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History of Computer The history of the computer and the calculator goes back to a very long way.

For many centuries, people used their own brain-power to perform calculations. The first computers were people! That is, electronic computers (and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. The brief history of the computer is given below !. "bacus The "bacus is the earliest and the simplest calculating device. The "bacus is also know as #$oroban#. %t was developed and used in &hina about '(( ).&. The "bacus was a very simple computing device used for simple addition and subtraction. %t consists of a rectangular wooden frame having parallel wires. *ach wire supports a number of beads. The beads across the wires are free to move along the length of the wires. *ach bead down represents a digit. The position of wires and their values are The beads in the first wire on right represent unit digit. The beads in the second wire on right represent the tens digit. The beads in the third wire on right represent the hundreds digit and so on. +. &alculating ,evice of -ohn .apier (!//( - !'!0) %n the early !0th century, the famous logarithms idea was developed by -ohn .apier, a $cottish mathematician. 1e created logarithm tables for arithmetic calculations. 1e also developed a new manual calculating device using rods, also known as .apier2s )one to perform arithmetic calculations. The .apier2s )one was also referred to as &ardboard 3ultiplication &alculator. The .apier2s calculating device remained in use till !45(. The commonly used calculating device known as #$lide 6ule# was also developed using the concept of .apier2s idea of logarithms. $lid 6ule was first built in *ngland in !'7+. 8ith the modem $lide 6ule, you can perform simple arithmetic calculations as well as calculate s9uare roots, logs, sine, cosine and tangent etc. The $lid 6ule was used till the middle !50(s. 7. &alculating ,evice of )laise :ascal (!'+7 - !''+) )laise :ascal invented the first mechanical calculator, called alternatively the :ascalina or the "rithmeti9ue, in !';/, the first being that of 8ilhelm $chickard in !'+7. :ascal began work on his calculator in !';+, when he was only !5 years old. 1e had been assisting his father, who worked as a ta< commissioner, and sought to produce a device which could reduce some of his workload. )y !'/+ :ascal had produced fifty prototypes and sold =ust over a do>en machines, but the cost and comple<ity of the :ascaline - combined with the fact that it could only add and subtract, and the latter with difficulty - was a barrier to further sales, and production ceased in that year. )y that time :ascal had moved on to other pursuits, initially the study of atmospheric pressure, and later philosophy. %n !';+, a scientist of France, )laise :ascal developed the first mechanical calculator or calculating machine. This mechanical calculator was named as :ascaline. %t consisted a series of wheels or gears each numbered from ( to 5. This calculating machine performed arithmetic operations and displayed the numbers by rotation of different wheels or gears. *ach wheel rotated in steps and a wheel completed one rotation in !( steps. The :ascal2s calculating machine could perform the addition ? subtraction operations directly but the multiplication ? division operations were performed by repeated additions and subtractions. ;. &alculating ,evice of @ottfried Aon Beibni> (!';' - !0!') %n !'0!, a @erman mathematician @ottfried Aon Beibni> developed first calculator for multiplication as well as for other simple arithmetic calculations. This calculating machine was similar to :ascal2s calculating machine but it was more reliable and accurate. "ctually the Beibni> calculating machine was the modified form of the :ascal2s calculating machine. /. :unched )oard $ystem of -oseph 3arie -ac9uard (!0/+ - !47;) %n !4(!, -oseph 3arie -ac9uard, a France engineer (inventor of :ower Boom) developed a punched board system for :ower Booms. %t was used to design specific weaving patterns on cloths automatically. Bater, the idea of punched boards was used in calculating devices. '. &alculating ,evice of &harles Cavier (!04/ - !40() %n !4+(, a scientist of France, &harles Cavier invented a calculating machine that could perform simple arithmetic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This calculating machine was named as "rithmometer. 0. &alculating 3achines of &harles )abbage (!05! - !40!) %n !4++, :rofessor &harles )abbage at &ambridge Dniversity of DE, developed a special type of calculator. %t was called #,ifferent *ngine#, which was powered by steam mathematical calculations. %n !4;+, he also designed a new machine called the #"nalytical *ngine#. %t was the first automatic programmable computer. %ts average speed to perform arithmetic calculations was '( additions per minute. The "nalytical *ngine included several features that are also present in the modern electronic computer. %t is because &harles )abbage is considered as father of modern digital computer.

4. Bady "ugusta "da (!4!' - !4/+) " lady student named "ugusta "da also worked with &harles )abbage in designing the "nalytical *ngine. $he, first of all, developed and ran the computer program on that computer. %t is becauseF lady "ugusta "da is known as the first computer programmer in the world. 5. :unched &ards by 1erman 1ollerith (!4'( - !5+5) %n !45(, an "merican scientist 1erman 1ollerith used the idea of punched board system and introduced the punched cards as input media in computer. 1e developed the first electro-mechanical punched card tabulator. This machine could read information that had been punched into cards. These cards were maintained in stack form. $olutions to different problems could be stored on different stacks of cards and accessed when needed.

%nvention of punched cards opened a gate to modern data processing. %)3 and other computer manufacturers came in this field and started production of computers that could use punched cards as input media. These computers could perform arithmetic calculations and sort numbers. ,ata were fed through punched cards. "s compared to today2s computers, these computers were slow in data processing. Dsually, these computers could process /( - ++( cards per minute and each card holding about 4( decimal numbers (or characters). The punched cards provided a means of inputGoutput (%GH), and memory storage. !(. "tanasoff-)erry &omputer %n !575, ,r. -ohn "tanasoff, a professor of -owa $tate Dniversity and his assistant, &lifford )erry designed an electronic machine to solve mathematical problems. %t was called the "tanasoff-)erry &omputer, or ")& ("tanasoff and )erry &omputer). The )oolean algebra was applied for designing the circuits of this computer. The working model of ")& was completed in !5;+. %n this computer, ;/ vacuum tubes were used for performing internal logic operations and capacitors were used for internal data storage. !!. )oolean "lgebra )oolean algebra is the algebra of logic, it was introduced by *nglish mathematician @eorge )oole in !4;0 for designing logic circuits inside the computer. The )oolean algebra2s rules or principles are used to design the circuits inside the chips. The design of a particular circuit is based on a set of logical statements. These statements return either true (or !) or false (or (). )oolean algebra uses two binary numbers ( and !.

!+. 3ark-! or "$&& %n !5;;, an "merican ,r. 1oward "iken, a professor of 1arvard Dniversity, designed first fully automatic calculating machine. %t was named as 3ark-!. %t is also known as "$&& ("utomatic $e9uence &ontrolled &alculator). This calculating machine operated under the control of given instructions. The instructions were given to this machine with the help of punched paper tape. The 3ark-! remained in operation till !5/5. "lthough 3ark-! proved to be e<tremely reliable, but it was very comple< in design and huge in si>e. %t was appro<imately /( feet long and 4 feet high. %t was basically, an electro-mechanical device in which both electronic and mechanical components were used. !7. *.%"& (!5;7 - !5;') *.%"& stands for #*lectronic .umerical %ntegrator and &alculator#. %t was the first all electronic computer. %t was developed in !5;7 by -.:. *ckert and -ohn 3auchly at the 3oore $chool of *ngineering, university of :ennsylvania in D$". %t contained about !4,((( vacuum tubes and occupied more than !,/(( s9uare feet with weight of 7( tons. The *.%"& was programmed by physically connecting electrical wires in the proper order. %t was very difficult to detect errors and to change the program. $imilarly, it could store and manipulate limited amount of data. $o, its use was limited. !;. *,A"& (!5;' - !5/+) *.%"& was programmed by physically connecting electrical wires in the proper order. The operation of *.%"& was very difficult due to its wiring boards. This problem was overcome by a new concept of stored program presented by -ohn Aon .eumann. -ohn Aon .eumann gave an idea that a computer should have a very simple, fi<ed physical structure, and yet be able to perform any kind of computation without the need for any physical change in the unit. Aon .eumann idea usually referred to a the stored-program techni9ue. "ccording to Aon .eumann theory #data and program can be stored in the memory of computer for automatically performing the operations. Thus the machine can itself alter either its program of data#. *,A"& stands for #*lectronic ,iscrete Aariable "utomatic &omputer#. %t was designed on stored program concept by ,r. -ohn Aon .eumann. %t could store programs and perform arithmetic and logical operations. The programs and data were fed in this computer through punched paper tape. Aon .eumann also introduced the idea of storing both instructions and data in the binary form. The Aon .eumann theory was universally adopted. $o the computing and programming became much faster and efficient. The theory also became essential for future generation of high-speed digital computers. !/. *,$"& (!5;0 - !5;5) *,$"& stands for #*lectronic ,elayed $torage "utomatioc &omputer#. %t was developed in !5;5 at &ambridge Dniversity by a groups of scientists headed by professor 3aurice 8ilkes. !'. D.%A"&-! (!5/!) D.%A"& stands for Dniversal "utomatic &omputer. %t was also developed by -.:. *ckert ? -ohn 3auchly (designers of *.%"&) in !5/!. %t was the first digital computer. The programs and data were fed in this computer through magnetic tape. %n !5/+, the %nternational )usiness-3achines (%)3) &orporation introduced the 0(! commercial computers. "fter this, improved models of the D.%A"& and other 0((-series machines were introduced. %n !5/7, %)3 produced the %)3-'/( computer and sold over !((( of these computers

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