Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

1

Editorial...
Happy World Philosophy Day to all Teachers and Students

The Positive Philosophy Society of the Department of Philosophy celebrates the Teachers Day and the World Philosophy Day every year and releases issues of Sophia on the said occasions. This year too World Philosophy Day is being celebrated by the Department of Philosophy in association with the Department of French through essay writing-cum-presentation and poster making competitions. Present issue includes best presentations given by students on various themes related to education, racism, good life, child abuse and other social issues. These presentations were delivered in the various academics sessions of the college. The Department of Philosophy organizes this type of activities every year. It gives them an opportunity to discuss and reflect on various academic and social issues. The main purpose of this magazine is to encourage the students for writing and to present their views in front of others. Hope this issue also appreciates by our fellow friends. Rajni Bala (rajni.coco@gmail.com ) 21st November, 2013
2

IS BEING EDUCATED AND BEING INTELLIGENT SAME? Rajni Bala

Meaning of Education: Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills and habits of group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching or research. Education frequently take place under the guidance of others, may also be autodidactic. Education is the concentration of mind, not the collection of facts. Etymologically, the word education is derived from the Latin word education, means a bringing up or a breeding or a rearing. Education is the process of gaining knowledge through interaction with others or self-examination. Education is the knowledge which is acquired by learning and instruction. Education provides in the systems of schools, colleges, universities or other formal educational instructions. Types of Education: There are three types of education. Formal education, Informal education and Non-formal education: Formal education: the word formal means official, and accordance with rules. And, formal education means study in the academic institutions which are regular and systematic inform. Informal education: the word informal means not in a regular or establish form; not according to official; conventional; irregular or
3

casual. And, the informal education is a general term for education. It is known as the outside of a standard school setting. Other terms for informal education are- homeschooling (unschooling) and auto didacticism (self-teaching). Informal education means the knowledge, which acquire independently through non-academic means or selfteaching through your own reading, research or experience. It is also known as the schools of hard knocks and the school of life. The school of hard knocks is an idiomatic phrase, means the education one gets from lifes usually negative experience. And the school of life means, the school offers a variety of programmes and services concerned with how to live wisely. Non-formal education: the participation in any course that is not a programme of study leading towards a certificate, degree and diploma. It is the distinction between formal and informal learning. It is the learning which occurs in a formal learning environment, but not formally recognized. It involves workshops, interest based courses and seminars. So, being educated means, successfully completed a school or colleges programme. Intelligence: Intelligence can be define in many different ways like understanding, selfawareness, learning, communication, emotional knowledge, planning and problem solving. It is the capacity of learning, reasoning, mental activity, relationships, facts, ability to perceive meaning, and capacity to acquire and apply knowledge. Intelligence is not a thing of which you have more or less, but it is a way of acting. A person shows intelligence when he handles a situation intelligently. As a word, intelligence is closely related to intellect, which is a comprehensive term for observing, understanding, thinking, remembering and all ways of knowing and of getting knowledge. According to Woodrow (psychologist), Intelligence is the capacity to acquire capacity. According to Stern (psychologist), Intelligence is the general capacity of an individual to adjust his thinking to new requirements. Types of Intelligence: Social intelligence
4

Abstract intelligence Concrete intelligence Social intelligence: the ability of an individual to make effective adjustment with other people. Abstract intelligence: the ability to respond words, letters, numbers, symbols etc. Also used in imagination and creative thinking. Concrete intelligence: the ability of an individual to comprehend actual situational and react to them effectively. Conclusion: Being educated and being intelligent is not a same thing. Being educated means to be literate, having an education, showing evidence of schooling, a certain amount of experience and factual knowledge. And, educated person is that one who has undergone a process of learning. Education is knowledge acquired in learning environments whatever its formal, informal or nonformal. Education is the data. And, intelligence is the actual ability to learn, to acquire, to assimilate and use of new knowledge and data. So, being educated and being intelligent is not a same thing. They both may have linked with each other but cant be same. Intelligence depends on our genes also but education can be gain from outer world, its not depends on heredity. Education is not equal to intelligence, it used as external measures of it. Higher education is not a proof of higher intelligence.

PHILOSOPHY OF RACISM: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION Bhawna Singh

I am an invisible man I am a man of substance, a flesh and bone, fiber and liquids- and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible; understand, simply because people refuse to see me. ~ Ralph Ellison, The Invisible Man, 1952. The people of racism involves the belief in racial differences, which acts as a justification for non-equal treatment (which some regard as discrimination) of members of that race. The term is commonly used negatively and is usually associated with race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination or oppression; the term can also have varying and contested definitions. Racism is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings. In history, racism was a driving force behind the transatlantic slave trade, and behind states based on racial segregation such as the us in the ninetieth and early twentieth centuries and South Africa under apartheid. Practices and ideology of racism are universally condemned by the United Nations is the Declaration of Human Rights. It has also been a major part of the political and ideological underpinning of genocides such as The Holocaust, but also in colonial contexts such as he rubber booms in South America and the Congo, and in the European conquests of the America and colonization of Africa, Asia and Australia.

Types of Racism Racial Discrimination: it refers to the separation of people through a process of social division into categories not necessarily related of races for purposes of differential treatment. Racial segregation policies may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalizes. In contrast, institutions and courts have upheld discrimination against whites when it is done to promote a diverse work or educational environment. Institutional Racism: it also known as structural racism, state racism or systematic racism; is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutional or other large organizations with the help of powers to influence the lives of many individuals. Economic Racism: it affects the present generations through deficits in the formal education and kinds of preparations in previous generation, and through primary unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population. Prejudices: The word prejudice refers to prejudgment i.e making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case. In recent times, the word has come to be most often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality or other personal characteristics. In this case it refers to a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership. Prejudice can also refer to unfounded beliefs and may include any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence. Gordon Allport defined prejudice as a feeling, favorable or unfavorable, toward a person or thing, prior to, or not based on, actual experience. It also means a priori beliefs (without knowledge of the facts) and includes any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence. Although positive and negative prejudices both exist, when used negatively, prejudice implies fear and antipathy toward such a race. Cognitive Prejudice: it refers to what people believe to be true. Metaphysical or methodological philosophy at the expense of other philosophers which may offer a more complete theoretical explanation.
7

Affective Prejudice: it refers to what people like and dislike: for example, in attitudes toward members of particular classes such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or creed. Behavioral Prejudice: it refers to how people are inclined to behave. It is regarded as an attitude because people do not act on their feelings. An example of conative prejudice may be found in expressions of what should be done if the opportunity presents itself. Common Misconceptions: At times, the terms prejudice and stereotype might be confusing: Prejudices are abstract-general preconceptions or abstract-general attitudes towards any type of situation, object, or person. Stereotypes are generalizations of existing characteristics that reduce complexity. Prejudice has been a part of human beings since the beginning of time. People hold disparaging views towards other groups because of sex, race, color and religious beliefs. In our society hopes to move forward and continue to be productive prejudice must stop. In a time when a world is advanced as it ever has been prejudice skills remains a major problem. Discovering the roots of prejudice and being able to understand prejudice view, we as a society, will be able to find solutions to stop it. There is no simple one word answer to the question of what causes people to be prejudice. The results of prejudice stems for many complex mixtures of environmental factors, upbringing, media, economic status and finally experiences. With this being stated, when prejudice is mentioned, one tends to think of white and black conflict, but prejudice views can also be held about women, age, religion and other ethnic people. Prejudice is an attitude held towards the member of some group, based on their membership in that group. How people can develop their attitudes and stereotypes of other people is where the root; society will learn to change these negative opinions. Groups of people who hold prejudice outlooks about other groups of people tend to process information about these groups differently from the way they process information about other groups. Further, I am going to take up with another part of this topic i.e. list of antidiscrimination acts.
8

List of Anti-Discrimination Acts: The UN does not define racism, however, it define racial discrimination. According to the United Nations Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. The term racial discrimination shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, color, descent, national or ethnic origin that has an purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life. Article 1 of the 1945 UN charter- promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race. In 2001, the European Union explicitly banned racism, along with many other forms of social discrimination, in the charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Conclusion We the humans, have to make a change in our self before trying to eliminate racism from the world.

CHILD ABUSE Priya Bhalla

Child abuse is the physical, emotional and sexual mistreatment or neglect of the child. According to the JOURNAL OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT, child abuse is any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or social harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. There are some categories of child abuse: Physical abuse Child sexual abuse Psychological / emotional abuse Physical Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. And child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or an older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated, with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctors visits etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, selfinjury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and other mental illnesses.
10

Psychological/Emotional Abuse Out of all the possible abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication and routine humiliation. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victim to blame themselves for the abuse, learned helplessness and overly passive behavior. Causes: Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. They also result in poorer maternal mental health and lower mother-child relationship quality. Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. It was found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol and cocaine were much more likely to mistreat their children. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse and between cocaine and sexual abuse. Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. Effects: Child abuse is a major life stressor that has consequences involving the mental health of an individual. It has been identified that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor the development of substance related problems during adolescence and adulthood. The experience of child abuse can trigger the development of an internalizing disorder, such as anxiety and depression. Child abuse can also cause problems with the neurodevelopment of a child. Research shows that abused children often deficits with language, deregulation of mood, behavior and also social/emotional disturbances. Psychological Effects: Children who have a history of neglect or physical abuse are at the risk of developing psychiatric problems or a disorganized attachment style.
11

When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), dissociative symptoms, they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young childrens needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to abuse consequences for their childs social-emotional development. Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason. Physical Effects Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures, practically rib fractures and may have a higher risk of developing cancer. The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (buries or cuts) or severe (broken bones, hemorrhage or even death). The long-term effects can be Shaken Baby Syndrome and Impaired Brain Development. Shaken Baby Syndrome: shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80%) or death (30% of causes). Impaired Brain Development: child abuse and neglect have been shown to cause important regions of the brain to fail, to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development. Prevention Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse and large family size increases the risk of child neglect. The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning. According to an analysis for US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop.

12

Treatment: A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse: Trauma- focused cognitive behavioral therapy, first developed to treat sexually abused children, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma; it targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depressing and anxiety. Abused- focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It targets externalizing behaviours and strengthens pro-social behaviours. Child-parent psychotherapy- It was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets traumarelated symptoms in infants, toddlers including PTSD, aggression, defiance and anxiety. Other forms of treatment include group therapy and art therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring, drawing, painting etc.).

13

COLLEGE-LIFE Neha Vashishata

I sat at this desk for the three long years, waiting for the period to end - a sample of graffiti scribbled by a bored student of a college, while the professor lectured on. Having gained admission in college of their choice, most student view college as a time-pass, three or four years of zipping away on twowheelers, hanging out with friends with coffee shops, with the least important business of attending classes thrown in. Though caught up in the whirlwind of college life, most young people, in effect, are whiling away the time on college campuses, and outside, waiting for the college years to be over, so they can get on with the business of careers and life. They forget that it is a college where career are shaped, notwithstanding whether it is a professional college, a degree college, a university, or a vocational college. It is a place there are opportunities galore for determining your career path, a place where ways of thinking are challenged, your character is tested, and your skills are honed, and, most importantly, you master the, balancing act called life. However, few students make college count. Indeed, they do sample college life-with all its freedom, fun, flirtations and final exams-and they try out the familiar traditions of college campus, bunking classes, drinking endless cups of chai in canteen, going bargain shopping for used books, and relying on all-nighters before exams.
14

But, they miss out on the most important tradition, something which successful students religiously practice and cultivate in college-learning, how to think and learn. College is not about studying economics, psychology, philosophy, or engineering. Its really about learning to think. Whenever you end up, youll need to be able to analyze and solve problems-to figure out what needs to be done and do it. Even in creativity-oriented careers, an artist needs to figure out how to start painting the blank canvas and then go with flow. He may paint the same picture again and again, until he gets it right. Leaving aside these outward trappings, what a student needs most it right attitude towards college education which, in turn, is possible only if you have an open and a ready mind. Make the Most of Opportunities: Your mind will not be need only receptive to the theory and concepts, which will be covered in your chosen subjects, but also open to opportunities you arent anticipating. So, those studying engineering should not neglect the humanities, and those studying humanities should take interest in science. How can you do it? It might be by taking part in extra-curricular activities! Extra-curricular activities are an important part of college experience. Dont be afraid to experience something you havent previously experienced or something in which you have failed at previously. It could be athletics or dramatics. Those who participate in these can hope to not only add something extra to their repertoire of skills, but also fill up the blank spaces generally seen in the resume of a first time job-seeker. Taking part in competitive group extra-curricular activities is not about being the best dance troupe, or the best debating team, or creating the most innovative science project, but these are much more than that. Getting together a winning team, discussing various aspects of the challenge at hand and communicating with the other participants are all important. These help you to develop the soft skills like teamwork, communication skills, conforming to prevalent norms in a group, getting along with difficult people and self-confidence, very essential part of careers in the 21st century. Value of college education, with its built-in feature of benefit of many with the prince of one, is that it makes life more interesting. It allows you to see things which the under educated do not see. It allows you to understand things which the untutored find incomprehensible. It allows you to think things which do not occur to the less learned. In short, it

15

makes it less likely that you will be bored with lifeand less likely that you will be a bore to those around you. Make the Library your Friend: At college, there is no general knowledge period. You are responsible for enriching, updating and brushing up the GK. Be aware of what is happening in the world around you in many diverse spheres as possible. Most companies and organizations are increasingly looking out for well-rounded and wellinformed people. Many a time, a students lack of general awareness can be embarrassing and an obstacle during the recruitment process. One way of improving GK is to become well acquainted with your college library. Not I-know-this-building-houses-the-library, or the twice-yearly-visits kind of familiarity, but the kind of gyen, which you automatically come to possess about the canteen, which is the best seating area to hang out, what snacks, samosay are worth trying, in which corner of the canteen you usually find your friends, so, get acquainted with the library, spend quality time there, know every nook and corner, each creaking chair, each burning lamp, each and every section of the library, and at least some books, newspapers and magazines. Learn how to Think: Today, changes in knowledge and technology are advancing at an exponential rate, you cannot possibly know that you need to know in few decades ti me. But, if you make most of college, and learn how to become an expert, in one thing, those skills will be surprisingly easy to transfer to another, whenever you need to, later in your career and life. Think of your learning as your practice. In addition if you master your subject in any area, you will improve your critical thinking and problem-solving skills. If you push yourself in intellectual limits, you will find more questions than answers that keep us intellectually engaged and honest; that drive our unquenchable desire to know. The college campus may be the last safe place to try on new ideas, to ask uncomfortable questions in other words, learn how to think. Learn from Diversity: You may never know what results come of your action, but if you do nothing there will be no result- Mahatma Gandhi.
16

At college, you will encounter different people with different ideas and from different disciplines, different economic, geographic, religious, ethic and racial backgrounds, with different ways of looking at life and the world. You should not simply reject them because they are different, but learn from them. College introduces you to the diverse array of others you will encounter in life, and teaches you about life itself, and lets you practice the arts of human relations for real. You will learn more from those who are different than from those who are like you. However, you can learn from diversity only if you get out of your comfort zones of friendship with people who are just like you whether politically, racially, academically. You need the comfort zones to kick back and relax, to recharge your batteries. But then, also go beyond them, take some risks. Sit down with people you dont know, who are not like you. Develop Good Study Habits: Developing good study skills best suited to college can help you make the learning process rewarding. Be prepared to spend much more time in when studying in high school, no matter how good a student you were or are. In college professors dont usually assign you homework as such, but as a college student you still must do some academic work at home. Homework doesnt mean plucking yourself in front of the TV. It is the same old homework, what you did in school but with a twist. You get to assign homework to yourself. For academic success in college there are two magic words: take responsibility and go to class. No one will report your absence from class. Remember what Woody Allen said, Eighty percent of success is just showing up. Though his estimate is a bit too high. If you show up for class but dont pay attention to what the teacher is saying, and utilize your time for socializing, reading comic books or dozing, then the results will also show up in neon signs, fail. If you show up for class but dont prepare for class, and dont read the books at home, after class, you are preparing for a career, but preparing to fail. If you show up for class, but not participate in class, dont ask questions, or challenge ideas, then you are not really learning, not the intentional kind of learning. As Calvin Coolidge says, press on nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Showing up is a good start, but sticking around, despite failure and setbacks, is also important. So, if you take heed to Woody Allen, but ignore the advice of Calvin Coolidge, chances are
17

that you wont be counted among the ranks of successful students. Students can learn effectively is by studying in groups. Experience suggests that college students who study on their own and then discuss the work in groups, understand the material better and feel more engaged with their classes. Dont believe all the stories you hear from some of your fellow students. The classmate who claims she aces every test without opening a book; the guy whose tales of romantic conquests leave you thinking that you are missing out on life with a capital L. Dont compromise your values just because you believe everybody is doing it. Cultivate an Attitude of Excellence To succeed in college you need to have desirable attitudes. Not on attitude which many music channels exhort you to cultivate. Not the devil may care, coocky, irreverent, self-centeredness, which even two-years old can have. This kind of attitude leads to blooming of ignorance, indolence and arrogance. You are not in college to just get by to fulfill the graduation qualification requirements for competitive exams. If you think in such a way then you are ignorant of the countless opportunities that a college provides. You are arrogant if you believe that you know everything there is to know about academics and time management, and hitting the books a month before the exams will do the trick. Consider this saying by Mark Iwain: when I was boy of 14 years, my father was so ignorant; I would hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years. Like Iwain, you will find out how ignorant and arrogant you were, but by that time you can only mourn the missed opportunities. When you are not practicing, remember someone somewhere is practicing, and when you meet him he will win. Ed Macauley Make the Most of Your Time: Another specific suggestion for making the most of college is effective time management. Students who succeed at college are known to have managed their time well, balancing the many different college activities. In high school, most of your learning is very structured. In college, you are expected to do a lot of your academic and learning outside of class. Make sure to leave a plenty of time in your schedule for the outside reading, research and other work that you will be expected to do. You need to manage time as a scarce resource, in respect of the overwhelming opportunities to learn outside
18

the classroom. Be it hiking trip, joining the photography club. If you spend all your time in study then you will become a rarely boring person. Then again you will be a really unemployed person. So, here the key is balance. College is not just about learning how to get a job. It is all about what you want; you could pursue a similar degree through distance education, sit for competitive exam, attend a job seminar or both, and get the job. College is so much more. It actually knows about you. If made the most of college, you will come out of it knowing your strength and weakness, your interest, your passions, your causes and your priorities. You will come to know what excites and engage you, what brings a sparkle to your eyes and what make your eyes glaze over. To sum up, success is a journey not a destination. The doing is usually more important than the outcome.

19

CASTE SYSTEM IN MUSLIMS, NOT IN ISLAM Manju Chauhan

The Indian society and culture are characterized by unity in diversity. The system of caste is mentioned as a typical example of the paradox i.e the Indian society. Caste system is found not only in Hindus but also among other religious such as Muslims, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists etc. Every caste has its own set of beliefs and ways of life. The difference in beliefs is the major cause of the caste system. The caste system in Muslims differs from the caste system in Hindus. The beliefs, political policies, social customs and the way of life of the Indian Muslims generally has been influenced by a concern to act as strictly as possible in accordance with the teachings of Islam. This is basis of their orthodoxy. Islam stresses on racial equality and consider all the Muslims as equal. It stresses the collective prayer (namaz) also through which all the Muslims together pray and express their brotherhood. The one who believes in the unity of God and Apostleship of Mohammad and resurrects is called a Muslim or Musalmaan. Though, the Islam consider all the Muslims as equal, but Muslims divide into several sects and castes. They are divided on the basis of the differences in their beliefs and distinction in some social aspects.
20

Muslim Sects: Shia and Sunni sects: Prophet Mohammad after his death, his followers declared Abubkar as his Khalifa (successor). In the time period of the sixth successor (Khalifa), the confusion about the successor raised. Because many Muslims had declared Imam Hussain, who was the son of Prophet Mohammads daughter, in opposition of Khalifa. The followers of Imam Hussain called Shia and the followers of Khalifa were called Sunni. These two sects of religion strictly oppose each other. Their views about God, are also differ. The Sunni believe that God is visible to the eyes of man and faithful will see him on the day of judgment. On the other hand, the Shia Muslims have faith that God is not an object to be seen by anyone. He is far above the objects of the sense. Ismiles (Agaramvani): The followers of this sect consider Agarvan as the incarnation of God. According to them, he had right sent humans to hell or heaven, according to their deeds. Imamiya: this sect is the branch of Shia sect. The followers of this sect believe in the kingship of the twelve Imams. It is believed the 12th Imam, who had gone somewhere. These people believe that on the right time, he will take the control of whole world in his hands and will establish the peace in world. Sufism: Sufi sect was started in Muslims because of their spiritual views. Spiritualism is the soul of a religion. Sufism stresses the direct vision of divine right. This sect was develop independently and is affected by Buddhism and Hinduism. The followers of this sect are mainly settled in Prussia and India. Class-System: A part from the sects, the Muslims are divided in the form of several classes such as high class, middle class and lower class, some on the basis of the ancestry and some on the basis of occupation. In Northern India, the Ashrafs, whose ancestors were from Iran and Arbia, were considered as high class Muslims. The converts from high class Hindus considered castes were the middle class. The lower class includes the occupational castes such as the weaver (Julaha), the barber (naii), cotton carder (dhuniya), potter (kumhar) and oilman (teli). Among all of them the sweepers come in the last. As Northern India, the Southern India is also suffering from the fever of the caste system. Here, the claiming descendent from the Prophets daughter i.e
21

Thangals and Fatima are the high class Muslims; the descendants of immigrants of Arabia i.e the Arba, were the middle class and last come the Ossans i.e the barbers who were the lower class Muslims. Among all the Muslims only the artisians like julaha, teli, darzi, potters etc. are associated with traditional occupations; and Syeds and Shaikhs of high castes system is that is neither like Hindus nor like the Sikhs. Contemporary Situations: The evil of caste system is very common in the society. Honestly speaking, the information about the above discussed castes or sects have been collected from several books. But, it doesnt mean that these are not correct. The castes actually exist in the society. The mentioned castes are only the major castes. There may be many small castes and sub-castes in the Muslims. Recently, a magazine named contemporary vibes (volume 7, July to September, 2012) had an article under the title pluralities of caste system, according to which the so called low caste men undergo a lot of sufferings in the society. They are treated as worse than animals. The low caste are ill-treated. This proves the presence of the evil of caste system in the society. The Islam considers all Muslims as equal. But the Muslims seem to betraying Islam and God by acting as equal in the Masjids. There brotherhood is limited due the boundaries of the Masjids. They become high and low outside the Masjid. In the festival of Eid they hug each other in masjids but the next day, they ill-treat the same people. And, experts was asked, Is there any mention of caste system in the Quran for the Muslims like in Vedas in Hindus? he replied, No! There is no mention of caste-system in Quran. The caste system is in the Muslims but not in Islam. He means the Muslims themselves are responsible for their division. The system divides not only the Muslims, but the whole nation which results as the establishment of separate communities or areas belonging to a particular caste or sect. This kills the brotherhood or humanity of the people for other caste people. This evil not to be avoided. The grass of caste has taken the form of plant which needs efforts to be pulled- out than the grass. But, it takes the shape of a tree we have to pull-out the plant of caste system from the society, because once the plant has turned into a tree, it would be extremely tough to be pulled-out. Solutions: The best way to attack on the caste system is inter-caste marriages. To kill the evil of the caste in society it is necessary to kill it in their thinking. If they
22

think, they all are equal then they are equal. Its all about the thinking. So, to change the society we have to change the thinking of the people. And this is not possible, till all people together think that they are equal. The change in the society is the responsibility of all the people. Instead of thinking others of particular caste people should consider others as humans first. They only the evil of caste should be ended. Sources: India: Social Structure by M.N.Srinivas (1991). The Indian Muslims by M. Mujeeb (1967). Religion in India: A Study of their Essential Unity by S.P.Suda (1978). Islam: Indias Tradition to Modernity by M.A.Karandikar (1968). An Outline of Philosophy of Religion by Dr. Harendra Prasad Sinha (1962). The Division of Isalm by Sachiko Murata and William C.Chittik (1995). Magazine Contemporary Vibes , Vol.7, July-Sept. (2012).

23

ANAND MARRIAGE ACT Amandeep Kaur

What is Anand Marriage Act? The Sikh wedding ceremonial eventually received legal sanction through the Anand Marriage Act (AMA), which was adopted in 1909. It extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Anand Karaj literally means blissful union or joyful union that was introduced by Guru Amar Das ji. History of Anand Karaj and Anand Marriage Act: It was originally legalized in India through the passage of the AMA 1909 but is now governed by the Sikh Reht Maryada (Sikh code of conduct and conventions) that was issued by the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC). It dictates that only those who follow the Sikh religion may marry under the ceremony; therefore, Sikhs cannot marry persons professing other religions under it. It also states that child marriage is invalid. In recent verdict of the Shri Akal Takhat sahib, i.e. a Hukumnama, Anad Karaj can only take place in a Gurudwara. This also raised some controversy. Draft Sikh Marriage Act Submitted by the world Muslim Sikh federation government of Pakistan. Pakistan passed the Sikh AMA in 2007.
24

It extends to the whole of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It applies to any Sikh irrespective of his race or nationality as long as such ceremony is conducted within the Republic of Pakistan. Important Features: No consideration is to be given to caste, social status or race. No dowry is allowed. The religious ceremony to take place in a Gurudwara or in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib. The constitution of India and hence the parliament of India which first revoked the AMA failed to even consider the amendment into the constitution. However, recently, both houses of the Indian Parliament cleared the Anand Marriage Amendment Bill 2012. The Bill paved the way for the validation of Sikh traditional marriages, amending the AMA of 1909. Sikh Identity Issue: New York, USA- reacting to the recent amendment to Anand Marriage Act, Sikh Organization and Gurudwara Management Committee across North America came together declaring that amendment to AMA is not sufficient to restore to separate status and identity of Sikh. Sikh bodies demanded amendment to article 20 of the Constitution of India to restore the separate status of Sikh. It demanded of Sikh bodies at being supported by the national commission to renew the working of the constitution added by the former chief justice of India, Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah. The demand of the Sikh community is an amendment to article 25 of the constitution which is being continuously ignored by the government of India (added attorney pannun). According to Pritpal Singh, co-ordination of American Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, consisting of membership from Gurudwaras across America, the amendment to AMA is just an administrative arrangement to register the Sikh identity still remains to be addressed. According to some newspapers the marriages performed by Anand Karaj ceremony under the AMA have got a legal sanction. Achievement for Sikh or fraud with the Sikhs: Actually the truth is that the Union Cabinets decision has further complicated the whole issue regarding the Sikh marriages and would lead to more complications to the Sikh community. Rather, the views expressed in other
25

newspapers that amendment of AMA is not less than a cheating with Sikh community. Therefore to say that AMA has been passed or made applicable by the Union Cabinets decision is nothing but a laughable statement. If we see the historical background of AMA and its various section or provisions, then it will become absolutely clear that the recommendation of amendment of Union Cabinet is a very small technical amendment and not any historic or praise worthy step to be celebrated by the Sikh community. This act contain in all 5 sections. The first section mentions the jurisdiction of the applicability of AMA 1909, according to which it was applicable to whole of India. Section two declares the validity of AMA which says that all marriages which may be or may have been duly solemnized according to Sikh marriage ceremony called Anand shall be deemed to have been with effect from the date of solemnization of each respectively, good & valid in law. Section 3 states exception of the applicability of this act to certain kinds of marriages. From the above, it is crystal clear that the main objective of Anand Marriage act was only to declare the validity of Marriage ceremonies among the Sikhs called the Anand. AMA Bill 2012 introduced in Rajya Sabha by law minister Salman Khurshid amends the AMA, 1909.

26

PRINCIPLES OF HAPPY LIFE


Sakshi Bhagta

Before you Pray- Believe ,

Before you Speak- Listen

Before you Spend- Earn ,

27

Before you Write- Read ?, Before you Quit- Try


-

Before you Die- Live


Before you Speak- Think : T-Is it True? H-Is it Helpful? I-Is it Inspiring ? N-Is it Necessary ? K-Is it Kind? ? ? ?

28

When nails grow, we cut the nails, not our fingers, Similarly, when ego grow, cut your ego, not the relationship. Dont fear the enemy that attacks you, But the fake friend that hugs you. , : Pray not because you need something, But because you have, a lot to thank GOD for. : Youll never be brave, If you dont get hurt. You never learn, If you dont make mistakes.
29

Youll never be successful, If you dont encounter failure. . . : The word TRUST is the base of all relations. But a small mistake can change, Its entire meaning and value, Like missing T can RUST the whole relation.

SIMPLE RULES for Happy Life:


Free your heart from hatred Free your mind from worries Live Simply Give More Expect Less Dont ever give up- Never back down Dont be too emotional Have faith Dont make things complicated- Keep it simple. Dont take things too seriously- Laugh at problems. If you want to get over a problem. Stop talking about it. Your mind affects your mouth and your mouth affects your mind. Its difficult to stop talking about a situation until you stop thinking about it. Have Faith: ,

30

(That's Faith ) Have Trust: Have Hope: (That's Hope) Be Happy: Dont feel bad if people remember you, Only when they need you. Feel privileged that you are like a candle, That comes to their mind when there is Darkness. (That's Trust )

The truth may hurt for a little while, but a lie hurts forever. Speak only when you feel that your words are better than your silence. Enjoy every moment you have. Because in life, there are no rewinds, only flashbacks. Make sure its all worth it. Pain makes you stronger. Tears make you braver. Heart-break makes you wiser. So thank the past for a better future. Treat your parents with loving care for .You will only know their value. When you see their empty chair. As you breathe right now, another person takes his last. So stop complaining and learn to live with what you have. Dont take rest after your first victory. Because if you fall in second, more lips are waiting to say, that your first victory was just luck. Being a good person does not depend on your religion or status in life, your race or skin color, political views or culture. It depends on how good you treat others. 3 main rules in any relationship: Dont lie, Dont cheat, Dont make promises you cant keep!

31

BE HAPPY Be who you want to be If others dont like it, Let them be. As the saying goes, Happiness is a choice Life is NOT about pleasing everybody...

Happiness is your key and Life is your door Never lose grip of your key.

God knows who belongs In your life and who Doesnt trust and let go. Whoever is ment to be There, will still be there.

32

Events in Session 2013-14


Teachers Day Celebration -2013

(Released the 3rd Issue of Sophia)

150th Birth Anniversary Celebration of Swami Vivekananda

(Lecture on Life and Teachings of Swami Vivekananda by Swami Anupamananda and released an issue of Milestone Education Review on Value-Education).
33

Оценить