[>||;gf[j
lit.

Mustegs tcbah)

TCHUNDI DEVI DHARaM.


Title of

translations, viz

heretical teachers. (1.) General designation of Brahmanic

and other non-Buddhist


DIvakara,
A.

as-

D.

686,

(2.)

cetics. (2.) Brahmanic enemies of S'akyamuni, and especial-

ly the

following

six

(^>g'

0^Ptll/ES
dhi,

^y ^^^djrabo(3.)

:^ M):

^"^^9*

Kas'yapa,

A.D.

720,

^^Jg

by Amogbavadjra, A. D. 618 907.

Maskariu, Samdjayin, Adjita Kes'akambala, KakudaKatyayana, and Nirgrantha. Hiuentsang met (A. D. 640) a sect
Tirthyas, who practised austere asceticism, worshiped
of

TEMURTU
or

or Issikol

^^

Mongol name
li

^ f^
of

Kchuna

and

used

magic
city

spells for healing the sick.

lake '(400

N. of Lingshan).

TOKSUN
Mongolia.

^vH

in

TERMED
TICHYA
Pd
(1.)

or

Tirmez

pgg:
city

Ancient kingdom on the Oxus.


(Singh. Idan)

and

TRAIDHATUKE
The
Tr^iloka.

^M^_^
of

circumference

the

ancient Buddha. (2.) native of Nalanda, father of Sariputra. son of (3.) S'uklodana.

An

^ ^p

Tissa.

or

Tib.
Z/}^

TRAILOKYA
(Siara.
lit,

or

Trilokya

Traiphum. Tib.

Kbams
lit.

3 regions, or

^^y^

TICHYA RAKCHITA

^^

3 classes of beings. In imitation of the

Brahmanic Bhu-

178

PART

I.

vauatraya (4 worlds), the Buddhists divide every universe into 3 regions, but substitute for the physical cate-

vati),

where,

in

Vaiayanta
(or
|fi)

|| JJ 2^ Indra

the or

palace
g||.

(having

gories (Bhur or earth, or heaven, and Svar or atmosphere) of the Brahraans, the ethical categories of desire, form and formlessness. Particulars see under Kamadhatu, RiipadhAtu, and Aru-

Bhuvah

padhdtn.

TRAILOKYA VIKRAMIN
:^^

W
tic-

1000 Jieads, 1000 eyes and 4 arms grasping the Vadjra) revels with Sakchi and 119,000 concubines, and receives monthly the reports of the Tchatur Mahartiidjas. Chinese books frequently identify or confound this heaven with Tuchita (q.v.).

Name

of

TRICHNA
Tib.

(Singh.

Sredma)
;

titious Bodhisattva.

Pure love

the 4th Niddna.

TRAIYASTRIMS'AS
Tavatinsa.

Singh.

Siam. Davadung. tchu rtas gsum)

(P^H. Tavutisa. Tib. Sum

TRIDJNANA
modes
lief,

^ ^^
a

Trisnawa.
lit.

love

Three

^
or

knowledge, viz. behearing and practice.


of

TRIDJNANA SI)TRA
m.
Title
of

^^
^
re-

translation,

D. 397-439.
devas, or tho heaven of 33 (cities or beings). (1.) The 33 ancient gods of the Vedas, viz. 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12

TRIKAYA
jg.
lit.

Tib.

Skugsum)
(1.)

3 bodies, or threefold
Tliree

embodiment.

Adityas and 2 As'vins. (2.) Indra with 32 worthies who were his friends in a former djataka, when he was '[f^FJ
>+P Klaus'ika all

having been

presentations of Buddha, viz. his statue, liis teachings, and his stiipa (q. v.) (2.) The his. torical Buddha, as uniting in himself 3 bodily qualities, see Dharmakaya, Sambho-

reborn

on

the

summit

of

Meru. (3.) Tlie heaven of Indra (s. a. the Svarga of Brahmanism), situated between the 4 peaks of Meru.
It

gakaya and Nirmanakaya. (3.) Buddha, as having passed through, and still existing
in,

3 forms

or

persons, viz.

consists of 32 cities of devas, (8 of which are located on each of the 4 corners of Mern) and of the capital Jfe

Ky^ " Sakyamuni (or earthly

the)

Buddha, endowed with Nirmanakdya (which pas-

tej/

(Sudassana or Umra-

sed through) 100,000 kotis of transformations " (on earth) ;

SANSKRrr-HINESE DICTIONARY.

179
being the charac-

Bo<lhi

" Lochana (or heavenly DhyaBodhisattva, ni endowed with the) Sambhoga kaya of absolute completeness " (in Dhyana); (c.) as

teristic of

a Buddha,

a disof

tinction was now " essential Bodhi "

W^

made

as

the

attribute

BH^)g;^|[^

makaya,

of the Dhar" reflected Bodhi ''

;^y^j^^

" Vairotchana (or

Dhyaui Buddha, endowel with the) Dharmakaya of absolute


purity " (in Nirvana). In speaking of Buddha as now combining the foregoing (historically arranged) persons or forms of existence, the order

^;J;g

as the attribute of the


" pracas the

Sambhoga kaya, and tical Bodhi" J^K


attribute
of

the

Nirmana

kaya; and Buddha, combining in himself these 3 conditions of existence, was said to be living, at the same
time, in 3
viz. (1.)

here given is, of course, reversed. As to how this doctrine arose, we can only guess.
Primitive Buddhism(in China) distinguished a material, visible and perishable body (A

ly as such a Dhyani Buddha, living in Arupadhdtu in the


of essential as " living in reflex in Rupa dhatu " and being, as such, in the inter-

different spheres, as " having essentialentered Nirvana," being

Dharraakaya state
(2.)

J^
ma

or

rupa kdya)

and

an

Bodhi,

immaterial, invisible and immortal body /gt M^ or dharkaya), as attributes of human existence. This di-

mediate degree of a Dliy^ni Bodhisattva in the SamBodhi,

chotomisra

by S'akyamuni himself
characterizing
tlie

probably

taught

was

bhoga kaya and

state of reflected
(3.)

as

"living

even afterwards retained in


nature of

practically

in

Kamadhatu,"

ordinary
in later

Imman beings. But ages, when the com-

in the elementary degree of Manuchi Buddha in the


state of prac-

Nirmana kdya
tical

bined influence of Shivaisra, which ascribed to Shiva a threefold body (Dharmakaya,

Bodhi.

In each of these

3 forms of existence, Buddha has a peculiar mode of existence,


viz.,
(1.)

Sarabhogakdya and Nirmana kaya) and Brahminism, with its Trimurti (of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva)^ gave rise to the Buddhist dogma of a Triratna (Buddha, Dharma and Saihgha), trichotomism was taught with regard to the nature of all Buddhas.

absolute

purity
(2.)

as

Dhyani

Buddha,
(3.)

absolute completeness as

Dhyani Bodhisattva, and


numberless

transformations as Manuchi Buddha. Likewise also Buddha's influence has a different sphere in each of these 3 forms of exis-

180
tence,

PART
as Dliyani

I.

viz.,

(1.)

Buddba
"

he
of

domain

(4th Buddha Dhyani Bodhisattva he as rules in the " domain of success " (3rd Buddlia kchetra),

the rules in spiritual tlie kchetra), (2.)

ratna, Trik&ya

Synoptical Scheme of the Triand Trailokya.

w c
3

p s p

and (3.) as "Manuchi Buddha he rules in the domain of mixed qualities " (1st and 2 d Buddhakchetra). There
is clearly

II
^*

the idea of a unity in trinity underlying these the distinctions and thus dogmas of the Trailokya, Trikaya' and the Triratna (q. T.) are interlinked, as the table synoptic subjoined shews in detail.
PitakatSingh. Tunpitaka. Tib.
(Pali.

p 3
B P B
03

i-i.

a,2

TRIPITAKA
taya.

toy r2.

gsum. snod Mong. Sde Gourbau aimak saba) '^^


lit. 3 collections. The three divisions (in imitation of the Brahmanic distinction of

p
kaya
Nirraana-

Mautras,

Brahmanas

and

Sutras) of the Buddhist canon, viz., (1.) doctrinal books, V. Sutras, (2.) works on ecVinaya, and (3.) philosophical works, V. Ahhidharma. Chinese Buddhists added a fourth class of miscellaneous, canonical works (v, Samyukta pitaka). The principal Chinese editions of the complete Buddhist canon are the "^
clesiastical

P o p
1

P p 3 p
P>
1

discipline,

v.

cc

go"
3
CO
1st

and
kchetra
Buddha-

p
2nd

cr

P
1

3-

p
1

P >>
1

Southern

collection,

Nanking,
j/^

p>

A. D. 13681398, and the

3
CL. Cr*

d>

P
p

P
s

Northern

collection,

Pe-

&
P>

king, A. D.

14031424.

P s-

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

181

TRTRATNA

Ratnatraya or (Siam. Ratauatrai. Tib, Dkon lit. the mtchog gsum)

"^^

3 precious ones, explained by nt. the 4st^

n^mm-m
' or

preciousness of Buddlia, the law and the priest-liood, or

School (A. D. 500) then spoke these three as united in one (the Dhy^ni or NirvAna form of S'&kyamuni). This School was particularly influenced by Nepaulese Budof

dhism and by
a
triple

mt fmw ^^ ^tfSJitl) Dharma, and


by
dha,
j^'ffjn

^'"^-

Buddha

its doctrine of existence of each as Nirvana Buddha,

^^

^k

y^ HP
signifies
trinity,

Samglia.

Ihriratna

the doctrine of a which, peculiar to


its

Dhyani Buddha and Manuehi Buddha. Accordingly S'akyamuni was now simply spoken of as personified Bodhi, i. e. as " Buddha," but
as one, who in passing from world, left behind hira the reflex of liis Bodhi in " Sarhglia " i. e. in the corporate existence of the Buddhist church as represented by the priesthood whilst he is now living in Nirvana as the perpetual fountain source of ' Dharma " i. e. the doctrines of Buddhism. Thus
this

Northern Buddhism, has

root in the Tris'arana (q. v.), corainon among Southern and Nortliern Buddhists. Under the combined influence of Brahmanism which taught a

Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) and of tlie later Mahdyana philosophy which taught the doctrine of the

Trikdya

(q.v.).

Northern Bud-

dhists in Tibet and China ascribed to one living personality the attributes of the three constituents (Tris'arana) of their faith, viz. Buddha, Dharma and Saraglia, considering " Bodhi " as the common characteristic of the historic Buddha-, of the law which he taught and of the corporate priesthood which

Buddha, Samgha and Dliarma were viewed synthetically as


three progressive stages in the development of Bodhi through the person of Buddha, to whom separate names were given corresponding to these stages, viz. S'akyamuni

now

represents both. Accordingly they viewed S'&kyamuni Buddha as personifi-

ed Bodhi

(^ ^),

Dharma

corresponding with Buddha, Lochana corresponding with Samgha, and Vairotchana corresponding with Dharma under Trikaya). Next (see came atheistic philosophy which dealt with this dogma of a Triratna analytically,
placing Dharma in the first rank as the first element in the trinity from which the others proceeded by evolution.

as reflected Bodhi

(^

;i:B),

and Samgha as practical Bodhi ^). The Tantra

(^

182

PART

I.

According to these philo" sophical Schools, " Dharma is Bot a person, but an
unconditioned and uuderived
entity, combining in itself the spiritual and material prin-

TRIS'AMBARA

NIRDf:S'A
firet

"^^'M'^
of the

The

sutra
collec-

Maharatnakuta

tion

a translation (A.D. 618


(Pali.

907) by Bodhirutchi.

ciples of the

universe, whilst

TRTS'ARANA

Sarana-

from Dharma proceeded, by


emanation, " Buddha " as the creative energy which produced, in conjunction with

gamana. Burm. Tharanagon. lit. Tib. Mtchio gsum)

^^
viz.

3 ret fuges.

The ancient Budfidei,


(1.)

dhisformula

Dharma, the
the
trinity,
is

third factor in viz. " Samgha,"

Mfi^fft
in

lit.

I
(2.)

take refuge

Buddha,

which

the

comprehensive

^.

^J

sum total of all real life. Thus thd dogma of a Triratna,

I take refuge in

Dharma, and

originating from primitive articles of

three
faith,

and
in
'

at

one time culminating

in Samgha. Out of these articles of faith, the dc^ma of the Triratna (q. v.) may

the conception of three persons, a trinity in unity, has degenerated into a metaphysical theory of the evolution of three abstract principles. The common people,

have arisen.

TRIVIDHA DVARA
or

"^^
(sc.

f^

lit.

3 gates profes-

however,
this

know

nothing

of

body, mouth and Purity of body, of speech and of thought. See


sions

mind).
S'ila.

philosophical Triratna* but worship a triad of statues, representing either Amitabha with Avalokites'vara and Mahasthama, or S'akyamuni with Avalokites'vara and Maitreya, and calling the latter triad, " the Buddha of the past, present and future."

TRIVIDYA
clear

^ P^ (^)
all

lit.

(conceptions).

Three

elementary axioms, viz. (1.) lit. imperAnitya

^^

manency (of (2.) Dukha,

existence),
lit.

4J

misery
Ht.

(as the lot of all lyings), (3.)

TRIRATNARYA

^g^

An&tma

An

^iwr^^
^^

boflily existence as unreal as

Indian Bodhisattva, author of a commentary ou the

a bubble.

TRTYANA

=^ Buddha matrika
djfiap4ramit&
ghiti sYistra

HIS
pra(sc.

'

H^^ H
(^1.)

(Siam. Trai pidok)

ifeiSP^

Three vehicles

mahdrtha samby MaliadignA.-

across SafisAra into Nirvana), (a.) sheep, i.e. S'ravakas (b.) deer, i.e. Pratyeka

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.
BuddliaB, (c.) oxen, i. e. Bodhisattvaa ; salvation by three successive degrees of saintship. (2.) The three principal Scbools of Buddhism, viz. the

183

u.
UOHNTCHA
(Tib.

Gtsug
(or

tor or

Thor tck>g)

Hinayana and Mahayana, Madhyimayan-a Schools.

^
or

^)
a

^
lit.

("M^M^^
explained by
fure of flesh or

TSAUKUTA j*^D:
TUCHITA

Ancient

|^

^
(q.

lit.

coif-

by-j^;jgm
v.j,

(Arachotos) kingdom in Is.W. India (near Ghuznee).


(Singh. Tusita. Burrn. Toocita,. Siam. Dnsit. Tib. Dga Idan, Mong. Tegiis bajasseno langtu) Wt
^^-

^'ftwi (W)
li
(or
lit.

A)

^^

R^) explained
joyful, or

^^ ft m ti A ^ by

with the note "a fleshy protuberance on Buddha's cranium, forming a natural hairtuft." Originally a conical or flamesliaped hairtuft on the crown Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshy excrescence on the .skull itself; one of the 23 Lakclianas. See Sarvadurgati, etc.
of a

Buddhochnicha

^^^

by

^^

^|^
lit.

assembly.

The 4th Devaloka,

UDA

or

Bodhisattvas are reborn before finally appearing on earth as Buddha. Maitreya resides there, but is, like all other Bodhisattvas, now in Tuchita, already enall

where

^~^
sun)

Utkala or Udradesa Ancient kingdom (now

Orissa) in Iiidia.

UDAGAYANA

moving

^ ff

lit.

(the

northwards.

See under Surya.

gaged

in

promoting

Bud-

dhism, and occasionally appears on earth by the Auupa-

DDAKHANDA
Ancient
of

:s:

padaka
Tucliita,

birth.

Life

lasts in

400 years, 24 }K)urs being equal to 400 years on


earth.

(Embolina, now Ohind N. E. of Attok)

capital

Gaudhara.

TUKHARA
|S
or

UDANA

H"^f^

^^IJ the ||^


or
ht.

(or

g)

p-g||^

or

king-

Mj'^l'M

^^Pl'-^i^ed
^^^'

by

Mf^
ira-

dora of the Yueli-chi (Getae). (1.) The region around Badakchan. (2.) The Tochari Tartar's.

a^

(""3sked)

promptue discourses. Sutras,


diftering in form from ordinary

See Kanichka.
or Djivakahrathe heroe's

TYAGIHRADA
da

Sutras (in which the subject matter is introduced by a question addressed to Buddha).

^Ij^^
A lake

Ht.

lake.

near Mrigadava.

UDAYANA RADJA

(Tib.

Htch

184

PART

I.

or

[ij#'^ A

king of Kau-

m - .ft m) explained by
try
of)

^
it

K {lit.

fi)

(a coun-

s'ambi,

entitled

^ -^ ^

Vatsaradja, said to have had the first statue of Ruddha made. But see under Prasenadjit and S'akyamuni.

dom

parks. Ancient king(Suastene) in N. W. India, along the S'ubhavastu.

Some

identify

with

Urd-

dhastana.

VATSARADJA UDRA RAMA PUTRA or TJDAYANA Udraka or Rudraka (Tib. PARIPRITCHTCHHA. TitJe
of

translations,

viz.

(1.)

Rangs

lftftig
907,

^- ^- ^^'

spyod)

-316, (2.) (fP'gJiif by Bodhirutchi, A. T>. 618


and
(3.)

^h5^-^

^^^M.^ Udra
^it.

byed

kyi

bu

Lhag

or

the son

^^-f^^^
^P'g
(1.)
lit,

A Brahman, for a of Rama. time teacher of S'akyamuni.

UDUMBARA fg^^^^
Nila

or

XJDAYI

or

Udayibhadra

ndumbara

f^|
by

or

j-JJ

JS

(born when)

1^
lit.

explained

the sun shone forth.

a supernatural

^^ ^^ omen.
(1.)

disciple of S'akyamuni, to be reborn as Buddha SamanA son of taprabhasa. (2,)

The Ficus glome rata, symbol of Buddha because *' it flowers


once in 3000 yeare," sometimes confounded with Panasa. (2.) A lotus of fabubut
lous size.

Adjatas'atni, Sirhha.

also

called

UDITA ]^i^^ A
India,

king in N.

who

patronized Hiuen-

UIGUES
Turkish

1^^
tribe

or
of

jilJ^

The
or

tsang (A.D. 640).

M^^

UDJDJAYANA. >^ ^' ffi

or Udjdjayini
.ft ffl fff

^^
D.

Kao-chang, settled (A.

Ancient
(Ozene,
India.

kingdom

and
in

M
city

now

Oujein)

W.

UDJDJAYANTA
in Surachtra.

:^^^

G49) near Turfan, then (A. D. 750) divided into 2 and (Abhulgasi branches Tokus Uigurs) which (A. D. 1000) invaded Tangut but by were driven westward

mountain (with a monastery)

UDJIKAN

V.

Hudjikau.

UDYANA
'm

ov ^^

Udjiy4na

J^^
""

.ft

*t

.ft

Chinghis Khan. He adopted their alphabet (probably of Nestorian origin), which was even tually used to translate (A.D. 1294) the Whole BudSanskrit dhist canon from and Tibetan texts.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

185

ULAG

J^

Tibetan (or

Uigur) term for compulsory post (socage) service, supply and beasts of of porters

brought together in a sort of annual religious exhibition, enlivened by music


are

and

burden for and priests


Tibet).

travelling officials
(in

Mongolia and

fire works, the principal ceremonies being performed midnight (especially on at 7th the 15th day of the moon). The expenses of the

ULLAMBANA ^^"g^ (^)


explained by
'^ijjl^ Ht.
(?),

priests

and the exhibition are

hung
^y
to

defrayed by local associations ^^^y^^^ ^^(

up by the
^

heels
S;:
lit.

or

;^1M

:S

^^-^p^^i"^^

0T^^^5
pile

a utensil
of)

tributions on every shopland household, the whole performance being supposed to

^M B -t)

up

(offerings

food.

The festival as now held

of all souls
in

(^\

China annually during the 7th moon, when Buddhist (and Tauist^ priests read masses to release the souls of those who died on land or sea from purgatory,
feed Pretas, consecrate domestic ancestral
scatter rice
to

exorcize the evil spirits which otherwise would work financial and sanitary ruin in the neighbourhood, besides giving every individual an opportunity of obtaining the intercessory prayers of the priests for the benefit of his own

deceased
tives.

ancestors

or

rela-

shrines,

burn paper clothes, on the beach or in boats, for the benefit of those who were drowned (^ and |g)^
recite

which exists between these ceremonies and the ancient (and modern) Gtorma " strewing

The

similarity

Yoga Tantras

oblations " great, that

(such as

are collected in the

S^Mp-^^

]^^^

translated by

Tibet is so probable, that the Chinese ceremonial is the Tibetan Gtorma ritual engrafted upon Confucian anof
it is

Amoghavadjra, {A. T>. 746 771) accompanied by magic finger play (Mudra) to comseven generations purgatory in Ndraka), in temporary sheds the in which statues of deities, popular Buddhist groups of statuettes representing scenes from Chinese hisfort ancestral spirits of

This agrees with the known fact that a Dharnative of Tukhara, marakcha (A. D. 265316), and China introduced in
cestral worship.

translated

the

Ullambaua

ceremonial

tory, dwarf plants, silk festoons, chandeliers and lamps

gives to the whole the (forged) authority of S',kyamuni, and supports it by the alleged experiences of his principal

which

186
disciples,

PART

I.

Ananda being

said

to have appeased Pretas food offerings presented

by
to

Buddha and Samgha,


Maudgalyayana

and

have to bronght back his mother who had been reborn in hell as a Preta. Although introduced in China in the 3rd century, this ceremonial was popularized only through A moghavadjra (A.D. 732) and the popular influence of the Yogatcharya School. The whole theory, with its ideas of inpriestly tercessory prayers, litanies and requiems, and ancestral worship, is entirely foreign to ancient and South-

discussions. Dogmatic (1.) treatises (s'Astras), a section of the canon, s. a. Abhidliarma pitaka. (2.) Another name for Tantras, as text books of the YogA.tcharya.

UPADHYAYA
or
or

^i^^w^
^'^'

^^ ^^
^'

^^g

fflM.""'' :fPf^

explained
selftaught

mm

^-^SaiiW
teacher, or

by ^p;j|'||^||

iit. one who knows sinfulness from sinlessness, or by *K^

one who reads (the canon) near (to his superior),

gS

lit.

ern Buddhism.

DLLAMGHA
>fijn

^iS^jjn

or

with the note, " in India the vernacular term for Upadhyaya is (Muiishee?),
ggjjij-

A
2

native of India, author

in

Kustana

and
jjjj-

Kashgar
(hwah-she)

of
^'^'

philosophical

works,

they say JS^

Wi^fm ^'^^* ^'^^^'*' translated (A. D. 607) by Dharmagupta, and ~)c^^j^


Zfc

and from the


derived
the

nymes ^n
jfn -f^

latter term are Chinese syno(hwo-she) and

=^

Mahayana

nidana

(hwo-shang)."

Upa-

771) by Amoghavadjra. UMA a. Durga.


s.

s'astra, translated (A.

D. 746

dhyaya was

originally the designation, in India, of those who teach only a part of the Vedrts, the Vedangas. Adopt-

DNADI |g(or
class of

jg) JlSJift poems composed

A
of

ed by Buddhists of Central Asia, the term Upadhyuya signified the ecclesiastics of


the older ritual, in distinction from both Lamas and ]jou-po or Bonzes (adherents of the indigenous religion of Tibet, corresponding with the TauChina). In ists gjfi of
Cliina, the
first

2500

s'lokas.

UPADANA
ing to
sible;

lit.

grasp. Cling-

life

as

long as
of

pos-

the

4th

the

12

Nidanas.

UPADES'A ,^ (or ||5) or (or J^) i! ^^

j,^

or

lit.

s'astras

^ H and

yi

term ^'fio^ was used as a synonyme for ^"^^^^s^ C"*^*'^'

SANSKaiT-CniNESE DICTIONARY.
Taufst) ecclesiastics, engaged in popular teacliing (whether belonging to the Lotixs School or to the Tient'ai ?^

187

porter of the Vinaya," one of the 3 Sthaviras of the 1st synod (B.C. 543), one of the reputed compilers of the

ScJiool

the

^ " A ^, ^ Avatamsaka
School
"^

^ ^^

Vinaya.

UPANANDA
(1.)

(Tib.

Nye dgah
disciple
of

iSSa'B'

distinction
of

from

ecclesiatics

School :^gj|| School

Vinaya andoftheDhyAna
the

An

Arhat,
(2.)

S'akyamuni.

A Naga

king.

Ipgip.

The term

ITpa-

UPASAKA
Tib.

(Tib. Mkhan po) is now-a-days, and specially in Tibet, also a designation of the abbot of a monastery, but in popular parlance it signifies in China simply

dhaya

Dge

(Singh. Upasika. snen. Ming. Ubas-

atiendant,

or
^^^'

nSl^^
dhist,

^^ -f^ 3t "^^ devotees.


of

Buddhist ecclesiastic (of any rank whatsoever) as distinguished from a Tauist priest or from a Confucian scholar.

Lay-members
church

the

Bud-

who, without entering upon monastic life, vow to keep the principal

UPADJITA

V.

Upas'Anta.

aimmandments.

If

females,

UPAGARUDA

A fabulous bird. See Qaruda. UPAGUPTA (Tib. Ove sbas)

^rJ^^^^

they UpasikA are called (Singh. Upasikawa. Tib. Dge

snen ma. Mang. Ubasohanza)

M
lit.

("^-

IB) r^

7^M^
near
f!i

explained by
protection.

S#

Mmm ^S
or
devotees.

("'

fS
The
of

ig|J
?),

^^
A

explained

ii)ife by
-h^

mm
female

j^S'^T

lit.

fourth patriarch, a native

UPAS'ANTA
djina?).

or

Upadjita

-g

"t

(I'ataliputtra

a
native of
India,

S'udra by birth, personal conqueror of Mara laboured at Mathura; died B. C. 741


;

(or 335).

UPALI

(Tib.

Nye

var

khor.

Mong. Tchikola Aktchi) ?^^^ A disciple of S akyamuni, a S'udra

m
a

authore of the Abhidharma hridaya s'dstra (q. v.), translated (A. D. 391) by Samghadeva, with a commentary
lated (A.D. 563) rayas'as.

by Narend-

by

birth,

barber^ to whom gave the title

^^

Buddha
"sup-

UPASiNA
title,

^^

military

like AsVadjit.

188

PART
PatthAna, lit. con-

1,

UPASTHANA
upasthaua.

(Pali.

URNA

(Tib.
lit.

Mdzod

spu)

SiDgh. Passana)
dition, dwelling

J^

See Smrity

UPAS'UNYA ^^-g-lP oi1^^ A prince of UdjdjayaTia.

538 541, and several works.

who came

to

China A.Dtranslated

the eye brows. A circle of hair (issuing rays of light illumining every universe) between the eye-brows of a the Buddha one of 32
;

^^

white hair between

^ f^

Lakchanas.

URUVIiiVA
ya)

(Singh. Uruwelalit.

UPATICHYA
Tib.
J[ife\^-^

(PAli.

Upatissa.
(or for

f J ;^

forest

of

Nergyalj
(1.)

|g:^^

painful practices, or
lit.

^jrj^;^

Another name

S'driputra. (2.) A native of India, author of the Vimok-

chamarga
translated

place near, Gaya where S'akyamuni practised austeie asceticism for years,
forest.

papaya

s'astra

(A.

D.

^Jgif |^, URUVILVA KAS'YAPA by


505) kaus'alya

Sarhghapala.

UPAYA
-t
-jffi

or

Upaya
lit.

One
of

of the principal disciples

j^

salvation

(proper) means. ledge and use of the proper means of salvation; the /th of the 10 Paramitas.

by The know-

UPECKCHA
lit.

called S'akyamuni, so either because he practised Uruvilva or asceticism in because he had on his breast a mark resembling the papaya (v. Uruvilva) fruit. He
is

or Jg^ renunciation. state of absolute indifference, attained by renouncing any exercise

'^^X A

to

re-appear as

Buddha

Samantaprabh^sa.

of

mental

UTCHTCHASAYANA MAHASAYANA
sit on a high, broad large couch. The 9th of the S'ikchdpada.
lit.

faculties.

UPOCHANA V. URAGASARA
neva.

Pochadha.
s.a.

not to

and

TchandaAncient
district of

URAS'I

J^
W.

Jl]

j^

province (Ouastene) of Cashmei-e (the

UTKALA 8. a. Uda. UTKATUKASANA (Tib.


mo
krung)
sitting

Skyil
lit.

modern

IgJJnJJ^^

Rash,

of Muzafarabad).

URDDHASTHANA
dhasthAna

or

Var-

Ancient kiugdom (Ortospana) and city (now the Bala Hisar


of Cabul).

i^^^mMM

cross-legged (on the hams), with the note " so that body and soul remain motionThe orthodox posture less." of ascetics, best adapted for meditation, viz. sitting one's hams so that the feet are

SANSKRIT CHINESE DICTIONARY.


not seen, or so that the soles are turned upwards.

189

superior continent.

(1.)

The

UTPALA
or

or Nila utpala

(or

^) |^||
^^^'

or

f^^
(blue)

northern of the 4 continents around the Meru, square in shape, inhabited by squarefaced people. (2.) The dwelof gods and saints Rrah manic cosmology.

ling

in

bv
or
flower."

^^
;fg

'^^"^ lotus,

lit.

dark

UTTARASAMGHATI
or
a,

(or

One of the 8 (1.) cold hells (N^raka). where the cold causes the skin to burst, till it seems covered as with lotus buds. (2.) One of the 10 hot Lokantarika hells (Naraka), where the flames resemble numberless lotus flowers.
large

^llff'
Jlit.

e^Pl^'^ed by

overcoat, or
!'*

by

^~^
over

^^

W"^

I'obe flung

the left shoulder (sc. leaving right arm and breast free). Part of a priest's ornate, also called Samkakchika (Mong. jeke raajak) or

UTTAEA g^DH^
superior.
lya,

An

JArhat of Tchuof

or

ff

^^

j^

lit.

See also Kachdya and Samghati.

a disciple

Deva,

UTTARACHADHA
yamuni's

^0H|| UTTARAS'AILAH
of S'ik-

The month

The

so-

conception (14th day of 4:th moon to 15th day of 5th moon).

called School of the northern mountain.

UTTARAKURU
(Singh.)

or

Kurudvipa
Siara.

UTTARASENA P^fH^H^I^
or

Uturakura. IJdorakaro thavib.

^^

lit.

superior army.

Byang

gyi

Mong

Moh

sgra mi dohtou)

Tib. snan.

2^

who king of Udyana, obtained some of Buddha's


s anras.

or

ft ("
i"'

^)

^)

or

BM
or
^-

('"'

^)

V.
VACHPA
(Pali.

Wappa.

Tib.

;g
explained
tinent),

lit. by r^ higher than any (other con-

m a #i

lit.

or

Rlangs pa) ^^jj^}^ or Mr or Das'abala kas'yapa -|One of the first 5

ihjM^

A|J

the

disciples of S'akyamuni.

190

PART
or Vati

I.

YADI

^f^
city

Ancient

of a translation (A.

D. 746

kingdom and
on the Oxus.

(now Betik)
rje.

771) by Dharmadeva.

VABJJRA
Ortschir)
^

(Tib.
>fj^

Rdo
(or

Mong.

VADJRA KUMARA TANTRA


^^tie of a

the club. (1.) sceptre of Indra, as god of thunder and h'ghtning, with which he slays the enemies
of

Bim nm The mj&nmmi diamond


^^
^''^-

J^)

^^

translation

(A. D.

746771)

by Amc^ha vadjra.

VADJRA MANDA DHARANI.


Title of

Buddhism.
of

(3.)

The

ritual

translations, viz.

sceptre

priests,

exorcists

sorcerers, held and moved about in different direction^ during prayer, as the symbol of supernatural power. (4.)

and

by Buddhas'anta, A.D. 386


534,

and

(2.)

Fgg
487.'

%\\^\\tM

by Djnanagapta, A.D.

The
'^)'

emblem
evil
^^'^ "^

of

Buddha's

power over
foretold
to China.

(^P||jll|^^

Nirgrantha,

who

VADJRAPANI
(Tib.

or Vadjradhara

Lag
rdor.

Hiuentsang's return

Phyag
bani)

na rdo rje, or Mong. Utschir


^^

VADJRA BHAIRAVA TANTRA KROTA TATTVARA-

|^^|gE/g
explained by
lit.

J^

^^
M\\j^

1^^ ^
the

the holder of

vadjra, or

by

^^^.^^\\^
wrestler).
(1.)

j^
Tantra, translated A. D. 982

lit.

guhyapada bodhisatnoted

tva (a

1,001.

VADJRA BODHl
of the

^-^

p ||^

Vadjra.
(A.

A Brahman
D. 719).

of

Malaya

VADJRA GANDHA ^g|] A fictitious Bodhisattva. VADJRA GARBHA RATNA RADJATANTRA

who, in a former djdtaka, as a son of a Tchatook an oath to kravartti, defend Buddhism, and was then reborn as king of the Yakchas, in which capacity he holds tlie vadjra ready to crush every enemy of Buddhism. (2.) Mandjus'ri, as the DhyAni Bodhisattva (i.

Indra

(q.v.),

m^m-k^n3E&

^^

^iue

or spiritual son, the existing in the world forms), of the Dharma of kaya form of existence (see
e.

reflex

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAJIY.

19]

under Trikaya) of the Dhydni Buddha Akchobhya. (3). A


all

popular deity, the terror of enemies of Buddhist be-

VADJRA TCHTCHipiDIKA PRAD JNAPARAMITA. Title


of 3 translations (of a portion of the Mahapradjiiaparamita),

lievers, specially worshipped in exorcisms and sorcery, by followers of the Yogatcharya

"-

(1.)

School.

VADJRA SAMIDHI ^^IJ^


|d^

by Kuraaradjiva, A. D. 384417, also by Bodhirutchi, A.D. 500, and by Paramartha,


A.D. 592,
(2.)

nm-^mmm.

degree of Samddhi.

VADJRA SAMBHAVE ^^

Ig^^l^ or Vadjra dbhave


Thou who

^ ^r&^^&^J and
VADJRODBHAVE
sambhave.

tgg|f^|^|]|5: Hinen-

tsang, A.D. 648, again A. D. 603 by another, (3.)

^[g|j

art originated in (or hast existence from) the vadjra An exclamation, addressed to Buddhas in prayer.

Dharmagupta, A.D. 589918,


v.

Vadjra

YADJRASAKA s.a.
da,

Budhiman-

VAIBHACHniAS

VADJRASATTVA
rdje seras
-^

dhisattva.

^ ^ j^who became

^ dpar snang)$4: ^ cha Bo(Tib.

Bha

:}j^^ hRB

lit.

masters of the Vibha-

fictitious

the 6th

s'astra. A School of philosophers who held that mental concepts are formed through

Dhydni Buddha
chdrya School.

of the Yogat-

direct contact (denied

by

tlie

TADJRAS'EKHARA VIM ANA SARVA YOGA YOGI SUTRA


lation

Sautrantikas) between the mind and the external objects.

See Sarvastivaddlia,

VAIDEHI (Tib. Lus hphags)^


(A.D 723730) hy VaS'

djra bodhi.

thought.

The wife

of

Bimbi-

VADJRAStJKI

ASTRA

f^^l^
(A. D.

Title of a translation

sdra, mother of Adjatas'atru, also called S'ribhadra.

973981) by Dharm-

VAIDURYA
Shgon po)

(Tib.

adeva.

gj^

Dkarpo or
^f jj

or

vadjratchArya ^^ijj^
&R
lit.

superior master of the

described as a green, incombustible,

vadjra. Epithet of leaders of

gem.

(2.)

A mountain

the YogatchArya School.

near Vamnas'i.

192

PABT
(Pali.

I.

VAIHARA
meditation.

^i'J^^lM, ^

Vibhaio) cavern temple

translators (Lo tsa ba po) of the canon.

tchen

(Baibhargiri) near Radjagriha, where Buddha engaged in

VAIROTCHANA
j^
(1.)

RAS'Ml
uuivei-se

PRATIMANDITA Jf^^^

fabulous

VATPULYA
VAIPULYA
sutras or
lit.

the 10 fabulous mountains.


or

Si

one

of

Kamaladala). (2.) The fabulous realm of S'ubhavyuha and Djaladhara gardjita.


(v.

Mah&vaipulya
or
*>

/^

^^

"ir or yj class

:aa.

mm
'Pg

VAIROTCHANA
PRATIMANDITA
hisattva, disciple
of

RAS'Ml

DHVAS'dkya-

ill.

sutras of unlimited mean-

ing.

of sutras,

viz.

amplified and diffuse editions (of later date), first introduced

muni.

See a so Vimaladatta.
5|P Ancient |if in India, probably

VAIS'AKA
kingdom
the

China (A. D. 266317) by Dharmarakcha.


in

region

near Biswah in

VAIRATA
Ancient

Oude.

kingdom

and

city

VAIS'AKHA
(Pali.

or Vis'akha matri
^"^

(now Beerat) in India.

Wisakha matawi. Singh.

Wisakha)

VAIROTCHANA
(^^ iff)

(Tib
gj-

Rnam
of

fl^^jjg

^^

par snang mdzad)

e^piai"^ by
(1.)

lit. all

illumining.

Trikaya (q. v.), corresponding with Dharma


in the Triratna (q. v.), the essential personification of

fj^ liighest of the

S The

Anathapindika, so called because born in the month Vais'akha ^j^ ^j'^ (2nd

month in spring, loth day of 2nd moon to 16th day of 3rd moon). She built a vihdra for Sa'kyarauni, and became
"

bodhi

who

absolute purity, lives in the 4th Buddhak-

and

mother "

superioress

of a

number

of Upasikds.

chetra or Arupa dhatu as the first of the 5 Dhyani Buddhas,

VAIS'AKHYAHJt
A
of

having for his DhyAni

Bo-

dhisattva (or reflex in the world of form) Samantabhadra. (2.)

S'ramana of India, author a work on the (Miilasarva-

f^

stivada) vinaya.

A S'ramana of

Cashmere

(con-

temporary of Padma sambhava) who introduced Buddhism in Kustana and laboured


in Tibet as one of the great

VAIS'ALI (Pali. Vesaliya Singh.


Wisala.
Tib.

Spong
or

byed

Mong. Utu)

^11^^

5^^
4'^K

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

193

Ancient

republic (v. Litchhavis) and city (near Bassahar, N. of patna), where the 2nd synod (B. C. 443) was held.
(Tib.

lit.

universal (or varied) hearor Kuvera fl. -^ lit. the explained by

ing

VAIS'ECHIKA
ffi^

Bye brag
of

god

of riches.

^ ^The
(1.)

god

of riches

(Kuvera)
because

of ancient

querors, explained
lit.

^ bU ^

Brahmanism, who was reborn


lit.

School

con-

as

such,

he

was,
at-

by

heretics

^^ who

when a man,

specially

de-

feated the (adherents of the)


s'astras.

An
by

atomistic School

(founded

Kandda).

It

taught, like the Samkhya philosophy, a dualism of an endless number of souls and a fixed number of material principles, by the interaction of which, without a directing unity, cosmic evolution prolike

ceeds and it occupied itself, orthodox Nyaya the philosophy, chiefly with the theory of knowledge, but it
differed

from both
6

by

dis-

tinguishing

categories objects of cognition, -^

or

^^

viz.

substance,
species,

quality,

tivity,

acdistinction

tached to Brahraanic students of the Vedas. (2.) Kuvera, as a god of modern Brahmanism, one of the 8 Lokapdlas (reand North) gent of the mineral of the guardian treasures (of Kailasa), with 3 heads, 3 legs, 8 teeth, 1 ear-ring, green eyes and leprous body, who is moved by magic incantations to grant One of the wealth. (3.) Tchatur Maharadja (q. v.), guardian of the North and king of Yakchas, reborn as such because he was converted by S'akyamuni who admitted him to the priesthood, whereupon all other disciples, affrighted, exclaimed,

^^ij^f^ "Why? He
S'ramana "
styled
!

and
ies),

correlation,

stances

and 9 sub(possessed of qualitviz. the 5 ele-h

Hence

his
is

name
also
stars,"

Vais'ramana.

He

^,

ments, time and space, spirit (manas) and soul (atraa).

"regent of the and worshipped as

VAIS'RAMANA
or

Dhanada

muna.

Rnam
Bisman

or Vais'ravana (Singh. WesaSiam. Vetsuvan. Tib. thos kyi bu. Mong.


tegri)

the god of wealth, since the emperor Hiuen-tsung (A. D. 753) canonized him as such. He plays an important part
in

the

Tantras,

in

sorcery

^^U^^
^
explained

and exorcism.

^^

^&itk

VAIS'RAMANA DIVYARADJA SUTRA ^^Hit;^ PI

194

PABT

I.

5^^^ Title of a translation


(A.

gj^]5
city

Ancient province and


of

p. 97S 981) by Dhar(Tib.


(^'^

(Banagara)

madeva.

now
Kdje hu
rigs)

Banu

on

Kapis'a, the lower

VAIS'YA
HJt

Kuram.

or \i)^^ explained by or 15fe lit. burghere,

^^

H)

^^

5^#
g-[lit.

VARANAST
thee. Tib.
Si5

(Burm. BaranaWaranasse) y^KfejJ

<" ffi

II

merchants.
of traders.

The Indian

^ (f)

'

caste

explained by

VAKCHU V. Vanksu. VAKHAN V. Invakan. VAKULA f^^ (or j^)||


Jfe

'TjliS^ ^^^' ^ rivers. city surrounded by Ancient kingdom and city,


the headquarters of Shivaism, now Benares.

or

(1.)

An

intelligent

disciple of S'akyamuni, to be

reborn as prabhdsa.

Bnddha Samanta(2.)

VARANGALA v. Viiigila. VARAPRABHA jj/h^ Maitreya, in a former djataka,

demon.

when

VALLABHI

kingdom and

Ancient '(glgaK^ city on E. coast of Gujerat. See Ldra.

he was a Bodhisattva, with 800 disciples.

VARASENA
pass
(the

VANA
of
(2.)

^g

(1.)

s'rechthin

the

time of S'akyamuni' Another name for Varana.


or Vakclm (Tib. Pak Mong. Amudena)

rasvin of the Paropamisus,

Apathe Zendavesta) on
Paresh
or

^ || ^

JjS

now

called

YANKSU
tchhu.

Khawak,

S, of

Inderaub.

^
rBT
lit.

VARAVAliN s. a. Alni. VARCHA VASANA


Vassa)
or or

(Pali.

'^
lit.

^xpiai'^^ ^y blue river, or

^ -W

i^flja^or^^lJgjH 1^ g^ lit. rainy season,


lit.

pure river

The Oxus,

said

]^^g
or

rest

during

to issue from lake Anavatapta (or Sirikol), through " the horse's mouth (of lapis lazwli)," to flow once round the lake, and then W. (or N. W.), until it falls into " the northern ocean " (Caspian).

rains,

during

lit. summer retreat. or The ancient duty of spend-

WM

the

H^ lit. retreat month Nabhas.

ing the rainy season in devotional exercises in a monastery,

VARAHAMULA
giri.

v.

Paramalaor

VARANA

^ jy ^

Vana

in China either from the 16 th day of 5th moon to the 15th day of 9th moon or during one month in each season.

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONARY.

195

VARCHIKA

(P41i.

Varcha)

or

a flower which grows iu the rainy season, or -^ ;?fc

native of Radjagriha, descendant of Vais'akha, younger brother of Asamgha, twin brother of Kchuni

/^

jp)

lit.

flower

which grows iu

a disciple of Nag^rdjuna and,


like the latter, teacher of the

A kind of perfume, perhaps Lignum aloes.


summer.

Amit&bha doctrine
(until

VARDASTHANA
thana.

v.

Urddhas-

TARDDHANA
dhana.

v.

Pundravard-

laboured 117 A.D.) in Ayodhya, as the 21st (or 22nd) patriarch; author of some 36 works; now revered as a Bodhisattva residing in
;

VARIKATCHA
va
s.

Tuchita.

or Varukatche-

a.

Barukatcheva.

VASUBHADRA
or Giribhadra

^^SJ^pg
[Jj^ A
S'ra-

VARMA VYUHA
translation

NIRD|:S'A
618907)

mana
(A. D.

of India, author of the

by Bodhirutchi.

s'dstra,

VARUCHA

^fgfj;^ Ancient

on by Samghasena, and translated

Tridharmaka HiKS& commented

(A.D. 391) by Saihgliadeva.

town (now Palodheri or Pelley) in (Mnbhara.

VASUDtYA
Brahmanic

YARUNA
of

(Tib.

Tchu

Iha)

-^

mythology,

^^X

^"^

tha

father of Krishna.

waters.

The Brahmanic

god

of Leaven, regent of the sea, and, as one of the 8

VASUDHARA SCtRA ^||

Lokapalas, West.

guardian
s.a.

of

the

^^ Title of a translation (A. D; 384-417) by Kumdradjiv.i, s.a. Dharma mudrd siatra

VAS'AVARTI
Vas'avarti.

Paranirmita
or

ftSffifflg

translated (A.

D. 9801000) by Danapala.

VAS'IBHA
lit.

-^fl^^fQ
Brahmanic

^m^ of the

the great richi.


7

One
a

VASUKI ^f^:g
many-headed. Nagas.
lit.

or

^g|
king of

richis,

patron of Buddhist

priests,

now worshipped
a
star.

as regent of

VASUMITRA

>f;^(or

^)j|gg
OT

VASUBANDHU
or '2zfe^^l=T

^^^g^ Hor^^g
ov"'-Mr4i^m^
lit.

-j^^
(1.)

\S.

friend of the world.

196

PART

1.

native of N. India, converted by Mikkaka ; one of the 500 Arhats; a follower and Sarvastivadah of the author of many philosophical

or
lit.

the School

of

works

sometimes

counted

as successor to Mikkaka and therefore 7th patiiarch (in which case Buddhanandi is

counted
9th,

Buddhamitra 8th, and so on); died B. C.

690. (2.) Name of the president of the 3rd or 4th synod (B. C. 153).

Yasa. A philosophical School " the Yinaya texts of which never reached China " a sub-division of the Sarvastivadah (or Sammat^h), founded by Yatsa, a descendant of Yatsu (or by
of
;

Olft-PpR

^^*-

Yatsa, or *^ School

Yasa):

YAYU
ing.

VASUVARMAN
An
adherent of the Hinaydna, author of the Tchatur satya
s'astra.

jj^^g^

lit.

stop breath-

Holding one's breath, as

VATAYANA RADJA
The atom
;

mm

a preliminary condition of entering sam&dhi (and obtaining magic power).

YEDA
or

(Tib.

Rig byed)
or

of dust that lodges

in the tiniest crack the 7th part of a Sas'aradja.

Pt
^^
|Jg

g^
by

[Jg

t?^ or

or
lit.

explained

^
The

VATI
dja.

V.

Vadi.
v.

knowledge.

(1.)

VATSARADJA
s'imbi.

Ud&yanarav.

Yeda (never translated into Chinese), viewed by Chinese


Buddhists as a heretical work, compiled by Brahma and subsequently by Yyasa (q. v.), j&rst in one book, then in 4 books (see Ayurveda, Radjurveda, Sdmaveda and Atharvaveda) and finally in 25 books. (2.) A Bodhisattva, general (31?^) of the Tchatur Mahdr&djas, worshipped as a Yiharapala.

VATSAPATTANA

Kau-

YATSARA
VATSA
j^^

^ The
viz.

solar year.

See Ayana, Udagayaua, Dakchinayana and Surya.

SIJTRA.

Title

of

traulations,

^^^-^

A. D. 220280, and

^y ^^^^^^^ miitmi rackcha A. D. 265316.

YATSU

or

Yasu j^
or

^J^

An

YEDANA

lit

sensation

The second

ancient richi.

VATSIPUTRIYAH
putriyah

^U^^BU

Y4sa-

of the 5 Skandha perception (by the senses) the 6th Niddna.

YJEDANA

SMRITY UPAS THANA (P&U. WMan&nu

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DIOTIONABY,

197

pasAna)

the dwelling of sensations is misery. One of the 37 Bodhipakchika. dharma ; one of the 4 Smrity npasthdna, viz. the recognition that all forms of sensation are but so many forms of misery.
tliat

remember

^ g ^ Jg

lit.

bhuti.

VIBHACHA VINATA
on ecWH'^y^'-'^^ "^ work
clesiastical

discipline

by
D.

Manura, translated (A. 489) by Samgliabhadra.

VIBHADJYA VADINAH

^
^

P|]^M

lit.

a School which

VEMATCHITRA ffl^t^g^
of

subdiscusses distinctions. division of the Sarvdstivadah.

Asuras,

bottom

of the sea

residing at the father of


;

AICHANA H^
lit.

^^

or

Indra's wife.

VENUVANA
park.
(q.v.)

(Tib.

Od ma)

^
jisk

horn (so. of the Elhadga). Epithet of every Pratyeka Buddha, as he lives lonely
(khadga) like the one-homed
rhinoceros.

The Karanda vennvaua


with a vihara

1^^

Vn)EHA
-T-

(Tib.

Lus hphags)

*t

"

11-

% *).
of

*i^

Another and the VETALA SIDDHI gj]. p^ || region near Mathava. 3^ rg The art of obtaining VIDHI The methods emsiddhi (q. v.) by means of performances, magic in ployed incantations and sacrifices
rauni.

favourite

resort'

S'akya-

(!)

Abbreviation for
(2.)

Purvavideha.

name

for

Vsis'ali

performed over a corpse,

^ VIDJATA ^^^
lit.

or

YERAMANI
raani.

v.

Pantcha veraor
^'^-

most

victorious.

An

^p
epi-

thet of all Buddhas.

VETALA

BiH'K'Lrlg

^IW> VIDJNA S'ASTRAS gjB^f^


^'^^

H
A

^^

l5^fe^

^^'

the Nyaya (orthodox) philosophy, on logic and

Works on
dialectics.

demon who

prayer. class of demons dwelling in, and able to quicken, dead bodies.
loathes

VTDJNANA
nian,
lit.

(Pali.

Vinnana.
shes)
|g^

Singh. Winyana. Barm. WigTib.

Bnam

VIBHACHA S'ASTBA |^g


^^im ^
philosophical work

by Katyayani putra, translated (A.D. 383) by Samgha-

knowledge. (1.) The lOth of the 12 Nidanas, viz. perfect knowledge of the various organs, objects and forms of knowledge^ in their concatena-

198
tion

PAKT

I.

and unity.
of

(2.)

General
of

Mantra
pitaka
of

designation

each

the
i.e.

Chadayatana
the
viz.

or

-^ jM
Kaya

^^

pitaka
iS^

ar
lit.

Dh^rani
collection
of)

mantras for (purposes

6 organs of knowledge,

exorcism.

Tchakchur, S'rotra,
Djihva,
(3.)

rana,

Ghand

Manas.

General .designa-

tion of each of the

^yatana or
objects
of
^*"

-'-'

Chadbahya
i.

e.

the 6
viz-

knowledge,
^^^^^^

books, some of which are included in the Samyukta pitaka, and consisting of dharanis, mantras, vidya mantras, tantras, yoga tantras, and other formularies of supposed mystic,
class of

Rupa, S'abda, Gandha, Rasa

magic and exorcistic

efficacy.

(^

1^

spiritual

VTDYA
Title of

MATRA
3
viz.

S'ASTRA.

vitality),

Pottabha and Dharma. (4.) General designation of each of the Achta vidjSana Ht. the 8 forms of

by Vasubandhu (on the Lankavatatreatises

ra sutra),

(1.)

7\^

knowledge, viz. the above Chadayatana with the addition of Klichta

D.

MlMWiWi 508-535)

^^^
by Paraby

t'^a^slated (A.

by Bodhirutchi,

man as 3
(A. D. 557569) martha, and (3.)

^^
what

lit.

a knowledge of
the

defiles

mind,

and
a

Pgf^^I^-p

translated (A.D. 661)

Hiuen-tsang,

lit.

knowledge of the canon (Tripitaka).

written

VIDYA

MATRA

SIDDHI

RATNA DJATI S'ASTRA

VIDTA
lit.

or Vidya mantra *!?


(

m
ex-

spells

mantras)

for
lit.

orcizing, or

00 B?

man-

"^^^^ mentary (on the Vidya matra s'astra) Dharmapala, by translated (A. D. 710) by

jSL^mM^^

of (mystic) knowledge. Mystic formulae, said to be derived each from a separate

tras

Chang Wen-ming

(Itsing).

VIDYA

MATRA

SIDDHI

deity (of the Yoga School) and consisting of translations or, more frequently, of transliterations from Sanskrit (now not understood in China), sometimes also of
syllables

TRIDAS'A S'ASTRA KARIsophical work by Vasubaudhu, translated (A. D. 648) by Hiuen-tsang, with a com-

which give no mean-

meutary

called

j$U|||t^
by Dhar-

ing at

all.

Vidya matra
or

s'astra

VIDYA DHARA PITAKA

mapala, translated (A. D. 659) by Hiuen-tsang.

SANSKRTT-CHINESE DICTIOKARY.

199

VIDYA NIRDESA
(A.

trans^ MMfm by 557569) D. lation


of la

8'

ASTRA

bathing tank and tchang kramana, and to be richly furnished with Btores of clothes,
food,

Paramartha.

VIDYA PRAVARTANA S' ASTitle of a TRA mWfS^ Txr nw PUB


translation (A. D.

557569)
v.

by Paramartba,

VIDYA S'ASTRAS
vidya
s'astra.

Pantcha

bedsteads, mattresses, creature corafoiis Viharas are now built in town and out of town, but solitude and mountain scenery are the favourite surroundings. See also Samgh4rama,

and

all

VIGATABHAYA
The

730th Buddha present kalpa.

^ ^ Jf
of

VIHARAPALA H^fpfH^^g
or
of

the

patrons

and tutelary deities Buddhist monasticism.

U^

Title

given

to

VIGHNA IIJI^II or |^^g VIHARASVAMIN (Tib. Mkhan A S'ramana of .India (origi- P) Bit fPf S^ ?? ^^
nally a
lire

worshipper),

who

brought to China and translated tlie ^|i ^ lit. Dhar-

superior of a vihara. Abbot (or abbess). See also


lit.

Karmadana.

ma

pada

sutra.
(Siara.

VIHARA

VIKALABHODJANA :^ ^^
Pihan or Vat. Mong. Kiit
or

B$ -^
lit.

lit.

eat
<^^

not at

im-

Tib. Gtsug lag. or Sauma)


Wflf
lit.

proper hours,
eat
for

H^fpfH

explained by ||-

^
j^

xK '^
The

^
6th

no

flesh.

rule

novices.

See S'ik-

dwelling of the

Samgha,

chapada.

VIKAUTUKA

ffljt-ia^

for the peripatetics of priests,

or by

^^

or

cottage of purity,

)jg|^ )it. or by /*
(1.)

fabulous Bodhisattva, possessed of 108 different names.

iviKRAMADITYA ^i^^
'

^
Any

lit.

Buddhist temple.

wft*

place (academy, school or temple) used for regular

by

study (or practice) of Buddhism. (2.) The temple within a monastery, as the principal meeting place. (3.) A monasnunnery, tery or which " ought to be built of red sandal wood (tchandana), with 32 chambers (each 8 t^la trees high), with garden, park,
,

king of S'ravasti (1000 years after the Nirva na), a lavish patron of Buddhism.
sun.

^ AQ

y OT
lit.

^ mmm

|^;[:pj

explained

surpassing the

VIKRITAVANA
the bought park.

^ j^
A
the
of

lit.

200 U N. W. of Cashmere.

vihara, capital

200

PABT

1.

VIMALA

(Tib.

Drima
lit.

raed)

jHg or

j^

undefiled.

(1.)

The universe

dha
(2.)

of a Bud(daughter of Sagara). A degree of samddhi.

of VaisdU, contem porary of S*5,kyainuui, said to have visited China.

native

vimalakIrtti nirdI:s'a
StTRA.
tions,
viz.

Title of 6 transla(1.)

VIMALADATTA
lit.

j^@,(or;f)

If j^l^g,
(2.)

undefiled virtue (orgift). (1.) The wife of S'ubhavydegree of saraduha. (2.)

A.D. 222-280,

jff^^
fflr

by Dharmarakcha,
(3.)

dhi.

A.D. 265-316,
20*

J^^^ ^^|i

VIMALA DATTA PARIPRIT-

CHTCHHA
lations,

Title of 3 trans(1.)

vk.

MMW'W
and
(3.)

A. D. 265316,

^^^^
541).

by Kumaradjiva, A.D. 384-417, (4.) j^^-:i^ J^iM by Upa.s'unya, A. D.


502-557,(5.)

^ft|ijgSg
650,

by Hiuen-tsang, A. D.
(A. D.

Dharmarakclia
Pradjiiarutchi

282),

^^^iC& (A.D.

by

Djninagapta, A.D. 591.

VIMALAMITRA
lit.

VIMALAGARBHA J^

undefiled receptacle. (1.) eldest son of S'ubhavjuha,

The

filed friend.

S'ramana of
fell

Kas'mira

(a follower of

reborn as Bhechadjya radja. (2.) A degree of samddhi.

ghabhadra),
against the

who

Samdown

dead whilst vowing

to

Mahayaua
or

write School,

vimalagran:&tra
Vimalanetra.

s.

a.

VIMALANETRA
gr.iiietra

Vimalaeye.

VIMALAKCHAS
or
eye.

^A J^ gg

g^^X
lit.

^Hg

Ht pure

undefiled

(1.) Second son of S'ubhavyuha, reborn as Bhecha-

S'ramana of Cabul,

expositor of the SarvAstivdda vinaya and teacher of Ku-

djyasamudgata. (2.) given to S'llgarbha.

title

m^radjiva

came to and translated 2 works.

Kharachar China (A. D. 406)


at

VIMALANIRBHASA
lit.

pure light. Samddhi.

degree of

^^
^ p^

VIMALAKIRTTI or ^IE6t^ or

VIMALAPRABHA j^
lit.

M^
liL

exp?ained by

undefiled reputation.

^^^ A

(1.)
(2.)

pure light and brightness A degree of samadhi.

fabulous

Buddha

(Tib.

Dri med pahi od).

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIdNARY.

201

VIMATI SAMUDGHAtIN
l^-gr The 6th son
dra.

of

Tchan-

recognition (dyatana) that unreality (dkds'a) is unlimited


(ananta),
(e.)

ff^jli^^
by the
re-

VIMBASARA
Bimbisara.

or Yimbis4ra or

Jj^

lit.

liberation

cognition (dyatana) that knowledge (vidjiidna) is unlimited


or

TIMOKCH A
Vimukti

Mokoha

or

(ananta), (1)

Yimokha
Grol pa)
(as

or or

Mukti
Vimutti.
lit.

(P4li.

^^:^^^
by the
re-

^|&
or

Tib. liberation
lit.

1^

lit.

liberation

cognition (dyatana) of absolute

an

act),

^^J^

the

non-existence

(akintchanya),

dyatana (conception of, or dwelling in) liberty. [1.] Moral Kberation (from vice and passion),

lit.

liberation

by a
in

state

of

mind (dyatana)

which there

the 8

of obsei'ving sections of the Pratiluokcha sutra (containing 250 ascetic and monastic precepts). Mental liberation, or [2.] liberty gained gradually by 8 successive intel ectual operations,

by means

is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness (ndivasam-

djnanasamdjna),

and(h.)^^
by

M&MM,

"*^ Hberation

vimokcha,

^ p^ /& fe ^ * IS fe ^ K
viz. (a.)

AK

^^**

^^^^^^

!"

means of a state of mind (dyatana) in which there is final extinction (nirvana) of both sensation (vedaud) and consciousness (samdjfia). [3.] Mystic

liberation from (the conception that) notions have both subjective and objective realities corresponding to them,

liberty (vimukti) or a dwelling of the mind successively in 8 different localities,

corresponding with the above 8 intellectual operations, viz.


the 1st, 2nd and

^^
|5Kro;

3rdDhydna
;

lit.

liberation from (the

(q. V.)
(b.)

conception that) notions have indeed no subjective, but have objective, realities corresponding to them,
lit.

corresponding with (a.), and (c.) above the Tcha(q. v.)

turampa brahmalokas
;

(c.)

^^f'^'^

liberation from (the

corresponding with (d.), (e.), and finally (f.) and (g.) above Nirvdna (q. v.) corresponding with (h.) above. The forgoing Chinese account of Vimokcha differs from that which Buruouf extracted from records of Southern

conception of) any realities whatsoever, whether subjective or objective, (d.) ^4ff^j|^
lit.

liberation

by the

Buddhism

202

PART

I.

VIMOKCHA MARGA.
See Tinder Upatichya.

VIMOKCHA PRADJNA
EIOHi
ana,

Ganes'a (with the head of aa elephant), son of Shiva, god of prudence, remover of obstacles.
(2.)

or Vimokchasena g|f
-^

An

evil

spirit,

H ^Yllj

S'ramana

of

a descendant of

the

DdyS
D.

often confounded nataka.

with Vi-

akya family, translator


541) of 5 or 6 works.

(A.

VINATAKAMATRIKA

[gjj.Jg

VINA

(Tib. Pibang)
JjJ.

J|^

or

ifci^ The Indian or Tibetan


guitar.

the Sarvastivadah, translated (A. D. 445) by Samghavar-

man.

VINATAKA

(Siam.

Vinatok)

VINAYA NIDANA
lation, A.

SUTRA

fflit^iSfiansR ^^ ft ^i^ ta ^p (Vinayaka) explained by

D. 378.

J& ft
(1.)

lit.

elephant's

trunk.

VINAYA PITAKA
explained
lection

A deinoQ (with a proboscis


an elephant's trunk), who
;

^
lit.

^^

like

stops

probably wayfarers confounded with Vinayaka. (2.) A mountain, the peak of which resembles that demon the 6th of the gold mountains which encircle the Meru, 1,250 yo;

by

^^

col

of statutes.

One

of

the 3 divisions of the Buddhist canon (v. Tripitaka),


consisting of works on ascetic
moralit}'
cipline,

djanas high.

VINAYA

(Burm. Wini. Tib.

Dulbai) iB)t^^^MltS|5
or fiH-j^ explained statutes, or by
in isolation, or by

and monastic dissupposed to have been compiled under the auspices This section of the of Up^li. Chinese canou is now subdivided into

Mahayana vinaya
^^^

by

^
lit.

lit.

~kl

^^

Hinayana
See also
Vi-

^fy

^^^-

^^^^
ex-

vinaya A^

tinction (vinas'a), or
lit.

by |ISf^
j

under Pratiraokcha and mokcha.

^.

to tame.

moral

asceticism

The precepts of and moSee Vinaya

nastic discipline. pitaka.

y I N A Y A VIBHACHA SASTRA ^^^^^^^ A commentary to the

VINAYAKA
(1.)

Vinayapitaka

(in

^ll^^g^ita
deity

s'lokas),

sanctioned

by

100,000 the

The

brahmanic

4th synod (B.C. 153).

BANSKPIT-CHINESE DICTIONART.

203

VINATA VINIS'TCHATA UPALI PARIPRITCHTCHB[A.


Title of 2 translations,

verted on 3 occasions 348,000 persons, whilst life lasted 80,000 years.

VIPASTI BUDDHA SUTRA


D. 371-420, and ^^jj^ by Bodhirutchi, A. D. 618 907.

part Mahanidana Sutra.


translation
of

^kmr^&
^

Title of a

of

the

VINGILA
rangala

or

Vinkila

ag

^^

or

Va-

Ancient

YIPULA (Pali. Veputto) ^j^^y^ A mountain near Kus'agarapura.

capital of Andhra.

VINIRBHOGA

^g
fj^

The

YIPULA PRADJNA
lamati

of Bhichraagardjita kalpa ghocbasvara radja.

dom. Buddha.

^^ An

lit.

or Vipuvast wisof

epithet

every

VIMTA PEABHA
taming the
light.

J^

YIRADATTA
j^
lit.

^-gg
A

or

Jf,
of

bold giver.

Name

A
;

priest of Diichasana of several s'astras.

learned author

a s'rechthin, a contemporary of S'akyamuni.


A

VIMTA EUTCHIiJl-jg^^
^
or
of joy.

VIRA

-h

-4--

strong

man
An-

^ ^ S'ramana
lit.

heroe, demigod.

extinction
of

Udya-

VIRASANA HJtHflJ^
cient

na, translator (A. D. 582) of

kingdom and

city

(now

2 works.

Kai-sanah)

VIPASA

Bj^

Hyphasis (now Beas)


Pundjab.

^^

between and Yamuna.


hok. Tib.

Ganges

The
in

river

YIRUDHAKA
Mong.

(Siam. Virulapo.
tereltu)

the

Hphags skyes
Ulumtschi

VIPAS'YI
nendra
or

or

Vipasvi

or Dji-

(Tib.

Rnam
lit.

par

^^
The

@^

manifold
the Sapta

tS^sM
i^ftl by j^

^ (incorrectly)

]s\^

(Vaidurya), explained

views.

first of

Buddha, the 998th Buddha


of the last kalpa, a triya by bii-th, son of

lit,

increase

of

Kchat-

Pandu
Uved
con-

(^fiS) ^
ti

ii^it^ive

of

Pandupatree,

growth. (1.) A name of Iks vaku, the cruel father of the 4 founders of Kapilavastu.
(2.)

(g^t|). who

king of Kosala (son

under an As oka

cruel the destroyer of Kapilavastu. (3.)


of

Prasenadjit),

204

PART

I.

One

Tchatur Mahdraguardian of the South, king of Kumbhandas, worshipped in China as one of


of the
djas,

a means magic power.


as

of

obtaining

viRYAsfiNA

the 24

Deva Arya

{^^\
is

A
wlio

priest

of

n^mmmM BhadraviMra,
v.

His

favourite colour

blue.

taught Hiuen-tsang (about A.D. 640).


Yirya.

VIRUPAKCHA
pak.
Tib.

(Siam. ViruMigraibzang.

VIRYENDRIYA
YIS'AKHA
V.

Mong.

Sain

bussu

nidiidu)

Yais'dkha.

YIS'ECHAMATI if ,^The
son of Tchandra
dipa.

5th
pra-

surya

plained by
lit.

^g^
^^^'

or

wicked or vile eye. or by *ttS3 lit. mixed talk, or by

@|J^ YIS'iCHATCHINTA BRAHMA PARIPRITCHTCHHA.


^^
(1.)

SS
sundry

'fe I'M

'*^^^

Title of

translations,

viz.

colours

(rupa).

One

Tchatur Maharddjas, guardian of the West, king of Nagas. His colour-is in red. Ho is worshipped China as one of the 24
of the

Dharmarakolia, A.D. 286.


Kuraaradjiva, A. D. 402,

(2.)

(3.)

Deva Arya (^:^). (2.) Another name for Mahes'vara or Rudra (Shiva).

Bodhirutchi, A. D. 517, and of a commentary 'l^

^^

bandhu,

YIRTA

translated (A. 531) by Bodhirutchi.

D.

^Pali.

Wiraya. Singh.

Wirya)^Hj.[.|IJ^or^^|p YISICHTA TCHARITRA Jor tJ^j^ lit. zealous advance. ^y {^) A Bodhisattva who
Energy, as the 3rd of the 7 Bodhyanga, the 4th of the 10 Paramita, the 3rd (Viryabala) of the 5 Bala, and the 2nd (Yiryendriya) of the
5 Indriya.
rose out of the earth

before

S'akyamuni,

YISTIRNAYARTI
The realm Buddha.
of

;;|^

S'ubhavyuha as

YIRYARDDHIPADA (Singh. VIS'UDDHASIMHA iii}t;5J^[?g Wiriyidhipada) Mjgi] lit. ""' wmf- ^ ^^1ft
the step of energy. Energy the 2nd of the 4 Riddhipada,

lower

(A.

Mahay ana

D. 740) School.

of

the

SANSKRIT-CHINESE DICTIONAKI.

205

VIS'UDDHA The ^^

companion

TCHARITRA VIVADAS'AMANA S'ASTRA of ^ philosophical iB] if

Vis'ichta tcliaritra.

YIS'YABHU
31^ ^. ffl

ffljt^jf^

f^i"

work by Nagardjuua, translated (A. D. 541) by VimokffiJt

cliapradjna.

explained
lit.

by

apparition

^^ VIVARA ^^ One
of

(Tib.

Dkhrigs pa)

quadrillion.

Yarious transformations, or by tjjg:ilit- all beings

M:VARTTA kalpa
kappa.
galab)

(Vivatta

everywhere

independent,
lit-

by -^^J]^ The last of

all

or beings.

J^ ^

Mong.
lit.

the

Toktachoi kalpa

of formation.

the 1000 Buddhas of last kalpa. The 3rd of the Sapta Buddha, bom a Kchattriya, who converted 130,000 persons, when life lasted 10,000 yeare.

20

The period of during kalpas, small which, after the evolution of


rain
clouds,
floods,

lotus

arise worlds, one out of each flower, and in each world successively
flowers,

there

YlS'VAKAPiMAk
wakarmma)
or

(Singh. Wis-

fflJj^JJ^I^^
explained by
all
lit.

g-g*j5hgg
laandicraft.

%^'^f^^

sorts of
(in

The

creator

Brahmanic cosmogony) who, transformed as an artist, went to Maudgalyayana with


a Traiyastrims'as to take likeness of Buddha and then carved the first statue.
I

evolve the rupadhdtu, kamabeings, all dhatu, human other sentient beings, the tchakravalas, meru, the 10 highest mountains, the regions of demons, the oceans, all jewels and magic trees.

See Kalpa.

VIVARTTA SIDDHA KALPA (Pali. Vivattatthahi kappa.


/[i:

Mong. Oroschichoi galab)

VIS'VAMITRA (Tib. Kun gyi

^^^
teacher
of

or Kaus'ika bches; Hj^^

lit.

the

stationary

An
the

ancient richi^
infant S'aklit.

period of 20 kalpas kalpa. (succeeding a Vivar^ta kalpa),

when sun and moon

rise out

yamuni.

VITASTI
The

^^

of the water, whereupon, in consequence of the food eaten

a span,
of

32,000th yodjana.

pai-t

VITCHAVAPURA

^|S
Sindh.

The ancient

HJt "^ capital of

by human beings, the difference of sex arises, then heroes (beginning with Sammata) arise, the 4 castes are
formed, social Tchakravarttis
life

evolves,

Buddhas

rale.

finally and See Kalpa.

206

PART
(Pali. Vaddji)

I.

YEIDJI

or Samvadji

^
v.

^^
Urrdha-

of

Brahma, compiler

of

the
(1.)

Veda.
Bodhisattva of the retinue of S'4kyammii. (2.) A degree of samadhi.

Ancient kingdom, N. of the Ganges, S.E. of Nepanl.

f^ f^ VYtJHA RADJA

^jgj;

VRIDJISTHANA
sthana.

YRIHASPATI

(Tib.

Gza

pliur

Y.
^ACHTIVANA
^i|

jp The planet

Jupiter.

fg

or ixh

jkjh

lit.

the

^fl forest

of

YRIHATPALAS
^^)
lit.

(Singh.
^'

We-

happala. Tib. Hbras bu tch-

m "F M II Thej *
vast
merit.
lasts

12th

Brahmaloka; the 3rd region of the 4th Dhyana, where


life

500 great kalpas.


(Tib.

VYAKARANA
ston
Bft

Lund du
''

pa)

m mD^m Works which


un
^'

Sj:|:W^iS$lJli

the (bamboo) staff took root, with which a Brahman in vain endeavoured to measure the constantly increasing height A forest near of S'akyamuni. Radjagriha, on (mount) Yachtivanagiri ;^ Jj), the Djayaeena. of abode
the
staff,

sc.

where

(^

^^)

YADJUR VEDA ;^^^


IE

or

phecies

contain pro^i^ gP\ regarding


(2.)

JlSl.fm the Veda, a liturgy for sacri-

^^

"^^'^'^^

the destiny of saints.

fices.

grammar
l^j
of

(^0^|e|^
Sanskrit
to

or

by Panini,
Indra

| YADJNA g|
manic

or 1=]
for

Brah-

sacrifices,

which
obla-

traced

back

and

Buddhism substituted
tions (pudja).

(Singh. Yaka. VYAKARANA KAUNDINYA YAKCHA Jak. Tib. Gnod sbyin)

Brahma.

Kaundinya who received the


instruction (from Buddha viz. that a Buddha is too spiritual to leave any material relics behind). An Arhat, to be reborn as Samanta prabhasa. See under K&undiuyn.

or

valorous. A class of de(the retinue of Kuv^ra or Vais'ravana), who devour


lit.

^^ by jS ^
lit.

^^

^^^ explained
by
or

^^
^g

Siam.

lit.

hurtful, or

dai-ing,

by

^^^
fast,

mons

men, and, when moving


resemble
comets.

VYASAJlgp^or

J^tflUl

shooting

stars

or

A lit. the richi who expanded (the Yeda). One of the Sapta Tathagata, grandson

YAKCHA KRITYA
gg

^^'^

class of

demons, who

8ANSKBIT-CHINESE DICTIONABT.

207

have the appearance of Yakchas and the power of Krity


as.

a demon pours into Yama's mouth boiling copper (by way of punishment), his subordinates
receiving the same dose at the same time, until
their sins are expiated,

YAMA

(Siam. Phaja jam. Tib. Gchinrdje. Mong. ErlikKhan) or (or

^0g ^^^^ Mor^ljorjj^) ^or^ by ^^ ^


explained
lit.

when

he

will

be reborn as Samanta

radja {M,

^).

division of time, or by #^ipr

YAMADAGNI j:g0i^;^ll|
One
or
lit.

the twin rulers (Yaraa and Yami) or the twofold ruler (being both judge and criminal), oi^ by >g jj^ lit. relit.

of the 7 ancient richi.

YAMA DEVALOKA
*I;2M^
time, or

:^^^
Mp
lit.

explained by

by

straining (evil doers). (1.) The Aryan lord of the day, his twin-sister Yami (queen of night) who opens to mortals the path to the West. (2.)

Jfegi^

In

later

Brahraanic

my-

thology, one of the 8 Lokapala, guardian of the South and ruler of the Yama devaloka (q. v.), also judge of the dead.
(3.) In Buddhist mythology, the regent of the Narakas, residing South (yamas) of outside the Djarabudvipa, Tchakravalas, in a palace of

heaven of good time (where there is no change of day and night). The 3rd Devaloka, above Traiyastrims* as, 160,000 yodjanas above Meru, with a circumference
the
of 80,000 yodjanas. Life lasts

there 2,000 years, but 24 hours on eai"th are equal to 200 years there. See Yama.

YAMANTAKA
gched)

(Tib.

Gchin

He was copper and iron. originally a king of Vais'ali, who, when engaged in a bloody war, wished he were master of hell, and was accordingly reborn as Yama in together with his 18 hell,
generals and his army of 80,000 men, who now serve him in hell as assistant judges, jailors and executioners. His sister (Yami) deals with female culprits. But three times ["HT

epithet of (s.a. Mahes'vara or Rudra), as " destroyer


of

H ^ Shiva

@,

rjei

An

Yama."

YAMUNA
B|?

mi^m

or

A tributary of the Ganges

the Jumna.

YAS'ADA
-^R-^
at the

or Yas'as or Yads*aputra (Tib. Ja shei ka) Jfj?

native of Kos'ala,

disciple of

Ananda, a leader 2nd synod (A. D. 443).


lit.

YAS'ASKAMA ;^/g
of fame (yas'as).

seeker

Bi yama)

in every 24 houra

An

ambitious.

208
but thoughtless, Varaprabha.
disciple

PART
of

I.

Ganges,
Vais'ali.

150

U.

S.

W.

of

YAS'ODHARA

(Singh. Tasodhara dewi. Siam. Phirapa. Burm. Yathandara. Tib. Grags dzin ma) or Yas'ovati

YODJANA

(Burm.

Yudzana.

Singh. Yosj.ma)

JP^
or

g^^||^ or l^Jil|5^'S^ A measure


distance, variously computed, as equal to a day's march [4,650 feet], or 40 or 30 or 16 U [i.e. 33| or 10 or

of

^M

lit.

variegated,

by

" the mother of Rahula, also called Gopa." The (second name of the) legitimate wife who, after of S'akyamuni, giving birth to Rahula, enter-

5^ English miles].

YOGA

(Tib.

Thig
lit.

le

or

RnaL

monastic life and is to re-appear as Buddha Ras'mi s'ata sahasra pari purna dh-

ed by jgH

contemplation*

ed

mutual

vadja.

YAS'OGUPTA jp^lg^ or A foreign Sraraana,

relation of sphere, practice and results, with the note " the first of this trio
refers to the heart, the 2nd to [doctrinal] principles, the 3rd to the 3 degrees of saint-

^^

translator

(A. D. 561578). with Djnanagupta, of some 4 works,


*^^

ship," or
lit.

by

^P^^IJi
hand
[tantra]

mutual

relation of

YAVA 5p^

2,688,000th barley. of) part of a yodjana.

^ The

^}^-

(^ ^^'^^^

[mudra], mouth

and

YAVANA or Yamana
the
or

dvipapuia

or Yavadvipa (Pali. or Yona)


island

Yawana
lit.

P0||^?jflg
kingdom

mana, or

3P

The
(by

island of Java, deseribed

^ ll

gp^Jg

of Ya(Yamani)

ancient practice of ecstatic meditation obtaining of [as a means spiritual or magic power]! revived by the Yogatcharya vulgarly (q. V.) School, and abused for purposes of exorcism, sorcery and jugglery.
[yoga]-

mind

The

C^ava dvipa).

YOGAS' ASTRA s.

a.

Yogatcha-

rya bhumi s'astra.

Fah-hien and Hiuentsang) as peopled by Brahmans and other heretics.

YOGATCHARYA
(q.
V.)

(Tib.

Rnal

who

has

mastered
practice
(v.

YODHAPATIPURA
dharadjapura
lit.

or

Yud-

the
of

theory
ecstatic
[2.]

and

||g^ (orIf:)pg[
king).

meditation

Yoga).

the State of the combat(or

^ftlgp
"'

or
t'"-

ant lord

Ancient
the

kingdom and

city near

m-MU Maha

tantra).

The Yoga

or

SAlNSKRIT-CHINESE dictionakt.

209

YogatchArya or Tantra or which Mahdtantra School, Samantabhadra for claims


its

(samadhi) might be reached, characterized by there being neither thought nor annihilation of thoughts ing of sixfold

founder.

The teaching
is

of

and

consist-

this School

derived

from

bodily

and

the

Toga system (a deistic branch of the Samkhya) of


[B. C.

mental

happiness
result

(jog^),

PatandjaU

200150],

whence would with ment

endow-

who taught

abstract meditation to be reached by means of moral consecration to Is' va-

supernatural miracle-working power. This


(or Tantra or Mantra) system was made known in China (A.D. 647) by Hiuen-

Yc^a

ra and mental concentration upon one point with a view to annihilate thought, whence

tsang's

translation

of

the

would

result the Achta Mahasiddhi (8 great powers of Siddhi), viz. the ability. [1.]

to

make

one's

body
[2.]

lighter

Yogatcharya bhumi s'astra (q.v.), on which basis Amoghavadjra (A D. 720) established the Chinese branch of the Yoga School which was pochiefly by the pularized labours of Vadjrabodhi (A.D.

(laghiman) (gariman),

heavier smaller or [3.] (aniraan) or [4.] larger (mahiman) than anything in the world, and [5.] to roach any place (prapti) or [6.] to assume any shape (prakamya), also [7.] to control all natural

or

732).

YOGATCHARYA
S'ASTRA
Jll

BHUMI
:te

tl gU

work by Asamgha (derived

laws

(is'atva)

and

[8.]

to at

make everything depend upon


oneself
(vas'itva),
all

from Maitreya), tbe textbook of the Yogdtcharya School, translated (A. D. 647) by with a comHiueu-tsang mentary by Djinaputra.

pleasure of

Eiddhij. On this basis, but in harmony with the leading ideas Mah&yana School, the of
will
(v.

^^OGI

sixfold

^SR bodily

(1.)

state of

and

mental
of

happiness as the
fixity of ecstatic

result

Asamgha compiled (A.D. 550)


the mystic doctrines Yoga School, which
of

meditation.

his

taught that by means of mystic formularies (tantras) or litanies

(2.) The devotee (s.a. Yogdtcharya) who has attained to that state and has there-

fore

(dharanis)

or

spells

YUGA
age.

magic power. (Tib. Dus)

^
ft)

lit.

an
a

reciting of the which should be accompanied

(mantras),

The 1000th part


(1.)

of

Kalpa.

by music and

cei-tain

disfixity

tortions of the fingers ra), a state of mental

(mud-

YUGAMDHARA.

mB""'^

(^'

^^
\^t

210
or

PABT

I.

(q. v.),
lit.

40,000 yodjanas high.

'^ ijj

a monntain resting

(2.) jf|u

on a pair (yuga) sc. ou Meru and Tchakravdla, with the note, " its peak is perforated in two places." The 1st of the 7 concentric mountains
wJiich

holding,
School.

^ Name
lit. lit.

adding
of

and a magic

formula (tantra) of the Yoga

YUKA

a louse.

The

surround

the

Meru

7th part of a Yava.

I39D OF

PABT

I.

PART

II.

:o:

A PALI VOCABULARY.
[Note. Those
Pfi.Ii

terms which coincide with their equivalents in Sanskrit are here, as in the whole work, omitted.]

Abhassara Abhassaras Abhidliana

1 1 3

Assulakunu Atappa
Attha Attangga magga Bala phutudjdjana

Abhiuna
Adhimutti
Adjatasattn Adjita Adjita kesa karabali

4 4
5

Bhaddha Bhaddha kappa


Bhaddaji

Aggivessayana Akanistaka

5 6,50 6

81 22 122 97 28 29 29 30

Amitodana AnatatthaAnepida

11 12 12
1.5

Bhagava Bhanta Bhikklm


Bodhisatto

30 29
31 34 43,122 44 45 47

Apramaua Aranna kangga


Ariya

Dharama Dhammagutta
Dhainraapada

Asamkheyya
Asangasatta

Asava samkhaya Asoka Assakanna

15 17 19 19 21 20 21

Dhammauu passan4 Dhamma vitchaya


Dibbasota Dibba tebakkhu

46
51 51

Ghana
Ghedjakabo

60
61

212
Iddhi Iddhipado Iddhippa bhedo ludrayas Isadhara Kadjanghele

PilRT

I.

130 131 131


65 65 67
-T?

PMtchittiya PhatidesaniyA

118,123 122

Phatimokha sutta
Piadassi Pitakattaya
Piti

Kakusanda
Kapilavatthu

Pottaban

Kappa
Kassapa Kathi Kayarupa passana

70 68 73
77 75 155 69

Pubbeai vasanugatamndnein j
)

122 20 180 123 119 ^no 123 127 156 132 132 156 134 134 157 134 140 167 145 34 143 145 145 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 145 144 143 142

Pathudjdjana

Khanda
K-onagamana

Radjagaha Sadabala Saddau

Saddhamma
Saddindriya Sagala

Kosambi
Kusindra Lata Madjdjadesa

Mahakappa
Mahinda Manussa
Masaragalla

74 80 72 83 68
91

Sakka

Saman
Sakadagarai

Mahaparinibbana sutta---87
96 102 92 101 103 104 105 109 109 105 122 14 119 121
i
.

Metteyyo
TVlutta

Samadhi india Sdmanera Samato Sambodjhana Samkassa


Saramadjiva

!Nagasena

Sammaditthi

Namo
Naudiyavatta

Saramakamanta Sammdprathana

Nibbdna
Niramanaratti

Niraya
Nirutti

Sammasamadhi Sammasambuddha Samra^samkappa


Sammasati
Sammavatclia Sararaaydydmo Samvattakappa

Opapatika

Panna
Pannendriya Paranirmita Wasawart Parassa tchetopariy 4 yanana Pasenadi Passadhi PatibhAua Patiekan Patisambhida Patthana
1

11

..

iig
121 122 122 123 122 188 117

Saukha Sanuana
Savaiia

Sanvattatthahi kappa 146


Sariputta Satara sati patthana

Patto

182 149 156 156 Sati 156 Satindriya Sattadhikarana samatha 152 167 S4vako

gamana

PAIJ VOCABULARY.

213
159 188 206 20 I95 194 203 192 192 201 197 205 205 189 115 196 100 204 192 208

Sdvatthi

Sekkhiya
Siddhattu

Sikkhapdda Sinhahana kabana


Sota

Sotdpan
Sotthika

Sunna
Suriya Sutta Suttavada

Suvanna
SuvattLika
TamaJitti

Tavatinsa

Tchakkhun Tchankama
Tchatur Maharajika Tchetiya Tchintchi

157 134 150 153 154 159 159 157 Ig4 155 165 152 166 167 169 173 171 173 174 171 173

Thera
Upatissa Vaddji Vadjira

Varcha Vassa
Veputto
Vesaliya

Vibharo

Vimokha
Vinnana
Vivatta kappa
Vivattatthalii

Wappa
Wasawarti

Wedandnupasana
Wiraausi pada Wiraya Wisakha mdtavi

Yawana

END or PART n.

PART m.

A SINGHALESE VOCABULARY.
[Note.

Those Singhalese terms which coincide with their equivalents in Tali or


Sanskrit are here, as in the whole work, omitted.]

Abhidharama Abhignyawa
Aggidatta Ajasat
Ajita

Aupapatika

Akasananchayataua Akintchannyayatana

Amba
Anagami
Angotra sangi Anguttara nikayo
Auotatta

77 4 5 174 174 65 11 5
5

Awidya Awiha
Awichi Ayatana

Bagawa

14 27 27 27 201 30
31 31

Bhawa
Bhikchu Bimsara
Bodliimandala Bodhiaat

Antahkalpaya Arya Arya ashtangika margga

Asankya Asoka
Assagutta
Assaji

12 68 17 97 19

Bowdyanga Buddbadharmma
Buddhasetra Cusinana Cusinara

32 33 34 35 26
37 80 80 51 51 42 42 42

20
21 21 21 21

Damba Damba diwa Dewa


Dewadaho
Dewadatta

Asur

Aswakamna

PART

m.
Paribrajikas

215

Dewala Dewaloka Dewi Dhagobah

Dharmma
Dighanikayo Diksangi Dipankara Ekabhyoharikas

42 42 43 160 43
5 5

Pase Buddha Pasenadi Passana Patara


Paticha samuppdda Patidesani dhamma

hq
123 121 I88 117 122 122 119 118 121

G^udhan Garunda Gautama


Gayakdsyapa

Ghanan
Ghatikara
Gliosika

Gihi Grahapati
Iftadliara

Isipatana

Kala dewala Karmaja

50 56 57 58 58 59 60 162 60 61 61 65 101 19 175


73,85

Phassa
Pitakattayan

Poega Poya Pragnyawa


Pratisambidha
Pritija

124
119,121 122

Punna
Purnna Purwa wideha
Rabat
Rajagalia nuwara

Revato Sakradagami Sakwalagala

Kasyapa Kayan
Kimbulvat,

Kondanya Kosamba
Kosol

75 70 74 74 77
...81

Lakhan
Lichawi

Sakya Samaner gauinnaiise-.-'.-157 Sambhuta Sauavasika 146 Samgbadisesa 142 Samkantikas 147 Sainpati 134 Samyakajiwa 145

123 125 28 126 I6 127 loi 134 172 135

Mahabrahmas

Mahanama
Maliapurushu lakshana

82 84 87 81
5 92 5 99

Samyak drishti Samyak kalpanawa Samyak pradhana


Samyaksamadbi

Mahindo
Majjhima nikayo
Maitri

..91

Samyak

siti

Samyakwyagaraa
Sangala Sangalasivura Sangsara Sanjawi

Medum
Ndga

sangi

Moriyanaga Mugalan

Newasanyana
Niranjara

Okkaka
Pachiti
,

Pancha abtgnya

84 102 174 104 65 118 113

Sannya
Sanyut sangi Sanyutta nikayo

Sardhawa bala Sardhawa indra


Sati indra

145 146 145 145 146 145 134 143 147 77 142 5 5 156 156 156

216
Seriyut

SINGHALESE VOCABULARY.

Sekra Sewet Singhahanu


Smirti

Sotan

Sowan Srawaka
Subhakinho Sudarsana Sudassa
Sadassi

Sudhodana
Sujata

Sukkattana Suprabodha
Tavutisa

Tchandidhi pada Tchaturmaharajika Tchittidhi pada

1^8 134 157 154 156 159 159 157 161 161 161 162 162 28 151 164 178 175 174 176

Tissa

Trisuawa Tunpitakaka
Tusita

Upasikawa Uruwelaya Utnrukura


Veluvana Wadhiu-a

177 178 180 183 187 188

Wedana khando
Weliappala

189 53 77 39 206
-lOS ...174,197

Wesamuna
Wingana WiiTa Wisakha
Wisala

204
77,192

Wiswakarmma Yaka
Yasodhara

192 205 206 208

END OF PART

III.

PART

IV.

:o:

A SIAMESE VOCABULARY.
Amaraka jana thavib
Anodatasa Aralang Assakan Awichi Batkeo inthauan
15 12 16 21 27 125 126 172

Phimpa
Phra Phra Phea Phra Phra
Phrai
athithi

208
165 73 58 69 77 92 65 35 199 37 181 130 157 58 141 167 145 161

kasop

kodom Kona kham Kakusom

Bupha

vitlie

thavib

Cliakiavan

Phras in

Dapha Davadung
Dusit Himaphanfc

Jak
Kabillaphot Kalasuta Karavik Kliong ka

169 178 183 63 206 70 67


71

Phrom
Pihan Putha ket Ratana trai Roruva

Samanen Samanokodom
Sanxipa Sukhato

Khrut Kinon
Laiiguti

Lokavithu

MahadapLa
Maliakab Mahaioniva

Mak
ISJarok

....

Matxiina prathet

Nenor

luksit

Paranimit Phaja jam Phaja man

Phakhava
Phattakala

57 58 76 143 82 122 68 88 97 85 105 157 115 207 97 30 29

Sumraa samphutto
Suthat
Tliatarot

Thavib

Thepa kumphan Traiphum


Traipidok

48 56 79 177
182 72 65 189 142,199 193 202

Tschok

khiinbalafc

Tsin thon

Udorakaro thavib Vat Vetsuvan


Vinatok Virulahok

Virupak

Xam
IV.

puthavib

203 204 51

END OF PART

218

PART

V.

:o:

A BURMESE VOCABULARY.
Baranathee Duzzaraik Dzedi

Kium Magga Manh Mar


Mat

394 56 171 142


97 97 97 97 163 101 104 102 109 105 121 157 123

Scieu Thabeit

Thakagan
Thakia Thakiamuni

157 117 134

135
135 142 182 148 156 157 150 143 162 165 183 175 172 197 202 173 208 208

Thanga

-.

Tharanagon
Thariputra Thati pathan Thawatthi

Miemmo
Migadawon

Namau
Nat Neibban
Niria

Theddhat Thingan Thoodautana


Thoot
Toocita

Pathanadi

Phungee
Ptetzega Pitagat Prachadi Racior rathee

Tsanda
Tsekia wade Wignian Wini

118 160 130


127 16 127

Yatana zeugyan
Yatliandara

Badzagio

Rahan
Raoula

Tudzana

END OF PART

Y.

PART

VI.

:o:

A TIBETAN VOCABULARY.
Akara
Amurliksan Ani Bab dvang phyugh Bandi Bargyi bskalpa Bdosogs
6

32 115 157 68 65 10 Bdud rtsi 11 Bdiid rtsi zas 97 Bdudsigtohan Blia rdje sems dpar snang 191 28 Bhach bah 46 Bharana Bhu ram ching pa) ^g hphags skyespo 55 Bliudh rtsi zas 186 Bon po 36 Bram ze 151 Brgjti bjin 68 Bskalpa 68 Bskalpa bzan po 68 Bskolpa ngan po 68 Bskalpa tchenpo 151 Btsan btchos 30 Btsham Idan das 92 Byamps pamgon po Byanggyi sgra misnan 189 32 Byang teliub Byang tchub sems dpa-- 34 193 Bye brag pa 23 Cen resig 92 Chamra 54 Chang chang chu Chargii Ins pag dwip 126 153 Chel 161 Chintou mthong ba

Chinton parlegs rtogs pa- -164 Dehalpoikap 127 170 De bjin gshegs ba Dga bo 105 Dea Idan 183

Dge dun gji du khang.-121 Dge rgyas 161 157 Dge sbyoDg 31 Dge slong 32 Dge slong ma 187 Dge snen 116 Dge tchhung Dgon pa 15,143
Dgra btshom pa
Dhitika

Djambu daip
Djambugling

16 48 51
51 191 205 142,1 81 162 152 69 141 200 200 72 144 121 142 202 209 65 51 207 207 175

Dknrpo

Dkhrigs pa

Dkon ratchog gsum Dmang rigs


Dngos grab Dodpai khams Dons Drima med
Dri med pahi od

Du byed Du dyed Du khang Du ses


Dul bai

Dus Dvango

Dzam ba

la

Gchien rdje Gchien rdje gched Gdol pa

220

PART

VI.

Gdung

rten Gred rgyes

160 161 58 Geoutam 127 GLiaisres Ghianhphruldvangbyed 115 118 Ghru hdzin 167 Gji sroung 159 Gnas brtau Gnas gisang mahi Iha 162 206 Gnod sbyin 46 Gobharana Gou lang 155 Grags dzin ma 208 58 Grobai rigs drug 201 Grol pa Gsal rgyal 121 166 Gser 69 Gser thub Gsungs sugags 96 163 Gtsan gns Gtsug lag 199 183 Gtsug tor 162 Gyir nom snaugba Gyimg drung-167 Gza phur bu 206 167 Gzag sang Gzugs 131 Gzngs kyi khanis 132

Ja shei ka

Kachya

priyas

Kaushika

Khambu Khams gsum


Khor ba
Khorlo

Klu

207 74 66 164 177 147 171 102


5 11 205 81

Kun ches Kaundinya Kun dgah bo Kun gyi belies


Ladag Lag na rda Laksh
Legs hongs
rdje

Leu ncik cir hongha ba Lha Lha hibu mo Lha ma yin Lha min Lha yub Lhas byin Llmng bsed
Lidschawji

190 81 167 134 42 15 21


21

42 42
117,

82

Gzugs raed pai khams 17 Gzugs tshau sniug ^x) 32 206 Hbras bu tchhe

43 Los krims Lund du ston pa 206 Ltoh phye tcheu po 92 Lus hphags 191,197 12 Ma dros pa Mah hgags pa 13

Mame
Marig pa Marme mzad

Hdod pa Hdjam dpal Hdjam dvyaDg Hdun pa 'tchan


Hkhitigs pa Hkorlos sgyur bai
Hkorvalidjigs

97 94 94 175
7

99 27 50

Ma

sskjess dgra

4
165 152 188 12 13 204 76 27 58 199 157

Mdo Mdo

sde dziu

Hkor yug
Hlandshin

172 77 172 42
8

Mdzod spu Mgon med zas sbyin Mig draar Mig mi bzang

Hopame
Hphags skyes po Hphrog ma Hphruldgab
Htcharpo

Miham

tschi

203
62 109 183

Mitcheba

Mka

Iding

Mklian po Mnan yod

TIBETAN VOCABULARY.

221
202 161 168

Mnar med Mos pa


Motih dgalyi Michio gsum
bii

27

Pibang

4
86 182 121

Rabhbyor Rang byung

Mtchod khang 160,171 Mtchod rten 177 Mustegs tchah 101 Mutig 105 Myalba 20 M3'a gnan med pa Mya Dgan las Ldas pa 85 85 Nag po tchen po

Kama
Nan thos Nap po
Ndjig i-tengyi Nergyal

Ngaug zen
Nid
rghial
'
'

Nima

NiraaiguDg Njandu jodpa Nub kyi va lang spyod Nye dgali vo Nye Tar khor

104 157 19 82 188 30 148 165 83 157 15 187 187

Od bsal Od dpag med Odma


Odsrung Odsrung tchen po

116
...

8 397

..73 ..85

Od tchhung Og min
Oye sbas Padma byung gnas
Padsskor Pak tchhu Pan shen Pdaldan Phaggs pa lama-'" Phothisath

116
...6

187 111 101 194 113


176

Eangsbyedkyibulhagsp- U g^ yod J 123 Rangs sang dschei 194 Rdje hurig3 20 Rdohi snid po 190 Rdo rdje Rdzuhphrulgyirkangpa 131 176 Rgya nag 168 Rgya spos Rgya tchen bjihi rigs 174 81 Rgya tcher rol pa 118 Ri potala 196 Rig byed 163 Rirap chunpo 189 Rlangs pa 208 Rnal byor 208 Rnal pa 203 Rnam par gzigs Rnam par snang mdzad- 192 197 Rnam shes 193 Rnam thos kyi bu Rnga byangs Idan pa 58 21 Rta thai 108 Rten brd Rten tching hbrell ^22 barbhyur ba 80 Rtsa mtchogh grong 60 Satshoma 37 Sangs rgyaskyi zing Sangs rgyas rabs bdun.-147 148 Saradwatuby 118 Schaza 65 Sciol darin 180 Sde snod gsum

.28
.-34

Semstchanhdutchosmed 19 154 Sengghe hghgram


Serskya ghrong

Phreng thogs Phung bo

58

Sgom pa

Phyag rdor
Phyir mi hong ba Phyir mi Itog pa

113 190
..11

.23

70 49 143 chen Sgra Sgra gtchan hdsin .127,128 162 Sgra snan 170 Sgrol ma

222

PART
rtsal slies

VI.

Sgyu

kyil
j

-.n

Stong pa nyid

12,164

buiing liplmr Shakja tlmbpa

Sum
135 148 155 154 81 170 124 178 117 175 39 188 169 156 191

tclm rtas gsura

178
15 195 102 27 208 183 155
j.,
J

Sharu by
Sida

Sindhou Sing ga gliu Skah thub Shar ma rgyal

Tchad med od Tchu Iba Tchu wo odsrnng Ther bhum Thig le Thor tchog

Skngsum Skya nar gyi bu Skye ba bzi


Skye mtched Skyil mo krung Snag kyi theg pa

Thuug po Tog maisangas

I'gyasl

Snama
Snyon po Spong byed
Sprin raed Sprul ba

Snoms par hdjag pa -141


192 11 108 23 32 128 26

knntub zangyo Trang srong tsieu po Tsa dus Tsandan Tsbaugs Tshangs hkhor Tshangs patchen po Tsoug kha pa
Tsordjio sen

19 145 172 35 35

84
163 29 194 48 99 163 163 172

Waranasse Yul bhkor srung

Spyan rasgzigs
Srenika
Srin boi diu Srung po yahi sde

Yum
Zas dkar Zas gtsan
Zlava

ma

END OF TART

VI.

PART
:o:-

VII.

A MONGOLIAN VOCABULARY.
Altan tchidaktchi, Araudaria Arighou idegetLu
Assiiri

Baddir
BiiTid,

Bisman
Buraiga

tegri

Burchan bakchi

69 194 162 21 117 123 193 60 135


..115

Goodam
Gourban aimak saba Horyik
Jeke charra, Jeke kii Kabilik Kasjapa Kerkessundi Khan kubakhur Khurmusda Kuchika

58
180

Bussudum chubilghani
erkeber Cbasalaug oughei
uii

nom

kaghan

20
155 154 145 142 16 16
106

Khurmusda Kut

tegri

29 85 90 70 73 77 127 65 65
143,199

Lampa
Lus
Macharansa Majak
Maidari

Chida
Cbilda

Chogbossum galab Cbubarak Cbutuktu


Daini daruksan

Mangga
Mapamdalai Margisii'i amoge langa]
ouile duktchi

S3 102 174 143 92 128


12

Doroua

oulara dzil
)

boyetow dip

32
115

Dsang lun

Dumdadu Dyan

galab

Ebderekoi galab Ergetu khomsin


Erlik khan

40 68 49 144 23 207
35 68 85 31 73
-.^q

Maschi baya suktchi


ergethu

Mohdohton Nadi kathaba Nat


Naritzara

Esruu tegri Galab Gascib Gelong


Gerel zakiktchi

Ogha

djitou arealan

Orchilong ebdektchi Orchilong tetkuktchi Oroschichoi Galab


Oi-tschir

Ghassalang etse augkidl


shirakasan [ Ghassalang ngei nohmlu
1

.
'

Ovoro torolkitu Pratikavud Rachiyau ideghetu


Raholi

khan Gobi

93

Riddhi chubilghan

189 102 102 104 154 77 48 205 190 123 123 55 128 130

224

A MONGOLIAN VOCABULARY.
68 68 204 157 149 139 157 135 97 154 157 134 160 143.199 163

Sabssarum Saghoratw
Sain bussu nidiidii Schabi Schari Schakin iin arslan

Tamu

Schanrak Schigamuni Schimnus


Sidda Sonoschoyabui Ssava jirtintchu

105 187 Tchikhola aktchi Tegiis bajasseno langtu 183 42 Tegri 42 Regri oktiga Teguntchileu ireksen 170 Todorchoi ilaghaksan 121 205 Toktachoi galab 32 Tschibaganza Tsoktsasuu dshiriiken 32 187 Ubascbi

Ulumtchi toreltu

Ssu wurghan
Ssiima

Utu
Vimaladjana un kiindi Zogoza

Summer

oola

203 192 127 117

END OF PART VIL

PART
:o:

VII.


A JAPANESE VOCABULARY.
[Note.The figares ia the subjoined Vocabulary designate respectively the and paragraph to be found above. For instance, " Abadana, ' signifieg that the Sanskrit and Chinese equivalents, for the Japa23, a, 3 nese term Abadana will be found explained above, on page 23, in the first
page, colamo,

oolamn, in the 3rd paragraph, under the heading Avadftna.]

Abadana Abara nyo


Abarara
Abasaira Abasairasho

23, a, 3
10, b,

14, b,
-1, a,

4 4
2

Ajariya ,,22, Ajase 6 4, Akito shisha kimbara -S,

a,

b,
a,

3 3

1, a,

Abatsu mora Abatsura shira Abatsura shira sogya Abatsuri kudani Abidatsuma Abidatsuma bibasharon

15, a, 5

Akuru kyo, 6, a, 6 Amida 7, b, 7 Amokugiya bassetsura 9, b, 5


Anabotata
12, b,

26, b, 1 26, b, 2 15, a, 1


1, b,
1

Anagon Anan
Anandafura Anatahinchoka

11, a,

4 4
1

4
,

H, b, H, b,
12, a,

t
)

o, a,
'
'

2 3

Andoye
Anokutara

Abidatsuma hotchiron Abidatsuma houni


soku ron
ron
J

2, a,
2, a,

14, a, 1 14, b, 3
13, b^ 4
5, a,

Abidatsuma kanromi

2,b,4
I

Anuruda Anaya kiyo chinniyo Arakan


Arangiyaran

16, a, 3

16, a, 1
15, b, 9 20, a, 1
7, b,

Abidatsuma kencbu
ron
1

2,b,6
,

Arenya Ariramaka tsuba


Arini,

Abidatsuma kushaba- rt }A15,J ku ron Abidatsuma ron 2, b, 9 Abidatsuma shikishinjq j^. a, J soku ron

Ariya daba Ariya daima Ariya shina


Ascita

17, b, 1

18, b,
5, a,

4
2

18, a, 3 26, a,
19, b,
7, b,
6, b,

Abidomma
Abira

shin ron

2, b, 9, b,

Abutasama
Agini

4, a, 5

Ashacha Ashida Ashuka


Asitsurabu Asogiga Atara

4 4
1

6,a,l
5, b,

4
2 7

Agiyama
Ai Aikuo

19, a, 1

178, b,l 20,a, 3

13, a,
4, a,

Atcimokuta

226

A JAPANESE VOCABULARY.
27, b, 21, b, 28, a, 30, b, 27, b, 28, a, 36, a, 36, a, 195, b, 30, a,

Ayata Ayukatsana Bakukiyara

3 3
1

Chiko Chishakaku Chujo

Bakugyabon Bakugyaro
Baia

4
7 3
1

Chu ron
Daiba
Daibasaina

64, a, 7 54, a, 5 83, b, 6 121, b, 1 42, a, 3

-43,

a,

Baramon Baiamon kokn


Basoten
Battarushi

4
2 2

Biku
Bikuni Bimbasliara
Birusliana

31,b,5
32, a, 1
32, b, 3

Daiba setsuraa Daibasha ron Daibiba Daibonten 6 Daigo kyo Daihauya kyo Daihatsu nehan kyoDaihi
Daijin o Daijizaiten

43, a, 2 90, a, 3 56, a, 7 84, b, 2 88, a, 8 87, b, 3


-87, b,
4, a,

192,

a,

Bodaidojo
Bodaiji

33, b,
34, b,

Bodaiju Bodaimslii

Bodoi Bonden,

33, a, 33, b, 32, b,


35, b,

4and
35, a,

Bonden 6

Bonji 35, b, 5; 144, a, Bosatsu 34, a, 1 Bosatsu zokoyo 34, a, 4 Buhkwa 38.b, 1

5 2 6 2 3 5 6 2 7

85, a, 91, b,

1 6 3 2
o

Daijo

90, a, 7
.
'

Dai jo Lachidai man-) dara kyo J Daiko 6


Dainichi

'

3, b,

DaisLamon

Bupposo
Bussetsu hatchibu

181,a,l

myo kyo
Bassetsu jahachi
nari

3,b,7

Daishojigohu Daiten 84, Daitogiya 48, Daitoku 29, Daitsu cliiaho Butsu- .84,

192, a, 5 89, a, 3 122, a, 2


b,
b,
a, a,

6 3 2 5

Dauna
Darani

kyo

3,b,8
42, a, 2 36; b, 6 37, a, 1 38, a, 3

Busshi Butsu Butsu Battara Butsuda ban

Daruma Dokkaku
Dokkozen

sennin

Dommatoku
Doshu
Eirataitara

40, 43, 33, 56, 12, 44, 56, 51, 207. 123, 123,

b, b,
a,

4
5
1

b, 1
a,

3 4 79,a,3
b,
b,

Butsuda nanti 38, a, 2 .37, b, 4 Butsudo Bntsu hongyo jikkyo 38, b, 7 Butsuji 199, a, 6
Butsnjira

4
3
1 1

Emba

b,
a, a,

Emma
Engaku
Gaki

Butsukoku Butsuya
Buttocho
Byakiishi Batsu

33, b, 1 37, b, 4 39, a, 2 39, b, 2

b,

Gaman Ge
Gedoshi

22, b,

58, a,

2 5 3

.123,

Chakkaku Chanoka

a, 1 46, a, 3

Genko
Genshiki kai

177, b, 4 29, a, 4 171, b, 3


53, a, 5

175, b, 3

Gina

PART
61, a, 1 70, a, 2
...113, a,

VIII.

227

Gishakusen Giya shiki giya

Jikkai

Gobun hosschin
Godonshi

Goho
Gokai

113, b, 3 45, b,4 114, b,l

Jikokusha Jindo Tuki Jinko


Jinsui

153, a, 1 48, b, 4

Kyo

...81, a,

11

Ko

Jiriki 6

Gokon
Goriki

Goun
Guisho

4 28, a, 4 155, b,4 28,b,l


65, b,
27. b, 1; 144, a, G

Jishu
Jizai ten

Gyo Hanya Hanya

hararaitta

120,

Hararaitta

Hassho dobun Hatsuuchan

119, b, 6 a, 7 115, a, 4 97, b, 1 116, a, 3


23,

Hiyu

a,3

Joben Jobcn 6 Jodo Jogo ten Joke sliuku o Butsu Joko Joko Butsu Joku
Joriu slioban

5 5 93, a, 1 199, b, 2 66, b, 6 31, a, 3 162, a, 5 163, a, 1 162, a, 3


6, a, 6, a,

chii

r\ o )-69.a,3

205, b,3 50, b, 3


67, a, 2
12, b, 3

Ho Ho Ho Ho Ho

ai

43,b,6 46,a,4
47, b, 1

Juaku
Juhacliibai ron

56,

a,

aiku

4, a,

2 1
8

bo
ki

46,b,2 45,b,2
2 132, b, 5

Juhacbi fuguho Juhachiku ron


Juji

26, b, 5
3, b,

Hokkaku joshin kyo Hokke zammai


Homitsubu

5, b,

Kyo

41, a, 5

Juko
Tuniinnen

44, b,

205, 108,

b,
a,

4
1

Homyo
Hoppadai Horaku Horin
Hoshari

46, a, 1 126, b, 3
46, b, 3

Jmiki
Juriki

Karbo

41, a, 3 41, a, 4

Juron
Juzesai goshin

47, b, 3
47, a, 4 141, b, 7

27,b,4 14, a, 2
70, b, 2 -..71, a, 1
70,

Hoshin

Hosho
Hosshin Hossbo Hotoke Ho-un soku ron

130, a, 2 45, a, 5 45, a, 4


36, b, 6
2, a,

Kabani Kabenshara 6 Kabimora Kacliokka muni


Kakaijo

b,4
2

69, b, 7
6, a, 3, a,

196, b, Idaten Indaraniranimokuta- -65, b, 65, a, 1 lahadara

2 2 2

Kangi Koku Kanjo Kanro Kanrobon o


Kanslio o Kapilajo
-

4 4

101, b, 8
10, b, 11, a, 1

Ishiki

Kai

96, b, 1
66, b, 7

65, a, 2 70, b, 3 68, a, 2 77, b, 3

Iteimokutagiya

Jakametsu
Jakujosho Jigoku
Jiji

3 109, 15, b, 9
a,

Karadai Karakusonda
Kario

105, a, 6

43,b,4

Kasbo Butsu Katsuma

67, b, 9 73, a, 7
72, a,

228

A JAPANESE VOCABULARY,
59, a, 2 59, a, 3

Kaya Kay akashoba Keko Buteu Keuchu ron


Kendara

Makada
Makahajahadai Makasatta Makeindara

HI,

b,

2
7

2, b,

57, a,

Makei keibatsura
Manji

Kenky o Kesa
Keshin

daishi

40, b, 6 67, a, 3

83, b, 7 87, b, 2 89, a, 1 91, a, 5 --^l, b, 1 165, b, 4

Marn
Mayabunin Mida Mikko Miroku Misbo on Miyo on Mizou Moknren
Monjushiri

97,a,2
86, b, 1

Kesho
Kicliijo

14,a,5

108, b, 2 26,b,4 ; 32,b,l 158, b, 7


62, b, 6

7,b.7
144, b, 3

Kishibojin

Ko
Kokujin

68,a,3 7, a, 4
67, b, 5
7, a,
-

Kokujo

92,8,5 4, b, 3 66, b, 6 4,a,5


86, a, 3
94, b, 1

Kokuyuya boratsu
kyo Ko on ten Kombira

l,a,3
79, b, 2
55, a,

Mubiho

5,b,3
22, a, 3
7, b,

Komyo
Kongo

daibou-

Kongochi Kongo no kine Kongosatta


Konjicho

191, a, 4 150, a, 4 190, a, 2


191, a,
57, a,

Mubon Mudo Muga


Mnliengyo

12, b, 1

12, a, 2
1, a,
1, b,

Mui
Muisen
Mujinni

4
1

4
5

58. a, 1
23, a, 2
67, a, 4 60, b, 1
61, b,
-...112, b,

7,a, 6 183, b,

Kosen Kotoku koku Kozo Kubira

Mumou jisetsu Mumyo


Munetsu Munosho

27, a, 3 19, b, 1
5, a,

Kudo hashiba Kugon


Kuuubattei

4
2

Muryo i Muryoko
Mushlki kai

ll,b,3
15, b, 2 17, a, 6
7, b, 3 27,a,6 21, a, 3 20, a, 3 13, b, 3 14,a,4

61, b, 3

Kuo
Kusha
Kushira

43, b, 3 59, b, 8 60, a, 1


37, a, 1

Musho a Muso

shojo

Kwakken
Kwakyujo Kwakuslu

38, b,

Kwan
Kwannon

.37, a, 208, b, 2

4 4

Mu Mu Mu Mu

ugarau

ju

yen zaramai yo

Myodoso sammai

49, a,

Kwan Kyo

zai

on

23, a, 8 23, a, 8

Myoho Myoho

165, b, 7

Myo

a,2 renge kyo- 132, b, 5 27,b,4 ron


85,
4, b,

Kyochinnyo

74, b,

Nai myo

Kyodommi Kyo satsura Kyotama

68, b, 5 77, a, 6 58, b, 1

Nehan Nan
Niyorai

109, a, 3 156, a,2 170, a, 7

A JArAliESE VOCABUIABY.

229
89, a, 5 35, b, 6

Nyakuna T^yo kokn


Ojin

54, a,

36, a, 7 108, b, 2

Seishi Bosatsu Seishu ten Semtii sha

l,b,3
130, b, 4
82, a, 10 62, 134, 135, 135, 139, 139,
a,
a, a.

Okoko

Omon
Onurimora
Oshajo

Osho

7 112, b, 7 13, b, 1 127, a, 7 186, b,l


6, a,

Sennin Seson

Sessemba Shaba Shaka


Sliakamuni

6 1 1

Oyu daima

13, b, 6

b, 1

Ragom
Kaja sanzo

128,

a,

Shaka nyorai
Shakashishi Shakijseu Sliamon Sharihotsu Shatagiya Shayata Shichi bodaibun
Schichi Butsu Schichi Nyorai Shidai 6

79, a, 1
16, a, 3

Rakan
Eambini

Remmam
Rin Rinno
Ritsn
Riiijin

Bosatsu Renge shu

83, a, 1 48, b, 5

132, b, 6 171, b,5 147, a,9 202, a, 5

2 1 61, a, 1 157, a, 2 148, b, 7 52, a, 3


b,
b,

59,

b,2

34, b, 7

147, b, 2 148, a, 2 174, b, 3 6, b, 5 174, a, 6 122, b, 2 175, a, 5 208, b, 4 175, a,l 147, b, 6 154, a, 3
18, a,

Rinju

Riu 6

Rokuay atana Rokudo


Rokudorinne
Rokiijijinshu

102, b, 2 103, b,2 103, a,2 103, b, 2


58, 147,
a, a,

4
9

kyo

39, b, 7
3, a,

Roku jiiidzu Rokunu Ron


Rongi Ronzo Roshi Ssihogoku raku)
'

Shikiku kyo Shikuten Shimagechi Shina Shingon Shio ten


Sliippo Shishi kyo 6 Shishi sonja Shitai Shitta

39, b,

151, b, 6

186,a,5
2, a,

52, a,

1 1
^

^gg
a,

sekai

Samataitei

Sambo Sammai Sammyochi


Sanjin Sanjo

141, 181, a, 1 140, a, 2 -182, b, 3

4 18,a,2 150, b, 2 52,b,l Sho Shogaku 36,b,G; 32, b, 5 63, b, 6; 145, b, 3 Shojo Shojo Abidatsuma 64, a, 1
Shoiniyo

Shomon
Shonibessho Shozo matsu no)
sanji
J

178, b, 4 182, b, 4

145, b, 1 157, a, 4 28, b, 1


/loc}
""'

y,
'

Sau

ju

Sanjuniso

Sau kai San ki


Sanzo

131, a, 5 81, a, 8 178, a, 1 182, b,l 180, a, 1


151, a, 3

Sappada

Tbudatsu Shnmisen Shumiso Shuro 142,a,2; So

162, a, 1 163, b, 4
99, b, 8

155, b, 7 155, b, 4

230
Sogaran Sogiya
Sogotei

PART
142, b, 7
142, a,

vir.

Tugu Zammai
Tuin yoka

18, b, 7
3, b,

143,

a,

Sokwan
Sotoba Sni ten
Talio

79, b,

160, a, 195, a, 119, b,l


2, b,

2 2 5 3 7

4
1

Tuka

setsu butsu

57, b,

Tukotsu Tukuai Tukudamitta


Tuknjoju

39, b,

4
2

H,

a,

38, a, 1

152, b, 6
9, b,

Taiho ron Taishaku Taishaku ten


Taishi Taiso

134, b,
65, a,

8 2 3

Tnku kongo
Tukusha

47, a, 1 28, b,

U
Ubaku
Ubari

Taiyaku sona Take jizai ten Ten chu ten

79, a, 3 65, b, 1 27, b, 6

31,a,l 2

Ubasoku
Unjizai 6

115, b, 1
..43, a,

...187,a,4 187, b, 2 99, b, 6


99, b,

Unrai on 6

Ten jin Ten uiyo Tennyo

195,
43, a, 7

10 15, b,5
a,

Uramban Yaku o
Yakushi Yasba
Yasutara

185,

15, b, 5

2 31,b,l 31, b 5
a,

i,A,d,u leu rino 117, b, 2 Teppatsu 199, a, G Tera Tobosaihotoso jinshulg ^ ^ kyo
J

Yemma
Yok
Zen
Zeujo
kai

206, b, 1 208, a, 1 207, a, 1


69, a, 2

Tori ten Tosotten

178, 183,
4,

a, a,

2 2

Yngaba Yujun-..

208, b, 4 208, b,l

Tuchuto

b/2

Tuda Tugen

32,b,2; 196, b,2 11, a, 4; 141, a, 1

Zo

29,a,3 ^^'*'? 118, b,2

END OF PART

VIII.

PART

IX.

:o:

A CHINISE INDEX.
AERANGED ACCORDING TO THE RADICALS,

A.
A KEY TO THE INDEX.
[Note.

Thk

figx/res iv pabenthbses

bbfeb to ths nxjmbkb op the stboees

OF EACH CHABACTEB EXCEPT ITS BADICAL.]

BAD.

BAD.

(6)^.
1
1.

STR.
(1)

9.
(2)

[_] it-

[A]
''

A
fill.

(2)

e,

(3)

flfi

=:
<*'

-b.
(3'

(^'^f^-K.

hT.
2. 3.
[
[
I

^'

(5)

ftfiffiftM
(6)

ft.
41.

#
IS

]
]

(3) (*)

^,
(2)

(7)f8, (8)f^
(9)

i.
^.

m.
. .
(13)

5. [Z,]

(1)

1i!.(io)f!|.'ii)fll
(12)

(10)

^.
T10.

#^ft.
(15)
(*)

6.
[

(1)

.
75.

m-

[)l]

(2)

*.

2
7.

STR.
(1)

(9)5S-

[-]

=f.

(2)

I.E.

11.

[A]

(2)

W.

232
BAD.
RAD.

12.

y\] A,
(8)

(2;

i^,

(6)

^,

5^.
""I

(^)

)i 88 PH
()

14. [*-]
15.
17.
[

^. () ^(3) (2)

^ 1 m(8)
(9)

P&. US,
(5)

ni Bf jg

[Llj
[

UJ.

#^

i!

18.

7J]
'^

^^,

15
()

^.
(11)

(10) Pftiftifi.

i!i gij

m ni
(7)

Dg.

(12)1^.

iilil^ij.
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28. [/,] 29. [3^]

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(5)

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(13)

233
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(3)

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234
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81,

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(8)

82, 85,

[7K]*(2)^,
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(5)

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[^J(.^)^, (5)^,(7

m,

(13) ffi.

STR.
(6)
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112.

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(10)

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(12)|p, (13)jjg.

115.

[X] . 99. [tM 1^. 100. [^] /-t.


98.
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(10)^,(11

102. [H]ft.(2)^,(5)g,

116.

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103. [JE] 104. [f-j


105.

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236
KAD.
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6 STR.
118. [/^] tt
(2)

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(6)

(5)

[M] 5134. [Q](9)^. (12)^.


135.

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(8)

(9)

136. 137. 139.

[^] i (2) ^. [^] (6) S. [^] [^]


[!lii|i]

(13)

(4)

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(5)

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140.

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120.

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(8)^1^^,

122. [im] (12) 1. (1*) B123. [:^]#(3)^. (7)^,


(9)

ii^iS'

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(7)

^g,

(14)

jg.

124.
125.

[^] [^]
[ffjj]

(11^

^
(3)

m(4) ^.
it-

141.

[^]

p
g.

(5)

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126. 127.

[^]

(10)

If.

142.

[^](i)K.

(5) 4:^.(8'

128. [:^]

(3) IIJ (7)

g,

(8)

(9)^.

(12)

mm
129.

[^] ^. [^]
r^
(5)

143.
1^4^,
(6)

(C) [jfii] jfiL

130.

144.

[f^-]

ft

m(5) ^,

(10)

(15)

81

145.

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(5)

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(7;

fg

132.

[g] g.

237
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RAD.

158.

146.

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7

(12)

g.

159.

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(6)

(2)

145.

(8)

STR.

147.

[]^(5)i|,(9)t| 160. [^]

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148.

(13)

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(9)

1^.

(18)

161.

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mM

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(6)

(6)

(13)

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162. [^](4)i2,()5|n,(6)

149. [^](3)ft|B,(*)| (3)ftfe.w^.

^.

(8)

i,(i3)it#,
(14)

163.

^. [gjw^Bfl^S,
(1*)

(8)

IJ,
-fg.

(19)||.|

150. [>]
151.

(10)

164.
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[a]

s
(3)

[M]

(10)

l.

<")

(11)

(12)

g|^.

165.

154. [_^]

8^,(4);^^,
If 1,(7) It,
(9)|I,

166.

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(2)

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W &,

(5)

(5)

(8)*t.
(13)

It
(9)

8 STR.
iff.

155. [jfj 156. [^]


157.

^
(5)

167.

JgH.
gft^n,
()

mm,
!&. ig,

(7)

[^]

(5)

(14)

' (8> g. (15)

Wlij, (lO)M-

238
KAD.

EAD.

168.

182.

[M]

^'^

as(7)

166.

184.

m
(12)

(12^

M,

(13)

m(^)

185. 186.

[t]t[#] s^
(^)

170.

[f.]

(5)

ppJPtfc

^,
172.

(10)

pf

(11)

10

STR.
(13)

[^]

(4)

^,
^1^)

(10)

^
(8)
(1'-^)

187.
.^>
(1^^
ffi.

IS.

Mil188.

173.

[#j#
0,

()tf
(13)

(11)

S' 4,

(7)

%
#.
5.

g.

(11)
(16)

189. [|^]r^191.

B'
174.
175.

192. 194.

m mm
11

[H]

^^^^

H-

^'''

m(i)

^.

9
177.

STR.
('

[^]
'^]

^%.
(8)

STR

(3) Ifc

178.

^f

195. [^]#.(^^M.(i"-W.
196. [Jft]^^^^l'('^M.(5)

180.
181.

[^J m (1=^) ^ [M] (^^ ^'^ li^' w . () IS. ()


mw.'
ao)
(1*)
(^'

s^s.

^. (^^n|. SiliS' ^, (17) g|.


198.

(11)
(12)

JI&.

(13)

^,

[Jt]-

M-

199.

[#] ^'

239
BAD.
RAD.

12
201.

STR.

211.

m] [flj ||.

[^] ^. 202. [^] (3) ^. (5) ^, 203. rmi

212.

213.

[H] H.

14-17 209.

STR.

[^]

^
-^<><-^

B.
INDEX.
[NoTB. Each Chinese word
BADICAIi TO
oit

phbase

is

to be ix)0Ked tor

under the
KEFEtt

WHICH

ITS FIRST

CHAEACTER BELONGS.

ThB KUMBERS

TO

THE NVMBKB

OF EACH PAGE, O, SIONIFTINO THE FIBST, 6

THB SECOND COLUMN J

'^

RAD.
-'

0^
1.

6,b.

134,b.
95,a.

^^fi -gi+ftS
-tl^

151,b.

99,a.

-tt^ -WtU

147,b.
148,a.

56,b.

-b^
-t^lil

-fcJJJI

149,b.
150,b.
205,a.

21,b. 148,a.
148,a.
35,a.
ib.

^^

-tin*
-fcin^feKif

fcj]:^

-"^m^ tM^S* ^^J^

15lA
151,a.

-bft^-

^:*5:

-WfiBpR

150,b.
151,a.
35,a.

-t#}S^
-tSc^'/i

35,a.

152,a.

-^J]^^Z^^ -^]]^iM.m

151,a.

*tirt:ia;gs-i77,a.

^
Si
150,b.

.181,a.

H#

H^:^

128,a.

178,b.

241

im

i78,b.

^^Z^

'MM
1^
llf

I78,b.

^Stj^l^
H#tiagP

182,b.
195,b.

18a

180,a.

141,b.

182,b.
182,b.
ib.

1^ immfn 1^ 1^

Hl^HftPt ^MiS#tfR

146,a.
144,a.
ib.

31,a. 177,b.

^mmmm
Jl

:n5ifi

-hi,...
189,a.

177,b.
177,b. 182,b.

'M^
iH
lB$

_h^ ^gftE

80,a.

80.a.

207,a.
68,b.

M MU
_h

85,b. 159,b.

159,b.

VA
'M

189,b.

140,a.

-bff^

204,b.
58,b.
10,a.
9,b.

Ml
:{|

Tmai
13,a.

^^

140,a.
ib.

T-^m
T-^mm^*\>m-

'MM 'Mm

io,a.

141,b.

Mm& :01itE MM

m,b.
i4i,b.

141,b.
144,b.
145,a.

MM
'MB. \1^^

10,a.

M
m&
^ii ^SS
ib.

10,a.

206,a.

M^)
1+Zffi

182,b.
81,a.

io,b.
ll,a.

^+H^ ^#^#

178,a. 182,b.

102,b.
16,a.

^4

242

;^>5^

16.b.

%.
ig;:!:

209,b.
82,a. 82,b.

:^'^

108,b. i67,b.

yfM

tt^
ttS:

195,b.

MkM

i64,b.
4,b.

195,b.
35,a.
9.a.

r-if\& Tpillg
:^ Pitt

ifri^
-Htgffii

23,a.

8i,b.
105,a. 57,b,
I

;p'pT^

:^nl^
:^^ig :^:t^

RAD.

2.
69,a.

102,a.

CJ^SI

1^^'^-

Cf^g
Cf^lg

83,b.

:^S^
:^'gtHfe

ii2,b.
i8,b.
104,a.

83,b.

yf^^M
:^in^
:^#0$:>

^^
*fmtti5C

121,b.
83,a.

i25,b.

i99,b.
26,b.

/5^:^tiM
:T^iIftffi*5

*^^ ^n^ ^m&

49,b.
5,b.

13,b.
46,a.

27,a.

^**iS

^'^^im
^I
110,a.

83,b,

RAD.

3.
66,a.

MM M#
%^

107.a.

^
93,a.

RAD.

5.
193.a.

52,b.

X^ A^tti ^

80,b.
31,b.

243

fiA"

145,a.

S#:;^^
fSlra3l

ii4,a. 135,a.

glg^^g
I^K
I^Pta

lll,b.
57.a. 57,a.

^'S'XBM

113,b.
38.3.

^fWilf^m-

^
J

23,b.

RAD.

6.

A
ZL

RAD.

9.

RAD.

7.
80,b.
ib.

94,a. 96,b. 105,a.

^^
^ig 'K^MW.
S,-f]

Ai
Aflll

51,b.
130,b.

AfnM

106,b.
106,b.
96,b.

62,b.
28,a.

A4$
A"oM

its

65,b.

iM 5^
i?? Stf

t
'ftll'l!*^
:

135,a.

lUa.
114,b.
4,b. 114,b.

115,b.

fliSffl

38^.
159,b.

immuf^
flill9Jgl5

169,b. 155,b.

159,b. 115,b.
20,a.

il[

5^^S
51^ 5:^
JEWffi

i&it^^^
fill

IHa.
155,b. 155,b.
113,a.

fjA
flllAffi^
flli.lr

130,b.

157.b.
67,b.
38,a.

Tiik^

113,b.
113,b.
92,b.

^Sk^^
ftHfe

S.MM Stt^
^ffi#

190,a.

l^i'^'mmB
ttSSmih

190^
194,a.

113a

244
flcJiJII
194,a. i95,a.

immm
(^

fiMHH^
^t
ftlflll

76,a.

68,a.
ib.

i)||

195,b.
62,b.
64,a.
64,a.

KUffi
finfflJt^

59,a.

^^A
#ffl*

7o,b.
58,a.

MSII
ita%^#
tltl5^^
tl315aSll^& tl31?llillg

^m^n^1^^ -

mmm
#^g^
#"?J>PS;IS

30,b.
59,a. 59,a. 59,a-

56,a.

66,b.
ib.

U^^^g^UO
#?4^U:li

65,a.
ib.

M1*||
"Sd

128,a.

36,b.

PMiJk^

66,b.
ib.

t^:^

16,a.

^M^IS
^^?jbn

Mt
ftPtft-

36,b. 181,a.
37,a.

143,a.
66,a.

^MMWB
'f^f'J^J^I5:^an

iis.b.
177,b.

mi'-tmm "^=^^
!t^-^

s?.*.

37^
38,a, 38,a.
38.a.

ffiS^
'f'^^

ffil|}i(^^P)*-177,b.
61,a.
72,a.

ftKISm
ftPtailJ

ftU]

ffm
I'^m^m ft^
ffilft^=
ffi^i^lJjgU
fifllD

119,a.
119,a.
19,b. 205,b.

mtm^ mtmn
'"f^li

38,b.
38,b. 39,a.
39,a. 37,a.
39,a.

ItES:*

Ha.
53,a.
76,a.

mtm^m
'"^W^
ftK-KSROl

fta>

67,a.

39,a.

ftmiiW

71,b.

1^

37,b.

245

mm

37,b.
42,a.

mi ^ 3^

i^M i^^

M.

87,a,

38,b.

37,b.

199,a.
39,a.

3M. i%m
^>t^^D

124,a.

158,b.

167.b.
38,b.
39,b. 39,b. 183.b.

"BMS.
fkWiW:

g
/hi

87,b,

#7l#

BMB mim ftf ^

33,b.

150,a^

i97,b.

126,b.
126,a.
37,a. 39,a.

150,a.

i^mi^

i^mmi^tm

f**ffmS

mmmM,
1i-^S

38,b.

mi mi
^JMl

58,a.

i33,b.

126,b. 196,b.
126,b.-

B^^HfR

127,a.

mmmm
mm^mn

ft^fitttSfnr

87,b.

i26,b.

tl

133,b.
52,a.
37.a.
37,a.

mmmmmik'm. m,h.

^4M
l^m^M^

mmnmrnM
i^fl:

-ma.
86,b.

mm^mm mmmmi

29,b.
31,a.

246

SMSM
i^mmmi
i^mm^s.
f*a{f.l8
58,s.

-iss.b.
196,a.
4,a.
5,a.

1lSfL*ftS

ift + A?fi^lS8o,b.

ftfSWfcmig-

ioi,b.

#!%!
f^ltftiilS

129,l>-

129.b.
140,a.

^fiSilt'g--

59,b.
63,a.

I^WtmrnM ff^-tftS f*^ilJM

fiM^^^MS.-

!>!>.
147,a.

1*^EH-Z*&-73,b.

gggS-

82,a.

f^aSflg

165a
in,b.
"5,a.
i95.b-

m^^g"
ftm5ii)T4M"
i9;5S**9$S"
'g,S

87,a.

i^m^mi
i^mvamM.
i3:ffieniS

93^.
93,a.

119.b.

i^7*4?ES"o,a,
f*t;tW5il>tg9.b.l63,a.
i/w ri/u
"> .:^=-

^?4Bm:^g
iC^S

158,a. 160,a.

otFIlu

^t'j*".

f*l:%*feg

36,b.

a^*S

166,b.

fM^
IS

58."63,a.

;fPH*S

170,b.

3Wt&^il
ffiiS;^l8Pf^

69,b.

72,b.

i%m.mi^M.

i33,b.

f*lt^%Mirg
ftii^^ftiS
m.

200,a.

203,a.

io,b.

247

17,a.

18,b.

g g g
g

127,a. 127,b.

127,b.

154,b.

M.

36,a.

163,b.

g M S
40,a.

165,a.

g
62,a.

193,b.

mmmmfmm
g
g
73,b.
87.a.

^g ^g Ml mi
lEg

12,a.

34,a.

35,b.

72,b.

75.8.

g M

95,b.

^g
99,a.

86,b. 87,b.

f^^:fr^i^ag

g
g

llo.a.

88,b.

124,a.

Sg

92,b.

248

Ml
Wits.

93,a.

^fraS
124,b.

129,b.

WM
MM.

171,b.

12,a.

m^M.
PtgjEg
l?L
154,b.

184,a.

12,a.

i:#s

3i,b.

fmMs.
^Emtl
34,b.

i4,b.

W^M
61,a.

26,a.

ABS^g

115,a.

mi^^M
il/Eg
s;iis
:g

127,a.

98,a.

miitHJEg
"v.
KttiE-ffiS
124,a.

55,a.

73,b.

249

+ r:^?^g
:^i<mi

89,a.

95.b-

mi
^=b^B^:t^^

177,a.

i^a
:5
190,a.
86.a.

'^ftSii

ft# ^It fiS


HftPtM/SM55,a.

124,a.

110,b.

154b.
154,b. 156,b.

M
fg;^
fglig

156,b.
187.b.

fS:^

ffl:ftA^DffiP1Si56,b.

63,b.

121,a.

>f^flj

158,a.

iiiffi

121,b.

M
m

s9,h.

f^^H
tf^MpR
^^

165,b.
152.b.

1^

"

S)

tl

34,b.

165,b.

i^iPS&^

152,b.
i65,a.

mi

49>-

mmm&

250

mmm
#fT*tES

i^u.

ffi:5

199,a.

84a
174,a.

^n

142,a. 154,a. 181,a.

mrMMl
ii#a^

iilOftS

143,b.
ib.
143,a..

i^m%^m^&
fiM
taWM

i52,b.

Him
ttft]3fc

2,b.

flnPt

143,a.
144,a.
ib.

77,a.
15,a.

fln-^

MM
ftitaS

K3S
missi maf'J

74,b.
ib.

-IS^a.

HJlJ

143,a.

77,a.

mWa mmt
Hit^
1Ilt#I

ftnlW
fllPll(0)

143,a.
....143,a.

77,a.
ib.

'
78.a.

m
ftl^ll
itaSftm
Ufl^r^R

ftnil^

142,b
142,b.
143,a.
ib.

189,a.
85,b.

HSftH

HSM
liljlf;

193,b.
78,b.
60.,a.

143,a.

Ulii^fi

[tfjnUtS

143,b.

m-^^ftlE
fS

fttnUII
"""

151b.
142,b. 143,a.

185,a.
58,a.

H ^^
firft
tlffl
Ill

165,a. 160,a.

ftft

144,a.
143,a.
19,a.

184,b.
ib.

W
l^nRX 'tM
Wffi

189,b
144,a
189,b.
189,b.
ib.

2,a.

M
Hffi

206.b. 132,b.
28,a.

m^^M

M^
ftWe

251

ft^HP

1^4,a. 142,a.
77,a.

mi<'^

55,b.
l,a.

mtmM
H:?
SV\:M
ifPtJiEE-t
ftipliS

*W^
itWM

23,a. 25,a.

159.a.

fti^^

184,a.
184.a. 184,a.

W^ m]S:m^ %^ %mh
KSrif

192,b.
160,a. 183,a.
183,a.
ib.
ib.

184,a.
188,a.

ft^X

W&M W&M
fe'iJtl^

'^mm
C^glflforgiro^)^

187,a.

187,b.
186,a.

Wi&M^
ffiiSl'^

:\
187,a.

RAD.

11.
8i,b.

187,b.
203,a.

Ammi
\^m ftS

W&M^ ii^S If ##S mm m mm


(^ {^'

IS) /^188,a.
184,b.

A&^^'Simi -ma.
4,b.

IMWS.

188,b.

31,b.

^?^il
)l

24,b.

RAD,

10.
119,a.
l,a.

Xia

j\

RAD.

12.
198,a.

*^ *ff ^ MS^ m mm

A^
AfM

13,b.

159,a.
28,b.
97,b.

ma.
153,a. 129,a.
93,a.

ASE
AiEP^

Anm

2oi,a.

252

Agit^
AIEitS^

97,b.
ib.

U
W^
ffl

RAD.

17.
184,a.
23,a.
23,a.

A::^M^!^^
:^A y^M
x>\^
y^ffl
:^]M.

.153,^

\}\m&
39,b.
40,a. 198,a.
58,a.
ib.

HJ^A
ffltt^SK

157,a.

82,b.

>^g

12.a.

39,b. 198,a.

y^S
y^iro

mmm\^
Itim*?et-

ma.
128,b.

115,a. 193,a.
3,a.

:ki^M

-^^U y^*^l5 :^*JlS


;^*)W3EM
:j^nDHiifisB

40,a.

7J(lj)

RAD.

18.
124,b.
42,a.

39,b. 39,b.
39,b.

^^|IJ

^mm
:9^filJlra

120,b.
i97,b.
64,a.

39.b.
...

:kS:M^lt^^

40,a.
60,a.

AAH
MJ^^Mm
r-i

.129,a.

^sm^ ^mmM ^m
i'lHfflJ

2i,b.

ii6,b.
69,a. 67,a. 68,a.

RAD.

14.
105,b.

mj]

Miff

^
MfJk

68.a.
66,a.

>

RAD.

15.
155,a.

mWn
m'MM mitm
68,b.

71,a.
ib.

^Pl

^M
^SI

145,a.

253

ama
^?*IP'S

76.a.

62,a.

G8,a,

153,b.

^^PfiSR
Tfljff

71,a.

Dm

210,b.
67,b.
60,a. 60,a.

,b.
128,a.

nm^
^\MM
115>

120,a.
28,a.

M
fl)^

^m
..

36,b.

17lA
53,a-

181,a.

U^lh'Bl

206,b.

fPlll
^IJ

171,a. 171,a.

\Mm

119,b.
129,b.
53,b.
2,a.

MM mm
'iWm
^iJtlfiJIP

75,a.

^''^b.

75,b.

48,a.

37,b. 75,b.

miiEfli
*^|JJ$:

12U.
51,b.ib.

Bm PS
SfS?

54,b.
52,b. 121,b.
l-58"^-

W>l
;f3

isv53,a.

RAD.

19.

0^ BWm
127,a.

126,b.

^-J;

82,a. 93,b. 203,b.

Pif H

"S'-^58,a. 193,a.

^M\W
5(]0B

153,b.
125,a.

0?##* 0^^bS

aifS

X;5tIM
:g]ti^

61,b.
7^'^-

:a]gX

85,a.
6^'--

aSJI

gi^

ib.

254

SfS^A-i"

158,b.

"^"^

56,a. 153,a.

KK
W}^
i/lS^iC

203,b.
157,a.

+M +K +^
+ttg
+ttft^?i>^

81,a.

115,b.
153,a.
41,a.

157,a.
17,b.

41,b,
41,a.

ftS^iSf^
/]

+m^
+ i:P1lra + ZigM
+Z1H^
+z:El^ii

119,b. +:;^ -\ l$^'frS- 26,b.

RAD.

20.

56,a.
56,a.

108,a.

i22,b.

li

RAD.

21.

^^4 ft#
ftSK

26,b. 32,b. 175,a.

m&
+A^!ro

56,a.
3,b.

108,b.
92,a.

+A:^*S:
+;^5ill

26,b.

<tM^
4hS

189,b.
i22,b.

109,a.
82,a.

+fS#tt-?K*
*S

n
4tlilpK

183.b. 189,b.
180,a.
32,a.

:itM
Wt

^;^
1=--TaR

100,a,

24,b.

I'le.b.

f^mi

26,a.

+
+
:ft

RAD.

24.
41,a.

mm^n^m

25,a.

255

P RAD.

26.
66,a.
ib.

S #^

26,a.

^&
^mUB

26,a.

r
^g
i=-itf:S;ifK
108,a. 134,a.
9i,b.

RAD.

27.
197,a.

i=-W^il^l^

Jj^

RAD.

28.
134,a.

^ffi^ ^^iSn

112,b. ii2,b.

ijXCagllM

^^H
tfi

m,b.
167,b.
33,a.

RAD.

29.
186,a.

-^i^W

40,a.
54,a.

M S
p

196,b.

IBOi

93,b.
81,a.

RAD.

30.
53,a.

180,a.
'

104,b.
104.b.

HKMR
Dl*iit$!^
aifOf

ib.

ffi*

^MMM^m
W3L&^M
h

130,a.
ib.

in,a.
113,a.

BJf^
"Dlff
OT:^'

76,a.

128,b.
74,b.

RAD.

25.
174,a.

"pTSSC

iSlXl^

^tt^gR
y^l^

196,b.
105,a.

256

^
^"^^itm
-^m

143,b. i66,b.
78,a.

"JlWlIfS

168,b.

m^i^m
ygflfis^jfl

168,b.
5i,b.
80,b.

^M ^# ^PX
-^BW
I^y
ig-g^

158,b,
158,a. 159,a.
158,ao-^-

full

fDM
^Uf^^

186,b.
ib.

175,b. 104,b.

ffi

151,b.
122,a.

P^Sf ottii:n+fi& BtieH+liffl Df

62,K
i98,b. i98,b.

110,b.

Iq]fM#
D:tflJ

187,a.

Bt*f 'J^^^WiS?i

98a
157,b.
194,a.
40,a.

^^
5^^

194,a.
ib.

141,b.

iSS

^#ft
Pi;:^M
5^1^t:

192,b.

192,b.
196,b.

^H ^^a
^

U9,b.
147,a.
ib. ib,

\ik^mM
JSl^t

191,b. 176,b.
43,b. 96,b.

m
Wff^

m^B^^
Sffififfl

22,b.

3,b.

Pfi^

28,b.
63,b.

B^S^nf^

lO'b.
ib.

W^tali
nnJ-mtlSIS
^fiffl

P^^OUT

27,b.
27,b.

ngg-

177,a.

6,b.

i&l%
nSSSr

168,b.
i68,b.

29,a. 161,b.

^M

13,a. 162,a.

25T

#fc

77,b.
84,a,

PI

^T PI

160,b.
I65,a.

PI

PI ,^

160,b.
161,b.
161,b.
178,a.

-S.

123,b. 105,a.
62,b.

123,b.

129,a.

^E^kW^W
#?S

197.b.
161,b.

I83,b.
57,a.
1=3

#^&
"

162,b.
161,a.

58,b.

161,b.
ib.

57,a.

113,b.

I61,b.

i^
11
(or ffi) i|5i|6

189,a
...is6.a.

:^(^^-#)
PI .s>

ib.

163,b.
165J).
167,a.
"'

SPfi^ nSDBS^IB

189^
i89,b.'

mm ^^
#^ #
#3 r

^^mmi^m
fy^l^

ma.
6,a.

PI >fv*

167,a.
ib.

104,b.
106,a.

167,b.
194,a.
4,a.

M^BMm
P
RAD.

#Sffi

^^.'^^m
(^)
PI

200,b.
105,a.

31.
205,b.
110.a.
63,b.

W^
\^mmi&
Hi^gR H^*ffigI5
-

*!-J3^

161,a.

16G,a.

^fl$^ PI

207,b,
164,b.
22,b.

63,a.

#Kft#
#@v3'C^#

mmtm

63,b.

258

la^WtM

174,b.
78,b.
116.a.

M
Vi>J

mM^WSS>^ -

HJSSB^-

<55,b.

5,b.
I

17,b.

mm mmw^ m^ H^SH

RAD.

167,b.
io9,a.

123,a.

167,b.

0*
PI

17,b.
17,b.

32.
147,a.

0^
.

17,b.
18,a.

rut

Gg:^174,a.

mM

49,b.

EQi

75,b.

EH
Wjti
..

I75,b.

mm
ffifiij

105,b.
107,b.

.174,b.
.175,a.

m^
cgjESi

.130,b.

.U5,b.
.156,a.
.174,a.
.174,a.

58,b.
5i,a.

mmm^ ^
mm

50,b.

..175,a.
.

194,b.
48,a.

175,a.

..175,b.

.106,b.l39,b. 149.b.
159,b.

.174,b.
.

122,b.

mm
mMBl

48,b.

.131,a.
...

45,a
44.b.

56,b.

m^mm
m-

.208,b.
..

36.b.

45,a.

134,a.

259

W^ IS^^
j^^

118,a.
134,a.
171,a. 160,a.

^biiW
5^baI:^W

177,b.
117,b.

M^
^

^K^bil

112,b.
160,a.
61,a.
96,a. 203,1).

if:R.

ifSI

68,b.

ifM
ifSffl

204,b.
145.a.
5,b.

*^S^ ^H ^^ ^Sf vl70,a. ^S ^S () #^lltltt ^m^mt^


140,a.

ll,b. 193,b.

75,b.

119,b.

168,b.

119,b.

178,a.

it-W-g'

3
SSi^lS

^Ig

195,b.
169,a. 169,a.
169,a.
169,a.

118,a.
56.a. 33,a.

^*a^^
^#11

Stg^^an m-^jii&mns

^0S^
^0SESBIS#
^1Iin(or^)li

i5o,a.

.168,b.

-^
WfiM

RAD.

33.
126,a.
27,b.

^WM^&
'^JM ^j5l

170,a.

206,b. 206,b.
206,b.
207,b.
207,a.

1^:^^^.

120^

RAD.

34.
194,b.
195,a.

'^M-WM
^J3'M

M^ X4^
^
^bS
RAD.

100,b.

RAD.

37.

36.
32,a.

-X^

18,b.

260

i\M
i<iM^

25,b.
85,b.
8,a.

i^M^^.
:ki%

X^^WIm XM^^Wi X^^^Wi


xm+'fimt'

114,a.
186,a.
31,a.

29,a.

4i,b.

i^:^

85,b. 92,a.
68,a. 69,a.

:k^
::^%

^^^SjEffiflJ -114,a. ::^^ffijKMij-- i65,b.

84,b.

i^.'^X^

84,b.
84,b. 135,a. 85,b.

i^^
i<iM

i^^ >^S
::^I'It

169,b. 208,b.
86,a.

m xmmmmm

4,a.

86,b.
ib.

i^^
i<}&
i^.i^

88,b.
88,a.

Bm

9o,b.

:^"^

88,a.

-X^ X^E

88,a.
88,b.
90,a. 90,b.
2,a.

M
^1

140,b.

X^
TC^pIra

166,b.

Xmi X^W
Xm:f3m^

-xmwmmmm
Sffl

166,a.

198,b.

202,b.
55,a.

xmxmmm
xmm^ammm
xmmx^-n

xmmmm
k^0.Mtm

59,b.
72,a.

X^MMl
xm^Mti

30,a.

8i,b.

xmnmmmt

261
84,b.
:::^^lffllj

9o,a. 90,a.

i<i^

91,a.

i^.'^iWt

i^^
i^1\il

92,b.

195,a.
3,b.
8,a.

^Ki
:km^
i<^^B

^mmmi ^^
'

^MS.

166,a.

95,b.
91,b.

;^gft?C

91,b.
92,a.

io,b.
40,a.
85,a.

i^M^
J^JkWt -:kt}W
>^ffi3l

i^^M
i<:M^

122,a.

104a.
lG2,a.
84,a.

i<MM^
i^"^^
:^0$^^

87,b.

49,b.
68,a.

;^iSSg
i<.itM

204,b.
50,b.

:kmm

87,b.

i^WcM i^'U&

170,b.

i^^X

148,b.

g ^M
i^^M^
:;^^it

J^MyfXiC
120,b.
85,a.

H8,b.
lo9,b.
5o,b.
78,a.

i^^^

i^mm
:k'%'A

88,a.

87,b.
89,a. 87,b.
88,b.

m^
i^^i.
:k'^afi

-Xm^m

84.a.
86,a.
87,a.

XS^m
:^Sftli

X'^^pm

88,a.

:^^bI^

88,b.
87,a.
89,a.
90,a.

-Xm^m

109,b.
87,b.
87,b. 87,b.

:^WJ^ :^^1I i^.^^ i^pmM :k^W^

xm^mM
ximmm'^^
xf&^mm

89,b.
89,b.

X^W^B&^ g

87,b.

262

i<.^^M
:^Sffi3E

88,a.

MTftlS

39,a.

i63,b.

g
i^iM^^ :k'E^^

86.a.

122.a.

il

34,b.

135,a.

i^^^^^
:;^SSii4

HO,a.
i76,b.
26,a.

M
X
mi^tmmi XiC ?CW Ji& ?C XM. 5cS ?cg
3^:Bfi

86,b.

i^:^U]^^

'J<^^^M
i^.WiW^Wi

89,a. 90,a.
91,a.
10,a.

86,a.

42,b. 15,b. 43,a.


42,a.

itMW^n&

m^E.m

m^Mm&
i<:)i^i<M&

4i,b.

42,b. 42,b. 91,b. 42.b.


'

i33,b.

i<.')3^-:kM& -170,^

42,b.

42,b.
43,a.

M
tl

89,b.

173,a.

5cS 5C^

43,a.

50,b.
51,a.

^5

-)S^W^m^
X')l^tW^Ml

31,a.

?C0I

51,a. 66,a.

170,b.

5C^

Ml
-:^mmmmm

170,b.
39,b.

^^

X^M XB
i^WMi^

144,b.
97,b.

56,b. 69,b. 162,b.


84,a.

263

5^^
^flll

122,a. 125,a. 133,b.

^^ftfe

140,a.

204,a.

^7M
130,b. 195,b.
19C,b.
42,b.
43,a.

134,b.

*iij^(rom)a

5^S ^)

H
*fOfflfili

149,a.
ib.

^flM ^4^^ yiM& ^:^


5ci^^

42,b.

]5C

RAD.

38.
36,a. 166,b.

loe.b.
94,a.

-fcM

5C^W

55,b.

^^S ^AM
^A^gip 'Xmrm.

Mm 0^
0M
ifjf

117.a.
14,a.

134,b.

141,b.

15Lb.
io7,b.
43,a.

157,b.
163,b.
164,a.

^^t

?cS^i
*iF

43,a.

^n A^

M^ MM
M'bMj

161,b.
67,b.
88,a. 96,a.

187.a.

^^*#
*^W]!fS
*iFffl*g
:^iR0fi

57.b.
42,b.

in^

tUM^

130,b.
112.a.
170,a.
9C,a.

i6o,b.
i6o,b.
79,b. 155,a.
19,b.

iWMW^mmi
in*

^^* ^
^0^

tW^^ tW^K
tW^'M

131,a.

.-93,^

ib.

162,b.

74,a.

^^
^IKttSfil^

124,b. 124,b.
149,a.

127,a.

g
^"^^

147,b.
166,a.

^^0

264

^^

56,b. 59,b. 162,b.


96,a.

m^mmm
^fiWtMM

55,a.
ib.

ii^WMi^ .^

19.b.
85,a. 132,b.

167,b.
133,b.

im^mi
H-^
ifttl^

133.a.

-" 134,b.
133,b.

133,a.

167,b.

133a

^^ mmm^
^Rtia ^R^jE
1

139,b.
139,b.
140,a. 140,a.

il

25,b.

141,b.

^mm ^^
ifj?^

^
7o,b.

28,a.
36,a.

^PP^
^P^S.

isi.b.
194,b.

36,a. 36,a.

g
'4\

^*^
^ii
i3>l|ifflH5*

165.b.
132,a.
49,a.
24,a.

73,b.

130,b.

^11^0.

35,a. 36,a.
ib.

iM^
^fe*
^j>^#

mWim^m
M^l@

165,a.
94,b.

mBM&^

28.a.

^^||3E

16U.
]63,b.
28,b.
30,b.

^^airt'

^mtm^^i
JIEW3E

28,.
6i,a.

mm

30,b.
30,b.

3i,b.

W^M

134,a.

30,b.

266

gfS ^WL ^jt


^tlPE
^i^l'^-iS

129,b.

$ftl^

30,b.
58,a.

189,b.
^94,a.
29,a.

m$l
MKil(or|lJ)

164,a.

189,b.
30.b.

gflJIB
g?ljfil|j

## ^^
f*f

16,b.

152,b.

194>b.
19'5,a.

mAM
^M?S

195,b.
107.a.

RAD.

40.
60,a.

^^9f^
gjli?-
gB0iSfIJ

^fiifi

196.b.
195,a.
195.a.

i%,

159,b.
14,a.

^flWAi
g(?ll)6fBi^^)tl

^PSf
$ffiS

44,a.

195,a.
195,a. 195,a. 196,a.

^W^M. ^fiS
SSSS:)9

mW^
$i:fT

77,b.

164,b,

^TC^ARitlra

2,a.

g#EPE
^ilSP^K
SSS

195,b. 196,b.
32,a.

^12
5^S^E

166.a.

163,b.
113,a. 140,a.

^M gg^ ^WMM &mmMt


^fflJtSfeftl

30,b.

^
^tl

195,b.
31,a.

141,a.

194,b.
29,b.
89,a.

^^
'S.'h

140,b.

140,b.
128,a.

SP&^*

gg ^^
g|lj

167,a. 158,a.

RAD.

39.
78.a.

^^H
^1%WL ?L3E

^lllS^
SIlJI^Jl

158,a.

98,b.

158,b.

99,b.

^fiJ^JfiS

158,b.

266

MIllS^H

158,b.

SfflSP

125,a. 125.a.

%W]M'MM

^^011 Sll^*
ail^MII

79^b. 155,a.

sft^R

125,b.
126,a. 126,a.

157,b.
157,a.
157,a.

S^il^#
*M^i^

W.M0%M
Sllffi^.iS

157,b.

SJ:^ MW-M

139,b.
126,b.
124,a.

SS&3M

155,b.
158,a.

^iiil
JS

159,a.
79,b.

^Sll

%MM^ mMim %MSim^^m MmM^m


S^W S5

^#Unll

125,a.
ib.

i25,b.
i24,b.
155,b.

78,b.

^
^P&

168,b.
126,a.
167,,b.

105,b.

^^Pt
^itfili
SSffiSSil

15o,b.

162,b.
156,b.

^^
?gl!c

104,a.

104,b.
100,a. 101,b.

MM
WifX

MB^MM MM
<IR

i67,b. 149,b.
38,a.

135,b.
140,a.
'

MW
MMJ)&

K&^
MXItPt

191,b
152,b.

15,b.

120,b.
5i.b.

g
^mw\^M

121,b.

K5E
ftft

i9o,b.

94,b.

%
K^^^

124,a. 124,a.

R^ #M
ftlil

129,a,
129,a.

129,a,

267
,0|j

129,b.

W^^
W^^lffl
2,a.

63,b.
64,a.

S
Sffl

129,b.
129,a.

/hS*S ^1^^#

166.a.

202,b.
...

K^ S ^^ ^W ^m *0 ^^
S^S'It

/h^Wftaig
W^tt^
/J^^aglJ^

64,a.

129,b.
7,b.

49,b.
28,b.

130,a.

130,a.
130,a.

^
4^6?E

41.b.

iis.b.
65,b.
116,a.

148,a.

160^.
130,b.

^ ^m
P
JP

^bU^m

116,b.

S^.iSan

167,b.

<^^>i
>J-

130,a.

RAD.

43.
153,a.

Pi'P

142.b.
153,a.

RAD.

41.
199,b.

^
^ffi

J^H

PBM^B
rllW^^

153.b.

153,b.
153,a.
40,a.

30,b.

PM
PMJ^

^S,UJ

78,a.
74,a.

^m^
M^MM&fMm
^&im
^|v

PM
PM^^
PBihtJ

158,a.
155,^.

18,b.
2,b.

155,b.
155,b.

P^'^M
RAD.
42.

f*#(or^)5Bl56,a.

/h^

19,b. 68,a. G9,a.

pmm^m

i58,b.

268

E^
J^mM

78,b.
80.a.
67,a.

;e^^
;B?iSii

58.b.

llft^a^ Sll^?ftPtai

io7,b.

aaU^nnJif

78,a.

78,b.

;g}^
;Efg]#P'e

i6o,b. iio,b.
i^ib. i^-

MPtW

155,b.
158,b.
100,a.

)?.i^mM

;eii# ;EPt

M^S P#
MM'^

175,b.

;gmK
JSmaPt

iio,b.
ib.

fl^M
jEilUSI?

162,b.

m
li|i^

RAD.

45.
80,a.

ma.
io7,b.
ib.

;gsP'6a

\UK

195,b.

>^saa
>^affi^

iiifgfiiftilii33,b.

108.^ib.

m^l

40,a.
83,a.

j^mmt
)?.m^^i&
J^

RAD.
io8,b.
109,a.

48.
153,b.

37,b.

E
gft^t
-

194,a.

159,b.

K^
JS^:
Bf);

7Ga
ib.

B ESE

RAD.

49.
28,b.

80,b.

269

ea^iu
rfl

27.b.

6i!i?*

154,b.
154,b.

B^'B.{ov^)

RAD.

50.
4o,b.

^^^M
6ni^^#
6i|i^JtJ
ib.

154,b.
18,a.

:^M
;ftjil

ii8.b.
125,a.
i25,a.
iii^.b.

153,b.
154,a.

^l^

M^M^
?mi

M'^'wnm :^M& ^W^iM


^icMf^M

m.a.
48,b.
110,a.

iis.b.

io2,b.
126,a.

?^W "^S

^WJ^^M
^tWMi'^M
^Pi^tttlfBT
IPSCW^Ia

^^^

132,a.

r25,a.
126,b.

55,a.

^MM ^^Bm ^U

152,a.
12,b.
38,a.

#ilSP

104,a.
ib.

^ilM
*e^fE

28.b.
65,a,b.

T
^^

RAD.

51.
141,b
94,a

^
^ffi

65,b.

^d^mf
Si,

*S
^5g5@

-mb.
65,b.

^0
^i^

134,b.
177,a.

RAD.

52.
86,b.

:^

"^^mx
6^^S &^^.
eni^ffl

m,a.
38,b. 75,b.
154,a. 154,a. 154,a.

s:jizKM
:yiH

29,b.
28,a.

BiR^'h
BHi^nJL

RAD.

53.

270

^S8^
015
151,b.
76,a.

79,b.

^^
.i^ajn^lg

l#
?llE

133,a,
ib.

172,a. 143,a.

^
^?^^

124,a.

MifiS.

124.a.
184,a.

M MM
M':H

160,a. 171,a.

3*d^ -

165,a.
192,a,

MM.

203,b.
206,a.

X^

^T^ ^^^ *^^S


?iil

197,b.
206,a.
125,a.

95,b,
100,a.

jRlffllj

206,a. 152,a.
lll,b.

?5ftS
?Sflin

vKSf^* aS^il't^^

57,b.
41.a.

?^^ailll

S-PtSMS -

86,a.

3l^^#^

67,b.
8,a.

Wt

?i^
i.

123,b. 125,b.
92,b.
92.b.

RAD.

5i^li/Ei^
54.
70,a.

?ilj

^^M
it

mm^-MAm^
3ift
?a|fl5

107,b.

144a.
100,a.
100,a.
92,a. 92,a.

RAD.

56.
153,a.

^iia
3iPtll]

^M
g
RAD.

W^^M^l

m!}^mU^^n
57.
43,b.

^m&U

144.a.

271

^
^^^tm
S^S

RAD.

59.
29,a.

^
/c^

54,a.

75,a.l56,a.
49,a.

32,b.

iu;m

I56,a.

^ RAD.

.':^

176,b.
197,a.

60.
'

#
^M
#:^

it^'^M
it^^-^^

151,b.
187,a.

75,a.

it'^^^mmM^

i76.b.

202,b.
'

^m
tl^ ?#^

132,b.
155,a.

Ml
ift-^

**Wffe
I

47,a.

76,b.
40,a.

122,b.
158,a.
i5,b.

#^ mm^
%S.MM nm^iCm

56,b.

40,b.

177,b.
200,a.
'119,b.

tSfK

178,a.
.178,a.
ib.

fifmgH*
'imnmM^
fi^K^
fifbfi^
I'B.Jmzi.^^vm

mm
iM ti* iM
ti^iM
'

filWWl?IJ# -

61,b. 61,b. 61,b.


62,a.

taftfe^|(org)^...170,a.
i7o,b.
ib. ib.

168,b.

171,a.

S'lt
iCx
'ti^

17G,a.l91,b.

RAD. 6L
64,b.

&mm ^M&
ib.

ii7,b.
100,a.

WliJ^S

mh.
75,b.

169a
57,b.
ib.

*OT^I

S5

272

tIy5rJ:ffi^R#

57,b.
77,a.

178,b.

3lPt

^^^
^aSRfflU fft*^
.gjli^

SM
M>M
M>:f]^

175,b.
187,a.

79,b.
77,a.

S'^ft^n*^ ffiSWfSli

53.b. 25,b. 92,b.

156,a.
157,a.

M^

92,b.
93,a.

^>^

150,b.
155,a. 152,b.
158,a.

^^
^iS
^.^Ij

WM^
ffilpM

S
mH^P^e
It

140,a. 101,a.

152,b.
72,b.

113,b.
113,a.

'ItTSM

206,a.

'B^-iim

152,b.
105,a.

S
Bt^ 3E^

MB

S^
Mil

120,a.
54,b.

82,b.

120,a. 120,a.

Q7a
204,a.
134,a.

^m
Sft

MM
M'&,

120,a.
121,a. 124,a.

SA S#
SJI^
$R
'HTft

175,b.
77,a.
6,a.

M^ MM
S^Htt

54,b.

142,a.
163,a.
93,b.

mm mKM
i^r'M

'

54,a.
9,a.

178,a.
68,a.
6>b. 74,b.
ib.

MM
S:^

96,a. 96,a.

M*?i mWtW

M^tH

93,b. 96,b.

MMW

mmM m^M

75,a.

273

mMB m^mi
\M^'^WM
^.-K

77,a. 59,a.

p
min
R/f (or

RAD.

63.

71,a.

40,b.
IG.b.

ifr)^m

.172,a.
.77,b.

MM-

108.b.
ib.

MM^

Bit^ m'M^

MWM
^
?ttlw

113,a.

134,a.
65,a.

RAD.

64.
139,b.
208,b.

dit

RAD.

62.
77,a.

^UMMM
^^W\^
J?56an

1W3.
79.b.
34,a.

:feii

J^MB
j^^i^BI^MJS.M

163,a.

ikM
ttSR

i6o,b.

95,b.

19,b.69,a.205,b.
135,a.
63,a.

202,a.
48,a.
174,a. 172,a.
91^i>-

^SJSi
jR'Mom

*4iS[

tSf'JfIg

)S.^WiWi

198,b.
198,b.

f^*>^SR

ltfig4^
tt
9R

m^&

22,b.
113,a.

m^M
ik^&Z

28,b.

28,b.
3o,a.
77,a.

^R
^0

153,b. 153,b.

mm^mn
]M
ffijg

^mmi mm m&0M BBW


lgi(or3t)^

202,b.
i73,b.
i73,b.
53,a.

78.a.
ib.

t6jE

i^^

mm
'M
I

77,a.

74,b. 74,b.
77,a.

208,a.
173,a.

W^mM\l^

274

i^MU

ib.

mt^
ft]^

m^^m^^m
fflf

i76,a.
39,b.
ib.

77,a.

78.a.

i^^M ^*|| J^illS^


i^-Mt
J6]*|g

78,b.
78,b. 79,b.

1i

188,a.

^fi?

135,a.

ffWrll

S6,b. 104,b.
ib.

79,b. 79,b.
80,b.

^fl

i^P^

^m ^mm
WMmM'M
SIB

105,a. 102,a.

i^PM^m
^"^^

Wx
172,a.

206,a.
206,a.

77,b.

mmf^
m^^^f&
i^Ml\m
ifi

mmMn
--

iHb69,b. 29,b.
42,a.

8o,b.
43.b.

ti'

43,a.
56.a.

^tK ^$A
JtIS
^?lic

52,b.
65,a.
ib.

imi&
4^^ HIS Jl#
JllR^

73,b.

137,b.
191,b.
50,b.

187,a.

'^M^

48,b.
93,a.

nm^ ^MM Wmi


^Mllj n'\:i^'^xmmi
Jplt

tl^*

48,b.
50,b.
42,a.

49,a.

195,b.
210,a.

l&mMB ^^^il

imm^
+n-^3a.^

42.b.

204,b.
13,a.
13.a.

43a.
^s,*.

m:^mM
tssisnt

i^W
ffiSK

176,a.

<8.b-

275

S^SH^
S|itK

ib.

lllMt'fe

88,a. 89,a.

43,a.

^
^^^

IIrIJSS

205,a.
83,a.

%MM^^^
ftmm
SWltr^S HRfffiH

89,a.

88,b.

^?i^||

102,a. ib.

89,b.
89,a.

MISIR
0ig
*iaPt
93,a.

89,b.
91,a.

MSrHP'fell

83,b.
ib.

HBf^il^
StnTj&H

84,b.
85,a.
ib.

mMil

^MM
^flj

93,a.

93,b.

SMS^/S WS^'i'
HnfiaiSli

S5,b. 85,b,
ib.

0
0.%

^lj^^il^ - 97.b. 96,a. 101,b. 0/g


97,a.

HnTJ&MM
MnTSjSyi

86,a.

99,a.

SfBTSmlSK

87,a. 86,a.

me
0iia B-Mt
mfpf:^
ftfplfff

73,b.
59,a. 84,a.
86,a.

m^ummm^
i0SMfi>
SfnTftPtll

8D,b.

85,b.
88,b.

Hnrft5ft#:

90a
90,a.

Hnfft^^R
^fnTaJtlnTll

88,b.
90,a.
90,a.

0!nrffll5

StB[ftfn[liffiSR

mtnTtSSl

84,b.
85,a.

SfpTiglto^R

104,a.
87,b. ib.

B.Mt&MM
^fpf^^^

SfnfiiSKffitl

85,b.
86,a.

BMBM
S^MBMil
^tmf^B

mmm^
Ml

9i,a.

86,b.
87,a.

41,b.

276

^W^jl
fcPSP'S

92,a.
91,a.

i^.lftflia

ib.

w^/Tmn^/J^

92,a. 97,a. 99,a.

$MM W^' PMm


SJR^ $lMB

93,a.

f4ijlS1!in~^

93,b.

tgnlSPt
^MS'ffili

93.b.
94,a.

91,b.

Ul,a.
126,a.

96,b.
ib.

*S
^^ij.^

96,b. 96,b.

fli

105,a.
46,a.

*^#m ^ffis: #^
^^^^

^
;fK^

46,a.

51,b.

98,b. 98'^ib.
it).

176,a.

m&B
mi^M

171,b.

Mmrm
m
nl^

kh.
73,b.

0MB
0ISIi

99,b.
99,b.

149,b.

0MB.'^
mf^-icM

98,b.

5
Sil^

RAD.

65.

mi m^Mi
^afiHWM^ ^If^^A 0?RiB# 0M^IS*

9-b98,b.
97,a.

87,a.

171.a.

ib.

86,a.
86,a.

.176,a.

176,b.

92.a. ib.
94,a. 99,a.

M^BM
0P0M3n inaJitlS*

JC

RAD.

66.
8.a.

99,a.

m^m

277

^ffi
|5C^7fe

5,b.

55,b.

63.b.

^~^
Wivm9YM

151.a.
144,a. 144,a.

M MM

65,b.
55,b.

Mim

I^KE>^

i9o,b.

|i^@

124,a.

WMBM^
Jf

191.a.

RAD.

67.
94,b.

RAD.

69.
112,a.

^^
xn'mi^^
-

/f

9o,b.

ffSiS
Srl^t-^

171,b. 172,a.

134,b.
lG5,a.
i22,a.

M^ mm^m
#tt*Sf^^
59,b.
:f5

RAD.

70.
iy2,a.
81.a.

:^^ -fj^^^mi

mi
SUfH

95,b.
74,a.

ll^^Jimi
::^11S

116,a.
188,a.

^^tt^

101,b.
102,a.
113,a.

-f2m^m

37,b,
8i,a.

APt^BE
afeSffl^

:Hmi^^m& -

MM
BS

81,a.

40,b.

S^

RAD.

JS
68.
97,b.
98,a.

^0,b.

M^M.

:-104,b.
io4,b.
i.b.

4it-

MMM^
MM^'^

4$!^^

278

Sffi

84,a.

mt^m"^

72.b.

^
i72,b.

^tflffiS.

92,b.
67,a.

mn
BMf*^-

B$W
B$7K
.

67,b.
68,a.

172,b.

Jg^a

172,b.

I^^

.207,a.

(or|g)iili -m.b.

^mM
^P'g

53,b.

BSii^
BaS'^flin

^^

118,b. 116,b.

172,b.

Wff

maiitt*
J5SPtiStS

i73,b.

^R

Ul,a.
3o,a.

^K^mfrMm

173.a.

141,a.

73,b.

193,b.

a RAD.
QBS 05?
aife

72.
51,a.

207,b.
81,a.

165,a.

165,b.
.141,a.

0t

30,b.

BMM
0^?^

^^miiimKtS
/Pn

104'^116,a.

173.b.

Bnm^m
gg^ m:^ mWi
H^5t

i73,b.
58,b.

ii9,a.

i52.b.
198,a.
141,a.

Sjgg

88,a.
54,a.

0^g^
#,D;^

70,a.

54,a. 54,a.

=m

158,a55,a.

544>.

279

^* ^^ S ^SP
^fU-ZlI*
;i^

54,a.

njaHlg

ib.

58,b.

n9,b.
54,b,
54,a.

H
MfS
^s.in

RAD.

73.
93,b.
70,a.

47,a.

**
*0^#
^0-^

45,b.
44,a.

142,a.

i3i.b.
128,a.

-litell
46,a.
ib.

**^ mmm& ^^^^


*0iSII AB-^'X

^BMMM
"i"

^Bmmw -w.b.
^?1|iJ???K 62,b. 94,b. 96,b.
94.a.

127,b.

45,b.

45,b.
45,a.

^fB

i'^M
.PtS ^Jc^

46,b.

94,a. 95,b.
94,a.
ib.

Sy^M
ft*ffi^
48,a.

S.yMMM

94,b.
ib.

m^MtM^
#f^ti

44,b.

sy^pm
ft^H ft^H
ftlJC^

44,b.
46,b.
47,a.

96,b. 96.b.

#^il
fti^f^

10l,b.
53,a. 139,b. 197,b.

#^i: *J^fS

47,b.

:60

45,b.
199,a.
ib.

mmm.

53,b.
53,b.

*i^
^^5:^fS{

*i^

58,b. 44,b.

#JS^

MB^ AWf g

53,b.

150,a.

280

#^'^ -m:^.

96,b.
184,a.

^#^
^CtR i'V
itfXf,iX.

^?ftlft?R^-

186,b.

Sift
76.a.

158,b.

*
B RAD.
74.
66,a. 98,a.

RAD.

75.
206,a.

T^CM

*"#
7|C#||
:;tClR^

168,b.
101,a.

M^
^3^ >^^ nit

151,b. 156,b. 172,b.

188,b.

172,b
173.a.

*Xffi^

lOO.b.
lOO.b.
4,a.

nw
nmfs. j!i^

-lys.b.
loi.b.
173,a.
173,a.
183,a.

*#W *4^ ^H
^|ij

MX^^

4,b.

93,b. 97,a.

n^^
n-XM

93,b.
97,b.
96,b.

%n%
:^M

nmM nM^ nm&n


n^^-^M
>^;^Hl*g
:^

i97.b. i73.b.
173,a. 188.a.

Mt
^ttato

164,b.
83,a.
ib.

y^&U
*ffi^ T^ffiE^

173a
31.a.

83,b. 83,b.
i)C,b.

-^B

28.a.

%Wi^
;^tli6||
T^lSttinr

^m
^'It

96,b. 98,b.

97,b.

124.a. 130,a.

98.b.
96.a.

^^

*SgfJ1tll

281

::^^

66,b.
62,a.

i^y
:^'mM^i

91

53,b.

i25,b.
- 74,b.
47,b.

*I^^-ffi

"S-MB
tt^:?f^

lou.
ioi,b.

;fe(:lt:

206,b. 200,b.
48,b.
126,b.

ttWlij

tt#SKt
:SUJnK

^k^M^inm i42,b.
^P^
^ifi?|5
157,a. 142,a. 181,a.
92,b.

^\U^
^^S

126,b.

6,a.

if fiMflJ

W^J& ^/t^
t^lf

83,a. 78,a.

W*

H
f^X 9S

125,b.
168,a.

77,b.
ib.

t^gilft t^l^^
t^,S^0fflll

90,b.
80,a.

82a
35,a.

144,b.
35,a.

%3E
''^X

^ik

Ha.
67,a.

35,b. ib.
^2,a.
ib.

^fe^
?feVf

^fi

198,a.
74,a.

Wr^WlfR miC^

10,b

%XA %X^ %^ %
'^M ItM %ig
-

35,b. 144,b.
ib.

mhS
;jg2ts:

82,a.

36,a.

36,b.
36,a. 36,a.

ioi,b.
168,a.
loi,a.

1S#
1S*W:SiKfra

35,b.

282

%S
WirfM %P^J^

36,b. 152,1).
29,a. 35,a.

MMfi^
StJlfln

109,a.
55,a.

143,b.
40,a.

%^M ^mM ^Mm


!^a^^ %^IIS
'^m^Pf^'^

35,b.

M8K
ffiSI^ffiiiWM^ tt*S

35,b.
3'5'b-

40,b.
40,a.

35,i>.

WM
W.'^\U It*llj

40,a. 41,a.

36,a.

26.b.

71,b.
76,a.

ItUlW

m%W
*a^
Jlf*

125.a.

Its

124,b.

i^-

81'b.
f-

X
W:^^
W:&

RAD.

76.
69,a.

S^/t!im Sm g^
mt9
ffi:ftA

m^^BU

ib-

97,a.

72,a. 72,a.
121'^^-

175,b.
i4i,b.

g^Ag;

m
fcHEE

141,b.
67,b.

122,a.
l.a.

74,a.

Sj^BS

mb.
203,a.

ME

^UStS

203.a.

^W ^ii: ^^ mM

9M.
122.a.

it
it^,f,

RAD.

77.

140,a.l57.a.l96,b.
14,b.

122,b.
162,a.

iEtB

lEii

14.b.

283

lEfr

22,a.

SJftt

186,b.

JEK
JEM.

32,b.ll4,b.
145,b.
145,a.

mili^(orJfij)it
(orH)
189,a.

jEH lEM JES


JE-^
jE;f: lEffi

U5,h.
140,a.l4fi,a.

145,b.
146,a.

S;

RAD.

79.
16,a. 16,b.

^M
ft

132,b.
133,a.
133,a.
92,a.

JEmWM.
HEmi^MM.
lEiffigR

RAD.

80.
36,b.
99.a.

^^

lEfiai

146,a.
146,a.

lE^M JE^M
lEmpR
Jltjll

M&
tt

145,b.
144,a.

146,b.
118,a.

RAD.

81.
31,b.
32.a.

^ M M^M
Itffiffi

Jt
Jt-M

196,a.

182,b. 182,b.
182,b.

mi&y^xmi
Jt:ft

32,a.

SflStf

142,a.
118.a.

JtH^r'^li]

JT

RAD.

Bftfll

77,b.

78.
WJtfti/iaS

203.b.
ib.

l6tSX
^^i^#
112,a.
55,a.

Bits
ffiJtPt

113,b.
196,b.
197,a.

^Sfe^
^ftl

57,b.

''^^

284

iftP'feS^.jS

197,a.

fflJtil^fian

202,a.

HftM Ift/E^

202,a.
202,a.

Bthi*/'

203,a.
ib.

nltmr

tttJE^a^
IHtt^3l

203,a.

^k^Pmi
Bji^rJ-^HeiB

203,b.
191.b.

118,a.

^kiMM
BJtrtfSjl

203,b.
204,a. 203.a.

BJt'^^ Blt^l*
Bit^KII

194,a.

192,b.
192,b.
205,a.

BJtS*
BJt^ll Wjt?PK

203,b.
2(M,a.
ib.
ib.

Bit^rf Wit-^feS

192,b.
121,a.

^m\^
BltJftH

BttK^
BJtM (orH)^

I78,b.
192,a.

BitUflU
Hit:?R^^

206,a.
206,a.
192.a.

Wlh^ll
IHJtftag-

192,a.

^kfM.Mori)fM
Bit

BthSSflJ
Hlt/^-'PI

]91,b.
193,a.

It ^(or5S)3|n-203.b.

ffiJt^^^^

197,b.
193,a.

^L
Bita^^fllj

279

j^

^iti^m

202!a.

ft^Jg
KlttlfPT
Sltfflffi

191,b.

WCMW-^

200,a.
200.a.
i97,a.

126,b.l97,b.
199,b.
199,a.

mmM^m
BJt^i&X

WCMBM

BJtfPrll

203,b.
ib.

BJtfPT^??

199,b.

ntmnx
HitMWJ*

263,b.
205,a.
205,a.
205.a.

BthtPTSffiH

199,b.
202,a.

^^^ {or

mM

I8}t^(or^|^)ll5|i-.202,b.

mnmm

^&BMU

Bit^^'^R

^^^yimw^^m 202,b.
BjfclW
ib.

BMISeSK
^it^Ptftsnf

2(M,b.
204,b.

285

JfS"^ffll|

205,a.
I

S:;f]tJl|^

ib

ttyl^^Jg
BltlR^ilSlJIi

205,a.

iJ?*

139,b.

206.a.

/^Si

139,b.
157.a. 157,a. 157,a.
40,a.

^km.^mm

mi
-ma.
i99,b.

^:*5B
^^^>^

BH:fgli*W5i^

/J^SaO
ij^^^^iof

133,
157, 167,
43,a. 44,a.

RAD.

82.
86,a.

i^'MiSM

&mn^
^pIRftlli^

44,a.

TK

RAD.

85.
195,a.

ffix-

44,a.
44.a.

7i(X

ib.

*^til^ T^M
TKii 7KEE
:$5R

162,b.
51,a. 51,a.

mmm^'
ffiffiSR

ib.

44,b.
ib.
ib.

156,b.
61,a.

mmwm
*SRffllt!i

:^II5^*

62,a.

mm mmu ma
^SpMoJi

ib.
ib. 46,b.

eu.
62,a.

ib.

^^
EiiM
?X7K

m^
ffitt

45.a.
45,a. 38,a.

207,b.

IHb.
6,a.

ffitt

SIR
S1$1!inll^

86,a.
86.a.

m^ mM m^

45,a.

109,b. 179,a.
45,a.

45,b.

286

mM mm ^g
i#
ffijE
jg-g.

45,b.
46,a. 46,a.
il>.

^I5

..

48,a.
8.a.

i^lf^'S'
'^

44,b. 55,b.

64.b.

iSSSRil

46,b. 46.b.
79,a.

mmm^s
ffiUHH^

mb.
132,b.

?
ffilZ-?

m^
5^
ffilSI

46,b.

mmW^
ifePt

112,b. 137,b.

116a
23,a.

46,b.
ib-

iSli?
iffi.1)

54,a. 97,a.

:ffi

47,a.

?iJI

47,b.
47,b.
48,a.

S
?&SS

112,a. 112,a.

B^ ^*^
'/SRH
^JlXpa ffi**Pt:

114.b.
llG,a. 117,a.

ffi^

48,a.

mm
fi^n
ffiS^

48,a.

119,a.

101,a.

ii4>b.
115,a.
ib.

187,b. 187,b. 186'b.


44,b.

iS*^^
iSll^lW)

ffi0Rft**^lra

m^^

a;4W

m^&
V*^#%W
V^|lJ
rpJW

(oi"

45,b.

^)

ib.

45,b. 47,b.

^:$:
47,b.
44,a.

122,a.

Kl^
^^^

118a

47,a. 45,b.

fe^S

287
no,a.

l]9,a.

i^3L

81,a.
ib.

a
^jkM
rftSf

119.a.
11^'^[\:sC'P

82,a.

ii6,b.

^\m

i3i,b.
206,b.

rftHfg

i2i,b.
97,a.

i^MMW
fSS^

7J5^^

105,b.
60,a.

^0.

54,a. lll,a.

SS
^-X StK

lll,a.

33,b.
51,b.

112,b.

rS#^;E

113,a.

^S
P

36,b.
39,a.

112,b.
116,a.

M^
My\^&9
fPffiPIg
ilM.

133,b.
197,a.

imm
aSllSRSf

ib.

IHb.
ib.

r^n^M
jSH^aSW
?jSltM'PM

133,b.
109,a.l09,b.
172,a.

117,a.
117,a.

i^^

i&^m
rJ^aSH^ aSlffi^

ii7,b.

mim^
m^-^Ji^WM Jf

io7,b.
41,a.

116.--

200,a.

116,b.
112,b.

Jf

I63,a.

afii^^ rft^Sa
^

#^
mi(or^)

8b.
200,a.

118,a. 123,b.
117,a.

aMS^H
l/g

105,a.

108,a.
107,a.

MM
MM^t

108,b.

^^ WM ^M ^% ^#

200,a.

20O.b.
162,a.
162,a,

36,b.

288

#ff ^it

96,a. 205,a.

MM^
i^M.^
refill

25,b.l25,b.
125,b.
96,b.

200,b.
162,a.

WEX ?fgX^# #MS


W^^

167.b.
162.a.

i^Bt^iC^

125,b.
21.a.

200,b.
i92,b.
161,a.204,b.
37.b.
69,a.

MM ^^
?f:^f^

206,b.
183,a.

if^m

^M^ mkm^
m'^^mmi
iSJto

iWiovMj^^i^

189,b.
176.a.

91^*
M=E-f ll|05cS

wm'msE'^m

176,b.
176,a.
60,b.

i^u.

177a
31.a.

JwSi
tSZfiOl

if^ Ml^

80,b.
79,b.
ib.

94.b.
ii5,a.

^0
^ffi

mmkj^iimm
m&ij>&Mms.
r&ftl

i33.a.

^^^?

162,a.
67,a.

76,a.

moi-mf^

177,a
177.a.
66,a.

mtl
iSSffi

M M^^MB
'&i)k

175.a.

168,a81,b.
171,a. 102,a.

M
MIS

202.a.
18,a.

?I*jfiL

MM
MMS.

MS
MIU

llG.a.
145,a.

102,a.

MS
Mfi-*-WW^

203.a.
109.U.

MSfJ^M^a
?3|R

;^
-^Ol.b.
125,b.
i2fi,b.

RAD.

86.
153,a.

!k

i^^

tkM,

13a

289

^^ A^S

74^6>.

MM^^M^
;^

183,b.

169,b.

io7,b.
l,a.

&^

S]m
.^M >i^ MM(oT^) Mi^
.^tt"^

183,a.

183,b.

MSLI4

l,b.

iio,b.

M^^
*:gli4ffia^

203,b.
l,b.

no,b.
184,b.

^SM^MW
%i)}

2o.b.
7,b.
7,b.

i^'^183,b.
184,a.
184,a.
ib.

,%M^
iStt/^

4(M)^
4$i]/^

M^ "^"*
^^Jfll

WM ^^

14,a. 114,b.

12.b. 18,b.

188,a.

^'^

104,a.
13,b. 14,a.
13,b.
14,b.
14,b.

i(or):^(org)
JEirJ'"

*Sc
i83,b.
ib.

:^WM}^
.ftPtSlR .^MfffiR
.%fflJir>

^i
1i_h|f^
! iTt-*

184,a.
184,a.
184,a.

i4,b.
19,a.

19,b.

^^K^S MjMtM
MjiJ^M^t

ISo.a.
186,a.

12,b.
20,a,

187,b.

iS?S^(or^)ife-187,b.

^M^ MMMM '^"^


M^M
^?ii

20,b.

21,a.
23,a.

.^

(or

IB) r^ IS (or
186,a.
187,a.

27,a.
27,a.

il)^ M}(ot1^M&.^

290
.64,a. 200,a.

17,a.

M^

96,a.

*^)R&

22.a.

200,a.

MB^
^3Lm ^Sr^
^InlS

100,b.
ib.

200,a.

200,b.

22,b.

iio,b.
iio^a.

200,a.

M^M

^@
'"

jgg

100,b.
109,a.
ll^^^^"-

MltHS*
Pb1*S^

i3,b.
27,a.

Sg^

MBggIS

183.b.

182,b.

MS'MS
m{^Jr^)jM,

-lOT.b
174,a.
7,b.

MJtiS

2,a. 5,b.
5,a.

MW^
f^m

M^^^S

I5,a.

m
^II'##]S''

201,b.

ll,b.
7,a.

ib.

7,a.

8,a.

ll,b.
15,b.

mm^ Bmm
m&^

..207,b.
...207,b.
...

60,b.
34,a.

mmW
*l*?9 ^m^^W:

15.b.
8.a.

...

117,a.
117,a.

-44,^ 192,a.

105,b.

a^

15,a. 12,a.

177,a.

169,b.

mn

12,a.

l^^

185,a.

16,a.

291

4^
pj

RAD.

93.
59,a.

4^:^

60,b.

^-^MW.
:^;E

60,b.

101,b.

M^ M^^ M^Wi ^A ^^ W&M


m^^i^K

154,a.
ib.

98,b.

123,b,
123,a.
12,a.

#^7-&
-^Pfi#

102a
92,a.

56,b.
76,a.

m^W\^

:^n%^

lOlA

^^tPtiS5ES-86,a.

#*PPt

87,a.

i
2^

RAD,

95.

59,b.

Wt
WfeSl

59,b.
56.a.
ib.

^lW\%
S(I) RAD.

159,a.

mwm
^?6 $l#%!t
$11^

59,b. 59,b.
70,a.
ib.

97.

iir
3Eit

65,a. 153,a.
79.a.

Ea
K^^
-?gR

127,b.
79,a.

i^
ib.

^^M
jDinfEg

127,b.

196,b.
77,b.

%
?S^llj

RAD.

M^
94.
78,a.

142,a.
ib.

ffl^ftllM -

mJ^mWi
3^

147,a.
65.b.

WMB.
a^

8i,b.

56,b.

^^WB ikZA^

176,b.
96>*-

292

^# ^-^Wm PM
^km^
M'M
iiuftn^
IraDtofitfiifilw'

168,b. 144,b.
20,a.

S
^i

RAD.

100.
62,b.

207,b. 208,b.
208,b. 209,b.

4X
^f-fc

124,b.
14,a.

4?E:^fi

147,b.

fe1tt]SfIl:t{&lrag

53,b.

^mUlwU

208.b.

m
fi^ll

RAD.

102.
208,b.
155,b.

M
imM

185,a.

^-kW

209,b.

^W-^^m

113,a.
118,a.
ib.

MM mm^^
X
MfP
RAD.

40,b.
io2,a.

^^m
^^^m
SflJ^

123,b.
ii8,a.
123,a.

98.
32,b.

mmmmm SifliSUnft ^MM^


69,b. 76,b.

67,b.

M^M
SKSIS

203,a.

JE

RAD.

103.
67,a.

W.U^^9

ImM

U
H
RAD.

113,b.

US^A
99.
ll,a.

76,a.

^^
##>
frSMZE

65,a.
ll,a.

f M^
SI

RAD.

104.
108,b.
113,b.

293

fi

RAD.

105.
30,b.

^MB^
#S^O^S
^Wi
ftig

185,b.
13,a.

It^f^fS

^Sy\
#ffiS
#ft'/f'MS

148,b.
21,a.

28,b.
174,a.

jt^naaa
6,b.

i3i,b.
i3i,b.
131,b.
82,b.
82,b.

jMMmmmw&
MKSIR
Uite^WSf

a RAD.
65^
fift fij^

106.
163,a.

aiR^stsa? -

15,b.

mpmm^
g
RAD.

i3i,b.

156,b.
66.b.

StHM
Siiffi

8o.b.

109.
86,a.

Q^IP fiM
P'^i\
Snffi
"giaiffi

124,b.
163.a.
'25,a.

@il

S^ W^
giiinffl^

101,a.

102,a.
86,a.

152,a.

27,b.

B^%li

lOlA
87.a.
ib.

SIS
^S-lt

151,b.

mmUt s^um
^0

165,a.

17,b.

ffl%

S5,b.

iUft

--104,^
80,a.

ffi^^H

118,b.

A^
JE

RAD.

108.
185,a.

^M
JUL i^
.uIL

M
iTsia^

147,a.

^^'

188,b.

294

MS
Mi
Rfl*

67,b.

-m&M.m

30,b. 8o,b.
6i,b.
...

114,b.
176,a.

R#K
SB
BfiJ?-

^mmm
*aMl|5
mM.4^jhnm^.j^

mmiKM

70,a.
171.b.
ib.

58,b.
58,b.
68,b.

-Iftlli^SX ...

Bfi^l?'

ib.

Bi?iJS#JI Bi5a#e^:g

..126,b.
..

5^

RAD.

111.
196,b.

ib.

#11

^
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I01,b.
172,b.

72.a.

WW (^i)
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113,b. 18G,b.
80,a.

i72,b. 172,b.
58,b.
58,b. 60,a.
59,b.
60,a.
60,a.
ib.

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5
RAD.

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80,a.

141,b.
71,a.

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15.a.
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112.
171,a.
20,a.
5,a.

60,a. 60,a. 60.a.


62,a.

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97,a.

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142,b.
176,a.
84,a.

60,b.
60,b.

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61.b.

156,a.

295

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92,a.

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49,a.

RAD.

mm *^
113.

ib.
ib.

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178,b.
187,a.

TlS^
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59,b. 52,a.
53,a. 53,a.

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77,b.

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60,a.
ib.

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RAD.

115.
155,a.
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53,a. 53,a.

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42,b.
131,a. 96,b. 126,a.

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176,a.

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26,a.

93,b.
93,a.

130,b.
lG9,b.
131.a.
81,a.
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Sli^O^
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if^
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98,b.
98,b.

SiSWII
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125,a.

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208,a.

mmm^jimm

su.
75,b.
20,a.

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86,a.

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198,a.

198,b.
124,a.
6,b. 102,b.

#K1R
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76.b.

i67,b.

124,b.

fS$ SS#

6,b.

ll,a.

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RAD.

116.
6,b.

47,a.

$Efe*-

57,b.

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79,b.

296

I64.b.

^M ^^ ^^
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19,b.

mmm^m MUM MM
MtlVPlPI
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76,a.

57,b.
57,b.

168,a. 202,a.
168,a.

57,b.

174,a.

RAD.

118.

-SOLa.
134,a.
56,a.

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55,b.

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44,a.

165,a.

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160,a.
166,a.
159,a.

^&M ^SM
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46,a.

46,b.
84,a.

^mKKi*S
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105,a.

^^I^M
78.a.

46,b.
46,b.
ib.

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RAD.

117.
78,b. 78,b.
79,a. 79,a. 79,a.

^mmm^ ^Mms.%^1 ^^0M ^MPM

73,b.

168.b.

m^ m^ nm mS mM
t^X

^ZIP I^HH ^mWW^M%

49,b.
49,b. 49,b.
49,a.

76,a.
76,a.

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48,b.
110,a.

tmtm

140,a.

297

g i^tSHSc i
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U2,a.
150,b.
43,b.
157,a.

%W^ ^fflSK ^W
^S:ffiS
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165,b.
166,b.
134,a.

155,b.

^^

165,b. 148.b.

14a
67,b.

^;ft

Iffl^SSa^H ffi*fel

102.a.

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117,a.l88,b.

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194,a.
194,a,.

I&^**n
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128.b.
53.a.

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119.
198,a.

151,b.

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152,b.

RAD.

^
ib.

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173,b.
165,b.
72,a.

MW M^ Ma M^
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199>a.

mmm
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i92,b.
199,a.

204,a.
204,a.

IS^IS
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200,a.

200,b.

^
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RAD.

120.
64,b.
37,b.

%%m.
4lra

76.b.

-^mm.
f5if
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186,a.
15.b.
28,a.
28,a.
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Mm^MM
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64,b.

f^
%%
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104,b.
107,a.
107,a.

M^
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27.b.

f5lS4I^^S

107,a.

298
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83,a.
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RAD.

122.
78,a.
ib.

^?F it"

122,b.
69,b.

19^

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m
1131^
16,a.

70,a.
S2,a.

f^^ ^^*

47,a.

72,a.

16,b. 20,a. 79,a.


82,a.-

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72,a.

S-h'^

67,b.

fmi^

67,b.
....
....

W^M mM BMB SBSM^ SS


HJlJ

130,b. 12T,b.
128,a.

128,a.

128,a.
128,a.
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72,a.

69,b.

....

72,b.
73,a.
76,a.

...

-...
....

67,a.

H^IJ*

.-. 67,b.

SMM
m$Lm
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i27,b.
128,a.

^SSMtPt

77,b. 72,b.
7o,a.

i28,b.
'

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ib.

127,b.
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m^mm fmmM Mm^M


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-71,^
7i,b.
67,a.

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i48,a.

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75,b.l36,b.

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RAD.

123.
27,a.
83,a.

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75,b.

H
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124.
56,b.

83,a.

299

^
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RAD.

125.
52,a.

lgffi^

74,a.

^%
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42,a. 17,b.

53,a.

53,b.
61,a.

m^m^w^M
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i8,b.

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i8,b.

RAD.

126.
107,a.

SiEg

148,a.

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%
^
5:

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158,a.

RAD.

127.
14,a.

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RAD.

MS^WA
^WS
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128.
159,a. 125,a.

190,b.
18,a.

?KJI fl^^ ?Ii^{|

208,a.

183, a. 157,b.
159,a. 132,a.

208,a.
23,b.

kItiM
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208,a.
208,a.

H'fi

208,a.
17,a.

K %Mm
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-IST.b.
132,a.

206.a.

S^
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17,b.
18,a.

%
^

RAD.

129.
202,a.

300

@tt

144,a. 167,a.

RAD.

130,
183,b.
175,a.

^M
te^ iR^
S^Kffi

g^ &mi
g^^ii
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168,a. 147,a.

168,a.
38,a.

86a
64,b.

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101,a.

53,b.
135,a. 135,b.

S
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RAD.

133.
177,a.
176.a.

tgt
fg;^
fgflp

135,a.
152,a-

SSRf^-

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176,b.
i76,b.

fgm
tmiE-^^f-n Mii^S

206,b.
22,a.

^Mmm^Mm
a
I^J^

i9i,b.
171,a.

RAD.

134.
64,a.

B^^Tf^

^^
#Jt5: W#1=5

116,b.
iifi.b.

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ii2,b.

118,a.

ff^^ll

118,b.
82,a.
82,a.

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RAD.

135.
53,a.

134,a.

^^\\
132.
66,b.

149,a, 149,b.
149,a. 149,a.
149,a.

^m^
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66,b.

^^WRWft&f^

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165.a.
32,b.

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301

^I'J^'^

148,h.
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121,a.
ii6.a.

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157,a.

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ii6,b.
114,a.
ib.

i57,b.
157,b. 148,b.

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98,b.

H^S ^mmm&
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157,b.

114,a.

79,b.

^
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RAD.

136.
164,b.

e
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RAD.

139.
131,b.

^
k^ te^

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131,b. 179,a,
132,a.
7,a.

RAD.

137.
112,b. ib,

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RAD.

119,b.
33,a.

W^^B. ^i^^^

121,a.

120,a.
120.a.

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140.
148,b.
124,b.
80,b.
l,b.

^WSm
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120,b.

^flj

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ma. ^gftg
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io9,b.
116,a.

mi^
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184,b.
54,a.
54,a.

iS^M

n6,a.
112,b.

^Um
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mm^m
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182,b.
18,a.

ii2,b.
ii5,b.

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105,a.

302

WnW
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i88,b.

iio,b.
51,b.
172,a.

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mi^B m^^-X Wl^X


^i^mM^tlSlipira

33,b.

33,b.
ib.

33,b.
66,b.
34.a.

31,b.
32,a.

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511^

100,b.
ioi,b.
80,a.

^^^^
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170,a.

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^m^^il
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- 34,a.
34,b.
34.b.
34.a. 52,a.

169,b.

fl**Slra -

58.a. 75,a.

i28,b.
24,b.
187,a.

llS.b.
124,a. 156,a.

^^
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3^^

ffi^aE
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206,b.
167,b.
ib.

^^
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208,a.
26,b. 112,a.

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167,a.

111'^2i.b.

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mit^"^
ib.

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92,a.

mwMM
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iii>b.

91,b. 93,a.

BSJi
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mm
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32,b.
33,a.

124,a.
10,b. ib.
9,b.

IS

34,b.
34,a.

^ikM^

^WE ^MM

io,b.

303

oB
21.a.

151,a.

J^

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lOsib.

jmf

117,b.

mmmtm^
llM^
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-los.a.
148,b.
i48,b.

S
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116,b.
72,a. 72.a.

i48,b.

MWM-

^0 ^^ m^^^ M^^ ^I^fe mW^M Wll'P^

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195,b.
75,b.

m^um MM^^

mb.
i^9,b.

ffi^^lifi^^

148,a.

133,a.l68.a,187,a.
8,b.

mmm^^mi
M^lt^WMM
M!> M^MUjfi
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i33,a.

(lfl!l7jSiiTl -159,^
151,b.

lll,b.
112,a.

128,b.

lll,b.
32,b.

81,b.

^^$
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Wl'P^^MU
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32,b.

8i.b.

-.lOO.b.
66,a.

118.b.

^^S

166.a.

30,b.

194.a.
28.a.

^^^
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f^Ri^K

123,b.
77,b.

^3 ^SL

31,ht

128,a.206,b.
31.b.
31,a.

m^^m
WMiU^^Mti
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150,a.

ISO.b.
151.a.
3i,a.

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g^iJftt.tJ^t

150,a.

iso.b.

304

^4^
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163.a.
156,a.
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RAD.

141.
i48,b.
1^8,a.
7,a.
7,a.

^:?
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:^ffi-

166,b.

166,b. 160,b.
160,a-

7,a

M^M
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162,a.

mf^mi i47,b.
130,a.

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i6i,b.
163,b.

M^A
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MiorMMf^

160,b.
i6i,b.

M<^^MM%
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a
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RAD.

142.
79,b.
l'19.b-

161,a. 165,a.

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165.a.

Wpi^ SE^WSIS

l.b.

ioo,b. ioo,b.
101.a.

16U.

m.^B.%M
g^yttaH

i61,b.
159,a.

.-.

210,b.
92,a.
.

HiS^JiSSR

mmi^m$ mw.^^B

i^u.
i65,b.
i66,a.
i^jfii

82,a.

mmmnu
m%\\^

mmm^i^u

RAD.

143.
io6,b.
28,a.

i64,b.

MMM ^^
*^ffl

152.a.

305

^.^

58,b. 142,b.
87,b.

*i ^K
^la ^Bl ^^M ^-^

142,b.

^ ^

^?JK#
fflPfe

195.a.
14,a. 110,a.

124,a. 125,a.

U3,a.
143,a.
ib.

118,b.
125,b.
126.a.

fflJiJSR

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143,a.

127,a.
126,a.

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^^'li *f^*fPr^*S

143,b.
134,a.
140,a.

W&fJ^

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124,b. 118,b.

^V^^Kit^i^^

121,a.

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124,b.

ffla?ftMftt]M
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124,a
62,b.
22,b.

^
RAD.

2,b.

ft
fr
fr-ft

144.

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ffilil^

RAD.

146.
26,b.
26,b.
8,a.
8,a.

27,b. 72,a. 144,b.

99a.
22,b.

ffiUjfgi5

^Im

B^'ciSri

WK ^Mn
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153.b.
193,a.

m-^m^\
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i63,a.

42,b.

100,a.

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128,a.

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i89,b.

S
25^

RAD.

145.
189,b.

J.

RAD.

147.
67,a.

306

mtlftH
tM^(orPt) 28,b. Mit

53,a.

^tmmi
1-ffig^

112,a.
25,a.

140,a.

183,a.
183,a.

tllft^^i

179,b. 186,b.

mmi

mm
.112,a.

W.M^

36,b. 179,b.

^#
.15?F"

33,b.

37,a.

37,a.

fe?K

201,a.

37,b.

.u3

37,b. 38,a.
38,b.
39,a.
39.a.

201,a.

ftS
115:

lig |0g
g'[4

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RAD.

148.
197,b.

39,b.

179,b. 181,a.

M^

113,b. 140,b. 201,a.


83,a. 87,a. 201,a.

^^g
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179,b. 181,a.
179,b. 181,a.
34,a.

fSlK

^Kiilffl

188,a.
147,a..

g^lt
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38,b.
25,a. 49,a. 208,b.
25,a.

j^-^J]^4Wi5

iso.b.

119,a. 156,b.

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25.a.

MSft
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23.b.

M
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RAD.

149.
78.a.

26,a.

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66.b.

307

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198,fiu

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l5:^Jli

206,a.

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197.b.

149,b.
134,a.

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I74,a.
2oi,b.

txM

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m^W:m

151,b.
152,a.

51,b.
23,a.
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^^Wi&
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54,a^0,a.

Wi
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63,a.

173.a,

M
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122,b.
159,a.

!I^
Ji-[fi:#

199,b.
B2,b.
64,b. 78,a.

120,b.
i21,a.

^^SK
^ffiifrSB

152,b.
82,b.

WmM tiWMB tMmm


S-^
f=T=l

64,b.
ii9,a.

127,a.
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144,a.
200.1).

127,a.

160,a.

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42,b.
58,a.

pRnF

131,a.
160,a.

WM
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202,a.

167,b.

203,a.

vmM
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fffl

2,a.

83.a.

i^B

RAD.

150.
80,b.

151,b.
186,a.
36,b.

Mi
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a

RAD.

151.
83,a.

I49,b.
104,a.

308

WM
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157,b.

30,a.

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152.
102.b.
51,b.
63,a.

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30,a.

169,a.
30'^.

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^
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40.b.

176,b.
12S,b.
5i,b. 5i,b.

^^ ^^
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202,a.
63,a.

mu mum

^MUJ

118,a.
118,a.

RAD.

155.
128,b. 172,b.

RAD.

154.
73.b.

Mi MM tt^Jl?S* ^
I?#^^
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^M ^>tt ^^
^^:ffi IS^^^C

131,b.

193,b.
76,a.

llU.
lll.b.
112.a.

113,b.
185.a.
78,a.

^:fE

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197,a.
171,a. 171,a.

mW
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199,b.
147,a.
29,a.

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m^
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RAD.

173,b.

MM MWl K^ MU RS

29,a.

156.
.199,b.
.113,a.
.

29,b.
30,a.
30,a.

[0

ib.

66,a.

.113,b.

309

mnm SSnScr# M^ MP^ M^^^M


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ib.

121,b.

ScHll^i^

190,a.

IHa.
78,a.

178,a.

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^

MMB&M. ^M^M^M.

190,b.
114,b.

mmm
157.
194,b.

117,a.

82,b.

RAD.

S^ffiPtH
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209,b.

UM ^U mw^^mu
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ib.

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208,b.
ib.

i96,a.

^mm
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148,a.

29,a.

'^'^rSS

29,b.
30,a.

SSPi:ll5:

RAD.

158.
75,a.l49,b.

SS:K*;E*I^ Mtlift giCf#SP.5^

3o,a.

28,b.

28,b.
29,a.

#^ ##
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149,a,
66,a.

BcaS
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Eitffi

182,b.

30,a.

30,b.

RAD.

159.
152,a.

MtSKft

30,b.
64,b.

^
:$:S

W:W'^

129,a.

miS^a
ES^*
BCt^li

30,b.
36,a.

H
ttffigiH

175,b.
22,a.

190,a.

WiW^
US.i^

194,b.
195,a.

%^ ^
i
3E

79,b.

171,b.
147,b.
172,a.

MM^t

187,b.

310

^M\U
^ffiMlS)
fSlr^anH

172,a.

jSM:

187,a.

iE#
1^^5,b.

187,b.

im^
S*iC
ii^iC

187,b. 187,b.

i6o,b.
47,b. 47,b.
199>a.

W&^
Hffi^S
Hitljffl

187,b.
70,b.
73,a.
73,a. 73,a.

'M%

iM#

fSf^^i

172,a.

iM#^M
'3MM

$
JS5:

RAD.

bkMi^
160.
155,a. 123,a.

73,a.

a^5ili

73,a.
74,a.
ib.
ib.

^Hr^lll'

rr*^H^^

-123,a.
83,b.
ib.

mmm^
^pifH

m^^m^ pM^mm^

mm^U mm&i^ mmm^ S^Wt MMMt


afcji

73,b.
85,a.

i22,b.
171,a.

a*WWRMiW:^Wi M^S. ^^MM


^^'^i^

74,a.
74,a.

74,b.
58,a.

mm^
MSR^II^
^S.illj

RAD.

161.
53,b.

74,a.

74,b.
67,a.

53,b.
75,b.

bkW^
iSffiM

67,b.

M^Jt

162,b.

70,b.
70,b. 70,b.

&JtS
i&lil}tl|

g
ffifi

RAD.

162.
186,b.

aaftS'^
iSft|i.|!ltR

70.b. 70.b.

311

mnmM'MU

'' 7o,b.

mW
ani^glK

72,a.
74.a. 71,a.

mmU mwM
MiPtm
iteM,l^a

71,b.
7i,b.

M^WMUBM Wm^MV^
^a^ttSR
"
^-''^-

2,b.
55,b.

7i.b.

48,b.

7i,b.
74,a.

45,b.
53,a.

M&^
ants*
aiPtfta mmri^s.

67,b.
ib.

ir^W
jfi^^E

53,a.
ib.

67,a.

irgf^
iSoM

55,a.

&IIW*3S
p&IISPtlto

67,b.
68,a.

208,b. 208,b.
166,a.

M-M^

MWPAWvafl*tt.St

77,b.
ib. ib.

MM

_^mm^Z
^{^

193,b.
161,a.
192,a.

afcMPtX

68,a. 69,a.

iS^iS*
'JM^miJk

MM
il.fr

69,b.
69,a.

144,a.

^M^lifhll

SfelfSS

205,a.

mMi^^^
aittfea ifcWaBZ

69,b.
70,a.
ib.
ib. ib.

32,b.
18,a.

MW
jf^
Itt^ S^t^
'

33,a.l69,b.

mmu
&m.
a^ffiP_-

33,a. 34,a.

72,b.
74,a.

iiW
Ji^JIi

89,a.

ii^WiSi^

74,b.
69,b.
71,a.

170,a.l86,b.
97,b.

Mt^M^J^
a&MMIS3l

M^M.

312

g
^ft^^gifi
\5te pft^
'Trir

41,b.

130,b.
106,a.

33,a.
AA
\-^

'hffli^

106,a.

:^^

aS^^SIl

45,a. 45,a.

Sft^tl
altlfe

B
iRJg
8Rftl

RAD.

163.
i25,b. io2,b. 102,b. io3,b.

45,b.

m^m:%
SI^ftlllS^iR

^K?;^^ ^^^^Ij ^0ftUD

ib.

46,a.

47,a.

%M-W^
^iS^.fflt^

58,b.

%M
%l%

104,b.
ib.

169,b.
44,a.

a*WMS at^fsaii^ mmm^%%


^MM ^a^^ll

%%
SPfflffi

103,a.

47,b.
ib.

27,b.l04,a.

iRt

104,b. ib.

43,b.
47,a.

WMm
'mm&'x

106.b.
ib.

aS^H
a^I

47,b.

%mmi
iimMm
iRISft!p[

94,a.
ib.

161,b.
40,a.
ib.

io6.b.
i()6.b.

aM
iSi

ilffl*

^imwm% %^
^'^""^
;.v'j/,J

110,a. 102,a.

^Mll
iiStllJt^
Sni])ift?fi

169.a.

55.b.

106,b.

43,b.l81,a.
48,a.

SR:feJt-

io3,b.
107,a.
110,a.

m%^%%%

W^M^M

207,a.

m%mi

313

^H

135,a.

MMt ^^
fKJS:

m^^W^M^

-loe.b.
207.b.
32,b.

it^

178,b.
45,b. 47,b.
-

159,a. 107,a.

U^^ gSl M^^


M

91,a.
ib.

mi&um

p
MM
#:S9J
il

RAD.

164.
204,a.
176,a.

RAD.

166.
143,b.

185,a.
^^'^
62,a.

MH
BI*St^

ailS SMM^

ib.

203,a.

m^^^i&U

63,a.

3g

RAD.

165.
134,b.

MMM^ M??J^ MU
mmf^

MM^^R

204,a. 205,a.

205,a.
75,a.

208,a.

UM
Jg^jn

31,b.

65,a.l34,b.l35,a.

S
:

RAD.

167,
i66,b.

I^M^
5a34:

134,b. 135,b. 139,b. 134.b.


135,b.

MMH
fl^Ml MvM^J^

^H M ^ U
:^
^.i^

53,a.
ib.

52,b. 69.b.
72,b.

MMM^
MM^M.

139,b.
135,a.

167,a.

3U
&lffl3E
167.a. 163,a.

i^mi&
&+'tfro

64,a.

:^fi

70,b.

^ft

166,b.
33,b.

mm
^^itlra

166.b.

^1^ Ki^ W\^ W\^


^]Hft ^BUBiH

190,a.
190,a. 190,a.

191,a.

#
i^S i^^
i^ffiS

117,b. ib.

117,b. 117,b.
35,a.

191,a.

19U.
190,b.
190.a.

^
^Jfe*tt

i^^it

Ill,a.l28,b.
lll,a.
117,a.

wmmMi

I^#0
l+flc^

i9o,b.

^ll mii%

117,b.
119,a..

tmMM
#/#*Sfin
IS^fra
6i,b

27,b.

iii,b.
ii9,b.
117,a.

i^m^
iWflc^ PfmmnB

Hft^g

mb.

i23,a.

II#JI

114,b.
i2i,a.
i2i,b.
...

i^m^mi i^BMMW^
^I'SlWMSM.
191,a.

^^^^^^^\^^
iPJ7^

ib.

^IS.ft
:^'fc:lil

58,a.

I32,a.

164,a.

169,b.
43,b.
32,b.
76.a.

^-t+lffl

167,a.

^
fi^
fStt

:^tl@
,i1#

166,b. 166,b.

315

W^
iiitellWii^
S:

llO.b. 134.b.

S Kit M^ftl

52,b.

107,b.
52,a.

RAD.

168.
50,b.

M^^
MftSUi

59,a.

Gl,a,

&JK

A^
AM'k
Pg

61,a. 157,b.
5,b.

mwm^ mmmM
M^f^HPta* ^^j^(or

52,b.
ib.

52.b.

g|

or

^)^--.175,b.
107,a.

RAD.

SIM
169.
94,a
123,b.
'

f^M'M Pfl^^

M,
ppT^

RAD.

170.
l}^
sib.

HiL
^HM'm

206,b.
162,a.
51,b.

H# M^^
KJ^SKtg^*

m^mmia
WPS

7,b.
7,b. 7,b.

51,b.
74,b.

M(or^ljor^)^...207,a.

M^mmm MM
MMlt
ilPtg

wra^

u.bii.t.

M^^
M*iR^

76,b.

IV.

208,a.

M^M
MSS^M
lp]/r^

207,b.
207,b.
76,b.

PtP/ES
pjlf
PSIISft

12,a.

12,b. 14,a. 12,b.

169,b.
22.a.

iM

#t|

14,b.

316

m^^

'

17.a.

MU
MUW.
pij^

20,a.
20,a.
ib.

Ira

48,b.
27,b.

Rffi

Kffi^
RTrJ^^'i^

27,b.
l.a.

fpfW

20,a.

KWifll

21,a.
21,a.

MWg
MM-^

w^'&aa
W^'J^rbll^

i4.b.
23,a.
4,b.
5,a.
ib.

PSrWl^g W#-

21,a.
27,a. 27,a.
l,b.
ib.

\WirM

Kig^ IW*^
M^J?.

MM-mm
Wth

6.a.

mm^^mmm
KSil^

5,a.
ib.

Whft
Wtthft^'t^fffl

i.b.

2,b.
ib.

WJU^

5,b.
ib.

pilftftA^Sfffl

WWJtftmJt^a^l^
WiflJtM

39,a.
2(3.a.

W^* Mmj^ Mmm


pJlfiJ^

7,b.
ib.

i^fflita

l.b.

62,b.
ib.

Rf'Jfi
fnlajtia:'^fw2,b.ib.

M^mm^l

64,a.
8,a.

Mmt
W5iK^?P

8.a.

m
Ira

2,a.

MM-^

ll,a.

2,b.

3^
pBfl

OA
3,a.

MMm \mm PW^a^ MMm^^


mmj&,^

12,b.

i3,b.
12.b.
ib.

nDO

i2.a.

317

r;s#
F^r/Eit

i3,b. i3,b. 15,b.

Wifll

22,a.

WM^
MW^t MMW:
P^MRE

i5.b.
15,b.

m^m K&M
w#m5E
R/iSf'J

M^B.

10,b.
22,a.
ib.

4,b.

7i,b.
16,a.

WMoS
WMiteW

16,a. 16,a.
ib.

MMM Mmm M&M MWW


Kft*
Wftffi

ib.

WlifPr

17.a.
ib.

17,a.

18,b.

MM^ M&t MM^ KMttt Mmm^^ RKW*


R^RftS

26,a.

27.b.
66,a.

97.a.
17,a.

18,b.
l,a.
l,a.

19,a. 19,a.
ib.

Kftrl^W

WftS^

Kft^
Pir?Lsa

2o,a.
ib.
'21,b.

WS@^

Wy?a*

4,a.

ib.

M$M
Rlitllll^

mi&S^m
Wifig^
WifiJl^

4.a.
ib.

Wtll R^ll
W^Sf^ WSi7K

21,a.
ib. ib.

22,b.
6,a.

mmsm W*^*
R*^ftj*
1^1**11

7,b.
7,b.

21,b.
21,b.
6,b.
ib.

Wift^^ w^s^r^

15,a.

MWi^M
KKfl'iSMffitl^

26,b.
i,b.

W#|i
M^i^i
RH^ffJ

22,a.

MM^^i^
WiSIIS/i>

21,a.

22,a.

2i.b.

318

mS^^ psj^pian Mmi^ M^^M


MmmSC

22,b.
7,b.

-fj^^^

23 b

i3,b.

22,b.
27,a.
23,a.

"SmM
i'Sffi
''^'"^

26,b.
41,a. 169,a.

Mmm^kmm
PoIfflfMlB

43.b.

130,a.
ib.

liiS

43,b. 22,b.

M^MWX
M^kM^X
M'JMf^M^'d

mmj^mm
|5|i

ib.

170,a.
'

6,b.
ib.

r^

122,a.
ib.

1^*;^!^ IHffiWHil W^HPSfSI^

1?^^

6,b.
.18,a.

I^#^ ItSi^Sg
1^

201,a.
158,a.

WWJffl^S

18,b.

169,a.

^M
t**W M^MtW^ M^^iW^ MMMiW^
Mmm^iJ^:fliL
23,b.
20,a. 20,a. 20,a. 33,a.

79,b.

ESlR

53.b.
91,a.

ESSt
Kf

169,a.

Ms^mmm Mf^m&B

23,a.

26,b.

M
mw^i&m
WfS?Pa"^

MM mMB W& Wm Wm^


laffllra

196,b.
76.a.

127.b.
199,a97,a.

26,b.
64,a.

61,b.

Fh^I^

205,a.

198,a.

M^amrrm we*#a?s

9,b.
7.a.

H
^jllro

RAD.

172.
33,b.

319

MWJ^Wi

i5o,b.

ffiB^^ffi
^Il4

195,a.

63,b. 63,b.
62,a.

S
S:fe^fflfm
pBB

150,b.
38,b.

U\Uy

^ ^gffi

m\U&^

99.b.

164,a.

g
aSffi:^3E

99,b.
65,b.
99,b.

ffli

207,a.

H^ MM ^M
l6#l%iljS

107,b.

146,b.
204,a.

SB

SS b'EE ^^^S*^
..

51,a
.176,a.

146,b. ib.
5,b.
ilJJlipJ

56,b.

liW^
pnrft>i:^lffl

156,b.
104,a.

I46,b.

M-

ffifr-

202,a.

SJ^^bS
pptr

108,b. 184,b.
61,a.

g|^

203,a.

3g

MM
file
filffi^

108,b.

MM\U
RAD.

126,b.
128,a.
109,a.

fil^M
|||>t

174.
65,b.
.

105,a.
'

SI4

116,b.
163,a.

42,a.

Wiaa
Ellitetl^

.108,a.
P3

105,a.

:^

.189,a.

miim^m

io5,a.

1^

RAD.

175.
21,a.

RAD.

173.
194,b.

#?C

#A
#JgS

76,b.

m^B

i94,b.

104.a.

320

mmmmm
iSl

-mb.
210,b.

M
^43E

RAD.

181.
135,a.

mmm

82,b.

RAD.

177.
196,b.
192,b. ib.
193,a.

mJEmm

iio,b.
160,a.

M^
WM^^
-^Sain

iBS^ffi M^M ^MW,^

162,a.
162,a.

m^M W^mm
7fi>Kl^

mm^^M
MM.
^iKil
S5ffi

162,b.

202,a.
197,a.

160,b.
159,a.
99,a..

191,b.

192,b.
i93,a,.

m^m^m mmmmm wmm immm


M.
SP'fe

M^M
^I?i1t

100,a.

163,b.
Ifi3,b.

ib.

M^k!>M\U
^I#(roft)t|

8o,a.
ib.

161.a.

^M0tS mmyi'f'M
;StS
ffi)iS(or^)

163,b.

i65,b.
67,a.

RAD.

178.
196,b.
197,a.
62,b.

156,b.

m^

i87,b.

-^Vtm

^f^

mmt
mmmmw:

i6.a.

2i,b.
22.a.

=
"W

RAD.

mmmmm
180.
25,a.

nS^fl^^

128.a.
48,a.

SK
tfiH

WP,

59.b.

55,b.

205,b,

32]
ib.

I
I

l-pieeSR
i*il.l|KiRara

161,a.

32,b.

-ma.
186.
57,a.

ft#g

32,b.

S5^*
mSt
0PfB.
^TT^Mlffl

202,a.
121,a.

#
LU

RAD.

69,b.
^'"

57,a.

ffi%:^grli

4o,b.

WflK
%

72,b.

199,b.

JU.

RAD.

182.
I'^i'^-

MV^M

KPt^S
:t

2^'^-

,1

RAD.

187.
51,b. 70,a.

S
RAD.
184.
57,a.
^5.-

mm
^^|I|

2i,b.
21,b. 2i,b.

:^# :>*

kk\^

:tAm
tJC*

i28,b.
73,a.

UC*^
i^^

74,a.

MMM^ ^^MM M^B^B S^*#S


S^tK

loi'b.
^^'^

2i,b.

ioi.a-

196'^48,a.

123,b.
143,a.

^#

.IR^M

40.a
43,b.
81,b.

.KSKPg^a
g
^'^

RAD.

185.
162,a.

^M .^M M

154,b.
76.a.

155,b.

322

RAD.

188.
149,b.
204,a.

^tSSIS ^tl (or ^)


^I^tll^-?

189,a

Hftj
189,a.

^^
fmrnM^^
^mftHpl^

(or$g)l8(or^)

184,b.

m^ntm^
159,b.

i89,b.

^{or|R)^lifttJ189,b.

a
^3E

RAD.

189.
25,a.

RAD.

194.
130,b.

S
ift^

18^.^ib.

62,b.
97,a.
97,a.

we
's.pii

M^
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188,a.
189,a.

tl-^ic

97,a.
^

^es

9i,b. 9i,b.
91,a.

R
B^3E

RAD.

WMMB
191.
68,a.

^MHPtll
Cffia*6li

91,b.
9i,b.

^mmimmm
RAD.
192.
186,a.
8o.a

^
*^JSM

M
^M\U

RAD,

195.
107,b.
79,b.
.155,a.

^.#:1=

^^^^IKS
iKorffiiK^R ^(orffi)#||

80,a.

183,b.
189,a.
186,a.

^WM mWM
^Mil^-131,b.

189.a.

RAD.

196.
79,a.

184,b.

323

AIKH

79,a.

hi^B^
Alftll+

M^
j^ff

ib.

79,a.
79,a.

101,a.
101,a.
ib.

JS^ M'W

AlillV?^

78,b. 78,b. 79.b.


62.b.
13,a.

Al*Stl AIS^
JlSftM

#
i^

RAD.

199.
208,a.

^JS^
SffiSli

13,b.
13,a.

H
^J& SP1

RAD.

201.

^M^
^t^cS^M
^^IliticiS

70,b.

13,a.

112,b. i63,b.

13,b.

SIBI5:

li

116,a.

a^MM
11^

71,a.

64,b.

^
^ ^^

RAD.

202.
143,b.
82,a.

HSJR

64,b.
62,a.

nmMl^^
Hit

WJ^^

128,a.

186,b.
78,a.

M&\U II^H M^\U


litis

78,b.
61,a.

RAD.

203.
67.b.
68,a.

mm
mit

76,b.

g
M

RAD.

m^ BM
198.
lOl.a.

77,b.
99.a.

Mjl^

114,b.
189,a.

M^

324

RAD.

209.
60,a.

fim II
an-SWfS
fIS:

it-

103,b.

^fi
fqTH

192,b.

199,b.
202,a.
203,a.

i7,b.
ib. ib.

IB^

^i&
&?*WX

110
tlflfc

204,a.

103,a.
103,a. 133,b.
83.a.

f|3E

RAD.

fl5if^^
211.
40,b.

Iia##
II^^AigfB

94,b.

103,a.

RAD.

212.
102,b.

RAD.

213.

102,b.

-^*<-

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