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Amanda Taddeo Literature Review 11/15/12

My research topic is The impressions of social networking between undergraduate and graduate students. My topic targets specifically participants who have joined a social networking site and are either at college level or are past it. The topic I have chosen is important because I am researching to find out the effect that social networking has taken between generations of individuals. From those who were introduced to social networking in middle or high school compared to those who joined while they were in college. My objective is to find the difference between the generations and compare how much it has impacted one another. In this paper I will make sure to address different facts about information already found about my research. I will also compare different studys to mine and compare the similarities and differences. My first article The effects of social networking sites on the acquisition of social capital among college students was a pilot study done at the University of Pennsylvania between undergraduate and graduate students. The study targeted whether students at the university were using social networking sites to further their social capital. Or were they creating more of a balance between networks by making decisions based on common traits and interests (Konetes 2011). In this pilot study 500 undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed based on different social networking sites and the participants reasoning for using them. The survey was engineered to provide quantitative data and was administered to a randomly selected sample of students at the Indiana University of

Pennsylvania via email Konetes 2011). The students were randomly notified of this survey and the undergraduate and graduate students were proportionally chosen to participate in the study if the chose to. The data collection in this study was different than my own. The university sent out emails with an attached consent form however if the student did not respond to the email within a window period of time they were automatically sent a reminder email with the same information. A total of three reminder emails were sent out during the on month data collection window in order to maximize student responses (Konetes 2011). In my research I sent the survey via Facebook and did include a consent form however my research collection is not a month it is only a few weeks and I did not send out anymore than one reminder if participants did not respond to my message the first time. In conclusion the results of the universitys experiment was not found to be significant because the sample size of the surveyed participants was much fewer then expected. There was difficulty coming to a conclusion with their findings because they did not have nearly enough participants they needed or wanted in this study. A situation like this is very possible for anyone conducting a survey especially with a large number of expected participants. I limited my participants to 50 because I knew any more would get confusing and if people did not respond the first time I had to make sure I had more people I could get into contact with for them to take my survey. It does not surprise me either that the university could not come up with accurate results or that they needed further testing and research to come up with an appropriate conclusion. With a number so large, especially with that target of participants, many will not participate in the end. It is better to target a very specific number of people to lower your risk of not getting results.

My third article is titled A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity. This article was just like my research because it was comparing young social networking users from ages 19-29 and older generations from 41-64. Younger participants reported more frequent social networking site use, more friends, and greater use of applications. They also reported higher positive collective self-esteem and social compensation (Barker 2011). However the article continued to talk about how both age groups studied reported they were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications. Those studied who reported in negative collective self-esteem feedback were more likely to be using social networking for social compensation rather than peer communication (Barker 2011). This article went on to talk about identity and how social networking sites are altering peoples personalities online because they are able to not be themselves and create an alter ego. This article related most to mine because it targeted the same age group as my study. The article also focused on how social networking sites are changing people of all generations and compared the differences as well. The research I read was important, especially for people to be aware that social networking sites are changing generations. Their personalities and self-esteem issues especially are changing because of the influences these sites have had on them whether it is positive or negative. Studies like this are important and should be continues to be researched further to inform people more about social networking sites and how they are not all good, there are negative effects as well.

The next article I read is called Effects of word-of-mouth versus tradition marketing: findings from an Internet social networking site. This article discussed the effect of word-of-mouth marketing in a social networking site and compared it with traditional marketing skills. Social networking sites record the electronic invitations from existing members of the site (Trusov 2009). Word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing can be linked to the number of new members who join different social networking sites. The WOM marketing strategy is an encouraging strategy because it combines the overcoming of the consumer resistance with a lower costs and faster delivery to people who want to buy products faster. The Word-of-Mouth marketing strategy is losing effectiveness because of low results in surveys. One survey showed that consumers had attitudes toward advertising plummeted between after 40% of the participants agreed that advertisements were a good way to learn about new products (Trusov 2009). Then 59% fewer participants reported that they only buy products because of their advertisements. This marketing strategy is a faster way to advertise because it is a more direct way of advertising to viewers. I believe this is an important way of advertising. Its purpose is to gain consumers attention to have them buy the product. It is a faster way to get advertising out their and is not the same as just posting an advertising on a website where everyone can see it. Wordof-Mouth is a type of marketing strategy that directly interacts with consumers so they will be persuaded to buy the companys product this is similar to my research because they used the same methods to receive their results. The researchers sent out advertising through emails similar to how I sent out my surveys via Facebook messaging. Even though this article discussed about different ways of marketing and advertising they

wanted results just like in my research. In conclusion to their research they found out that consumers had a higher rate of responding to WOM marketing than traditional marketing. People were buying more products that were being advertised by Word-ofMouth because they were directing interacting with individuals, just like I am with my research by messaging them about my study. Social networks and virtual worlds, are forcing us to reexamine the ways in which we interact with people (Barnes 2009). This quote is from the next article I read and it is a very interesting and factual quote. There is technically no longer a need to go out and interact with people anymore. There is video chatting, texting, emails, and numerous social networking sites in which you can communicate with. The research in this article contained information about how the American culture is loosing the basic knowledge of relationship building. Since there is now not a necessary need to talk face to face, we are doing it behind closed doors. This had completely revolutionized identity, democracy, and interactions with other people. This is creating a rapid stop to community bonding. People now are unaware of who their neighbors are or who their children go to school with because they can just look that up in the internet and add them as a friend on a social networking site. Even though this article was different than my research it still raised several important issues for people to know. One is that many people hold group chats on numerous social networking sites to talk to others in their surrounding neighborhoods. The number of community meetings is starting to rapidly decrease because people of the community can just talk online from the comfort of their home (Barnes 2009). Another important issue about this topic is that it is raising concerns for the children who will be

our future in this world. Since their parents are starting to interact with people less the children are now thinking the same way. Classrooms are using movies and educational games on the computer as a way of learning when in reality it is another way of teaching them to not communicate as a classroom. This is only teaching our future generations that online identity is okay, conversations in person are starting to become unpopular. The last article I read is similar to the article I just discussed, it is about education and how social media is playing a role in changing the way education is being taught to the younger generations and how it will affect the future. Building for a New Generation of Learning is the title of the article and discussed about the provision of learning in the future. The argument in this article was that teaching methods such as movies, games, or social networking based assignments are creating a negative impact on the younger generation. The author believes that by encouraging them and teaching them to learn with social networking sites, it will only increase the students interest in exploring social networking and becoming owned by it. The author discussed studies that were done on younger to older teens (10-17 years old) who have suffered from identity issues, not knowing if them are really the age they are or what decisions to make about life. This is because they are hiding behind social networking; the younger generation is becoming consumed by it. There is a positive to social networking and education, students are learning about world events and news through social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter where people from around the world can communicate and share events. This is a new way of communication that has negative and positives to it. This is another very important article that people should be informed about especially those who have

children in school and can be unaware how much exposure they are having on social networking sites while they are at school. This was not an article about one specific study it was a summary about several different ones tied into one. More research should be conducted about this study because one does not believe many people are aware of it. An article that I read previously in my annotated bibliography was called Experiencing Social Media Across Generations and it was about how our society is turning into a digital generation. The last few articles discussed in this paper related to technology and how it is revolutionizing and changing the way we learn and communicate with one another. Now communication is done very publicly where before there was so much of social networking it was done very privately through an email to one direct person. My research is trying to find out how social networking has had an affect on different generations and if it is positive or negative. Social networking has different effects and views to everyone. The article that is mentioned above should definitely be read by people to inform them about what our society is turning into and how we are blinded by the convenience and benefits of social networking. Many for its convenience most defiantly favor social networking. Many people do not remember or even know that 10 years ago we could not video chat without buying a webcam or talk to people over the internet unless we had their email. Communication today is extremely different then how it was in the 90s alone. The younger generation is unaware of how much our society has changed due to the rapid growth in technology. There are positives to social networking as well and those positives are the reason people continue to explore different types of social networking sites. For families who have loved ones in different countries, they can now video chat or talk to them on the Internet

instead of paying a large amount of money for an international call, they can now talk to them for free. The growth of social networking sites has also increased peoples curiosity, especially the younger generation, to use the Internet to their advantage. Many world events are first told via social networking before it even hits the news or many times even the news will work off of a report told on a social networking site. Social networking has definitely had its benefits and negatives but the reality is technology will continue to grow and social networking is only going to expand. My research is so important because I am trying to find out which generation is not only benefiting more but the effects social networking has had on them compared to an older generation. I believe the older generation does use social networking but is still communicating with people face to face, the way they were taught and always have communicated with one another. I believe it is the younger generation that is loosing that communication form. Instead of calling someone they are either always texting or instant messaging them. In reality, everyone knows you are saving your time if you just pick up the phone and call that person. Identity is another issue that I did not touch upon in my research but that is an issue I raised in this essay. It is a situation that should go unnoticed and more research should be done to have people gain a deeper understanding what is really going on behind the Facebook photo in someones profile. The articles that I read has contributed to my research questions that social networking does have a different affect on different generations, however it depends if the generations are going to completely live behind social networking and loose contact. Or are we gonging to maintain our face-to-face communication. Works Cited

1) Barker, V. (2011). A generational comparison of social networking site use: The influence of age and social identity. Conference Papers-International Communication Association, 1-46. 2) Barnes, S. B. (2009) Relationship networking: Society and educations. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 14(3). 3) Konetes, G., & McKeague, M. (2011). The effects of social networking sites on the acquisition of social capital among college students: A pilot study. Global Media Journal Edition, 11(18), 1-10. 4) Milliron, M., &Plinske, K. (2009). Building for a new generation of learning: Catalytic Conversations for the educational publisher. Publishing Research Quarterly. 25(1). 5) Taske, C., & Plude, F. (2011). Experiencing social media across generations. Media Development, 58 (1), 38-41. 6) Trusov, M., Bucklin, R., & Pauwels, K. (2009). Effects of word-of-mouth versus traditional marketing: Findings from an Internet social networking site. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 90-102.

Bibliography 1) Barker, V. (2011). A generational comparison of social networking site use: The influence of age and social identity. Conference Papers-International Communication Association, 1-46. 2) Barnes, S. B. (2009) Relationship networking: Society and educations. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 14(3). 3) Chase, S. (1965). Changes in public opinion and attitudes between generations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 29 (3), 357. 4) Gumpert, G., & Cathcart, R. (1985). Media grammars, generations, and media gaps. Critical Studies In Mass Communication, 2 (1), 23. 5) Helsper, E. (2010). Gendered Internet use across generations and life stages. Communication Research, 37 (3), 352-374. 6) Hulsen, M., De Bot, H., & Weltens, B. (2002). Between two worlds. Social networks, language shift, and language processing in three generations of Dutch migrants in New Zealand. International Journal Of The Sociology Of Language, 152 (1), 27-52. 7) Konetes, G., & McKeague, M. (2011). The effects of social networking sites on the acquisition of social capital among college students: A pilot study. Global Media Journal Edition, 11(18), 1-10. 8) Milliron, M., &Plinske, K. (2009). Building for a new generation of learning: Catalytic Conversations for the educational publisher. Publishing Research Quarterly. 25(1).

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9) Taske, C., & Plude, F. (2011). Experiencing social media across generations. Media Development, 58 (1), 38-41. 10) Trusov, M., Bucklin, R., & Pauwels, K. (2009). Effects of word-of-mouth versus traditional marketing: Findings from an Internet social networking site. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 90-102.

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