Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4


VOL. 28, N0.2, MARCH 1992


C.M.Arturi, IEEE Member Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica Politecnico di Milano Piazza Leonard0 da Vinci 3 2 - 2 0 1 3 3 Milano This paper deals with the computation of the electromagnetic axial forces on the windings of a step-up-generator transformer under unbalanced MMF of the same phase, by means of a finite element code. The unbalance between the MMF of the same phase, which might be of the order of the nominal MMP, is caused by the high saturation of the iron core, which occurs during the transient due to a wrong parallel of the transformer with a network having a very low impedance. The evaluation of these MMF is made by a non linear circuital model of the three-phase five-limb transformer[l]. With the peak values of MMFs, the magnetic field in the transformer window is computed by a two-dimensional nonlinear code, and then, the Lorentz forces on the windings are evaluated. The result of the computation is expressed as ratio between axial forces with and without MMP unbalance, as a function of the impedance of the network with which the wrong parallel occurs. I. INTRODUCTION
A power transformer should be designed to withstand the dynamic forces caused by fault currents. In transformers with concentric windings, the electromagnetic forces generated by the interaction of currents and magnetic field, have radial components, due to the axial field, and axial components, due to the radial field. The radial forces act inwards on the internal winding and outwards on the external winding. The axial force is frequently a compression force, i.e. directed towards the middle, but there are winding zones in which the axial force might be directed towards the end. The axial forces, if the two concentric windings are without axial displacement and asymmetry respect to the yokes and have uniformly distributed turns, have zero summed axial force. In this condition, the upper half winding exerts a force on the middle which is exactly opposite to that exerted by the lower half winding. However the equilibrium is unstable. In fact, if a small axial displacement is produced between the magnetic centres of gravity of the two windings, a total axial force is generated on each winding which tends to increase the displacement. When the axial force on a disc winding exceeds the strength, failure usually occurs by a mechanism characterized by tilting of the conductor turns into a conical shape [ 2 -



the dynamic force and the displacement in any point of windings and clamps, is very complex. The dynamic force can be completely different from the applied (electromagnetically generated) forces. Possibilities also exist in both the winding and the clamp for a force amplification due to resonance effects or for a force reduction due to inertial effects [ 4 ] . However, every accurate analysis of the mechanical behaviour requires that the electromagnetic force applied to any point of windings under the assumed fault condition be known.

OF A STEP-UP-TRANSFORMER For a step-up transformer, a short circuit between the LV terminals is extremely unlikely, since the connections with the synchronous generator is made by segregated bars, and a short circuit on the HV terminals occurs with moderate current, since it is supplied throughout the subtransient impedance of the synchronous generator, which has a relatively high value. Experience shows, however, that for stepan out-of-phase UP transformer , synchronization operation is more likely the source of very high currents and possible mechanical failure. A complete theoretical and experimental analysis of the transient following a wrong parallel has been made in reference [ l ] . The essential result of this analysis is that, because of the high saturation of the iron branch of the magnetic circuit, the winding MMFs of the same phase are not balanced. The unbalance of the MMF, which is of the order of the nominal MMF, can be estimated by a non-linear circuital model of the threephase five-limb transformer [l]. If saturation is neglected, the transient of an out-of-phase synchronization is equivalent to a simple linear RL transient supplied by an ac voltage source the value of which is double the nominal one. The transient MMF is expressed by: F(t)=Fm[exp(-t/r) - cos(wt)l (1)


The dynamic analysis of the axial mechanical behaviour, for the computation of both Munuscript received July 7 , 1991.

where Fm is the symmetrical peak value and T is the time constant of the circuit. The asymmetrical peak value computed in this way (in P.u.) is less than the actual MMF of the external winding and greater than that of the internal winding.

Conventionally, the computation of the electromagnetic force is made assuming that the two concentric windings of each phase of a three-phase transformer are interested, 0018-9464/92$03,00 0 1992 IEEE


during the fault, by balanced MMF which correspond to the maximum peak value of a fully asymmetric current. Actually, as has been previously outlined, the MMF which should be considered are unbalanced. For a step-up transformer, the characteristics of which are reported in App.A together with those of both the synchronous generator and the power network, Fig.1 shows the p.u. values of the first peak of the winding MMFs of a lateral phase, during a wrong parallel with a phase error of 180', as a function of the percentage impedance of the power network. It can be observed that the MMF unbalance increases as the power network impedance decreases. With a zero impedance of the power network, the unbalance reaches, for this transformer, the value of about 2.08 p.u. This MMF is a magnetizing MMF of high saturated branches of the iron core. Its value gives an idea of the saturation state of the magnetic circuit, which reaches values between 2.1 and 2.4T [l]. 111. COMPUTATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC AXIAL FORCE The electromagnetic axial force on a small volume dV of winding, having a current density J and placed in a point where the radial component of the flux density is B ( r ) is expressed by: df = B(r) J dV


For the force computation one has to compute the flux density in every point of the volume occupied by windings. A two-dimensional finite element code computes the vector magnetic potential A in the nodes of the mesh and then evaluates the flux density by the relationship B=rotA. The two-dimensional code available at present only allows a rotational or a translational symmetry to be solved. Consequently we are forced to replace the three-dimensional model of the five-limb core transformer with an idealized single-phase shell-type transformer having rotational symmetry, which approximates the behaviour of

the windings in a lateral window of the three-phase unit (Fig.2). The yokes and the lateral limbs have a cross section of about 5 7 % of the wound limbs. The shape of the yoke is such that it gives a constant cross section as the distance from the axis increases. In the adopted model, the window covers all the circumference of windings. The adopted model can be criticised as follows: it does not take into account the influence of (1) MMFs of the adjacent phase and (2) the real shape of both the yoke and the lateral limb, which cover the windings only partially, influences the permeance distribution particularly around the external winding. An approximate evaluation of the weight of the above simplifications can be made, by a two-dimensional code, comparing the axial forces on two separate models:(l) under window, on a translational symmetry, with or without the MMF of the adjacent phase, and (2) in a model with rotational symmetry, with yoke and lateral limb of which the distance from the windings is equal to the real one or much more. Of these two effects, those related to the MMF of the adjacent phase is heavier than the other related to permeance distribution along the circumference of the winding. In fact, the value of the MMF of the central phase is almost half that of the lateral phase but with a changed sign. It follows that the external windings have concordant MMFs in the common window. This gives a substantial increase of the radial component of the flux density in the external winding under the window. The availability of a three-dimensional magnetostatic non-linear code would permit to take into account simultaneously both the MMF of the adjacent phase and the permeance effect of the five-limb core which can be highly saturated in some branches. The equivalent single-phase transformer has been studied with balanced and unbalanced MMF, and network impedance varying from zero to 10%.

Fig.1. Per unit value of the first peak of winding MMFs of a step-up generator transformer rated 370 MVA, for a wrong parallel with a phase error of 180'. Fa1 and Fa2 are evaluated by the nonlinear model [ l ] , while Fa is evaluated in a conventional way, neglecting saturation.

Fig.2 - Geometric model of an idealized single-phase shell-type transformer, adopted for the finite-element analysis, which approximate a lateral phase of a f ive-limb core three-phase transformer.

The iron core has been modelled by its nonlinear B-8 characteristic when unbalanced MMF case is simulated. Otherwise, when MMFs are balanced, the iron has infinite permeability, in order to reproduce the conventional procedure. With a 1% network impedance, the force lines of the magnetic field are shown in Fig.3, with and without MMF unbalance. It is interesting to compare the distribution of the axial force (per unit length) on both the internal and the external winding. Each winding has purposely been divided into a number of radially adjacent slices having radial thickness Dr. The axial force - per unit length - has been computed for each slice and then the various radial contributions are summed over the total radial thickness of the winding. The axial force - per unit of length - is given by the following relationship: f = Z B(r) J 2nr Dr [N/ml (3) symmetry); on the internal winding it is compressive anywhere. The axial force on the internal winding, with unbalanced MMF, is compressive around the end and tensile around the middle (on about the 2/3 of the height near the plane of symmetry) and it is compressive anywhere on the external winding. In other words, the axial force distribution is reversed in internal and external windings, passing from balanced to unbalanced MMFs. The axial force distribution here observed is obviously not valid for any transformer but is related to the specific height ratio of the examined concentric windings. The summed axial force, starting from the end of the windings, can be obtained by integrating the axial force - per unit of length - shown in Fig.4a and 4b. The result is represented in F i g . 4 ~and 4d, respectively. The summed forces on the middle of the windings, for Z r % = l % , have the following values : Winding unbalanced(U) balanced(B) Ratio U/B 0.201 10.48 1.27

and is shown in Fig.4a and 4b for Zr%=l% and MMF balanced o r unbalanced. The axial force on the external winding, with balanced MMF, is compressive around the end and tensile around the middle (on about the 2/3 of the height near the plane of

internal -4.003*10^5 N -1.993.10-6 N external -2.425.10-6 N -2.314.10*5 N -2.825-10-6 N -2.224*10^6 N total

Comparing the summed axial forces on half winding with and without MMF unbalance, the


x106 unbal. bolon.



mm 0


4 500

1 1



-1 External Winding


Magnetic field force lines with and Fig.3 without MMF unbalance; a) with MMF unbalance: Fa1/2=-1.842-10A6 A (9.81 P.u.); Fa2/2= +2.1554.10^6 A (11.48 P.u.); b) without MMF unbalance: Fa/2= f1.95985*10^6 (10.44 P.u.).


O Fig.4 and b) Network








Axial force - per unit of length - (a and summed axial force (c and d). impedance 1%;


following can be observed:(l) an increase of about 10 times on the external winding; (2) a decrease of about 5 times on the internal winding; (3) a 27% increase of the total axial force for both windings. Finally, Fig.5 shows the values of the ratio K between the summed axial force on half external winding with and without MMF unbalance, as a function of the network impedance, for a power transformer rated 370 MVA (Fig.5a) and for a second power transformer with similar rating (Fig.5b). The second power transformer, corresponding to Fig.5b, has different geometrical parameters of the core, although it too is a five-limb one, and a greater percentage leakage inductance in comparison with the 370 MVA transformer. It can be observed that the transformer of Fig.5b has a ratio K which is about 1/5 than the other. This reduction can be justified by a smaller per unit unbalance between the MMF, because of a lower saturation of the core, and a greater percentage leakage inductance. IV. CONCLUSIONS The paper has presented the comparison between the axial force on the concentric windings of a step-up generator transformer with and without MMF balance, during a wrong parallel with phase error of 180". The analysis has shown that the axial force on the external winding with unbalanced MMFs can be considerably greater - between 2 and 10 times - for the two power transformer considered - than those evaluated without unbalance of the MMF of the same phase, as it is conventionally made to verify the mechanical strength of the transformers in the design stage.

Therefore, the designers should be aware of the importance of the saturation of the magnetic circuit during some fault transients, which gives MMF unbalance between windings of the same phase. The two-dimensional code used has only permitted an approximate analysis. More consideration should be devoted to the influence of the MMF of the adjacent phase on the value of the maximum axial force on the external winding in the window. This could easily be accomplished by a three-dimensional code. The novelty presented in the paper should be stressed again against the conventional approach, having outlined the importance of the saturation of the iron core in some types of transformer faults. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to thank Mr. M. Borsani of the Societh Nazionale delle Officine di Savigliano of Turin (Italy) for his stimulating discussions and the useful suggestions made during the development of this research. APPENDIX A Step-up-generator transformer Nominal power: 370MVA Nominal voltage: 400kV/20kV Connection: star with grounded neutral/delta Leakage inductance: 12.8%; Resistance: 0.2% Turns: 397/43 Synchronous generator Direct sub-transient inductance: 22.69% Resistance: 1% Power network: r/x = 0.1. REFERENCES



C.M.Arturi:"Transient Simulation and Analysis of a Three-phase Five-limb Stepup Transformer following an Out-of-Phase Synchronization", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vo1.6, No.1, Jan. 1991, pp.196-207. M.Waters: "The Short-circuit Strength of Power Transformer", McDonald & Co. Ltd. London 1966.

[ 21


network imped.7.




[3] W.J.McNutt, W.M.Johnson, R.A.Nelson, R.E.Ayers :"Power Transformer ShortCircuit Strength - Requirements, Design, and Demonstration", IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol. 89, No.8, Nov/Dec 1970, pp.1955-1969. [41 M.R.Patel:"Dynamic Responce of Power Transformers under axial short circuit Forces; Part I - Winding and Clamp as individual components; Part I1 - Windings and Clamps as a combined system"; IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol. 92, Sept/Oct. 1973, pp.1558-1576.

Fig.5. Ratio K between the summed axial forces on half external winding, with and without MMF unbalance, as a function of the impedance of the power network, for a power transformer rated 370 MVA (a) and a second power transformer having similar rating but different geometric parameter of the core (b).