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............................................................................. 5
Unit 1. Arrival
Grammar: Pronoun (Personal pronoun chart,
Demonstrative pronouns, Reflexive pronouns) ............................. 6
Unit 2. Making a call
Grammar: Prepositions: at, on ..................................................... 12
Unit 3. At the firm
Grammar: Present Indefinite ....................................................... 18
Unit 4. Making contact
Grammar: General and Special questions ................................... 23
Unit 5. The sales meeting
Grammar: Disjunctive sentence .................................................. 28
Unit 6. At the trade fair
Grammar: Conditional Sentence I type ....................................... 33
Unit 7. Making a deal
Grammar: Modal verbs: Can May Must ..................................... 37
Unit 8. Terms and contracts
Grammar: Adjective. Comparative degree .................................. 42
Unit 9. Negotiating
Grammar: Troublesome verbs ..................................................... 50
Unit 10. The production meeting
Grammar: Passive Voice ............................................................. 56
Unit 11. Visiting the plant
Grammar: Modal verbs: May, Could .................................. 63
Unit 12. Schedule and purchasing
Grammar: Present Continuous Tense
and Present Indefinite Tense ....................................................... 67
Unit 13. Talking about companies
Grammar: Conditional sentence II type ...................................... 72
Unit 14. Personnel
Grammar: Much and many, little and few, a little and a few ...... 78
Unit 15. Changes in the company
Grammar: Past Indefinite and Present Perfect ............................. 85
Unit 16. Gender tactics in business
Grammar: Possessive case of Nouns ........................................... 89

Unit 17. Company meetings
Grammar: Adverb. Degrees of comparison ................................. 95
Unit 18. Public relations
Grammar: Infinitive and Infinitive Phrases ............................... 102
Unit 19. After hours
Grammar: Present Continuous Tense (Future Action) .............. 108
Unit 20. At the restaurant
Grammar: Participles I and Participles II .................................. 114
Unit 21. Saying goodbye
Grammar: Past Progressive ....................................................... 119
Unit 22. Keeping in touch
Grammar: Indirect question ....................................................... 124
Unit 23. Writing to contacts ............................................ 130
Unit 24. Sorting our problems
Grammar: Future Indefinite ....................................................... 137
Unit 25. Finding solutions
Grammar: Modal verbs: SHOULD,
MUST, HAVE TO, COULD ..................................................... 142
Keys ................................................................................... 148
....................................................................... 156


, ,

, .
, -
, -
, ,
(Units). , -
: , ,
, , -
, .

, -

, . -


Pleasure ,
A few days
A couple of months ,
Nominative case (gram.)
Objective case (gram.)
Possessive case (gram.)
Singular (gram.)
Plural (gram.)
First person (gram.)
Second person (gram.)
Third person (gram.)
Below ,
In the parentheses
Speaking skills
Excellent ,
To attend the seminar
To issue annual report
To ask for advice
Bonus , ,
To postpone the meeting
Demonstrative pronoun (gram.)
To refer to -, -
At hand ,
Nearby ,
To inspect premises
Out of order
Fashionable ,
To deposit ,
Reflexive pronoun (gram.)
Qualified candidate
To underestimate ,
To have confidence in

Objection ,
To endorse the check
Seriously ,
Modest salary
Single room
Twin - bedded room
Checking in
A reservation

EXERCISE 1. On the plane
Complete the following dialogue using the expressions below.
Act out the conversation.
Do you speak English? _______________________________
Where are you from? ________________________________
Ah ha! Is this business or pleasure? ___________________
And how long are you going for? ______________________
Is this your first visit to New York? ____________________
What do you do? I mean, who do you work for? __________
Ah ha! You know, your English is really very good. _____
No, I mean it. You know, after a few days, when you

Yes, it is,
No, it isnt. I know New York a little.

Im from Nigeria/France/ect,
Im Nigerian/French/ect.

For a few days/a week,
So/a couple of months.

A little.

Its kind of you to say so.

I work for ,
I have my own firm.

Its a business trip,
Im on business.



Nominative case Objective case Possessive case
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
person I We Me Us My mine
person You You You You
person He, she, it They
her, it Them
His, her
hers, its

In the sentences below decide, which of the pronouns shown
in the parentheses is correct.
1. When you see Jean, give this package to (her, she).
2. We think (her, hers) speaking skills are excellent.
3. Mr. Olivero wants (you and I, you and me) to attend the
4. Do you consider (her and him, she and he) to be good actors?
5. When will the company issue (its, its) annual report?
6. We should ask (them, they) for advice.
7. The company may give (us, we) a bonus.
8. Which office is (your, yours)?
9. We expected (he, him) to postpone the meeting.
10. The reward should be divided between (you and I, you
and me).

Demonstrative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are the singular pronouns this
and that and the plural pronouns these and those. This and
these are used to refer to things at hand or nearby in distance or
time. That and those are used to refer to things father away in
distance or time.
Example: This is the best year in the companys history.
That was exactly what we wanted to know.
These are the most comfortable shoes I have ever
Those were the good old days.

For each of the following sentences decide, which of the pro-
nouns shown in parentheses should be used.
1. Are (this, these) letters ready to mail?
2. Who inspected (that, those) premises?
3. Perhaps (that, those) model would be better.
4. I think (this, these) machines are out of order.
5. (That, Those ) styles are no longer fashionable.
6. (This, These) prices are current.
7. Is ( this, these) anything you would like to have?
8. (That, Those) news came as no surprise.
9. (This, These) check should be deposited.
10. (This, These) are not the ones we ordered.

Reflexive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to
several of the simple personal pronouns.

First person Second person Third person
Myself Yourself
Herself, himself,
Plural Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

Complete each of the following sentences by writing the cor-
rect compound personal pronoun in the space provided.
1. Do you consider ___________ to be qualified candidate?
2. Some people underestimate ______________________.
3. Every person must have confidence in ______________.
4. The company accepted the responsibility ____________.
5. I ____________________ have no objection to the plan.
6. We voters must decide for _______________________.
7. Susan, you will need to endorse the check___________.
8. John seems to take _________________ very seriously.
9. Most people consider _______ to be responsible citizens.
10. Mr. Morris, the owner, pays __________ a modest salary.

At the hotel
1. Single room
2. Double room
3. Twin-bedded room
4. With shower
5. With bath
6. With toilet
7. Television
8. Early morning call
9. Breakfast at 8
10. Want to pay by credit card

EXERCISE 5. Checking in
If you have a reservation it is easy! You begin: my name is
I have a reservation. If you dont have a reservation, you have to
ask for a room by saying: My name is Durand. I have a reserva-
tion. Its for three nights. A single room with shower and toilet.
Could I have an early morning call, please?
The following people all have hotel reservations. What do
they say when they check in?
Look at a list above and say what accommodations every visi-
tor has.

1. Mr. Okawi 34 May (1, 4, 6)
2. Mr. and Mrs. Rossi 713 July (2, 5, 7)
3. Mr. and Mrs. Weiss 12 March (3, 6, 10)
4. Miss Capulet 89 August (1, 4, 9)
5. Mr. Cohen 1619 April (1, 7, 8)
6. Mr. Ung 23 Jun (1,9, 10)

Beyond the dictionary
A blind alley
A brainwave
Beat to the punch ,
Black money (, )
Burn ones fingers
Bump up

Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
During our last session we tested the effectiveness of an
Tom thinks the job of motor mechanic is a , as in ten years
time all cars may be electronic and computer-driven.
By moonlighting a lot of people earn
Jane had a and very soon she succeeded with her job.
He invested a lot of money in the stock market without pro-
fessional advice and
After five years, she expected they would her to vice
John was going to apply for the job, but Ted


Directory (phone book) ,
To be unlisted (ex-directory)
To call information
To hold the line
The line is engaged
To put through ( )
To be tied up
To dial
A transfer charge call (a reverse charge call)
Message pad
Dialing tone , ( ,
Answering machine
To leave a message on the machine

Immediately ,
To follow the model
Above ,
Unit , ,
Extension ,
Invoice ,
Suggesting date
As soon as possible

The phone book
Look up their number in the phone book (or directory).
Ill look up the number in the telephone book (US).
The number is ex-directory (UK).
The number is unlisted (US).
Ill ring Directory Enquiries for the number (UK).
Ill call information (US).

The line
Hes on the other line.
Would you like to hold the line?
The line is engaged (UK).
The line is busy (US).

The receiver
Can I help you?
Putting you through.
Im afraid he is not available at the moment (UK).
Im afraid hes tied up at the moment (US).
Youre welcome.

The operator
Dial 100 for the operator (UK).
Dial 0 (zero) for the operator (US).
Id like to make a reverse charge (or transfer charge) call (UK).
Id like to make a collect call (US).

A message pad
Can I tell him who called?
Can I give her a message?
Could I take your number?

The dial
Dial 123 for the correct time (UK).
Listen for the dialing tone.
All lines to the country you have dialed are engaged. Please
try later (UK).

If you do not understand, say
Sorry, I didnt quite catch that.
Sorry, could you say that again.

A. Insert the missing word from the information above.
a) Look it _____in the directory.
b) Hes _____ the other line.
c) Listen _____ the dialing tone.
d) Hes tied _____.
e) Dial 369 _____ the correct time.
B. Insert the correct term.
UK term US term
a) Directory Enquiries _____________
b) reverse charge call _____________
e) ex-directory _____________

EXERCISE 2. Phoning your contact
A few common expressions are enough for most telephone
conversations. Practice these telephone expressions by completing
the following dialogue using the words listed below. Act out the
Switchboard Cinglomerate Group; can I help you?
You Could I ______ _____ Mr Pardee, please?
Switchboard Putting you ______.
Secretary Hello, Mr Pardees ____. ____ I help you?
You _____, can you hear me? Its a _____ line.
Could you _______ up, please?
Secretary Is that better? Whos __________, please?
You (your name) from ( your company).
Secretary Oh, hello. How nice to hear from you again.
We havent seen you for ages. How are you?
You Fine, thanks. Could you _____ me ______
to Mr Pardee, please?
Secretary ____ the line a moment. Ill see if hes in.
Im sorry, Im afraid hes not in the ____
at the ___. Could you give me your ____,
and Ill ask him to ______ you ________?
You Im _______ 347 8621. Thats London.
Secretary Would you like to leave any ___ for him?
You No, thanks. Just tell him I ________.

Secretary Certainly. Nice to hear from you again.
You Ill expect him to ___________ me this
afternoon, then. Thanks.
Secretary Youre welcome. Goodbye.

On speak to message bad put through number ring back office
through office speak speaking can hello rang hold moment call

Note If you do not hear or understand the other person, say:
Im sorry? Or Im sorry, I dont understand, could you repeat
that, please? It is not polite to say: Please repeat?



Remember that we say at + time (hour, minutes)
Example At 10.45
and on + date, day of the week
Example On the 2
of April, on Monday.
(but tomorrow next Monday without on)

You read
1 p.m./13:00
You read
1 Feb
2 Aug
3 Dec
4 Oct
21 Jan
You say
at nine oclock
at nine thirty
at one oclock/thirteen hundred hours
one thirty/thirteen thirty

You say
on the first of February
on the second of August
on the third of December
on the fourth of October
on the twenty-first of January

Note 7/4/93 = 7 April 1993 (UK) 4 July 1993 (US)

Practise saying the following aloud. Example 1930, 18 June
1993 at nine thirty on the eighteenth of June, nineteen nine-

a) 10.15, 25 Sept
b) 2.15, 9 Sept
c) 11.30, 23 Apr
d) 3.30, 31 May
e) 5 p.m., 22 July
f) 20.30, 2 Aug
g) 15.00, 28 Feb
h) 7/11/93 (US)
i) 11/7/93 (UK)
j) 21.30, 6//3/93 (US)

EXERCISE 4. Leaving messages on answering machines
When there is no one in the office many companies use tele-
phone answering machines. People who phone in leave a message
on the machine. But even people who have spoken English all
their lives can have difficulty speaking to a machine! Here is a
simple plan to follow; say (1) who you are; and when you called;
(2) who the message is for; (3) what the message is; (4) what ac-
tion you want; (5) thank you.
Example: 1. This is Dieter Oswald, from Vasta. Its 8 a.m. on
Tuesday the 5 th.
2. I have a message for Mr. Rodriguez, in Accounts.
3. The message is: the invoices which he mentioned
were paid on 6 July.
4. Can he please call me back on (0287) 34192?
5. Thank you.

You hear the telephone answering machine at a company
called Eurora. You try many times to contact different people
there, but each time you have to leave a message.
Practise leaving messages using the notes below. For each call
listen to the recording on the answering machine first; then speak

immediately after it, without stopping your machine. Use your own
name and company and follow the model above. Work in pairs.

Carlos Rodriguez (Accounts). The invoices were paid on 6
July. Ring back if any more questions.
Al Kohl (Production). Can we have 200 more units by next
Friday? Ring me on extension 98.
Alex Martin (Sales). We need 1000 German Language
brochures. Send them by express post.
Nicole Hartmann (Marketing). Could we meet in the next
two weeks, to discuss products B + C? Telex, suggesting date.

Answering machine:
This is Eurora. We are sorry that there is no one here to an-
swer your call. If you leave a message, we will be pleased to con-
tact you as soon as possible. Thank you for calling. Please leave
your message after the signal.

EXERCISE 5. Compose the sentences of the following words:
1. Your manager, finish, at 7, his work, sometimes, does.
2. Born, on, May, I, 1975, 25
, the, was, of.
3. At ,4, be, p.m., of, studying, next, Bell &Co, I, Friday,
will, catalogues, the latest.
4. Are, equipment, to, next, going, month, produce, process, they.
5. Our, the, December, at, we, on, 8
, of, office, receive,
British, shall, businessmen.

Beyond the dictionary
Call on the carpet
Carry weight
Cast-iron /
Cold cash ( )
Cut both ways ,
Cut-throat ; ,
Clue in (on) ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Remember that your suggestion that costs should be shared
You will have to pay as well.
The assistant managers opinions a lot of in this office.
We gave him half the money in and wrote a cheque for the rest.
No new business comes with a guarantee of success.
His boss him for arriving late at work.
Could you me what happened at our last Board meeting?
Our company is faced with competition.


Receptionist ( , . .)
Personnel , (, )
Chief buyer
To get past
A few suggestions
In advance ,
To have a word ,
To arrange a meeting
Brief visit
To disturb ,
To be available ,
At a particular time
Affirmative (gram.)
Interrogative (gram.)
A copy of the memo
Meticulous work ()
onvention ,
To be aware of smth.
Employee ,
Assistance , ,

To hire ,
Part-time workers
Rapid promotion
Salary increase
To erode ,
Wages , ,
Indirectly ,
To recruit a staff
Foreign policy
Management skills
Solely ,

EXERCISE 1. At reception
To explain why you are there, say: I have an appointment
with (Miss Rush in Pesonnel). If you want other things too, say:
But first, could you tell me (where the toilet is)?
Now, at reception, ask for the following people and informa-
tion. The receptionist say: Can I help you?
1. Miss Jones/Personnel/toilet.
2. Jim Ludd/Accounts/telephone.
3. Mrs. Sindon/Operations/tell me if Mr. East is in.
4. Sam Higgins/Buying Department/the name of the chief buyer.
5. Margaret Conrad/Public Relations/Miss or Mrs.?

EXERCISE 2. Getting past the secretary
If you make a cold call (without an appointment), you could
have difficulty in getting past the secretary of the person you want
to see. Here are a few suggestions of things you might say to the
1. I dont mind waiting until hes free.
2. Im sorry, I tried to ring in advance, but I couldnt get
3. Could I have a word with him on the phone?
4. Would you tell him Im here, please?
5. Im sure hed be sorry if we werent able to meet.

6. Im only here for a brief visit before I return home.
7. It should only take a few moments. Is he in his office?

Which ones would you use in the following dialogue? (There
are several possibilities.)

You I wonder if I might have a word with Mr. Rodgers?
Secretary Im afraid he cant see you without an appointment.
You ________________________________________
Secretary Im sorry, but I cant let you see him unless
youve arranged a meeting.
You ________________________________________
Secretary Sorry, but I have my instructions.
You ________________________________________
Secretary Mr. Rodgers is a very busy man, you know.
You ________________________________________
Secretary He did ask me not to disturb him.
You ________________________________________
Secretary Im afraid he isnt available at this moment.
You ________________________________________
Secretary Very well, Ill tell him youre here.



Present Indefinite is used to talk about something which
happens again and again, or say that something happens regularly
at a particular time. Use words such as always, often, some-
times, occasionally, and never or phrases such as on Tuesdays
or every day. Present Indefinite is formed by using the verb in
its basic form. You add -s or -es to the verb in the third person

EXERCISE 3. Speak with your classmate and form three
forms (Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative) using the models.

Model 1
I finish my work at 5.
And what about you?
I dont finish my work at 5.
I finish my work at 6.

1. I stay at home in the evenings (to go out).
2. I watch television every evening (to read books).
3. We meet customers in the evening (in the morning).
4. Our engineers have lunch at 1 oclock (at 12).

Model 2
My friend finishes his work at 5.
And what about your friend?
My friend doesnt finish his work at 5.
He finishes his work at 6.

1. Our manager stays in the office all day (till 5).
2. Our secretary reads faxes and telexes in the morning (after
3. My friend reads books in the evening (to watch televi-
4. Our manager has lunch at one oclock (at half past one).

Model 3
I know Mr. Bell comes to the office at 8.
Does he really come to the office at 8?
Yes, he does.

1. I know Nancy stays in the office after 6.
2. I know Mr. Bell has lunch at 3 every day.
3. I know Susan watches television after 10 in the evening.
4. I know Mr. Lavrov often goes to London.

EXERCISE 4. For each of the following sentences decide,
which verb shown in parentheses is correct:
1. I (know, knows) both of them.
2. Everyone (has, have) a copy of the memo.

3. He always (do, does) meticulous work.
4. Mr. James (attend, attends) many conventions.
5. Both applicants (has, have) some sales experience.
6. I (am, are, be, is) aware of the problem.
7. Marilyn (try, tries) to help everyone.
8. New employees usually (need, needs) some assistance.
9. A number of companies (hire, hires) part-time workers.
10. Both firms (offers, offer) special discounts.

EXERCISE 5. Translate into Russian the sentences and ask
one general and some special questions to every sentence.
1. His resume shows rapid promotion and accompanying sal-
ary increases.
2. Inflation erodes our real wages.
3. About one American worker in four depends for his job on
the activities of government directly or indirectly.
4. Families in which the husband works while his wife stays
home are no longer in the majority in the US.
5. So once you have an aim you can collect and organize the
information connected with that aim.
6. He recruits a staff of over 100 foreign-policy specialists.
7. The development of management skills does not come
about solely by reading books or attending courses.

Beyond the dictionary
Days are numbered
Dead wood ( , )
Dog days ( )
Down in the dumps/mouth , -

Do away , , -
Dress down ,
To die for/be dying for smth. /to do smth.

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
This worker is and well give him the boot.

You havent been refused the job yet dont look so !
If she continues to behave like that, her in this firm
You cannot with violence by using violence.
They were all to go to Paris.
The director Jim for being late again.
Every winter theres a week or two of when sales drop


To make contact ,
To show respect
To address ( -)
Title ,
To receive the visitor
Inconvenient ,
Same () , ,
To keep waiting
To be pleased with ,
Helpful ,
To spare the time
Word order
Small talk
Overseas branch
Publicity department
Rapid promotion ,
To increase , (),
To lunch ()

Leading companies
Auditor , ,
To obtain finance
To get down to business
To make a speech
Office party


Surnames Pleased to meet you, Mrs Rivera.
This is polite and shows respect.

How do you do, Mr Hammond?
It is usual to use surnames at a first meeting.

First names Nice to see you, Steve.
This is informal and most frequently used with friends.

Hi! Pierre, how are you?
It is used more easily in the US.

Titles Good morning, Doctor Smith.
People with a title are usually by their title and their surname.

EXERCISE 1. Breaking the ice
A. Often the first words are the most difficult. Below are some
suggestions for breaking the ice. Which of the sentences could
be said by a visitor and which by the person receiving the visitor?

1. Sorry Im a little early. I hope it is not inconvenient.
2. Is the weather the same in your country?
3. Sorry to keep you waiting, I was rather tied up just now.
4. Im pleased to be here, after a trip like that!
5. Is this your first visit? What do you think of the city?
6. People are very helpful here/ On my way to meet you
7. Isnt it cold today?

8. You found us without too much difficulty then?
9. Its good of you to spare the time.
10. Its kind of you to come all this way.
11. I like your offices. Have you been here long?
12. Did you have a good trip?
13. Would you like a cup of coffee?

B. Choose any three suggestions for breaking the ice of the
list and address it to the person you start speaking. Act a small
conversation with you group mate.



To form questions:
1) with to be and to have, change the word order
Example Are you busy this month?
Have you had some coffee?
2) with all other verbs, use do and did
Example Do you smoke?
Did you come to last years Trade Fair?
3) use question words as phrases like where, who what,
when how (long/big)
Example What does your company produce?

Before talking about the details of your business, there is
usually a period of social conversation (small talk) which can be
difficult. A good tactic is to ask questions. There are three reasons
for this: people like talking about themselves: it is easier for you to
listen: you may learn something useful!

EXERCISE 2. Practice asking questions, as small talk, from
the following notes:
How/get here this evening
You/see Edward Gluck often
You/been to New York before

Your firm/have many overseas branches
How big/your department
You/worked here long
When/you plan to return home
Who/in charge of your publicity department
International situation/still work here

EXERCISE 3. Translate into English these interrogative sen-
tences using words in brackets.
1. ? (go on business)
2. -
? (recruit)
3. -
? (show)
4. ?
5. ? (director)
6. -
? (own)
7. ? (apply for)

EXERCISE 4. Translate the sentences into Russian. Ask a
general and some special questions to every sentence.
1. His resume shows rapid promotion and accompanying sal-
ary increases.
2. You are stagnating in your current job.
3. Some months ago investors and some economists began to
worry about it.
4. The use of computers as a management tool increases.
5. Some California manufacturers had difficulty obtaining
raw materials needed.
6. The leading companies build dominant global positions.
7. These countries had competitive pressures in international
8. A vice-president supported your proposition last year
9. They launch their products every year.
10. The company attracts to the profession only good quality

EXERCISE 5. If the small talk continues too long, you may
want to change the subject to business matters. Here are some
ways of doing it.
A. With someone you know well:
Lets get down to business. Or Lets get started.
B. With someone you dont know well:
Perhaps we could talk about the subject of our meeting.
Shall we talk about the reason Im here?

Which expressions would you use in the following situations?
1. On a sales visit to a potential customer.
2. At a weekly planning meeting with colleagues.
3. At your first meeting with the new group auditors.
4. At a meeting to obtain finance from a bank.
5. Before making a speech at an office party.

Beyond the dictionary
Eye-wash/ eyewash
Fall into smbs lap ( -
, );
Feather ones nest ; -
Fed up to the back teeth
Follow ones nose
( , )
For all the tea in China ;

Fudge on ( )

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
All the time he has been a member of the committee he has
been his own
I will not negotiate it !
The smooth-voiced salesmans talk was nothing but
When Jane came to live in Colchester she had no trouble get-
ting a job or a flat. Everything just so far.
Im with this routine work. I need a challenge.

The owner is the question of an increase in wages.
As far as recruitment is concerned, I tend to . I meet some-
one for an informal interview and see if I like them.


Representative , , -

To guess ,
Probably ,
High-performance microprocessors - -

To wonder ,
To be interested in -
Running costs
Biggest competitors
Seasonal fluctuations
Corporate image
Overpriced ( )
To malfunction ,
Generally ,
To complain
Immediate present
Rival ,
Up-to-date system

To impose import restrictions

Retail network
To underline
Requirements ,
Portable , ,
To fit
Palm -
Glossy finish
Tough ,
To stand up ,

EXERCISE 1. Arranging a meeting
Look at this telephone call from the sale representative to a
potential new customer. Try to guess the words missing from the
conversation. If you cannot guess, select the missing word from
the list that follows the dialogue. Act the dialogue.

Jackson Hello, Jackson
Gray Good morning, Mr. Jackson, this is Mike Gray
from Multiscan Industries
Jackson Er, yes, what can I __________ for you?
Gray Well, as you probably know, we are ___________
a new __________ of high-performance micro-
processors. Im going to be visiting your
________ next week and I wondered if you would
be ________ in discussing these new __________
and perhaps having a _____________?
Jackson M-m-m, yes, I would certainly be interested
Gray Good, would Wednesday morning be _________?
Jackson Ah, Wednesday is a bit ____________; Im tied
up all day. How about Thursday?

Gray Thursday would be fine. Can you let me have an
hour or so ____________ in the afternoon?
Jackson Yes, I think that would be possible. Say, four
Gray Excellent, well, Ill look _____________ to seeing
you on Thursday then. Goodbye.
Jackson Goodbye.

Office, interested, do, convenient, models, introducing, some-
time, difficult, demonstration, range, forward



Another way of asking specific questions is to make a state-
ment and add a question phrase at the end. If the statement is
about a situation in general, you use the present simple tense.
The question phrases used with the verb to be are isnt it? isnt
he? isnt she? arent you? arent we? arent they?
Example Your company is interested in export, isnt it?
You are responsible for purchasing, arent you?

EXERCISE 2. Now complete these questions:
1. Running costs are a problem, ______________________.
2. They are your biggest competitors, __________________.
3. Seasonal fluctuation is a problem, ___________________.
4. Your corporate image is very important, _____________.
5. We are in agreement about your needs, ______________.
6. The 606 is difficult to operate, _____________________.
7. These new components are overpriced, ______________.

If the question is about the situation in general, and the verb
is not the verb to be, the question phrase is doesnt it? doesnt
he? doesnt she? dont you? dont we? dont they?
Example The old models sometimes malfunction, dont they?
You generally buy from Exovac, dont you?

EXERCISE 3. Complete these questions:
1. You usually use imported components, ____________.
2. You sometimes have trouble with servicing, ________.
3. They sometimes deliver late, ____________________.
4. Your customers complain about the quality, ________.
5. This product outsells its rivals, __________________.
6. We always deliver on time, _____________________.

If you are talking about the immediate present, you use the
present continuous tense, with the same question phrase as for
the verb to be.
Example You are considering a change, arent you?
They are developing a new system, arent they?

EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences.
Example (Your subsidiary/ introduce/more up-to-date sys-
tem ?) Your subsidiary is introducing a more up-to-date
system, isnt it?

1. The government/impose/import restrictions ?
2. Some of your machines/become/obsolete ?
3. Consumers/change/their buying habits ?
4. Your main competitor/cut/his prices ?
5. You/improve/your retail network ?
6. We/work/in the same field ?

EXERCISE 5. Discovering needs
Look at the text and underline the verbs used by the customer
to express his requirement. The first verb to underline is need.
Now use the underlined verbs to ask your customer about his
needs. Write down your question.

Example Do you need a machine that is completely portable?
We need a machine that is completely portable, small,
lightweight; small enough to fit into the palm of a hand or a coat
pocket, but powerful enough to compete with a full size model. We
are looking for something that is visually attractive; either a glossy
finish in a bright colour, or matt black. Its got to be tough, tough
enough to stand up to constant use, and the controls must be covered
up or protected. It will have to be adaptable for use in different tem-
peratures and with both batteries and an electrical current supply. As
you know, the current varies from country to country so an adaptor
plug will have to be supplied. We require a first delivery of about
five thousand and want it as soon as possible

Beyond the dictionary
Get a foot in the door ( ),
, ( )
Get back on ones feet , -

Get into the swing of smth. ,
Get through ,
Give the axe ,
Go far , ( )
Go through channels

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
I was quite things when they transferred me to another de-
I know its a good company. I just want to and with any
luck I can work my way up.
My parents helped me a lot when I lost my job. Im glad
Im now.
My research project was the first thing to be when the new
boss arrived.
He is a very determined young man. I am sure he will
Youll never get anywhere in this firm unless you
I am trying to call London but I cant


To grant
First consignment
Free of charge
Buy-back facility
Advertising costs /
To promote -
Conditional sentences (gram.)
To hire managers
To exchange documents
Treaty ,
To contribute
Beneficial ,
Foreseeable ,
To overlook , , -

To obey the new rules
Customers needs
To match the response ,
Fragile , ( -
, )
Durable , ,
Operation costs

EXERCISE 1. Asking and offering
When you offer something to a client or customer, you say:
Would you like?
Example Would you like a brochure?
to meet our representative?
me to introduce you to our agent?

Your boss will tell you what to say to the customer. You must
then say it immediately using Would you like Practice until you
can make the sentences without looking at the book.
Example (Offer him a free sample) Would you like a free

Boss Offer him a free trial
You _______________________________________
Boss Ask him if hed like to visit our factory
You _______________________________________
Boss Offer her a free demonstration tomorrow morning
You _______________________________________
Boss Offer to send his head office a price list
You _______________________________________
Boss Ask him if hed like to discuss performance guarantees
You ________________________________________
Boss Offer to talk to the local agent about reciprocal trading
You ________________________________________
Boss Offer him help with staff re-training
You ________________________________________



When we are talking about conditions we often use sentences
made up of two parts. In one part we use the word if with the
present simple tense; in the other part we use the future tense with
Example If you settle promptly, we will give you a five
per cent discount. If you have any problems,
our local agent will handle them.

EXERCISE 2. Practice making sentences like these from the
phrases below.
Example (agree to our terms/ arrange free delivery for three
months) If you agree to our terms, we will arrange free delivery

for three months:
1) pay in hard currency/guarantee no price increase for 18
2) take over 2000 units/grant you a discount;
3) place a regular order/send you the first consignment free
of charge;
4) give us all your business/offer you a buy-back facility;
5) share the advertising costs/assist you in promoting the

EXERCISE 3. Translate the conditional sentences. Analyze
the Tense Form of the verbs in both parts of the sentences.
1. I dont like to go outside the organization to hire managers
if I dont have to.
2. If we put ourselves on such course, we will be truly com-
3. If we do our job well, well contribute to the local, nation-
al and world economies.
4. If each member of society is free to pursue his self-
interests, a harmonious, beneficial economic order will result.
5. Many investors will be richer if the future is really fore-
6. If the number of things overlooked is small a project will
7. A safety system will not work if the people dont under-
stand and obey the new rules.
8. If there is something troubling, I will tell you.

EXERCISE 4. Using verbs in brackets translate the sentences
into Russian.
1. (to
be eradicated),
(to increase).
2. (to
treat right),
(to stay with smb.).
, (to lower) -

, .
4. , (to
start producing) ,
5. (to reserve the right) -
, -
6. -
(to be to see) (a rapid increase in) -
, -
(whole new) .

EXERCISE 5. Responding to customers needs
Responding to customers requirements and some responses
to the salesman.
Match the response with the need in each case:

We are looking for some-
thing that is not too fra-
gile and not too difficult
to operate
Our product is very
strong and durable and
extremely simple to use

1. We require supplies of these products very urgently.
2. I need some details on paper to show the technical de-
3. We have got to save money on operation costs and save
time on maintenance.
4. We are not prepared to pay more than the market price.
5. We want something new!
1. This is the very latest design and incorporates the most
up-to-date technology.
2. I think youll find that our prices are most competitive.
3. I have all the specifications and technical data right here.
4. It is very economical to run and easy to maintain.
5. No problem. We can guarantee delivery within three

Beyond the dictionary
Have a way with words
Have an inside track
Have designs on smb. -/-
Have too many irons in the fire (
High season
Hammer out , , -
Head off , ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
You will have to speak to both groups of men quickly if you
want to a nasty disagreement.
They managed to a solution that would be acceptable to
both parties.
He has overworked because he simply.
He my work.
I would probably get that job if I could .
Dave ... that his staff does everything he tells them to do.
It is hoped that other types of tourism can be developed as an
alternative to mass travel.


To make a deal
To fill in the gaps
To complete the order
On your behalf
Accounts department
Invoice , - (
, ,

Indeed ,
Regarding ,
Service department -
(, -
, , . .)
To look forward to
Product-range update

In due course ,
After-sales service
Price movements ,
In the meantime ,
On a regular basis
To demand ,
To express obligation
To ask for permission
To purchase extra copies -

At half price
Nowadays , ,
To gather
Considerable evidence
To fire
Unfair advantage
Improvement ,
To confine
To adjust to the new circumstances

EXERCISE 1. Future relations
Look at the conversation between Mr. Dipak and Mr. Savage
and fill in the gaps with the phrases listed below.

Dipak Well, that tales care of the financial details.
Savage Yes, I think so, Ill complete the order form on
your behalf and our accounts department will send

a pro forma invoice __________ __________.
Dipak Well, I think thats everything; its been an inter-
esting meeting
Savage Yes, indeed. Now, regarding _________________
__________, Ill arrange for our service depart-
ment to contact your technical people to agree a
timetable for inspection and maintenance visits.
Dipak Will you be coming to see us yourself?
Savag Well, I expect to be visiting your company
__________ __________, but __________
__________, Ill make sure our local agent calls in
__________ _________. We will send you a
________ ________ ________ and details of
any ________ _________ direct from head office.
Dipak Fine, fine
Savage Well, its been a pleasure doing business with you
and I look forward to seeing you again
__________ __________.

1) product-range update;
2) in due course;
3) after-sales service;
4) price movements;
5) from time to time;
6) in the meantime;
7) in the very near future;
8) on a regular basis.

EXERCISE 2. In other words
Look at the phrases used in Exercise 1. Below are explana-
tions of these phrases. Match the explanation to the phrase.
Very soon
Follow up maintenance, replacement or repairs
Every week or every month or every three months, etc.
Now and again
While we are waiting
Price increases or cuts
Changes in the products available

At the proper time


Modals have some meanings. If you want to demand that
something happens, or that someone does something (=to express
obligation), use MUST.
Example I must write a letter to Mr. Blake now
If you want to give or ask for permission, use CAN or
MAY. MAY is more polite or formal than CAN.
Example I cant make an appointment with Mr. Green
now. Customers may purchase extra copies at half price.

EXERCISE 3. Ask and answer using the modals: can, may,
must. Use the models.

Model 1
Can you write a letter to Dunn &Co. now?
Ive already written it.
Prompts: to invite the businessmen to the conference room;
to study the catalogues for office equipment; to show Mr. Blake
our quotation; to call the manager of Dunn & Co; to tell the Direc-
tor about the talks with Blake & Co; to fax the contract to Johnson
and Co.

Model 2
Must you make an appointment with Mr. Green?
Yes, I must.
Prompts: to study foreign languages; to go to the office every
day; to have talks in English; to look through the post every
month, to help your wife at home.

EXERCISE 4. Translate the sentences using the modal verbs.
Ask a general question and some special questions to every sentence.

1. A manager nowadays must gather considerable evidence

in support of firing someone.
2. In any group some members may try to take unfair advan-
tage of others.
3. You cant have improvement without invention.
4. Its clear the scandal may not be confined to Italys bor-
5. I think we can discuss business now.
6. We must allow the worker to choose the form of organiza-
tion that expresses their views.
7. The recruiter must speak to a number of students who do
not fit the profile of the company.
8. Both large and small firms may adjust to the new circums-
tances if they are to survive.
9. I believe we can reach the agreement.
10. People in the company can find information easily.

EXERCISE 5. Translate into English using verbs in brackets.
Use modal verbs.
1. -
employees; to spread).
2. ,
(the professional manager; to come to realize); (there is;
(system; to be applied).
4. ,
(the top man, to delegate
to; he, to make).
(to agree to).
(to show the catalogues)
7. ,

(to deliver; to be in great demand).
Beyond the dictionary
If the worst comes to the worst ,

In a body , ; , -

In ones element ;
In ones prime /
In the know ()
In the pink
In the thick ,
Its a pound to penny

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
that hell lose his money if he invests it in the X compa-
When you are of action, you dont always have time to
He is when he is organizing something.
I could work long hours when I was
I wasnt well last week, but Im back, Im pleased to say.
and your business fail, you can always sell your house.
People tell me that she has got the job.
The workers went to see their employer.


onfident ( )
To reach agreement
To get on ,
Cautious , , -


Reasonable ,
Appropriate ,
Attitude ,
To justify ,
To account for , , -

High charge
Long delivery period
To increase the rate ,
To shorten delivery
To do one's best
To maintain , ,
To suggestion a compromise
Opportunity , -
Major operation
Short deadline , ( -
- , . .)
To re-schedule ,

Comparative form (gram.)
One-syllable word (gram.)
To implement , ,
Distribution network
To miniaturize
Quart ( ,
; 1 = 1/4 = 2 =
1,136 ; 1 = 0,946 1,101
To manufacture , ,
Litigation ,

Binding (), ,
Out of court ,
Breach (),, ,
To comply with
To abide by -
Both parties
Clause ,
Dispute ,


Below are the stages of a negotiation and some expressions
which you may find useful at this stage.

Conversation (1)
Im sure/confident we can reach agreement (optimistic).
Im sure theres room for negotiation.
We have a lot to discuss.
Lets see how we get on. (cautious).

Presenting your position (2)
This is our position.
This is how we see it.
We think the following is reasonable/appropriate.
Our approach is this.

Questioning the others position (3)
How do you / explain your attitude? / Justify ? Account
Arrive at? Why do you want ?
Why such a/ high charge? /long delivery period?/low dis-

Refusing to accept (4)
Im sorry, I cant accept 2%.
Youll have to do better than that, Im afraid.
Im afraid its not enough.

Other firms offer more than 2%.
Refusing to move (5)
Im afraid I cant agree to that/increase the rate/lower the
price/shorten delivery.
Weve done our best for you.
We have to maintain a policy.
I have my instructions.

Suggestion a compromise (6)
May I make a suggestion?
If you then we may be able to
We may be able to but only if you
Unless you there is no question of our being able to

Reaching agreement (7)
Lets gust go through the terms.
Lets summarize the conditions.

EXERCISE 1. Your turn to negotiate!
Now you have the opportunity to negotiate delivery periods
for machines you have ordered with the supplier.
When the supplier stops talking you should speak in turn until
an agreement is reached. The information above will help you.

Supplier Well, lets get started. You know, with this delivery
problem. Im sure theres room for negotiation.
You (1: cautious)
Supplier Right, well this is how we see it. We can deliver
the first machine in ten weeks, and install it four
weeks after that.
You (3: long delivery period)
Supplier Well, these are in fact the usual periods. Its pretty
normal in this kind of operation. Did you expect
we could deliver any quicker?
You (2: 6 weeks maximum delivery; 4 weeks installation)
Supplier I see what you mean, but that would be very diffi-
cult. You see we have a lot of orders to handle at

present, and moving just one of these machines is
a major operation. Look, if I can promise you a
delivery in eight weeks, does that help?
You (4: too late)
Supplier Ah ha! Well, look er You want the ma-
chine in six weeks. Now that is really a very short
deadline in this business. You said that you couldnt
take it any later, but couldnt your engineers find a
way to re-schedule just a little, say another week?
You (5: refuse)
Supplier Well, you really are asking us for something that
is very difficult. Ive already offered you seven
weeks. Ill have to consult with my colleagues and
come back to you, but I cant see what we can do.
You (6: if deliver in 6 weeks perhaps talk about further
Supplier Well, on that basis I suppose we might be able to
look at some kind of arrangement. In fact, if you
can promise another order I think we could accept
your terms.
You (7: 6 weeks delivery; 4 weeks installation; deci-
sion on next order by 26
of this month)
Supplier Exactly. If you could confirm this in writing I



Comparative forms are made as follows:
a) one-syllable words, add -er
Example smaller, faster
b) two-syllable words ending in y or e and er
Example simpler, easier
c) other two-syllable or longer words use more
Example more careful, more dangerous

EXERCISE 2. Use the comparative form ( with the verb to
be if necessary) to complete these sentences. Example Handbuilt

units are cheaper but automation is more efficient.
1. With the new system, output ________ (high) and costs
________ (low).
2. The conventional machines ________ (economical) but
the new one ________ (fast).
3. I think this scheduling plan _____ (good), but it ________
(difficult) to implement.
4. Our latest product ________ (light), ________ (strong),
and ________ (attractive).
5. We are trying to make our distribution network ________
(up-to-date) and ________ (efficient).
6. Robots make material handling ________ (easy).
7. The miniaturized elements are getting ________ (small)
and ________ (small).
8. The new machine tools are not only ________ (sensitive)
but ________ (safe) and ________ (clean).
9. Although our traditional products ________ (expensive)
they are still ________ (popular with customers).
10. The workers ________ (happy) in the ________ (light),
________ (spacious) production shed.

EXERCISE 3. Translate into English using the right form of
the adjective that will correctly complete the sentence.
1. , (far easy).
3. -
(low; heavy traffic).
4. , -
(be correlated with) -
(good; high).
50 (dry).
7. ,
(big; hard).


EXERCISE 4. In the following sentences underline the cor-
rect form of adjective:
1. Which is the (larger, largest) store in the city?
2. How much (farther, further) do we have to drive?
3. We owe (less, littler) than they do.
4. The company did (gooder, better) last year than it did this
5. Your report is (completer, more complete, more nearly
complete) than ours.
6. A quart is a (less, lesser) amount than a liter.
7. This package weighs the (littlest, least) of all that I have
handled today.
8. Which of those two machines is (new, newer)?
9. Margaret is the (friendliest, most friendliest) person in the
10. This is the (most recent, more recent) model we have

EXERCISE 5. Understanding contracts
The words below are often used in connection with contracts.
Use some of them to complete the sentences which follow. You may
need to put certain words in the plural. Use a dictionary to help you.
povide for
out of court
comply with

abide by
1. A contract is an ________drawn up between two
________. It is divided into _______, ________, and __________.
2. The contract ___________ ____________ any problems
between the two parties. The conditions of the contract are
_________ on both parties. If one party does not _________
___________ the clauses, this is called a __________ of contract.
3. In the case of a dispute, many contracts provide for
_________, but in some cases the dispute results in _________.
Most parties reach a ____________ without going to court, and
the dispute is settled __________ _________ ________.
4. Some contracts are for a fixed period, or ___________; al-
so, there are ways in which the parties can end, or __________,
the contract.

Beyond the dictionary
Keen competition
Keen a low profile ,
Keep ones ear to the ground ;
Keep ones head above water
Know smth. inside out ()
Kick back
Knuckle under - ;

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
I have a company that deals in arms. In business,
We are not making a lot of money in the shop, but we are
My boss expects me to to him all the time.
We only won the contract because we agreed to 5% of the
profit to the man who got us the job.
Though we confront really here, we are much better than
our rival businesses.
Why dont you ask Mike? He the system
We all had to the directors order.
The boss is angry with me, so Im trying to and not attract
his attention for a week or so.



Negotiator , , -

To upgrade
( )
To quote
To submit ,
Completion , ,
To accept offer
Rival publisher
Pottery ,
Pot ,
Policy ,
To insist on ,
To complain ( -), -
Cash flow
To extend the credit period
To threaten ,
At least ,
Ridiculous , ,
Demand ,
Flexible , ,
To punch on the nose /
To calm down ()
To deal with -, -
To intimidate , , (-)
To find out ,
To owe ,
A concession ,

To concede ,
Exaggerate the value
To minimize the value
To carry out , ( . .)
To cancel ,
Lay idle ,
Falsehood , ,
To ascend ,


EXERCISE 1. Choose one of the suggested options.
1. You have decided to upgrade your computer system and
have been quoted a list price of $4,000 by a supplier. How much
discount will you try to get?
a) none;
b) 15%;
c) 35% or more.
2. A publisher has agreed to publish your book How to be a
Better Manager. You have asked for 75,000 euros on signature of
the contract and another 75,000 euros when you submit the manu-
script. They are only prepared to offer you 50,000 on signature
and 75,000 on completion of the manuscript. What do you do?
a) accept their offer;
b)offer an alternative proposal;
c) threaten to go to a rival publisher.
3. You are in Belize and want to buy some Mayan pottery to
give friends on your return. You see some vases you would like to
buy. The ones you want are priced at $20 each. You want four.
What do you say?
a) Heres $80 then;
b) Id like four pots but I need a good discount;
c) Ill give you $50 for four pots.
4. You are in a store buying an oven. The one you have cho-
sen is 600. You ask the salesman for a discount but he tells you it
is not the stores policy as their prices are already lower than any-

where else. Do you:
a) accept what he says as probably true?
b) insist on a discount or free credit for one year?
c) complain to the manager about his attitude?
5. An overseas firm owes you $ 150,000. The finance Manag-
er explains that the company is having cash flow problems and
needs more time to pay. Do you:
a) extend the credit period by another three months;
b) ask for part payment on condition that they make another
c) threaten to take them to court.

Now look at the answers to see how you got on.

Mostly as
Youre not making much of an effort, are you? If you dont at
least try to negotiate, youll get nowhere he people you are deal-
ing with arent going to give anything away if they dont have to!
Mostly bs
Youre not aggressive and you dont make ridiculous de-
mands, so you can consider yourself an extremely good negotiator.
Remember always to be flexible and to keep an eye open for every
possible opportunity.
Mostly cs
Do you like being punched on the nose? You had better calm
down and start being realistic now or you might as well give up.
Youll only succeed if youre extremely lucky or in the unlikely
event that people you deal with are easily intimidated!

EXERCISE 2. Ten rules for negotiating
Dr Ed Zap is holding a two-day seminar on negotiating tech-
niques. At the end of the first morning he gives the group his ten
rules for negotiating. Here they are.

Ten rules for negotiating
1. Find out how many points are to be negotiated.
2. Start from an extreme position.

3. Assume the other person owes you a concession.
4. Dont concede without exchange.
5. Dont give what you can sell.
6. Exaggerate the value of your concessions; minimize the
value of the other persons.
7. If they insist on principle, expect a concession in return.
8. Only threaten what you are prepared to carry out.
9. Dont show disrespect to the other person.
10. If youre happy with the result, dont shout Ive won!

Read Dr Zaps rules and then look at the remarks in a list A.
These remarks are not good for negotiating. Instead, use phrases
from list B. Which one would you use in each case?
Example Instead of You see? I knew Id win! Say I think we
can agree on these terms.

a) You see? I knew Id win! 1) If you increase the order,
then we may be able to reduce
the price.
b) I know what you want to
discuss, so lets start.
2) very well, but if you cant
give discounts,
Im sure you can extend
c) I can reduce the price. Does
that help?
3) If you cant accept this, I
may have to reconsider my po-
d) Delivery? Thats no prob-
lem; no extra charge.
4) I think we can agree on these
e) Its against your policy to
give discounts?
5) Im afraid that will not be
f) What a ridiculous idea! Dont
be stupid.
6) May we go through the
points to be discussed before
we begin?
g) Another half per cent? Yes,
thats a very generous offer
youre making.
7) Half a per cent is very small
h) This is my final offer. If you 8) Delivery? Well it may be

refuse, Ill cancel everything. possible but only if


Lie and Lay
The verb lie is often used to mean to rest or to recline.
Its past forms are: lay, lain
Example The factory lay idle for two years.
It can be used to mean to tell a falsehood
Example She never lies about anything.
The verb lay means to put or to place. Its past forms
are: laid, laid
Example Jim always lays papers on the floor.

EXERCISE 3. For each of the following sentences, decide
which verb shown in parentheses is correct:
1. Please (lay, lie) the package over there.
2. Why would they (lay, lie) to us?
3. Perhaps you should (lay, lie) down for a while.
4. The folders were (laying, lying) on your desk.
5. I should have (laid, lied) the keys on her desk.
6. I dont think the witness were (laying, lying).
7. She always (lies, lays) things on the windowsill.

Sit and Set
The verb sit means to rest or to seat ones self. Its past
forms: are sat, sat.
Example Frances sometimes sits with us.
The verb set has many different meanings, such as to place
something somewhere or to establish something. Its past
forms are: set, set.
Example He has set a new deadline.

EXERCISE 4. For each of the following sentences decide,
which verb shown in parentheses is correct:
1. We usually (set, sit) next to them.
2. I (sat, set) and waited for them.
3. They can achieve the goals they have (sat, set).

4. The jeweler (sat, set) a small diamond for her.
5. Do you know where they will be (setting, sitting)?
6. We have (sat, set) with them many times.
7. She usually (sets, sits) near the exit.

Rise and Raise
The verb rise means to ascend, to increase, or to get
up. Its past forms are: rose, risen.
Example Some costs rise suddenly.
The verb raise has such meanings as to lift, to grow and
to increase in amount. Its past forms are: raised, raised.
Example No one raises the subject of salaries.

EXERCISE 5. For each of the following sentences decide,
which verb shown in parentheses is correct:
1. Have the annual dues (raised, risen)?
2. The sun (raises, rises) earlier in the summertime.
3. She often (raises, rises) interesting questions.
4. Some stores have (raised, risen) their prices.
5. We (raised, rose) nearly a thousand dollars for charity.
6. How much has the temperature (raised, risen)?
7. Some of the costs are not (raising, rising).

Beyond the dictionary
Land one ones feet , ; -

Leave smb. high and dry ( -
Leak out ( )
Let the grass grow under ones feet
Like a bull in a china shop
Like nothing on earth (,
Look the other way ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
The news of his appointment before it was officially made

He was a bad diplomat, because he tended to approach vital
and delicate negotiations
The company went bankrupt but the following year it was de-
structed and
The managing Director is not a man who when there are
decisions to be made.
The new car models look this year.
Theyre not really entitled to a discount but the sales manager
decided to
The stock market crash with debts of over $2000,000.


Activity ,
To stick ( - ),

Interruption ,
Properly ,
To suffer ,
Disagreement , ,
To stay away , , (-
To compose ,
Past participle (gram.)
Dispatch ()
Labeling , ,
Raw material
Regularly ,

To dispose of the scrap
To assemble ()
By hand ,
To subsidize ,
Crops ( )
Craftsman ,
Sophisticated , ( )
To invert ,
To turn over ,
To introduce the cartridge
Switch setting
Dial ,
To put in
To put back
To punch in ,
Remove the lid

Production activities

PROCESSES Weve had a

Bottleneck (too many
things stuck in the system)
Hiccup (temporary
Stoppage (the system has
to stop)
Glitch (small problem)
Shutdown (the system or
factory has to close)
MACHINES The machines are

Suffering from wear
and tear (damage from use)
Obsolete/outdated (old-
Out of order (not work-
Out of commission (not
usable at the moment)
Down (not functioning at
the moment)


PRODUCTS The product is

Damaged (broken, bent, etc)
Flawed (not perfect)
Substandard (not as good as
Defective (not work-
ing properly, faulty)
have suffered from
PEOPLE We have suffered from

Strikes (workers refus-
ing to work)
Go slows (working too
Disputes (disagreements
with bosses
Absenteeism (workers
staying away from work)
EXERCISE 1. Choose any 6 new words that are above and
compose the sentences with them.



The passive is usually used when the object of an action, and
the action itself, are more important than who is doing it.
Example The potatoes are grown on our farms (not Our
farmers grow the potatoes). The passive is often used in de-
scribing processes. To form the passive use the verb to be + past
Example The passive is formed in this way.

EXERCISE 2. Talking about processes
A. The words listed below are steps in the production process
of a potato supplier. Read them.


B. Practice the words describing the process.
Well, the potatoes are grown on our farms and brought to the
production plant here. First of all we peel them, then we wash
them. Next we sort the, and grade them (according to size and
weight). The acceptable potatoes are then steamed, chopped and
freeze-dried. After that the granules go to the canning department:
the cans are filled and vacuum-sealed. We next send the cans to be
labeled and packaged, then dispatch them to distribution centers.

C. Complete the following description of the process, using
the passive voice.
The potatoes are _________ on our farms and __________
here to our new production plant. Firstly they are __________,
next they are __________, and after that they ___________
__________, __________ and ________. Once they are cooked
they ________ _________ and __________ ___________. Fol-
lowing that granules are _________ and ________ ________.
Finally the cans are _________, ________ and ___________.

A. Change the following sentences to the passive form.
Example: We export the goods to Asia.
The goods are exported to Asia.
1. The company manufactures the goods in England.
2. They transport the raw materials by rail.
3. He inspects the parts regularly.
4. They dispose of the scrap immediately.
5. The workers assemble the instruments on the shop floor.
6. They package the finished products by hand.

7. We repair the machine tools frequently.
To make a passive sentence in the simple past tense we use
the past tense of the verb to be with the past participle.
Example The goods were exported to Asia.

B. Now write the sentences in Exercise 2A in the past tense.
a) _______________________________________________
b) _______________________________________________
c) _______________________________________________
d) _______________________________________________
e) _______________________________________________
f) _______________________________________________
g) _______________________________________________
h) _______________________________________________

Who does what?
Sometimes we use the passive form with the word by, to
show who or what performs the action.
Example The government subsidizes the production cen-
tre (active). The production centre is subsidized by govern-
ment (passive).

EXERCISE 4. Change the sentences into the passive form
with by.
Example: Farmers grow crops. Crops are grown by farmers.
1. Lasers weld the microcomponents.
2. Robots assemble the plants.
3. Time-and-motion experts monitor efficiency.
4. Craftsmen hand-build our traditional products.
5. Skilled workers operate the more sophisticated tools.

EXERCISE 5. Explaining instructions
. Look at these instructions. The operator has difficulty un-
derstanding the terms, so the suppliers representative trans-
lates the terms into more conversational English. Try to match
each difficult term with its conversational translation.
Example: Invert the terminal block means Turn over the

terminal block.
a) Connect the device to the power source.
b) Place the laser-camera in the portable container provided.
c) Replace the cover.
d) Introduce the cartridge.
e) Ensure that the alarm system is fully operational.
f) Insert the electronic key.
g) Remove the unit from the protective packaging.
h) Withdraw the card from the slot.
i) Re-set the dial to zero.
j) Enter the code number on the keyboard.
k) Select the appropriate switch setting.

1. Turn the dial back to 0.
2. Make sure the alarm is working properly.
3. Put in the electronic key.
4. Put the cartridge in.
5. Put the cover back.
6. Take the card out.
7. Unpack the unit.
8. Plug in the apparatus.
9. Put the camera in its carrying-case.
10. Punch in the code.
11. Choose the right setting.

B. Looking above imagine that you are near the representa-
tive giving instruction to the operator. If he does not understand
you, you must put the situation into different words.

Representative Insert the punch-card
Operator I dont follow.
You __________________
Representative Remove the lid.
Operator Im not with you.
You __________________
Representative Ensure that the power is on.
Operator Im not clear about that.

You __________________
Representative Replace the lid.
Operator I dont understand.
You __________________
Representative Withdraw the punch-card.
Operator Sorry?
You __________________

Beyond the dictionary
Make a beeline for
Make an all-out effort , -

Mark time ,
Mind ones own business , -
Mind ones ps and qs , -

Money for jam
Make for ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
They pay me very highly just to give them advice on export-
ing to Eastern Europe its
We were just until we received our instructions.
When our bus got to the hotel, some of the businessmen
for the bar.
A little more friendliness from ones colleagues would cer-
tainly a better working climate.
Leave me out of it, Im
Matrons not very keen on a man for this job, so youd better
if you want to keep it.
In my job, I have to every day.



To ask permission
Petrochemical production
Supervisor ,
To make a note
Loading bay
Recycling unit
Tool room ,
Separation process
Stoppage ,
To take round
Certainly ,
Right away , ,
Polite , ,
Production line
Dispatch , ,
Chief Engeneer
Schedule , , ()
Cooling unit
Control room , (,
Host ( )
To inspect , -

Refinery unit
Managing director -, -
, ,
To match phrases
Explanation ,

Competitor , ,
Out of line with
Increase , ,
Over the top , ,



When you ask permission to do something, start your ques-
tions with May I ?
Example May I see the warehouse?
When you want someone else to do something,
start your question with Could you ?
Example Could you show me the computer?

EXERCISE 1. Making requests
Mr. Olsen is visiting the petrochemical production centre
of Magnochem; the production supervisor, Mr. Pettit, is show-
ing him around. Mr. Olsen has made a note of some of the
things he wants to do.
Look at the entries below and ask Mr. Pettits permission us-
ing May I ?
Example (visit/loading bay). May I visit the loading bay?
1) visit (recycling unit);
2) talk (plant manager);
3) Look round (crystallization plant);
4) see (product samples);
5) examine (new pumps).

Mr. Olsen has also made a note of some things he would like
Mr. Pettit to do.
Turn the notes into requests, using Could you ?
Example (toolroom/show me). Could you show me the tool
6) computer-room-show me;
7) inspection system-describe;

8) separation process-explain;
9) meeting production director-arrange;
10) stoppage area-take me round.

If the answer to a request is YES, you can say
Certainly! With pleasure! Of course! Right away!
If the answer is NO, you must be polite!
Im afraid that is not possible. Im afraid Mrs. Kennedy is not

EXERCISE 3. Practice replying using the phrases above.
Visitor Could you show me the production line?
You (Yes!)
Visitor May I visit the dispatch department?
You (Yes!)
Visitor Could you arrange a meeting with the Chief Engi-
You (No!)
Visitor May I see your production schedules?
You (Yes!)
Visitor May I go inside the cooling unit?
You (No!)
Visitor Could you tell me where the toilets are?
You (Yes!)
Visitor Could I bring a group of people to visit the plant?
You (No!)

1. Ask permission to (1) visit the control room (2) inspect
some samples.
2. Ask your host to (1) show you round the warehouse (2) in-
spect some samples.
3. If your visitor asks to see the refinery unit how would you
tell him (1) yes (2) no?
4. Your visitor asks to see the managing director. How do
you tell him no?

EXERCISE 5. Buyers and suppliers.

Can you match these phrases with the explanations below?
a) Im sorry, but these
prices are still out of line
with your competitors prices.
b) Were only passing on the
increases which we have to pay.
c) But these prices are
over the top.
d) Sorry, but we cant cut
them any further.

1) excessive high;
2) reduce;
3) transferring to the customer;
4) higher than.

Beyond the dictionary
Monkey business
Move with the times , -

Mark up ( )
Move heaven and earth (
Make the grade ;
Make a clean breast of smth.
Make out (), (, )

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
He seems to be involved in some or other.
Corporations prices 1, 000 per cent in order, they say, to
pay for research.
I dont really like using a computer, but you have to , I
He to get them to agree to this plan.
Every year we have hundreds of young musicians wishing to
join the orchestra, but only a few
I was forced to the whole affair.
Mr Smith gave the clerk in the store some money and the
clerk a receipt.



Purchasing , ,
Capacity , ,
Efficiency , , -

To utilize , ,
To adopt , ,
Currently , ,
Occasionally , , ,
Sequence ,
Sales department ,
Priority , ,
Welding machine
To malfunction ,
To stagnate , ,
To undergo (-), , -

To move backwards
Whereby ,
Commodities , ,
, ,
Public Relations
Newsletter ( )
Figures ,
Throughput , -
Shift ()
Utilization , ,
Supervision , ,
Maintenance costs -

Nevertheless , -,

Previous ,


To talk about something that generally happens, we use the
present simple tense. When we talk about something that is
happening now, or in the real present, we use the present conti-
nuous tense. We make this tense with the verb to be and the
-ing form of the main verb.
Example We generally run at 88% of our capacity, but at
the moment we are running at 91%.

EXERCISE 1. Talking about schedules.
Complete the following sentences with the correct tenses:
1) We never __________ 100% efficiency, but this month
we __________ for 98% (get/aim).
2) Although we generally __________ good results, we
__________ with a new loading system (get/experiment).
3) At the moment we ________ to balance the plant load, al-
though we always __________ some machines (try/under-utilize).
4) Because we constantly __________ from stoppages, we
__________ a completely new system (suffer/adopt).
5) Our experts __________ currently __________ the effi-
ciency of the machines that we most often __________ (meas-
ure/rely on).
6) We occasionally __________ problems with overloads, so
this month we __________ the job sequence (have/change).
7) At present the sales department __________ a list of prior-
ities for the jobs we __________ regularly (prepare/perform).
8) The machines rarely __________, but the welding ma-
chine __________ __________ today (malfunction/malfunction).
9) We usually _________ 1,000 units per week, but this
month we __________ 6% more (manufacture/produce).

EXERCISE 2. Translate the sentences using Present Tense of

both groups: Indefinite and Continues.
1. (experience).
3. -
(invest enterprises).
4. ( -
(to have spotted).
(have results).
7. (sign
the contract).

EXERCISE 3. Translate the sentences into Russian. Analyze
the predicate.
1. In Britain tourism is now supporting about 1.4 million
2. We are now coming to realize that every event in some
way effects everything else.
3. You feel you are stagnating in your current job.
4. They are really having problems.
5. The Internet is enabling a new way of life that I call the
Web lifestyle
6. The gap between Britains big earners and workers on
average pay is widening.
7. The organization structure in todays factory is still under-
going change.
8. Sales are flattering after two years of strong growth.
9. We are still feeling a little nervous after last years stock
market performance.
10. While other European countries are progressing Britain is
moving backwards.

EXERCISE 4. Talking about purchasing
The Purchasing Manager is talking about his job.
Try to match the underlined words and phrases with the ex-

planations below.
Sometimes we operate a sole supplier contract (1) whereby
we use only one supplier for a fixed period. Generally, however,
we prefer to use a large number of suppliers (2) from our approved
suppliers list. We usually place single orders at a negotiated price
(3), but sometimes we get involved in advance orders at a fixed
price (4) for certain commodities.
Apart from ordering, I have to put out orders for tender (5),
arrange reciprocal trading (6) and maintain our own companys
reputation (7) in the marketplace.

a) multiple sourcing;
b) standing;
c) return contracts;
d) buying forward/speculative buying;
e) spot orders;
f) single sourcing;
g) encourage competitive bids.

EXERCISE 5. The departments performance
A. Mr. Vennonen, the companys Public Relations Assistant,
is interviewing the Production Supervisor for an article on prod-
uctivity for the company newsletter.
Read the text.

Well, I can give you a few figures which may help you for
example, we run our machines at 150 hours per week at a
throughput of 44 units per hour. On average we produce 355 fi-
nished articles per shift. So weekly output is over 6,500 units. Our
machine utilization is very good an average of 86,5%, that is,
9% better than the average for last year.
Every month we have supervision and maintenance costs of
about 68,000. Nevertheless, last month we had a profit of
104,000 which is 6.3% up on the previous month.

B. Mr. Vennonens boss, the company Public Relations Offic-

er, is asking questions about production.
Look at Mr. Vennonens notes and answer his boss ques-
tions. Just give the figures.
Example You hear: Whats their throughput per hour?
You say: Forty-four units.

P R Boss OK, tell me; how many articles do they produce
per shift?
You ___________
P R Boss How many a week is that?
You ___________
P R Boss I see, what is their machine utilization?
You ___________
P R Boss M-m-m OK, what is the weekly machine running
You ___________
P R Boss What was their profit last month?
You ____________
P R Boss What sort of increase does that represent over the
month before?
You ____________
P R Boss I see, now about monthly production costs; what is
the average total?
You ____________
P R Boss Good, and finally, how high are their monthly su-
pervision and maintenance costs?
You ____________
P R Boss Fine. Thank you.

Beyond the dictionary
Not have the heart to say smth.
Nourish/nurse a viper in ones bosom
Nose about/around , ,
Off the top of ones head , ( )
On cloud nine ( )
On the dot ,

Opt for ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Quite a few engineering graduates finally a career in teaching.
Whats he here for? He has nothing to do with our depart-
When asked what the companys profits were, he said he
could only give them some figures
I him he hasnt any hope of getting the job.
The first customers arrived of 9 a.m.
She has been ever since she was offered the job in Rotterdam.
Betrayed by her son at last months Board of Directors meet-
ing, Lady Brookes realized that 26 years she had .


To relieve ,
Poverty , ,
Advance ,
Benefits , , ,
Concession , (
To make a profit
Cooperative ,
Enterprise (, )
State administration
Holding company ,
, -,
Limited company , ,

Shareholder ,

Liability ,
Minority interest ()
(), ,
( 50%)
Multinational , -
Offshore company
Tax haven
Taxation , , -

Parent company (-
Publicly available , -

Society , ,
Sobsidiary (affiliate) ,
To imagine ,
To apply for , (-
, for -)
Probably ,
To offend , ,
Torefuse (),
Disappointed , , -

To explain ,
Promotion , ,

Training scheme ()
Transfer ( ),
Competitive , , -

Generous , ,
Profit-sharing scheme -

Allowance ,
Pension scheme ,
( , -
, ,

Relocation expenses -

EXERCISE 1. What sort of company is it?
There are many types of business organization and the differ-
ent terms can be confusing. Read both columns below. The left-
hand column gives various types of organization and the other
column contains short description of each organization.
Cover the Type column, and from the description name the
type of organization. Finally, cover the Description column, and
try to describe each organization listed.

Charity An organization to relieve poverty, advance
religion or education, etc; benefits from
some financial concessions
Company (UK)
Corporation (US)
An organization operating to make a profit
Cooperative A democratic firm owned by its workers
Enterprise A new commercial activity For example
Hows your new enterprise? Also in some
company names; for example, Smiths En-
terprises (enterprise = firm)
An organization which is part of the state
A firm, usually without commercial activity,
created to be parent to other companies
A firm where shareholders liability is li-
Minority Company in which another firm has less

interest than a 50% interest
Multinational An organization operating in several coun-
A company owned by the state
A firm based in a tax haven to avoid higher
Operation A general word for a company, usually a
small one, part of a large group. It also
means activity; for example, our commercial
A company which owns another
A company whose shares are not publicly
A company whose shares are publicly
Partnership Two or more partners working together for
profit, without limited liability
Society A friendly association of people; for exam-
ple, a sports society (society = firm)
Firm owned by a parent company



Ann says: If I found a wallet in the street, Id take it to
the police.
Ann is not thinking about a real possibility, but she is im-
agining the situation and doesnt expect to find a wallet in the
street. So she says:
If I found , Id (= I would)
Example Sarra has decided not to apply for the job. She
isnt really qualified for it, so she probably wouldnt get it if
she applied.


EXERCISE 2. Put the verb into the correct form.
1. They would be rather offended if I to see them (not/go).
2. If I was offered the job, I think I it (take).
3. Im sure Amy will lend you the money. Id be very sur-
prised if she (refuse).
4. A lot of people would be out of work if the factory
(close down).
5. Mark and Carol are expecting us. They would be disap-
pointed if we (not/come).
6. Im sure Sue if you explained the situation to her (un-
7. If I sold my car, I much money for it (not get).
8. What would happen if I that red button (press)?

EXERCISE 3. Translate the sentences into English.
1. ,
2. , -
3. ,
4. , -
5. ,
6. , -
7. ,
8. ,
9. ,
10. -


EXERCISE 4. Answer the questions in the way shown.
A: Shall we catch the 10.30 train?
B: No (arrive/too early). If we caught the 10/30 train, wed ar-
rive too early.
A: Is Sally going to apply for the job?
B: No (not to go to New York/without money). If
A: Lets tell them the truth.
B: (not/believe us). If
A: Why dont we invite Bill to the party?
B: No (have to invite his friends too). If.

EXERCISE 5. Working for the company?
. At dinner you meet an old friend of yours, who now works
for ABS. He tells you what it is like working for that organization.
Read and translate the text.

Whats it like? Im quite happy. There are good promotion
prospects if you are interested. And theres a very good training
scheme. At the moment did I tell you? Im considering a trans-
fer to another division. But Ill tell you about that in a minute.
Apart from that Well, salaries are quite competitive; theres a
generous profit sharing scheme too. Theres also a five week
holiday allowance, whish is better than a lot of firms.
What else is there to say? A company car, of course. Quite a
good pension scheme. Thats it. The only thing I wasnt happy about
was the fact that when I started the job, the relocation expenses we-
rent very generous; you know, buying a new house, moving the
family, all that sort of things costs money. I thought that

B. Complete the following:
1. There are good promotion ________________________
2. Salaries are quite _______________________________
3. Theres a five-week _____________________________
4. What benefits in kind (non-cash advantages) does your
friend receive?
5. What kind of move is your friend considering?


Beyond the dictionary
On the skids /
Ones heart isnt in it
Once and for all
On the square ,
On ice
On a shoestring , /
Off the cuff ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
The contract is Were just going to check all the details.
He should try to find another job because his simply his
work at all.
Her remarks were , but very sensible.
Not many successful businessmen can claim to have always
Im telling you No, I will lend you another $50.
Their business had been for months; their latest report of
big profits looked suspicious.
The restaurant is run , so we cant afford to take on any
more staff.


Personnel , (, )
Employee ,
Headhunter (
Track record ( - ),

Movers and shakers
Name of the game ,
Executive , , -
(- )
Top of the firm ,
Senior ,
To hire , ,

Uncountable , ,
Crowded ,
Decision ( -)
Individual responsibility -

Teamwork ,
Initial training
Job security , -
(, ,
, -
. .)
Sociable , ,
Keen , (-), -
( -)
Although , ,

Things you hear about employees and place they work.

The headhunters are looking for managers with hands-
on experience and an excellent track record.

Where I work, a couple of years in sales is the inside

Young Linda is a high-flier now. In a couple of years
she will be one of the movers and shakers.

In our organization success is the name of the game!


Top management here prefer to leave the number-
crunching to young executives on the way up.

EXERCISE 1. Can you match the expressions above with
their meaning below?
Example The fast way to make progress = the inside track.
a) The fast way to make progress.
b) Making important calculations.
c) The dynamic people who make things happen.
d) Moving up towards the top of the firm.
e) An ambitious person whose results are excellent.
f) Practical and direct knowledge of heir job.
g) The small number of senior people who run the organization.
h) Very good past performance.
i) Outside agencies who hire people for companies.
j) The main aim of the firm.



Use much and little with uncountable nouns.
Examples Much time, much luck; little energy, little
Use many and few with plural nouns
Examples Many friends, many people; few cards, few
Use much/many especially in negative sentences and ques-
Example We didnt spend much time.
Use a lot (of) in positive sentences.
Example He goes out a lot.
A little = some, a small amount.
Example Lets go and have a drink. Weve got a little
time before the train leaves.
A few = some, a small number.
Example How many apples do you have?

A few
EXERCISE 2. In some of these sentences much is incorrect
or unnatural. Change much to many or a lot (of) where necessary.
Put Right if the sentence is correct.

1. We didnt spend much money. Right.
2. Sue drinks much tea. A lot of
3. Jim always puts much salt on his food.________
4. Well have to hurry. We havent got much time._______
5. Did it cost much to repair the car? _______
6. It cost much to repair the car. _______
7. I dont know much people in this town. _______
8. I use the phone much at work. _______
9. Theyve got so much money they dont know what to do
with it. _______

EXERCISE 3. Put in much, many, few or little.
1. He isnt very popular. He has _______ friends.
2. Ann is very busy these days. She has ________ free time.
3. Did you take ___ photographs when you were on holiday?
4. Im not very busy today. I havent got _________ to do.
5. Most of the town is modern. There are _________ old
6. The museum was very crowded. There were too ________
7. Most of the town is modern. There are ____ old buildings.
8. The weather has been very dry recently. Weve had _____

EXERCISE 4. Some of these sentences need A. Put in a where
necessary. Put RIGHT if the sentence is already complete.
1. Shes lucky. She has few problems. RIGHT.
2. Things are not going so well for her. She has few prob-
lems. A few problems.
3. Can you lend me few dollars?__________
4. I cant give you a decision yet. I need little time to
5. There was little traffic, so the journey didnt take very

6. It was a surprise that he won the match. Few people ex-
pected him to win.__________
7. I dont know much Spanish only few words._________

EXERCISE 5. Opportunities for the staff
A. This table shows a summary of what three banks offer new
graduate members of staff. Look at the table and read the example

Salary 25,000 26,000 30,000
responsibility No Yes Yes
Teamwork Yes No No
Initial training 1 year 6 months None
Social club Yes No No
Business travel All over Europe None To UK
working No Sometimes Regularly
Exams Yes Yes No
Job security Low Low High

Alain wants to travel and is very sociable. He doesnt want to
take any more exams. He is very keen to take real responsibility
very soon. He has got a new job with Euro Bank. Will he be happy
in his new job? Although Alain will like the business traveling and
the social club at Euro Bank, he wont like the initial training and
exams. OR Alain will like the business traveling and social club at
Euro Bank but not the initial training and exams. OR Alain will
like the business traveling and social club at Euro Bank. However,
he wont like the initial training and exams.

B. Make similar sentences about other people. Imagine these
people yourself.


Beyond the dictionary
Part of the furniture ,
( , )
Pick to pieces ()
Pick up the tab
Pigs may/might fly ,
Pin ones hope/faith on smb.
Pay smb. off ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Its discouraging because every time I show him a bit of work
Ive done, he it
Dont your on Tom. He is not dependable.
The company for the annual picnic.
His plan was
We decided to pay the reporter his wages and him at once.
Sure hell pay for the drinks and
After twenty years in the firm, Julia had become , and younger
executives were promoted while she remained at the same job.


To mention ,
Increasingly , ,

Steadily , ,
To double
To increase , , , -

To pioneer ,
Company performance

Contrast ,
To concentrate (), ()
Whereas , , -
While , , ,
To declare redundancies -
( - ,
To take on , ( )
Growth , ,
To make profits ,
Liquidity problems
Market share , ,

To launch new products
Capital investment -
, , -
, -

Workforce morale
Sound , ,
Reliable investment
Secure ,
Heavy losses
Overdraft ( )
To fold up
To be wound up ( . .)
Overseas operations
Gross National Product (GNP)

Growth rate
Rate of inflation ,
Utilities ; , -

(, , . .).
Accessibility ,
Labour , ,
Amenities ,
Expatriate , ,
Antitrust laws , -
, ,

Profit margin
Corporation Tax , -
, , . . , -
( -
, )
Tax incentives ( -
Accelerated depreciation , -
( , -

Duties , ,
Tariffs , ,



Past Indefinite Tense
If you want to say about action occurred in the past, use Past
Indefinite Tense. To make a simple past add -ed to the end of
the verb or change the verb in some other way. Use at midnight,
on Tuesday, in 1992, yesterday and last year.
Example He thought that I ordered those supplies.
Instead of giving an exact time or date, you can use ago.
Example Five years ago we had only ten employees.


Present Perfect Tense
If you talk about the present situation, and mention the time
or date when it began, use since.
Example Turnover has doubled since 1991.
If you want to say how long a present situation has contin-
ued (without mentioning when it began), use for.
Example Turnover has risen every year for 11 years.

Your colleagues English is not too good, and in his presenta-
tion he makes a lot of mistakes. You, of course, know better!
How would you complete the following statements about his
a) Our turnover was only $0,4 million ten years _______.
b) Five years _______, 18% of our sales were to Europe.
c) Our staff has been increasingly steadily ______ 1988.
d) Turnover has nearly doubled ______ 1990.
e) Turnover has increased every year _______ eleven years.
f) Our sales to Europe have increased by 7% _______ 1988.

EXERCISE 2. Translate into English the sentences and ask
one general and some special questions to every sentence.
1. I have not heard from him since he left.
2. He has been out of work for a long time.
3. This company has pioneered in this technology since
4. I havent had a letter from Mary since Christmas.
5. Ive known him for a long time.
6. He has studied English since 1990.
7. He has been in electronics for most of his life.

EXERCISE 3. Translate the sentences into English.
1. .
2. .

1978 .
6. ,
7. ,

EXERCISE 4. Company performance
Contrasts (comparisons which concentrate on the differences
between two things) are made using whereas or while.
Example Minitex is taking on more staff whereas, while
Cassandra is declaring redundancies.
A. Now contrast the fortunes of the two companies, using the
information below.

is taking on more staff
is enjoying steady growth
is making profits
is in credit and has no liquidity
has an increased market share
is launching new products
enjoys high productivity
has a capital investment
has good workforce morale
is highly competitive
seems a sound and reliable
has a secure future
is declaring redundancies
has a falling turnover
is making heavy losses
has an overdraft and cash-flow
has a reduced market share
has a limited product range
is inefficient in production
cannot afford new investment

suffers from industrial unrest
is no longer competitive
seems a high-risk investment

may soon collapse/go bankrupt

B. When you have finished, cover one column with a piece of
paper and try to remember the opposite expressions in the other

EXERCISE 5. New operations abroad
In this exercise we look at some of the factors which are im-
portant when considering a new overseas operation.
Look at some factors which are important when considering
a new overseas operation. Your colleague at the meeting ask you
some questions that are below. Each question starts with What
about ? or What do we know about ? Begin your answer with
So far as I know Im told that and I understand that

Economic aspects
Gross National Product (GNP)?
Growth rate?
Development plans?
Stability of currency?
Rate of inflation?

Geographical aspects
Transport infrastructure?
Utilities (water, electricity, etc.)?
Cost of land?
Labour aspects
Skilled labour?
Local management?
Labour laws?
Social security?
Amenities for expatriates?

Capital aspects
Cost of local capital?
Insurance and banking?
Laws about local participation?

Business aspects
Insurance from home country?
Antitrust laws?
Permitted profit margins?
Taxation aspects
Corporation Tax?
Tax incentives?
Tax holidays?
Accelerated depreciation?
Duties and tariffs?

Political aspects
Political stability?
Possibility of nationalization?

Beyond the dictionary
Pile it on thick ( , ); -

Pinch money/pennies
Plain sailing
Play ball with -,
Play for time ,
Pack it in , ( )
Pan out ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Things didnt too well.
Once we have got the money, it will be
tell them we need more information from them before
we can make a decision.
John gave a good talk at the conference, but Dawson was
when he spoke of an unforgettable experience.
I tried to get him to help but he wouldnt
Theres no need now that youre working full-time.
She didnt like her new job at all and was thinking of


Exception ,
Generalization ,
Including ,
Competitive ,
Collaborative , ,
Goodwill , , -
( -),
To tackle , ,

( -), ( - )
To go to the heart of smth.
Secondary considerations (-
Preference ,
Challenging , , ,
, (,
To sit cross-legged ,
Apart ,
Gestures ,
Forceful ( , . .), -
, ,
To bang a fist
To encourage , ,
Contribution ( . .),
Masculine ,
( , , . .)
Staff problems
Confrontational style
To ignore , ,

Cruel , ,
Hurtful ,
Caveat , , ( -
Empowerment ,
Managing by consensus -
Witnesss testimony
To omit ,
Possessive sign (gram.)
Manual , ,
Administrative assistant (-
, -, -

. .)
Column ( , ), ( -

EXERCISE 1. Gender approaches
Read the text and see if the writers ideas are the same as
yours. Discuss it with your group mates.

Men and women do things differently. There are, of course,
exceptions to every generalization, including this one.
Cristina Stuart is a managing director of Speakeasy Training,
a consultancy that runs courses for men and women working to-
gether. Here she describes a few key differences between the sexes
in the workplace.
1. Working together
The male approach to business is competitive, direct and con-
frontational. The end justifies the means (1). Personal status and a
focus on the individual are important.
The female method is collaborative. Collective action and re-
sponsibility are more important than personal achievement. Later-
al thinking (2), as well as goodwill and the well-being of the indi-
vidual, are also of great importance.
2. Tackling problems
The male approach is to go to the heart of the problem, with-
out taking into account secondary considerations. The female pre-
ference is to look at various options.
3. Body language
Male body language tends to be challenging. Female body
language tends towards self-protection. A stereotypical female
pose is sitting cross-legged; the male sits with legs apart to give an
impression that he is in control.
Male behavior can include forceful gestures for example
banging a fist on the desk for effect. The female style does not
usually include aggressive gestures.
4. Language
The male way of speaking does not encourage discussion.

Women tend to welcome others opinions and contributions more.
5. Conversation
Men like to talk about their personal experiences and
achievements or discuss masculine topics such as cars or sport.
Women tend to talk about staff problems and personal matters.
6. Meetings
If a woman does not copy the male confrontational style, she
is often ignored.
7. Self-promotion
Men find it easy to tell about their successes. Women tend to
share or pass on the credit for a success.
8. Humour
Mens humour can be cruel a mans joke usually has a victim.
Female humour is less hurtful. A woman often jokes against herself.
9. Caveat
Many men have a female style of working. Equally many
women have a male approach.
As Ms Stuart says many of the current management theorems
flatter organizations (3), empowerment, managing by consensus (4)
have a female style to them.
1. It does not matter what methods you use; success is the
only important thing.
2. Thinking in a creative way, making unusual connections.
3. Organizations in which there are fewer managers and
people have equal status.
4. Managing by getting everyone to agree.

EXERCISE 2. Complete the table with words from the text,
then mark the stress.

1. to compete (with) competition competitive
2. to confront confrontation
3. to collaborate collaboration
4. to control controlling
5. encouragement encouraging

6. to achieve achieving
EXERCISE 3. Complete the following sentences using one
of the words from the table:
1. It was a great _________ to win the companys prize for
2. This is a really difficult job at times. Id like a bit of
___________ from my boss occasionally.
3. I hate having meetings with Alan. Hes always aggressive
and ____________.
4. I dont like working on my own, I need other people to
__________ with.
5. Its impossible to __________ events, but you can influ-
ence them.



1. The possessive of most singular nouns is formed by add-
ing s to the singular noun.
Example secretarys.
2. The possessive case of singular nouns ending in s or z
sound (ch, s, sh, x, or z) is usually formed by adding s.
Example Mr.Knoxs report, witnesss testimony, Mrs.
Finchs son.
3. The possessive of plural nouns ending in s is formed by
adding only an apostrophe after s.
Example bosses plans.
4. When the plural noun does not end in s, write the plural
form and then add s.
Example womens fashions.
5. The apostrophe is often omitted in organization and other
names, but very often possessive is formed by means of an apo-
strophe and s.
Examples American Bankers Association, Investors corner.
6. To form the singular possessive of an abbreviation, add an
apostrophe and s at the end of the abbreviation. To form the plur-

al possessive, add only an apostrophe to abbreviations whose
plurals end in s.
Examples Walsh & Co.s, Morton Bros. prices.
7. In a name containing several words, the possessive sign is
placed at the end.
Example Department of Water and Powers report.
8. To form the possessive of a compound noun written as
two or more words is always formed on the last word of a com-
pound noun.
Examples son-in-laws house, sons-in-laws houses.

EXERCISE 4. The following sentences illustrate rules for
forming and using possessives. If you are unsure why an italicized
noun is or is not in possessive form, refer to the rule indicated
1. Eleanor is planning to take two weeks vocation (3).
2. This manual includes a description of an administrative
assistants duties (8).
3. The ASPCAs purpose is well know (6).
4. Several economists opinions appeared in the Investors.
5. Corner column of one of the local newspapers (5).
6. The owners addresses are known (3).
7. Their daughters-in-laws social security numbers are near-
ly the same (8).
8. Its Mrs. Swartzss check (2).
9. What are the witnesses names and addresses (3)?

EXERCISE 5. Study the following sentences. If the posses-
sive is correctly expressed, write Ok. If the possessive is incorrect,
write it correctly.
1. Do you know the managers responsibilities?
2. Has she completed work for a masters degree?
3. We have a few dollars worth of stamps.
4. The companys telephone number is 333 942 555.
5. The applicants experience is 5 years.
6. What is their sons-in-law name?

Beyond the dictionary

Play into smbs hands -, -

Play it by ear , -

Pluck up ones courage ,

Poke ones nose ( )
Praise to the skies
Pass smth/smb off as -/-
Pass smb over (usu passive)

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
He was surprised when he was called into his employers of-
fice, but decided to remain calm and
Neither of us got the job. We were both
He is always his into my affairs.
He should be good his last boss him
By accepting the money he has right my
Come on, Ann, your , do it!
She the idea her own.


Confidence ,
To achieve
To reach a decision
Issue , ,

Background , , (-
- ),
Course ,
To keep to , -

Immediate ,
To look back ,
To jump ahead ,
Confusion , ,
To summarize , ,

So far , ,
To interrupt , , -
( . .)
Essential , ,
Argument , ,
Issue , ,
Experience , ,
Board meeting
Comparative (gram.) ( -
Superlative (gram.) ( -
Efficiently ,
To promote , /
Panel , (
Worded ,
Income , ,
Glorious , , ,

To determine , (
, , )
Break ,
Falling sales
Advertising campaign
Throughout the world
Recently , ,

Trade fair

Phrases at meetings

Managers in international firms or on management courses, often
need to participate in meetings. The formulas and tactics which fol-
low will give you the confidence to use your English in this situation.

Controlling the subject

Saying what
you hope to achieve
Id like us to reach a decision today.
Id like us to think about this after the
This is for information only.
the subject
Our subject today,/ the issue is
Lets look at the background to this:
What is the situation at present?
Lets look at possible courses of action.
Keeping to
the subject
Lets keep to the immediate subject,
which is:
Can we come back to our subject
Dont look back! Weve already discussed that. Lets not go
over it again.
Dont jump ahead! Lets not jump too far ahead at this stage.
Getting things clear There seems to be some confusion:
Lets summarize what weve said so far:

How to be good at meetings

Asking to speak Could I just say something?
If you have to interrupt Sorry to interrupt, but
Can I come in here
Giving your opinion My own feeling/view is
Disagreeing or
Im not too sure
Im unhappy about

These notes are mainly for the chairman or chairwoman (who

chairs the meeting, and is in the chair), but may also be used for
all people present, especially if there is no chairperson.
Stopping people
who talk too much
Essential? Edward, do you think its
Sorry to interrupt you, Charles, but Id
like to know if the others agree.
Encouraging people
to talk
Would you like to comment, Nora?
What do you think about this, Paul?
Could you let Paul finish? Id like to
have his point of view on this.
Thats just an interesting point, Mrs.
Orr. Thank you.
When personal
disputes occur
Lets just concentrate on the argu-
ments/issues. Jim, you have experience
of this; Id like to ask you a question.

EXERCISE 1. Using the formulas above make up a conversa-
tion with your group mate. You are a Russian businessman who is
present at the board meeting of a large company. Take an active part
in the discussion. Imagine any subject to discuss with your partner.



Like many adjectives, adverbs may have a positive, a com-
parative and superlative degree form. For most adverbs, the
comparative degree is indicated by using more or less, and the
superlative degree is indicated by using most or least with the
positive degree forms.
Example capable more capable most capable
For some short adverbs, the comparative degree is formed
by adding -er to the positive degree form, and the superlative
degree is formed by adding -est to the positive degree form.
A number of these short adverbs may also be used as adjectives.
Example soon sooner the soonest

Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative
degree forms.
Badly worse the worst, well better the best, much
more the most, far (distance) farther the farthest, far
(degree) further the furthest.

EXERCISE 2. For each of the following sentences, determine
which form of the adverb shown in the parentheses should be used.
1. Does anyone work ( efficiently) than he does?
2. You will be promoted (soon) than Peg does.
3. Of the three, she takes her work (seriously).
4. The committee will meet (weekly) from now on.
5. Which member of the panel spoke (often)?
6. She acts (friendly) than he does.
7. Of the three, Kay was dresses (formally).
8. I live (far) from the office than Peg does.
9. Your statement is the (clearly) worded than that one.
10. Timmy behaved (badly) than Billy.

EXERCISE 3. Translate the sentences into Russian with the
comparative constructions. The (larger) the (more)
a) The higher a persons income, the higher the tax rate.
b) The more competition, the lower the prices.
c) The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.
d) The more your employees know about your wages and
salary program and how it is determined, the better.
e) The higher an engineer moves up in an organization, the
greater the increase in the level of well-being.
f) The stronger a product habit, the more difficult it is for a
competitive product to break it.

EXERCISE 4. Translate the sentences into English using the
adverbs given in the brackets.
2. ,
(much, much).
3. ?

4. ,
(big, hard).
5. (much).
6. ,
7. ,
, (late, busy).
8. -

EXERCISE 5. Chairing a meeting
This is your chance to chair a meeting. Here is what you must do.
1. Read the conversation twice:
The first time concentrate on what the chairman says; the
second time concentrate on what the other people say.
2. You are now the chairman. You may look at the phrase
above. Practise until you can do it well: being a chairman is
not easy!

Chairman Id like us to reach a decision today about
item 1. The issue is falling sales in the Ital-
ian market. Henry will explain the back-
ground to this, and the present situation.
Henry Thanks. Well, as you know, in Italy weve
always So thats how things are at the
Chairman Thank you, Henry. Now, lets look at
possible courses of action.
Bob Could I just say something? The Italian
market isnt as important to us as the Rus-
sian orders. I was in Moscow last week,
and learnt some pretty interesting things
about the way things are moving out there.
Chairman Lets keep the immediate subject, which is
the Italian market.
Arnold Sorry to interrupt, but if we launch a new
advertising campaign in Italy it would cost
a fortune! You said yourself that we ha-

vent enough money to advertise on every
television in Europe!
Chairman Lets not jump too far ahead at this stage.
Bob My own feeling is this: in years of expe-
rience, in many different markets through-
out the world, Ive often found that, when
and you know, if I could pass on my
experience to the younger people here, Id
say that the only way to sell in Italy is to
go there and see the market for yourself,
instead of asking your agents to do it.
Chairman Sorry to interrupt you, Bob, but Id like to
know if the others agree. What do you
think about this, Walter.
Walter Im not too sure about this. My own feel-
ing is that if
Bob I dont know why you dont ask me. Ive
been to Italy so many times recently.
Chairman Could you let Walter finish? Id like to
have his view on this.
Walter Well, Id like to say that for the last two
years we havent had a stand at the Milan
Trade Fair. I under stand that the Fair has
produced lots of contacts in the past.
Chairman Thats an interesting point, Walter. Lets
summarize what weve said so far. Bob
thinks we depend on the agents too much,
and Walter suggests that the Trade Fair is

Beyond the dictionary
Promise the earth/moon (and the stars)
Pull rank
Put (a product) on the map (, )
Put in a (good) word for smb.
Put on/up a bold face

Pay off ()
Pitch in , ( )
EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
We are nearly bankrupt, but we must on it and try to over-
come our difficulties by carrying on our business as usual.
My boss , but only paid the minimum page.
I hope you get the job, Ill you.
Hes a highly talented public relations person so he will surely
Weve had to ten employees because theres no work for
If everybody , well soon have the job finished.
She was boss of forty or more people but, to her credit, she
never once


To issue , ,
Shortly , ,
Finally ,
Cooperation ,
To resolve the present situation -

Point of view
Similar talks
Advertisement ,
Executive , , -
(- )
Profit-sharing scheme -

Expenses , ,
To omit ,

To complain ( -), -
To make arrangements
Immediately , , , -

To complete , ,
To nominate for the award -

To attend ,
Wise ,
Courteous , , ,
To interrupt , ,
To bear ,
State affairs
Goal ,
To master speciality


How to say nothing:
Im afraid I
cant comment at
the moment.
Im sorry, but I
cant comment at
this stage.
Thank you for
your interest but I
cant tell you any-
thing before the
statement is issued.
A statement
will be issued
Yes, Im
pleased to be in
your country.

Difficult questions
I did not say that at all.
I would rather not answer that question at present. Do you
have any other questions?

Giving and not giving information in a press statement:


As a result of this meeting, agreement has been reached on the
following points.
First, _______________
Secondly, ___________
Finally, _____________
Thank you.

This has been a useful meeting. Both parties have expressed
their views clearly, and the meeting has taken place in a spirit of
cooperation. Further details cannot be given at present, but it is
hoped that the increased understanding resulting from this meeting
will be of assistance in resolving the present situation. I am afraid
that we cannot answer questions at this stage. Thank you.

EXERCISE 1. Could I ask you a question?
You are just leaving an important negotiation with another
company. The press is at the door. You hear a number of journal-
ists with questions for you. You must speak to them and be polite,
but try not to tell them anything (except that a statement will be
issued soon). Practice using the phrases above.

Press Good afternoon, sir. Could I ask you a couple of ques-
You _____________________________________________
Press Could you say if the negotiations were a success, from
your point of view?
You _____________________________________________
Press Can you tell us what will be in the statement?
You _____________________________________________
Press Are you pleased to be here?
You _____________________________________________
Press So you think the negotiations have been good for your
You _____________________________________________

Press Do you have plans for similar talks with other compa-
nies in the industry?
You _____________________________________________
Press One last question: is it true that you said you expect to
get everything you want from these negotiations?
You _____________________________________________
Press Thank you

EXERCISE 2. Working conditions
Complete the following draft advertisement for an executive
job with the words given below:
with good promotion_________. Salaries are ________
and there is a _______ profit- __________ scheme.
All executive employees receive a four week holiday
________. __________ car provided; _____________expenses
where necessary.



An infinitive usually consists of the word to plus a verb.
Example Some of us have been asked to work next week-
When infinitives follow such verbs as hear, help, let, need,
and see, the word to is often omitted.
Example No one has ever heard him complain.
Infinitives have two main tense forms: the present and the
The present form of an infinitive may express the same time
as the main verb.

Example Alice has asked to leave early every day this
The present progressive form of an infinitive consists of to
be plus a present participle.
Example We need to be making other arrangements.
The passive present tense form of an infinitive consists of to
be plus a past participle.
Example This letter needs to be answered immediately.
The perfect form of an infinitive is used only to indicate
something completed before the time expressed by the main verb.
Example Frank said that he was pleased to have been nomi-
nated for the award. (The nomination occurred before the liking.)

EXERCISE 3. For each of the following sentences, decide
which expression shown in parentheses correctly completes the
sentence. Write your answer in the space provided.

1. He plans to (have attended, attend) the next meeting.
2. He was expecting the store to give (he, him) a refund.
3. I thought he would be able to (have helped, help).
4. It is always wise to (have called, call) first.
5. I am sorry to (have been, be) absent when you called.
6. Customers expect (us, we) to be courteous and helpful.
7. We are to (be doing, be done) the notes.
8. I dont like (interrupt/be interrupted).
9. When will you be able to (have met, meet) with us?
10. Be careful with him. He is a very resentful person.

11. He cant bear (joke/be joked at).
EXERCISE 4. Define the function of infinitive in the sen-
1. To influence state affairs as well as getting a wage in-
crease must be their goal.
2. It costs a lot to become a great man.
3. The letter to be answered was given to me.
4. To understand the importance of this event you should
know all the facts.
5. To master this specialty is not an easy thing.
6. I expect to have read this book

EXERCISE 5. Translate the sentences into Russian, using the
infinitives in brackets.
1. (to be interviewed).
2. (to adopt).
3. (it has become routine)
(to contrast).
4. -
, (to
gain smbs attention on smth.).
(to distinguish between).
6. ,
(to review).
7. -
(to approach smth.).
8. ,
(to expect).

Beyond the dictionary
Put ones cards on the table
Put ones money on smb/smth ,
- ( , )
Put oneself in smbs shoes ,
Put smb in the picture ( -

Prey on ,
Psych out , ,
Put across (, ),

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Who do you think will get the job, then? Id Val.
The director, who had been away for a week, didnt know
about the new contract, so we her
Business worries his mind.
I him at once.
We havent been entirely frank with one another up to now,
but I think the time has come to our
Good managers are the ones who are able to things well.
Try my the situation isnt nearly as simple as you think.


Prior engagement
Politely , ,
In brackets
To join smb -
Barbecue , -

Reception , ,
Previous ,
Accordingly , , , -

Arrangements , ,
Never mind , , ,

To underline
Exhibition of sculpture
Opposite number ( )
To take a trip
Cultural attach
Imperial ,
Diary , ( -
International Research Institute -

EXERCISE 1. Going out
When you want to invite a quest or colleague to go some-
where or to do something, say: Would you like to ?
Example: Would you like to go to the theatre this evening?
Now make invitations using the following information:
1) come/dinner/my family/tomorrow night;
2) visit/museum of modern art/at the weekend;
3) go/cinema/(Us: movies) next Thursday;
4) meet us/drinks/cocktail bar/International Hotel/10 p. m;
5) take/tour of the city by night/next week.

EXERCISE 2. Accepting invitations
When you accept an invitation you say: Thanks, Id love to.
If the invitation is more formal, you can make reply more formal
by saying: Thank you very much. Id be delighted.
A. Look at the invitations below. First decide if they are for-
mal or informal and then practice accepting them.

1. How about a drink at the hotel this evening?
2. Would you like to join me at the football match on Saturday?
3. Id like to invite you to meet the managing director at
head office.
4. Would you like to visit the National Theatre?
5. We would like to invite you to make a speech at the dinner
on Monday.

6. The Sales Director would like to invite you to supper at
the country club on Sunday.
B. Declining invitations
You must be very polite when you decline an invitation,
whether formal or informal. As a rule you should: thank the per-
son, decline the invitation, give a reason.
Example: Thank you, but Im afraid I cant; I have a prior
Practice declining these invitations politely; your reason is
given in brackets.
1. Would you like to come to the opera tonight? (You are not
feelling well.) _________________________________________
2. Id like to invite you to meet my boss on Saturday morn-
ing. (You are flying home on Friday night.) __________________
3. Can you join us for a barbecue tomorrow evening? (You
are meeting your agent.) _________________________________
4. We would like to invite you to a reception at the Trade
Fair on Friday. (You have a previous appointment.) ___________
5. Would you like to visit the coast next week? (You are
busy every evening.) ____________________________________

EXERCISE 3. To go or not to go
Your host invites you to do several things. Accept or decline
the invitations. Answer the invitations accordingly. Work in pair.

Host Well, I think weve done enough work for today.
Would you like to go to the theatre tonight?
You (decline; you have a prior engagement)
Host I see, fine, well how about the ballet tomorrow
You (accept)
Host Good, you can leave the arrangements to me.
Now, we would also like to invite you to a dinner
party at a dinner party at the Hotel Intercontinental
on Sunday.
You (decline, you have to leave on Saturday morning)
Host Oh, thats a pity, well never mind. We would also
like to invite you to a reception at the conference

centre on Friday night. Can you come to that?
You (accept)


When we talk about arrangements we have made for the
near future we use the Present Continuous Tense.
Example I am going to the opera tomorrow night.

EXERCISE 4. The social program
Ronald Barret is talking about the social programme ar-
ranged for him and his colleagues during his visit to Federal Con-
solidated in New York
Underline the verbs in the Present Continuous.

Well, on Monday night were all having dinner together at
the Stork Club to sort of get to know each other; the next evening
were going to an exhibition of sculpture at the museum of modern
art, after which were eating at the hotel. On Wednesday afternoon
Im playing golf with my opposite number, Joe Bellisario. In the
evening were meeting the others for cocktails and then taking a
trip round the bay in a hydrofoil. On Thursday were all attending
a reception given by the cultural attach at the British Embassy;
that is from 9.30 until late. Friday night is going to be busy: Im
joining Joe and his family at the Rainbow Room for a pre theatre
dinner, then were going to see Dream girls at the Imperial
Theater. On Saturday were visiting the model factory on Long
Island and then flying out from Kennedy after Lunch!

EXERCISE 5. A busy week
Now look at this page from your diary. From the information
given in it, write down seven sentences describing what you are
doing each day. Use the same verbs that Ronald Barret used.

June 2005
11 Mon Tennis/Jennifer van Eyek/evening
12 Tue Reception/International Research Institute/7.30 p.m./

Dinner/Brien Harris and family 19.45 p.m.
13 Wed Film premiere/6.35 p.m./Plaza Cinema
14 Thu Brian/his colleagues/pre dinner cocklails/Chelsea
Rooms Dinner/Managing director, UNISCAM/Chez Maxine/
9.30 p.m.
15 Fri Laboratory visit/late afternoon Industrial Photogra-
phy Exhibition/7 p.m. Goldberg Centre
16 Sat Riverboat trip/Research department& families/all
day Dinner/hotel Pack!
17 Sun Leave/5.25 p.m. flight

On Monday _______________________________________
On Tuesday _______________________________________
On Wednesday ____________________________________
On Thursday ______________________________________
On Friday ________________________________________
On Saturday ______________________________________
On Sunday _______________________________________

Beyond the dictionary
Quick on the uptake ( )
Rain or shine ,
Right off the bat , , ,

Rise to the occasion /

Rocket ( , )
Run the show ,
Rub up (on) ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
Dont worry. Ill be there
I cant tell you the figures , but I can find out.
I must my French before we leave for Paris.
Sales have since their lowest point last year.
Ever since Bill retired from the business, his daughters been
the show.
She is inexperienced, but very .

He had never been asked to chair a meeting before, but he

To reserve , , -

In the name
Fresh or frozen
Specialty ,
Shellfish ,
Non-alcoholic drinks
To reheat ,
Box of cigars
Private occasion
Recipe ()
Just a taste
Just a drop
To refuse ,
To compliment , -

Delicious , ,
To pay the bill
Cash ,
To insist ,
Written instructions
Modifier (gram.)
Clause (gram.) ,

Informative ,
To indicate
To receive , ,
To complete , ,
Wrong directions
To schedule , ,
To damage , ,
In transit ( )
To be eager for -
Opportunity ,
Support ,

EXERCISE 1. Address everyone of your group mates with
one of the questions below as if he or she is a waiter at the restau-
rant. Listen to his or her responds.


Wed like a table for four, please.
We have a table for three reserved in the name of
Where can I leave my coat?
Do you have an area reserved for non-smokers?
Id like a table near the window.
Wed like something to drink while we look at the menu.
What aperitifs have you got?
Do you have a vegetarian menu?

Were not ready to order yet, thank you.
Please can we order now?
Are tour vegetables fresh or frozen?
What is the chefs specialty?
Does this dish contain (pork, cheese, shell fish )?
May I see the wine list, please?

Do you have non-alcoholic drinks?

During the meal
I ordered steak but youve given me veal.
This soup is almost cold; could you reheat it, please?
Could we have some more bread, please?
Id like some iced water.
Could I have another knife; this one is dirty.
What are the desserts on the trolley?
Is this cheese local?
Do you bring a box of cigars, please?
Do you have a cigar cutter?

It is very important to make conversation at the table, both in
a restaurant and on private occasions. Here are some of the every-
day phrases used.

More cheese?
You must try my wifes special recipe!
Can I pass you anything?

Just a little more, please!
Yes, please.
Just a taste (food).
Just a drop (drink).

Id love some, but Im on a diet.
Id love some, but I couldnt manage any more.
Im afraid its against my religion.

This is delicious!
The sauce is excellent! My compliments to the chef!

a) If you recommend a dish to your guest what do you say?
b) If your hosts wife has cooked a superb meal, what do you
say to her?
c) If your host offers meat that you never eat because of your
religion, what do you say?

EXERCISE 3. Paying the bill
Look at this dialogue. Write in the missing words from the list
that is below.

You Let me ______________ for this.
Colleague No, Ill pay for it.
You No, no I ______________.
Colleague Well, thanks very much.
You Waiter! Could I have the _____________ please?
Colleague Certainly sir, here you are.
You Thank you. Is _________________ included?
Colleague Yes sir, there is a 10% __________ ___________
on the bill.
You I see.
Colleague How would you like to pay sir: in ____________,
by __________ or with a ___________ ____________?
You Do you take ___________ ____________?
Colleague Certainly sir. That will do nicely!
You I wonder if I should leave a __________?
Colleague Maybe just a small one.

Cash, cheque, American Express, service charge, insist, tip,
bill, credit card, pay, service



The present participle and the past participle may be used
as modifiers of nouns and pronouns. A present participle always

ends in -ing. A past participle may end in -ed or have an irregu-
lar ending.
Example The person speaking has been talking for an
We should have asked for written instructions.
A present participial modifier expresses the same time as
that of the main verb in a sentence or clause.
Example Everyone attending the conference will find it
very informative.
A past participial modifier expresses time before that indi-
cated by the main verb in a sentence or clause.
Example Some orders received today will be shipped to-
A perfect participial modifier shows action completed be-
fore the time indicated by the main verb.
Example Having been given the wrong directions, we lost
a lot of time.

EXERCISE 4. For each of the following sentences, decide
which expression shown in parentheses correctly completes the
1. (Waiting, Having waited) an hour, we decided to leave.
2. Barbara has no (scheduling, scheduled) appointments.
3. We should interview several people (using, used) those
4. Customers usually return merchandise (damaging, dam-
aged) in transit.
5. I am sure that the people (having waited, waiting) are ea-
ger for the store to open.
6. The delegate (Addressing, having been addressed) the
conference arrived yesterday.
7. He left London for Paris (promised, promising) to return
the following year.
8. The method ( using, used) gave the students the opportuni-
ties to learn faster and more.
9. They made this decision in the face of (continued, having
been continued) lack of support from foreign funds.

10. (Having lived, living) in London long he speaks English
EXERCISE 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Use Par-
ticiple I or Participle II.
1. ,
(to find).
2. Daily Telegraph, -
(to have spotted).
3. (to
4. -
(to provide).
6. , In-
dustry Week, (to fall into)
(to poll).
7. -
(to offer).
8. , :
? (to ask of)
9. -
, -
(to create).
10. ,
(to have got smth.
11. , -
(to have cleared smth. up).

Beyond the dictionary
See which way the wind blows , /
( )
Seize the bull by the horns
Send smb. to the glue factory ,
Set (smb.) up in business ()

Saddle with , ( -
Scrape together/up ,
See off - ( , )

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
If we are going to solve this problem, someone will have to
They came to the airport to us
Hes which proved to be very profitable.
Jim with the most boring jobs so that he would leave.
Before we decide on our expansion plan for the firm, I think
we should
Bernard White was forced to take early retirement at the age
of 59 he felt that the oil company, where he has worked for
32 years, was .
He the money to start his Hollywood restaurant.


In an emergency
Neighbor ,
Dinner party
To direct
To present with ,
To pour ,
Hospitality ,
To keep in touch with
To look smb. up -
Future prospects
Export department , -

To indicate action
Limited period of time

To fail ,
Fellow ,
Chief ,
To look through the mail
Urgent ,
To clarify the delivery terms
Enquiry ,

The formula for expressing thanks in English is very simple.
Normal stronger
Informal/familiar Thanks! Thanks very much!
Formal/polite Thank you! Thank you very much indeed!
Remember that in the US the response is often silence, but
you can say: Dont mention it! or Not at all, or Its a pleasure!
If you are thanking someone for something very special and
for which you are sincerely grateful, you must use different
Example Many thanks! Thank you so much for Im
very grateful (to you for ). Thats very kind of you.

EXERCISE 1. Now practice the phrases shown in the table.
Write what would you say in these situations.
1. An American thanks you for lighting his cigarette. ______
2. Your British colleague, Tom Harris, has just given an ex-
cellent presentation; you are the spokesman for the audience. ____
3. A friend offers to lend you her car in an emergency. _____
4. Your neighbor passes you the salt at a dinner party. _____
5. An Englishman thanks you for directing him to the nearest
bank. ________________________________________________
6. At a formal dinner your American hosts present you with
a souvenir of your visit to the US. _________________________
7. An old friend from Scotland pours you a drink. ________

EXERCISE 2. Returning the invitation
When you leave your business contacts, after thinking them
for their hospitality, you may want to add some further polite
phrases such as: Ive enjoyed my stay! Or Heres my card. Or We

must keep in touch. Perhaps you may also want to issue an invi-
tation for the future. Here is one way of invitation.
Example: Next time you are in London you must visit me.
Now make similar invitations from the phrases below:
a) New York/ look me up;
b) Europe/write to me;
c) the UK/ring me (US: call me);
d) Australia/fax before you come;
e) London/come and see me.

Here is another way of inviting. Example: Id like you to meet
my colleagues.
Now make similar invitations from the phrases below:
a) visit our head office;
b) have dinner/ my family;
c) look round our new plant;
d) discuss future prospects/our export department;
e) come and meet my boss.



Past Progressive is used to indicate action in progress in
the past. One should use was or were with the main verb in the
present participle form.
It is used when we want to talk about something that hap-
pened in the past, and continued to happen for a limited period
of time.
Example We were studying. Annette was doing her
Or when we talk about something which continued to hap-
pen for a period of time, during which another thing happened
Example They met each other while they were staying in

EXERCISE 3. Translate the sentences into Russian, paying
attention to the verb form.

1. When F.D. Roosevelt took office in 1933 banks in many
parts of the country were failing.
2. They were really having problems.
3. I was waiting for my fellow at 6 p.m. yesterday.
4. The chief was having lunch at 1 oclock yesterday.
5. I was writing a letter when you came in.
6. Where were you hurrying when I saw you yesterday?
7. I was dressing when the telephone rang.

A. Say and respond as in the model.
I dont know what Mike was doing yesterday at 3.
He was speaking to the director.

Prompts: 1) to look through the mail; 2) to wait for the Brit-
ish businessmen; 3) to read an urgent telex from GML; 4) to have
important talks; 5) to take Mr. Brown to the airport.

B. Say and respond as in the model.
Mr. Duck was looking was looking through the cata-
logues at two yesterday.
No, he wasnt looking through the catalogues at that time.
He was writing letters to foreign companies.

Prompts: 1) to receive British businessmen; 2) to speak to the
secretary; 3) to study the offer of Bell & Co.; 4) to clarify the deli-
very terms with Mr. Bell; 5) to walk in the park.

C. Ask and answer as in the model.
Were you looking the latest journals yesterday at 3?
Yes, I was. (No, I wasnt.)

Prompts: 1) to speak with your colleague on the phone; 2) to
expect the engineers from the factory; 3) to answer the customers
letters; 4) to clarify some matters with the director; 5) to study an
enquiry for computers.

EXERCISE 5. Translate the sentences into English.
1. ?
2. ,
3. .
4. 5 .
5. , -
6. , ?
7. ,
8. ?
9. ?
10. , -

Beyond the dictionary
Show the ropes
Sink or swim ,
Sit on the fence
Sit tight
Smelling of roses
Step into smbs shoes -,

Slip up , (

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
The new secretary started today so I spent most of the morn-
ing her
Toms new job was confusing and no one had time to help
him learn, so he had to
No decision has been taken about the building of the new air-
port. The authorities are still Shareholders are advised to
and see how the situation develops.
The businessman was suspected of dealing illegally in wea-
pons and was given a security check, but he came out of it

When his father retires, Victor will be ready to his
I several times at the interview and didnt get the job.

Air mail ,
Fax transmission (facsimile) ,
As soon as
Facility , ,
Courier , ,
Parcel , ()
Electronic mail
International call
Access ,
To go through -
Exactly , ,
Transfer charge call ,

To keep in touch
Development ,
Detailed information
Sample ,
To keep in the picture , -
Figures ,
To drop a line
To increase , ,
Debtor ,
To calculate the provision
Liabilities ,
Intangible assets ()
(, -
, )
Reported speech (gram.)
Preference shares ,

Stock value -

( -
Credit period () (
Dividend ( ,
To double


Air mail
We sent a letter to you by air mail four days ago.
Fax transmission (facsimile)
Well send you a fax as soon as we receive the original.
Could you send us a telex to confirm that?
We can use the videoconference facilities in the hotel.
Weve sent the parcel by courier so you should receive it to-
Mobile phone
Ill be out of the office all day but you can contact me on my
mobile phone.
Audio conference
Perhaps we could have an audio conference if you are unable
to come to Scotland this week.
3 way conversation
Perhaps we could arrange a 3 way (3 cornered) call to dis-
cuss this?

Electronic mail
You can use the electronic mail system to send letters to all
your clients. Just send the text and addresses to the electronic mail
centre and theyll do the rest. You can also use electronic mail for
transferring funds.

Making international calls
A. Dialing direct

Most countries can be dialed direct. You dial the access code
+ country code + area code + number. The access and country
codes are in the international code book. Example Brisbane Stock
Exchange News in 831 1193. From London, you dial: 010 (access
code) + 61 (country code) + 7 (area code) + 831 1193.

B. Going through the operator
For some areas, you have to ask the operator to connect you.
This is also necessary if you have difficulty dialing direct.

A. Practice asking for the following number.
You hear: International Operator.
You say: Id like to make a call to Japan.
You hear: What is the number?
You say: The number is Tokyo 3-3-5-7 2-1-6-8.
You hear: Tokyo 3-3-5-7 2-1-6-8.

a) Japan. Tokyo 3357 2168;
b) Belgium. Hasselt 444296;
c) Switzerland. Leysin 7999 1896;
d) Curacao. Curacao 6 328166;
e) Spain. Oviedo 239205;
f) Iceland. Reykjavik 768802.
Sometimes, the operator may not hear exactly what you say
and may ask you to spell a word.

B. Using the system below, spell the names of the towns in the
exercise above.
A for Arthur N for November
B for Bravo O for Oscar
C for Charlie P for Papa
D for Delta Q for Quebec
E for Echo R for Romeo
F for Foxtrot S for Sierra
G for Golf T for Tango

H for Hotel U for Uniform
I for India V for Victor
J for Juliette W for Whiskey
K for Kilo X for X ray
L for Lima Y for Yankee
M for Mike Z for Zulu

If you want the person that you are calling to pay for the call,
you ask for a transfer charge call (UK) or a collect call (US).
Example Id like to make a collect call to Switzerland.
If delays are possible, you may have to book a call.
Example Id like to book a call to Japan.
You may want to make a person-to-person call to someone.
Example Its a person-to-person call to Mr. Lee (L E E).

C. Practise asking for the following:
a) book/Japan;
b) person-to-person/Mr. Rinaldo;
c) book/Moscow;
d) collect/Italy;
e) person-to-peson/Mr. Nikemo;
f) collect/Papua New Guinea.

EXERCISE 2. Keeping the door open
After every visit to a company, it can be useful to keep in
touch. Below are some ways to keep the door open.
Who do you think says each phrase: a buyer or a salesman?
There are some notes at the bottom of each page to help you with
the new expressions.
Do keep in touch? Keep me in the picture.
Ill keep you informed of
our activities.
Ill work on those figures
you gave me and come back to
you on them.
Do keep me informed of
any new developments?
Perhaps next time Im in
the area I could pay you a visit.
Perhaps I could send you
more detailed information?
Drop me a line if anything
new comes in.

Ill send you the samples
as soon as possible.
Id like to think about what
weve said, and drop you a line.
To keep the door open means: To make further contact poss-
Ill drop you a line means: I will write to you.
Keep me in the picture means: Keep me informed.



Note how the following questions are formed: introduction
+ question word + rest of sentence (includes the verb).
Examples Could you explain + why + debtors have in-
Could you tell me + how + you calculate the
provision for liabilities?
Would you mind explaining + what + the figure
for intangible assets represents?

EXERCISE 3. Choose the correct variant in reported speech.
Why didnt you say that to me? she asked her friend.
A. She asked her friend why didnt he say that to me.
B. She asked her friend why he didnt say that to me.
C. She asked her friend why hadnt he said that to me.
D. She asked her friend why hadnt he said that to her.
E. She asked her friend why he hadnt said that to her.

EXERCISE 4. Here are some direct questions. Try to change
them into indirect questions.
1. What is the interest on the preference shares? __________
2. Why is the figure for debtors so high? ________________
3. How do you calculate the stock values? _______________
4. What is the credit period for your customers? __________
5. Why have dividends doubled? ______________________
6. When will the goods arrive? ________________________

7. How will the payment be made? ____________________

EXERCISE 5. Translate into English.
1. , .
2. , -
; , ,
3. , ,
, .
4. ,
5. ,
6. , -

Beyond the dictionary
Take a back seat /
Take heart
Take smb under ones wing ( -
Talk turkey //-
Tell tales
Take up , /,

Think up , ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
I had done the best I could, but it was time to and let
someone else run things.
He had been unemployed for several months, but when he
saw the perfect job advertised, he
I the new workers my , and they learned the job in no
Ok, Bob, we have business to discuss. Lets
I had half a mind to tell my boss about him but I didnt want
her to think I was

I hope to my new duties as your chairman at the next meeting.
You can earn good money new ways to improve produc-
tion in the firm.

Activities ,
Requirements ,
To confirm ,
Secondly -
Shortly ,
Concerning ,
In the meantime ,
To hesitate ,
( - )
Assistance , ,
Yours sincerely , ,
( )
Follow-up letter ()
To list , , -

Excuse , ,
By hand , ,

To reply ,
Chief Purchasing Officer -

To match requirements
To proceed to
Initials , (, ) -
(, . .)
CIF (cost, insurance, freight) ,

Unfortunately ,

To advise , ,
To supply (- with),
Substitute , ,
Envelope ,
Mailing address
Zip Code (Zoning Improvement Plan)
Addressee ,
Return address
Edition , ,
Leading brand name -
, -

EXERCISE 1. Read and translate the business documents.





Hotel Regina,
11 Nov.
Mr. Mrs. R. Bone,
2391 Park Drive,
Dear Mr Mrs Bone,
This is just a note to thank you very much for a most
enjoyable evening on Monday.
It was very kind of you to invite me to your home
and to make me so welcome. When I return home I shall
tell my family of the wonderful cooking and hospitality I
enjoyed in the U.S.A. thanks to my American friends!
I hope that ever you come to my country you will
visit us so that I might repay your kindness.
Best wishes,
Yours sincerely
Arrange the parts of the business letter in a correct order.

I look forward to hearing from you; yours sincerely; Si-
mon Tramp; Sales Manager.
James Sawyer, Sales Manager, Electro Ltd, Perry Road
Estate, Oxbridge UN54 42KF;
Dear Mr. Sawyer;
Thank you for your letter. I am afraid that we have a prob-
lem with your order. Unfortunately, the manufacturers of the part
you wish to order have advised us that they cannot supply it until
November. Would you prefer us to supply a substitute, or would
you rather wait until the original parts are again available?
6 Pine Estate, Bedford Road; Bristol, UB28 12BP; Tele-
phone 90336 174369 Fax 9036 36924; 6 August 2005.

EXERCISE 3. Match the information on the envelope with

the items below.

New Jersey Power Company
5695 South 23 Road
(1) Ridgefield, (2) NJ 08887
(3) Mr. Frederick Wolf
Director of Marketing
(4) Smith Printing
590 (5) Sixth Avenue
Milwaukee, (6)
WI 53216

1) he street name in the mailing address;
2) the Zip Code in the mailing address;
3) the addressee;
4) the town the letter comes from;
5) the addressees company name;
6) the ZIP CODE in the return address.

EXERCISE 4. Define what type of business document this
passage refers to.

We are a large record store in the centre of Manchester and
would like to know more about the CDs and DVDs you adver-
tised in last months edition of Hi Fi. Could you tell us if the
products are leading brand names, or made by small independent
companies, and if they would be suitable for recording classical
music, games and video?
We would appreciate it if you send us some samples.

1) letter of enquiry/request;
2) CV;
3) contract;
4) Memo.
EXERCISE 5. Choose the words or the phrases for filling in

the blanks in the way they could show the peculiarities of the
forming of Memo.
To : Secretarial Supervisor
(1) ____ : Claire McElroy
(2) ____ : Demonstration of new office equipment
The (3) ___ of Smart Equipment will visit us on 28 April to
demonstrate their new computer and fax-machine which you are
sure to be interested in.
Please arrange the time to meet him so that all your staff
could be present.
(4) ___

1) C.M.;
2) From;
3) Sales Manager;
4) Subject.

Beyond the dictionary
The hit of the season
The ins and outs ( -
The limit ,
Thick on the ground /
Throw ones weight about/ around -
, ,
Take on /
Turn out , ,

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
They three thousand cars a month.
The firm is ! This is the sixth time they have sent us faulty
If I were you, Id take the job. Such opportunities are not
His new plan has become
He alone knows all of the scheme.
The district manager came to our office and tried his ,

but no one paid any attention to him.
Is the supermarket any more assistants?


To sort , ,
Personality ,
Attitude ,
Recently , ,
To make a decision
As regards ,
To feel free ,
( -)
Caller ,
Associated problems
Slot , ,
To fit , ( -)
Faulty , ,
To go bad ,
Notebook ,
Incompatible , , -

Van , ,
Obsolete , , -

Security ,
Alarm system
Refund ,
To arrange replacement
Outstanding , ,

Immediately , ,
To overcharge ,
By return
To fix , ,
Misunderstanding ,
Commission , ,
To adjust , ,
Invoice , , - ( -
, , -
Accordingly , , , -

To operate equipment
Round-the-world trip
To sign a contract ,

Some contacts do not keep in touch; you have to telephone
them to let them know that you still exist! The most difficult con-
tacts say very little on the telephone. This can be because of their
personality, their attitude to you, or their difficulty with English. If
they do not speak, you have to!

Mr. Bauer Hello?
Mr. Lee Good morning, Mr. Bauer. This is David
Lee, of Vasta systems.
Mr. Bauer Yes?
Mr. Lee You may recall (REMIND THEM
ABOUT YOU) my visit in September/this
letter I sent you recently/that I phoned you
last week.
Mr. Bauer Yes?
Mr. Lee Could you tell me if you have made a deci-
sion yet as regards (ASK THE IMPOR-
TANT QUESTION) the new installation?
+ Positive answer

B. Not yet.
L. I see. Perhaps I could help? (If it helps you, Ill be very
pleased to come and discuss it with you./ Would you like
me to send more detailed information?/ Is there anything
that you would like to ask?)
B. No.
L. Well, feel free to call if we can help in any way.

Negative answer
B.. Yes; we had to give the order to another firm.
L. I see. Could I ask why?
B. Im sorry, I cant tell you.
L. I see. Perhaps I could keep you informed about our prod-
ucts and activities. It may be interesting to you in the future.

EXERCISE 1. Phoning difficult contacts
Imagine that you are now a caller. Speak with you classmate
as if he or she is your old customer. Use your own name and com-
pany. Instead of mentioning the new installation, say something
else if necessary. Act out the conversation.

EXERCISE 2. Problems with the product
Below are a number of different products. Next to them are
words that can be used to describe associated problems. In each
case write down a complete sentence about the problem.

Disk (slot, wrong size) ___________________________
Photocopier (slow) ___________________________
Socket (plug, fit) ___________________________
Printer (faulty) ___________________________
Meat (gone bad) ___________________________
Battery (small) ___________________________
Notebook (electrical
supply, incompatible) ___________________________
Portable phone(work) ___________________________
Container (broken) ___________________________
Van (has broken down) ___________________________

(obsolete) ___________________________

Security alarm
system (not
functioning) ___________________________



When we tell someone of our future actions we use the
will form of the verb.
Example We will arrange a refund.
Perhaps things will be better tomorrow.

EXERCISE 3. Here are some examples of problems. Offer
solutions to the client using the phrases given.
Client The samples were all damaged.
You arrange/replacements/at once
Client There is still $ 150 outstanding on this bill.
You send/balance/immediately
Client You overcharged us $ 500 on the last batch.
You refund/whole sum/by return
Client The generator has broken down again
You send electrician/first thing tomorrow
Client We have a problem with the production line.
You fix it/immediately
Client Theres been a misunderstanding about commission.
You adjust/invoice/accordingly

EXERCISE 4. Say and ask as in the model.

They will import all the materials.
They will not import all the materials.
Will they import all the materials?
1. The firm will export coffee to Europe and import office

and telephone equipment.
2. They will insure the house later.
3. Perhaps youll get an answer to your letter tomorrow.
4. She will return the catalogues next month.
5. Fred will tell us the news.
6. It will take us much time to put everything in order.
7. They will be able to operate this equipment without any
special instructions.
8. They will agree to your opinion.
9. I wont keep you long.
10. You will speak either to Mr. Fox or to Mr. Fisher.

EXERCISE 5. Ask questions to the underlined parts of the
following sentences.
1. We shall meet our customers tomorrow morning.
2. Nelly will go on a round-the-world trip with her friends.
3. Im so exhausted. I think Ill go and have a bath. Ill try to
4. The employees will sign a contract next week.
5. There will be a presentation on Sunday at the Wilsons.

Beyond the dictionary
Under ones belt ( , )
Up to ones neck ( )
Vanish into thin air , ,

Wait and see
Walk (all) over smb. - (-
Wink at -

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
We need a new complaints procedure, which is simple and
clear. Can you think of a system?
If you continue to come to work late, I wont be able to it.
The report was here on my desk and now its gone,
The manager had Ann for months. Finally she quit.

Right now Im my in work.
But with no business knowledge , Joe decided to hire
someone to run the business.
Do you think theyll raise taxes? Well have to


Solution , (),
To accept , ,
To apologize ,
To explain , ,
To offer ,
To refund , , -

Immediately , , , -

Clerical error , ,
Terribly , ,
Free of charge ,
Straight away ,
To deny responsibility
Department ,
To sympathize ,
Service department
To let down ,
Package , ,
To raise the money ,
Lost production time
Shipment , ()
To propose a solution
At once , ,
Contingency plan -


Alongside , ,
To announce , ,
Devoluation ,
In the meantime ,
Barrier ,
To renege
Overseas debt /
To take over ( -
To protect ,
To take legal action
Necessity ,
To resign
Completely , , , ,
, ,
Convinced ,
To discontinue (), (), -
To dismiss , ,

To adopt , ,
To restructure
Sales dept (. department) , -

To pull out - , -
( -)
To take out extra insurance

To withdraw , ,
Labour , ,
Union members
Deal , ,
Affected , ,

Middle manager
Inefficient , ,
Recruitment procedure ()

When we have to accept responsibility for a complaint or
problem the usual formula is:
a) apologize
This means saying you are sorry. Keep it brief!
b) explain
This means giving a reason for the difficulty.
c) offer
This means offering a solution or alternative

EXERCISE 1. Accepting responsibility
Look at the phrases below. Are they apologies, explanations
or offers?
We will refund your money immediately. ________________
Were very sorry. ___________________________________
Were having trouble with our suppliers. ________________
Please accept our apologies. __________________________
This is due to a clerical error.__________________________
Im terribly sorry. ___________________________________
The next delivery will be free of charge. _________________
Ill arrange a replacement straight away. _________________
It is wise to be polite and helpful, even when denying respon-
sibility for a problem.
1. I am very sorry, but this is not my department.
2. I see the problem but I dont think we can help you.
3. I sympathize, but this is not really our responsibility.
4. Im afraid you have come to the wrong people.

EXERCISE 2. Denying responsibility
Use the phrases above to deny responsibility in the following
Example I see the problem, but that is not really our re-
d) Your service department has let us down again.

e) That package you sent was open when it arrived.
f) I need three more weeks to raise the money.
g) We have lost production time because of you.
h) Can your people help me organize the shipment?



When we propose a solution we can use should before the verb.
Example We should contact our local agent at once.

EXERCISE 3. Contingency plans
Here are the crises. Can you suggest some contingency plans
using SHOULD, the phrases alongside, and the ideas listed below.

TION 30%

in the meantime

as soon as possible



as possible solution


to protect our position

1) take legal action in the international courts;
2) ask the government for compensation;
3) send in financial analysts and consider re-investing locally;
4) suspend all shipments and request payment in Deutschmark.

MUST, HAVE TO, COULD in offering strong advice and
As we saw, you can use SHOULD to offer advice or indi-
cate necessity.
Other words you can use are MUST or HAVE TO if we
think the necessity is strong; COULD if we are not absolutely
sure about it, or if we are offering one alternative among many.
Example We must change our investment policy.
Example You have to resign the old model.
Example We could close down the plant completely.
If we are sure about the solution we are advising, we can in-
troduce our advice by I am convinced that If you are not
very sure you can introduce your advice by I think perhaps
Example I am convinced that we must discontinue at
least two models. I think we should review our policy.

EXERCISE 4. Long-term solutions
You are a manager consultant. Various company directors
are going to ask you for solutions to their problems. Listen to their
problems and give your advice.

1) Dismiss area sales manager
2) Adopt new strategy
3) Restructure sales dept

1) Pull out at once
2) Take out extra insurance
3) Withdraw in stages over ten years

1) Dismiss union members
2) Offer productivity deal
3) Close affected plants

1) Staff retraining scheme
2) Change recruitment procedure
3) Replace all incompetent personnel

EXERCISE 5. Check yourself:
a) If you cant give a client an answer until you speak to your
boss, what can you tell the client in order to play for time?
b) Although you are not absolutely sure that you are right, you
want to suggest taking legal action. What do you say?
c) Your colleague is very sure that he is right in suggesting
the same thing; he says: _________________________________

Beyond the dictionary
Waste ones breath ,
Water under the bridge , -

Wear ones heart upon ones sleeve , -

What makes smb. tick (, )
When pigs fly ()

With no strings attached / ,

With open arms

EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the phrases above.
I think he was really disappointed when he is not a person
who his his
They received their visitors
We certainly had our disagreement in the past, but thats all
If I knew my customers , I would be able to see them
more merchandise.
I dont know why I bother talking to you Im just my
Do you think he will agree to our proposal? Yes, !
Its very rare that you get a loan that size


Unit 2

EXERCISE 2. Phoning your contact
Switchboard Cinglomerate Group; can I help you?
You Could I speak to Mr. Pardee, please?
Switchboard Putting you through .
Secretary Hello, Mr. Pardees office. Can I help you?
You Hello, can you hear me? Its a bad line.
Could you speak up, please?
Secretary Is that better? Whos speaking, please?
You (your name) from ( your company).
Secretary Oh, hello. How nice to hear from you
again. We havent seen you for ages.
How are you?
You Fine, thanks. Could you put me through to
Mr. Pardee, please?

Secretary Hold the line a moment. Ill see if hes in.
Im sorry, Im afraid hes not in the office
at the moment. Could you give me your
number, and Ill ask him to ring you back?
You Im on 347 8621. Thats London.
Secretary Would you like to leave any message for
You No, thanks. Just tell him I rang.
Secretary Certainly. Nice to hear from you again.
You Ill expect him to call me this afternoon,
then. Thanks.
Secretary Youre welcome. Goodbye.

Unit 5

EXERCISE 1. Arranging a meeting
Jackson Hello, Jackson
Gray Good morning, Mr. Jackson, this is Mike
Gray from Multiscan Industries
Jackson Er, yes, what can I do for you?
Gray Well, as you probably know, we are intro-
ducing a new range of high-performance
microprocessors. Im going to be visiting
your office next week and I wondered if
you would be interested in discussing
these new models and perhaps having a
Jackson M-m-m, yes, I would certainly be interest-
Gray Good, would Wednesday morning be
Jackson Ah, Wednesday is a bit difficult; Im tied
up all day. How about Thursday?
Gray Thursday would be fine. Can you let me have
an hour or so sometime in the afternoon?
Jackson Yes, I think that would be possible. Say,
four oclock?

Gray Excellent, well, Ill look forward to seeing
you on Thursday then. Goodbye.
Jackson Goodbye.

Unit 7

EXERCISE 1. Future relations

Dipak Well, that tales care of the financial de-
Savage Yes, I think so, Ill complete the order
form on your behalf and our accounts de-
partment will send a pro forma invoice in
due course.
Dipak Well, I think thats everything; its been
an interesting meeting
Savage Yes, indeed. Now, regarding after-sales
service, Ill arrange for our service de-
partment to contact your technical people
to agree a timetable for inspection and
maintenance visits.
Dipak Will you be coming to see us yourself?
Savage Well, I expect to be visiting your company
from time to time, but in the meantime,
Ill make sure our local agent calls in on a
regular basis. We will send you a product-
range update and details of any price
movements direct from head office.
Dipak Fine, fine
Savage Well, its been a pleasure doing business
with you and I look forward to seeing you
again in the very near future.

Unit 8

EXERCISE 5. Understanding contracts

1. A contract is an agreement drawn up between two parties.
It is divided into sections, clauses, and conditions.
2. The contract provides for any problems between the two
parties. The conditions of the contract are binding on both parties.
If one party does not comply with the clauses, this is called a
breach of contract.
3. In the case of a dispute, many contracts provide for arbi-
tration, but in some cases the dispute results in litigation. Most
parties reach a compromise without going to court, and the dispute
is settled out of court.
4. Some contracts are for a fixed period, or term; also, there
are ways in which the parties can end, or terminate, the contract.

Unit 9

EXERCISE 5. Ten rules for negotiating

a) You see? I knew Id win!
4. I think we can agree on these terms.
b) I know what you want to discuss, so lets start.
6. May we go through the points to be discussed before we
c) I can reduce the price. Does that help?
1. If you increase the order, then we may be able to reduce
the price.
d) Delivery? Thats no problem; no extra charge.
8. Delivery? Well it may be possible but only if
e) Its against your policy to give discounts?
2. Very well, but if you cant give discounts, Im sure you
can extend
f) What a ridiculous idea! Dont be stupid.
5. Im afraid that will not be possible.

g) Another half per cent? Yes, thats a very generous offer
youre making.
7. Half a per cent is very small amount.
h) This is my final offer. If you refuse, Ill cancel everything.
3. If you cant accept this, I may have to reconsider my po-

Unit 10


Representative Insert the punch-card.
Operator I dont follow.
You Put in the punch-card (or: Put the punch-
card in).
Representative Remove the lid.
Operator Im not with you.
You Take off the lid (or: Take the lid off).
Representative Ensure that the power is on.
Operator Im not clear about that.
You Make sure that the power is on.
Representative Replace the lid.
Operator I dont understand.
You Put back the lid (or: Put the lid back).
Representative Withdraw the punch-card.
Operator Sorry?
You Take out the punch-card (or: Take the
punch-card out).

Unit 11

EXERCISE 5. Buyers and suppliers

a) Im sorry, but these prices are still higher than your
competitors prices.
b) Were only transferring to the customer the increases
which we have to pay.

c) But these prices are excessively high.
d) Sorry, but we cant reduce them any further.

Unit 12

EXERCISE 4. Talking about purchasing

Sometimes we operate a single sourcing whereby we use only
one supplier for a fixed period. Generally, however, we prefer to
use a multiple sourcing from our approved suppliers list. We
usually place spot orders but sometimes we get involved in buying
forward/speculative buying for certain commodities.
Apart from ordering, I have to encourage competitive bids ar-
range return contracts and maintain our own companys standing
in the market place.

Unit 14

EXERCISE 1. Things you hear about employees and place
they work.

The outside agencies who hire people for cmpanies are
looking for managers with practical and direct knowledge of
their job and a very good past performance.
Where I work, a couple of years in sales is the fast way to
make progress.
Young Linda is an ambitious person whose results are
excellent now. In a couple of years she will be one of the dy-
namic people who make things happen.
In our organization success is the main aim of the firm!
The small number of senior people who run the organi-
zation here prefer to leave the making important calculations
to young executives moving up towards the top of the firm.

Unit 18

EXERCISE 2. Working conditions

with good promotion prospects. Salaries are competitive
and there is a generous profit-sharing scheme.
All executive employees receive a four-week holiday allow-
ance. Company car provided; relocation expenses where necessary.

Unit 20

EXERCISE 3. Paying the bill

You Let me pay for this.
Colleague No, Ill pay for it.
You No, no I insist.
Colleague Well, thanks very much.
You Waiter! Could I have the bill (US: check)
Colleague Certainly sir, here you are.
You Thank you. Is service included?
Colleague Yes sir, there is a 10% service charge on
the bill.
You I see.
Colleague How would you like to pay sir: in cash, by
check or with a credit card?
You Do you take American Express?
Colleague Certainly sir. That will do nicely!
You I wonder if I should leave a tip?
Colleague Maybe just a small one.

Unit 22

EXERCISE 2. Keeping the door open

Do keep in touch. BUYER Keep me in the picture. BUYER
Ill keep you informed of our
activities. SALESMAN
Ill work on those figures you
gave me and come back to you
on them. SALESMAN

Do keep me informed of any
new developments. BUYER
Perhaps next time Im in the
area I could pay you a visit.
Perhaps I could send you more
detailed information? SA-
Drop me a line if anything new
comes in. BUYER
Ill send you the samples as
soon as possible. SALESMAN
Id like to think about what
weve said, and drop you a line.

Unit 24

EXERCISE 2. Problems with the product

Disk: The disk is the wrong size for the slot.
Photocopier: The photocopier is too slow.
Socket: The plug does not fit the socket.
Printer: Theprinteisfaulty.
Meat: The meat has gone bad.
Battery: The batteries are too small.
Notebook: The notebook computer is incompatible
with the electrical supply.
Portable phone: My portable phone is not working.
Container: The container is broken.
Van: The van has broken down.
Computer: This computer is obsolete.
Security alarm
system: The security alarm system is not functioning.

Unit 25

EXERCISE 3. Contingency plans

Slovatia: We should suspend all shipment and, in the mean-
time, request payment in Deutchmark.
EC: We should send in financial analysts as soon as possible
and consider re-investing locally.

Mbala: As a possible solution, we should take legal action in
the international courts.
Kanching: To protect our position, we should ask the Kanch-
ing government for compensation.

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, - ..

03.10.2007 .
61*86/16. . Times New Roman
. . 8,44. .-. . 8,64. . . . 9,7
85 . 869

683003, . -, . , 35