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THE RENAISSANCE AND HUMANISM

From 1400 A.D to 1600 A.D.

By: B. Callahan

A NEW ERA BEGINS


From the 11th to the 13th century, conditions in the Western world

showed improvement resulting in long periods of peace, trade


expansion and urbanization In the 14th century, the situation deteriorate. The numerous battles

among Europes kingdoms left agriculture in a state of rune. This


resulted in famines which brought about epidemics specifically the Bubonic Plague or Black Plague. This brought upon the Dark Ages.

A NEW ERA BEGINS

THE RENAISSANCE
The Plague brought upon a population decline which eventually brought upon economic recovery (less people to feed). Italian cities such as Florence and Venice were the first to recover thanks to trade with the East and other regions. These were the conditions where the Renaissance (a Rebirth) took

shape around 1450 and lasted to the 1600s.

THE RENAISSANCE

HUMANISM
The Renaissance was characterized mainly by Humanism. A new philosophy
that spread across Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Humanism had an impact on the central aspects of life, including science & art. In the Middle Ages, the Church and religions played a large role in European life. The intellectuals of the time were mainly interested in God & the Christian faith. The Renaissance scholars wanted to deepen their understanding of humanity

thus the birth of Humanism.

A NEW VISION OF HUMANITY


The Erudite thinkers (educated scholars) of the 16th century, placed people of the centre of their ideas. According to Humanists, not only God can determine human destiny. On the contrary, humans are responsible for their own actions and can influence their own destiny.

HUMANISM

HUMANIST KNOWLEDGE
The Humanists of the Renaissance sought to better understand people and the world in which they lived. Humanists were therefore interested in everything!! Some of them wanted to acquire knowledge in as many fields as possible, including languages, art, literature, science, and technology, religion, etc Humanists were critical thinkers who engaged in criticism, they verified the sources of the documents they consulted and they compared the information they gathered on a subject.

HUMANIST EDUCATION
Education was very important to humanists. It had to allow for all available knowledge to be taught in a

methodical, critical manner.


Physical development and good manners were also considered among the aims of humanist education.

HUMANIST SCIENCE
The scholars of the 16th century, who rediscovered the theories of the ancient Greeks and Romans, wanted to further explore those ideas and to know more. Above all, they refused to confine themselves to the Churchs interpretation of science. They tried to understand natural phenomena without religious explanations. They developed research methods based on observation and experimentation. The newly invented printing press allowed the scientists to publish their results.

HUMANIST KNOWLEDGE

WELL-ROUNDED SCIENTISTS
One thing that distinguished the Renaissance humanists was their versatility. Leonardo da Vinci is the best example. He was both an engineer & an artist; he used scientific knowledge to paint. In addition to painting and sculpture. Leonardos interests included mathematics, biology, geometry and architecture. Among other contributions, he proposed a method of observation and analysis. In addition, he performed numerous dissections to better understand and draw the human body.

WELL-ROUNDED SCIENTISTS

THE RENAISSANCE IN ART


The Renaissance was characterized by a new vision of humanity, but also by a revival in the arts that would leave its mark on the history of Western Civilization. The artistic Renaissance, started in the cities of Florence and Venice in Northern Italy. Artists became highly regarded. They were considered professional artists, this is why they signed their work. Renaissance art was strongly influenced by humanism. Many paintings depict the human body and people in their environment. Most works portray non-religious themes.

THE RENAISSANCE IN ART

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE
During the 16th century, architects left behind the Gothic architecture and lofty buildings of the middle ages. They were more inspired by Greco-Roman architecture. They borrowed the column, the Greek pediment and the Roman dome from the monuments of the antiquity (before the Middle Ages)

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE

RENAISSANCE PAINTINGS
Renaissance paintings emerged as a classical art based on the harmony of colours and symmetry. Religious themes were still a source of inspiration, secular (non-religious) themes were equally important New techniques like oil paintings or painting on canvas and using perspective and sculptures made it possible for Renaissance painters to develop their own unique styles.

RENAISSANCE PAINTINGS

RENAISSANCE LITERATURE
The invention of printing techniques by Gutenberg in the 15th century along with increase of the use of Vernacular (every day language which was replacing Latin) favored the spread of Humanist ideas Some famous Renaissance authors:
Franois Rabelais a French monk knowledgeable in fields of science
Miguel de Cervantes a soldier and government worker who made fun of medieval code writing the book Don Quixote William Shakespeare An English actor, poet and dramatist who we study still today!

RENAISSANCE LITERATURE

THE REFORMATI ON AND COUNTER -REFORMATI ON


Humanists felt authorized to think critically even about religion. Several of them questioned the role of the Catholic Church and its clergy. In doing so, they contributed to the reform movement that emerged in Europe at the beginning of the 16th century and led to the formation of the Protestant churches. Catholic churches retaliated in what is known as the Counter-Reformation. All this religion agitation took place against a backdrop of violent conflict that was dividing Europe.

THE CHURCH UNDER SCRUTINY


In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Catholic Church was strongly criticized. The attacks were directed against the clergy and certain religious practices. Popes were accused of living in luxury and sin. Cardinals and bishops were equally accused of leading their lives like the popes. Some accused the priests of not responding to the concerns of the people. For years, the clergy had tried to make money off believers by selling

blessing s for people who sinned.

THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER -REFORMATION

THE REFORMATION LUTHERS 95 THESES


In 1517, Martin Luther launched his first attack on the Catholic Church by publishing his 95 theses against indulgences (corruption). One of his arguments was that only God could pardon sins. The Pope disagreed with this idea and excommunicated (kick him out) Luther from the Catholic church. Luther decided to form his own church, which is now know n as

the Lutheran Church.

THE REFORMATION LUTHERS 95 THESES

JOHN CALVIN
John Calvin was a French jurist (a person knowledgeable in legal matters), who spread Lutheran ideas. According to these ideas, no matter what people do during their earthly lifetime, they will be saved only if God decided this from the beginning. Nevertheless, this holds that it is in the best interest that the faithful lead a virtuous life based on honesty and good morals.

JOHN CALVIN

HENRY VIII AND THE ANGLICAN CHURCH


In England, it was the private life of Henry VIII that brought about change. The king wanted to divorce his wife, the pope refused to annul the marriage. Henry VIII challenged the Popes decision and took advantage of his power by having his parliament declare him the head of the church of England. Once separated from the Catholic church, Henry, as the head of the newly formed Anglican Church, declared his own divorce.

HENRY VIII AND THE ANGLICAN CHURCH

THE REACTION OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH


Faced with a loss of influence, the Catholic Church had to react. First, it attempted to drive back the new religious movements through warfare and inquisition. This was known as the Counter-Reformation. Then the Church, attempted to reform itself by adopting several measures such as a new religious order such as the Society of Jesus, improved clerical training and raised ethical standards. In addition, it convened a council of Trent, in order to reorganize itself. This was called Catholic Reformation.

THE REACTION OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

THE INQUISITION
To respond to the dissenting religious movements increasingly talking hold in Europe, and to supervise the conduct of Christians, the Catholic Church reinstated the Inquisition. This religious tribunal ordered arrests and trials and sometimes went so far as to use torture and imprisonment to combat heretics.

THE INQUISITION

THE SOCIETY OF JESUS THE JESUITS


To support the Churchs efforts, older religious orders were reformed and new ones were created. The Society of Jesus was founded. Loyola, a Spaniard soldier organized this religious order according to the military model. The Societys members were called Jesuits and were under direct authority of the pope, to whom they owed absolute obedience. Their aim was to spread the Catholic religion through education creating colleges and Universities.

THE SOCIETY OF JESUS THE JESUITS

THE COUNCIL OF TRENT


The Council of Trent, named after a small town in Northern Italy, was the main instrument of Catholic Reform. It was in place from 1545 to 1563.

In the Council, the Church decided to uphold the ideas of practices contested
by the Protestants, including indulgences, the seven sacraments and good works to earn salvation. The Council also adopted new rules for the clergy, they were no longer allowed

to accumulate wealth, and they had to reside in their dioceses, remain celebrate, use
Latin in religious ceremonies and respect the supreme authority of the Pope.

THE COUNCIL OF TRENT

RELIGIOUS EUROPE DIVIDED


Despite its efforts, the Catholic Church, reacted too late and failed to regain its lost territories.
Catholics and Protestants confronted each other and European kingdoms clashed. For decades, the Netherlands, Germany, France and England, to name a few, experienced violent religious wars. The religious unity of Europe, which had been relatively well-preserved for 500 years, was permanently broken.

RELIGIOUS EUROPE DIVIDED