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ALTERNATING CURRENT
Important Points:
1. Alternating current is that current which continuously varies in magnitude and periodically reverses its direction. The alternating current (AC) is generally expressed as
I = I0 sin ( t + ) Where i0 = peak value of alternating current.

2.

emf of an AC source is generally given by E = E0 sin ( t + ) Where e0 = BAN is known as peak value of alternating emf

3. Average OR Mean Value: a) It is the steady current (dc) which when passes through a circuit for half time period of AC sends the same charge as done by the AC in the same time. b) The average value of AC for the complete cycle is zero. c) The average value of AC for the half cycle of AC is given by.
I avg = 2I0 0.636 I 0 2 E0

Similarly, Eavg is also

for half cycle of AC

4. RMS Value or Virtual Value or Effective Value: The RMS value of AC is the steady current (DC) which when flowing through a given resistance for a given time, produces the same amount of heat as produced by the AC when flowing through the same resistance for the same time.
Iv = I0 = 0.707 I 0

And

Ev =

E0

= 0.707 E0

RMS value of AC for half cycle is also same as above

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www.sakshieducation.com 5. AC Through A Pure Resistor:


E = E0 sin t And I = I 0 sin t Where E0 and I0 are the peak values of

Voltage and current of AC respectively. Since the emf and current raise or fall simultaneously they are in phase with each other. 6. AC through A Pure Inductor:
E = E0 sin t

And

I=

E0 sin t L 2

The term L has the units of resistance and it is called as resistance of the inductor or inductive reactance (XL)
I= E0 sin t I = I 0 sin t XL 2 2

Where I0 is the peak value of current. Hence the current is lagging behind emf or emf is
leading current by a phase difference of .
2

7. AC Through A Pure Capacitor:


E = E0 sin t

And

I=

E0 cos t 1/ c

The term

1 is called capacitive reactance where it has the dimensions of resistance. It is also c

called resistance of capacitor.


I= E0 sin t + I = I 0 sin t + Xc 2 2

Where I0 is peak value of AC

Hence current leads emf or emf is lagging behind current by 8. AC Through LR Circuit:

Let VL and VR be the instantaneous voltages across the inductor and resistor respectively.
VL = IX L = IL

And VR = IR

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www.sakshieducation.com Where XL is the inductive reactance when AC flow through a pure resistor,
E = I R 2 + ( L ) 2 Z = R 2 + ( L ) 2

And

tan =

L R

This is the phase angle by which the emf leads the current in L R circuit. Z is called impedance of LR circuit. 9. AC Through C R Circuit:
Vc = I X c = I And VR = IR Where XC = capacitive reactance C
2

I E = V + V E = ( IR) + C
2 R 2 C 2

1 E = I R2 + (C ) 2

And

Tan =

VC 1 = VR C R

This is the phase angle by which the emf lags behind the current in C R circuit
1 Here Z = R + is called the impedance of C R circuit. C
2 2

10. AC Through L C R Circuit:

a) VL = LX L = IL;VC = IX C =
1 b) E = I R + L C
2 2 2

1 and VR = IR C

1 c) Z = R + L is called the impedance of L C R circuit. C


2

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1 L V V C d) Tan = L C = This is the phase angle by which the emf leads the current. VR R

e) If L =

1 , then Tan = 0 or = 0 and hence emf and current are in phase. The C

circuit in this condition behaves like a pure resistor circuit. This condition is called resonance condition. f) At resonance, L =
= 2 n =
1 LC 1 1 or 2 = C LC 1 2 LC

n=

11. Advantages of AC Over DC: a) The generation of AC is more economic than DC b) AC voltages can be easily stepped up or stepped down using transformers. c) AC can be transmitted to longer distances with less loss of energy. d) AC can be easily converted into DC by using rectifiers. 12. Disadvantages: a) AC is more fatal and dangerous than DC b) AC always flows on the outer layer of the conductor (skin effect) and hence AC requires stranded wires. c) AC cannot be used in electrolysis like electroplating etc. 13. Transformer: This works on the principle of mutual inductance between two circuits linked by common magnetic flux. Step up transformers: Converts low voltage high current into high voltage low current. Step down transformer: Converts high voltage low current into low voltage high current. E.g.: In bed lamps, we will use this type of transformer.

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www.sakshieducation.com 14. Transformer works only with ac (alternating current) 15. Transformation ratio
s Ns ip = = p Np is

Very Short Answer Questions

1. A. 2. A. 3. A.

What type of transformer is used in a 6V bed lamp? Step down transformer. What is the phenomenon involved in the working of a transformer? A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. What is transformer ratio?
vS Number of turns in secondary ( N S ) = vP Number of turns in primary ( N P )

4.

What is meant by wattless component of current?

A. If the voltage and current differ in phase by / 2 , then Power factor, cos = cos 900 = 0 . In this case, the current has no power. Such a current is, therefore, called wattless current. Since this current does not perform any work, this current may also be called idle current. Such a current flows only in purely inductive or in purely capacitive circuits. 5. When does a LCR circuit have minimum impedance?
1 . Then tan = 0 or = 0 tan = 0 or = 0 . Thus, there is no phase C

A. When X L = X C or L =

difference between current and potential difference. Therefore, the given LCR circuit is equivalent to a pure resistive circuit. The impedance of such LCR circuit is given by Z = R. which is minimum.

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Short Answer Questions


1. A. Obtain an expression for the current through an inductor when an AC emf is applied. A.C. Through a Pure Inductance: Consider a pure inductor of inductance L (no resistance) connected to a source of emf . The instantaneous emf is given by v = vm sin t

Let I be the current through the circuit and

di be the rate of change of current in the circuit at dt

any instant. The net emf in the circuit is given by


vL di =0 dt

Since there is no resistance in the circuit, there is no P.D. in the circuit.


di v vm = = sin t dt L L

Integrating the above equation,

dt dt = L sin t dt
i = vm ( cos t ) + Constant L

di

vm

Since the current is oscillatory, time independent constant does not exist.
i = im sin t 2

The term L has the units of resistance and it is called as inductive reactance (XL)

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i= vm sin t i = im sin t Here is the peak value of current. Hence the current is XL 2 2

lagging behind emf or emf is leading current by a phase difference of 2. A.

Obtain an expression for the current in a capacitor when an Ac emf is applied. A.C. through a pure capacitor: Consider a capacitor of capacity C connected to a source of alternating emf . The instantaneous emf is given by.
v = vm sin t

The net emf in the circuit is given by,


v q q = 0 (Or) v = C C q = vm sin t C dq d ( vmC sin t ) = = C vm cos t dt dt

Or

i =

(Or) i =

vm v cos t Or i = m sin t + i = im sin t + 1 XL 2 2 c 1 is called capacitive reactance and it has the dimensions of resistance. Here im is C

The term

peak value of AC. Hence current leads emf or emf is lagging behind current by

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www.sakshieducation.com 3. State the principle on which a transformer works. Describe the working of a transformer with necessary theory. A. Transformer: A transformer converts high voltage low currents into low voltage high currents and vice-versa. Transformer works only for AC. Principle: A transformer works on the principle of mutual inductance between two coils linked by a common magnetic flux. Construction: A transformer consists of two mutually coupled insulated coils of wire wound on a continuous iron core. One of the coils is called primary coil and the other is called secondary coil. The primary is connected to an AC emf. and secondary to a load. Due to this alternating flux linkage, an emf. is induced in the secondary due to mutual induction.

N1

N2

N1

N2

(a) Soft iron core

(b)

(c) Laminated core

Working: Let N P and N S be the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils respectively. The induced emfs produced in primary and secondary coils are given by
d d p = N p and s = N s , dt dt

Hence

s N s v N = Or s = s vp N p p Np

Where vP and vS are the primary and secondary voltages. If the efficiency of the transformer is 100 %, then vs is = v p i p or
ip is = vs N s = vp N p

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Ns Np

is called transformer ratio. If N s > N p , then it is called a step-up transformer. If N s < N p ,

then it is called a step-down transformer.

PROBLEMS

1.

An ideal inductor (no internal resistance for the coil) of 20 mH is connected in series with an AC ammeter to an AC source whose emf is given by e = 20 2 sin ( 200t + / 3 ) V , where t is in seconds. Find the reading of the ammeter?

Sol: e = 20 2 sin 200t + 3

Comparing with
e = eo sin ( t + )
= 200 rads 1

eo = 20 2 v.
L = 20 mH = 20 103 H

io =

eo e 20 2 = o = xL L 200 20 103

io = 5 2 A
irms = io 5 2 = = 5A 2 2

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www.sakshieducation.com 2. The instantaneous current and instantaneous voltage across a series circuit containing resistance and inductance are given by i = 2 sin ( 100t / 4 ) A and v = 40 sin (100t)V. Calculate the resistance? Sol: Comparing
i = 2 sin 100t A 4

With i = io sin ( t )
io = 2, = 100 rads 1

Comparing v = 40 sin (100t) with V = Vo sin t


vo = 40v, = 100 rads 1 Z= vo 40 = = 20 2 io 2
2

Z = R 2 + ( L ) = 20 2
R 2 + ( L ) = 800
2

But Tan = Tan / 4 =

L R L L = R R

R 2 + R 2 = 800 R 2 = 400
R = 20

3.

In an AC circuit a condenser, a resistor and a pure inductor are connected in series across an alternator (AC generator). If the voltage across them is 20V, 35V and 20V respectively, find the voltage supplied by the alternator?

Sol: VC = 20v, VR = 35v, VL = 20v


V = V22 + (VL VC ) =
2

( 35 ) + ( 20 20 )
2

= 35V

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www.sakshieducation.com 4. The primary of transformer with primary to secondary turns ratio of 1: 2, is connected to an alternator of voltage 200V. A current of 4A is flowing though the primary coil. Assuming that the transformer has no losses, find the secondary voltage and current are respectively. Sol:
NP 1 = , VP = 200V . NS 2

N S VS 2 V = = S VS = 400V N P VP 1 200

5.

A light bulb is rated at 100W for a 220V supply. Find (a) The resistance of the bulb;

(b) The peak voltage of the source; (c) The rms current through the bulb. Sol. (a) We are given P=100W and V= 220 V. The resistance of the bulb is
V 2 ( 220V ) R= = = 484 P 100W
2

(b)

The peak voltage of the source is

U m = 2V = 311V

(c)
I=

Since, P = I V
P 100W = = 0.450 A V 220V

6. A pure inductor of 25.0 mH is connected to a source of 220V. Find the inductive reactance and rms current in the circuit if the frequency of the source is 50 Hz? Sol. The inductive reactance.
X L = 2 vL = 2 3.14 50 25 103

= 7.85 The rms current in the circuit is


I= V 220V = = 28 A X L 7.85

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www.sakshieducation.com 7.
A 100

resistor is connected to a 220 V, 50 Hz ac supply.

(a) What is the rms value of current in the circuit? (b) What is the net power consumed over a full cycle? A. R =100, rms = 220V , f = 50 Hz (a) I rms =
rms
R = 220 = 2.20 A 100

(b) Pav = rms I rms = 220 2.2 = 484W .

7.

A 44 mH inductor is connected to 220 V, 50 Hz A.C. supply. Determine the rms value of current in the circuit.

A. L = 44mH = 44 103 H , rms = 220V , f = 50Hz Reactance,


X L = 2 fL = 2 50 44 103
Current , I rms =

rms
XL

220 = 15.9 A. 2 50 44 103

8.

Suppose the initial charge on the capacitor in above problem is 6 mC. What is the total energy stored in the circuit initially? What is the total energy at later time?

A. C = 30 106 F , q0 = 6 103 C Total energy stored in the inductor initially,


U =U
2 1 q0 1 ( 6 10 ) 36 = = . = = 0.6 J . 2 C 2 30 106 60 3 2

max E

At later times, the total energy remains constant.

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