i
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Kir
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TECHNICAL MECHANICS
STATICS
""
1
1,>
AND DYNAMICS
BY
EDWARD
R.
MAURER
NEW YORK
SONS,
Inc.
Limited
,.
111?
Engineering Library
Copyright,
BV
Edward R. Maurer
Stanbope ipress
H.
,
BOSTON,
1901
U.S.A.
PREFACE
is an adaptation from the preface of the first ten years ago; it applies to the present edition. published edition of this work, fairly as a theoretical mechanics for students described be This book might to books commonly called Theoretical comparable not It is of engineering.
The
following paragraph
Mechanics, generally intended for students of mathematics or physics; nor a treatto books commonly titled AppUed IMechanics which generally include
ment of strength of materials, hydraulics, etc., for students of engineering. The title Technical Mechanics seems fairly appropriate for this book; and inasmuch as it is not otherwise used in this country, it was so adopted. On
the theoretical side, practically each subject discussed herein has a direct bearing on some engineering problem. The applications were selected and
presented for the purpose of illustrating a principle of mechanics and for not to furnish information, training students in the use of such principles, except incidentally, about the structure, machine, or what not to which the
application
was made.
years use of the book as a text in the author's classes has suggested many changes; and in recent years the need of a new collection of problems has become urgent. Accordingly, a revision was undertaken, and the effort has
Ten
no change
Indeed the only portion of the former Though is the present Appendix A.
its
(nearly
old.
Inasmuch as Mechanics deals mainly with subjects permanent in character, the revision consists principally of changes in arrangement and presentation. Both were determined upon to a large degree by a desire to furnish an adequate course of instruction for students in engineering in one semester, "five of times per week." To this end, it was necessary to sacrifice logical order first presented arrangement more or less. As in former editions, Statics is
because relatively simpler than Dynamics.
a place.
Kinematics, as such,
is
not given
Dis
cussion of Friction and Efficiency has been amplified, and Dynamics has been extended to provide a quantitative explanation of simple gyroscopic action. Many solved numerical examples have been added to elucidate principles. The collection of problems to be solved by students has been completely
changed.
lU
4942^^5
IV
and 27 may be mastered with no knowlCalculus methods are used trigonometry. beyond edge of mathematics only of that branch of elements the of knowledge good a but in Dynamics, mathematics is presupposed. Graphical methods are used freely, as much
All of Statics except Arts. 23, 25, 26,
The author
and
of
is
pleased to acknowledge with thanks the helpful suggestions Mechanics at the University of Ilhnois;
M. O. Withey; and of Professor C. H. Burnside Columbia University. He thanks also American Machinist, Engineering Record, and Engineering News for permission to copy and for gifts of cuts; and individuals and other journals named in the text for similar favors.
Madison, Wisconsin.
December, 1913.
To
the edition above described there has been added a second collection of
problems, pages 354377; and articles 38, 44, 49, 5^, 5^, 55, 5^, 58 have been
modified.
September, 191 7.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES
Article
1.
Page
i
Introduction
Force; Definitions
2.
4
7
3.
4.
5.
Composition
of
Concurrent Forces
Couples
11
Moment of a Force;
16
6.
7.
Graphical Composition of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces Algebraic Composition of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces
20
23
8.
Moment of a Force;
Couples
27
9.
Principles of Equilibrium
11. 12.
13. 14.
Coplanar Concurrent Forces Coplanar Parallel Forces Coplanar Nonconcurrent Nonparallel Forces
34 4 44 46
5
Noncoplanar Forces
54
59 64
Cranes
69
CHAPTER IV
FRICTION
19. Definitions and General Principles 20. Friction in Some Mechanical Devices
74
78
86
Centroids of Lines, Surfaces, and Solids 23. Centroids Determined by Integration 24. Centroids of Some Lines, Surfaces, and Solids
9
93 98
VI
Parabolic Cable
Page 102
107
113
CHAPTER
28.
VII
RECTILINEAR MOTION
Velocity and Acceleration
118
126
131
29.
30.
31.
138
CHAPTER
32.
33. 34.
VIII
CURVILINEAR MOTION
Velocity and Acceleration
144
148
155
Translation
163
168
176
37. 38.
180
183
39.
Pendulums
CHAPTER X
Work
Energy Power
Principles of
42.
43. 44.
203
211
Efficiency; Hoists
45.
Kinetic Friction
221
Linear
228
232
Impact or
Angular
Gyrostat
237
243
vu
CHAPTER
XII
TWO DIMENSIONAL
Article
50.
(PLANE)
MOTION
Page 256
261
Rolling Resistance
268 273
Relative Motion
Body With a Fixed Point, Kinematics of Body With a Fixed Point, Kinetics of
Gyrostat
280 284
288
292
56. 57.
58.
296
APPENDIX
A.
302
APPENDIX
B.
MOMENT OF
308
PROBLEMS
323
TECHNICAL MECHANICS
I.
Introduction
Mechanics had
vices
for
lifting
its origin
The
the
devices
included
the
the wheel
wedge and the screw. and full knowledge of the but the simple and precise
mechanical principles involved in them were long unrecognized. The first recognition of such a principle marked the real beginning of the science of
Mechanics.
History records that the principle of the lever is the mechanical principle first discovered, and that Archimedes (287212 B.C.), famous Greek mathematician, was the discoverer.
ciple
He
to
the
wheel and
axle
and cords, one of principle of buoyant effort the discovery of The name. which still bears his Apparently no him. is due to fluid in a immersed on or on a body floating the sixteen during were made Archimedes of achievements additions to these
lever),
and
by Archimedes covered only the from a horizontal bar supsuspended weights heavy two special case For such case he stated that them. between (fulcrum) point ported at a fulcrum to the points of the from distances the inversely as are the weights
The
principle of the lever as understood
of
suspension.
plied obliquely,
The principle was extended to include the case of by Leonardo da Vinci (145 21 5 19), famous Italian
forces apartist
and
engineer.
perceived that the efficacy of such a force depends on the distance from the fulcrum, not to the point of application of the force, but
He
The
gineer.
was that
nitely stated
by Simon
Stevin
(i
His statement of the principle was somewhat as follows: The force required to support a (frictionless) body resting
is
upon
it
body
is
to its
This principle afforded the explanation of the wedge (double inclined plane) and the screw (continuous inclined Stevin deduced the parallelogram law for two forces at right plane).
length (measured along the
slope).
'
'
Art.
a'n^ies'
of
is
and from
his
study of
Thus he what parallelothe that of principles, important two caught the first glimpse of gram of forces, and that of virtual velocity or work. The first discoveries of laws of motion were made by Galileo (i 5641 642), For 2000 years it had been believed that Italian astronomer and physicist. This Galileo disproved by light ones. than rapidly more heavy bodies fall was led to inquire about Next he Pisa. of tower leaning the actual trial at
pulleys he noted that
gained in power
is
lost in speed.
the
manner
in
which a body
falls,
or
how
He made
several guesses at this law, and finally verified one of them by indirect experiment and deduction. Up to Galileo's time, it was believed that rest
was the natural condition for a body; and that motion was unnatural, requiring some outside cause (force) to maintain it, and ceasing only when Galileo perceived that motion is just as natural as rest; the force ceases. that motions cease not because they are unnatural, but because of some influence (force) from the outside operating to reduce the motion and
eventually to destroy
it.
first
law
of
contribu
developed the theory of the pendulum, determined the acceleration due to gravity from pendulum obser\^ations, and deduced He invented the clock pencertain theorems regarding centrifugal force.
He
Newton (16421727), English mathematician and physicist, is generally regarded as the founder of Mechanics. At an early age he began an attempt to explain the motions of the planets, whose orbits and speeds were
succeeded in thus explaining
then well known, in terms of experience with more familiar motions. He many features of the planetary motions, and
established that there are certain principles
bodies,
celestial
common
to the
motion of
all
and
of
terrestial.
generally
known
as
Newton's laws
motions
(see index).
of the law of universal gravitation, and the invention of the calculus (also invented independently by Leibnitz, German mathematician).
[of Mechanics] has been has been a deductive, day stated. of Newton's laws."* basis the on formal, and mathematical development which we call Meknowledge of Such development consritutes the body to distinguish it Mechanics, Theoretical and chanics, or sometimes Rational motion, but it of science the as defined be may from Applied Mechanics. It
Since
Newton, "no
essentially
new
principle
minor
part.
* For a full and critical account of that development, see Mach's " Science of Mechanics," from which the quotation was taken, or Co.x's " Mechanics " for a good but less
critical
account.
Art.
Adaptations of rational mechanics have played an important part in the development of the science of engineering, particularly in the departments of structures and machines. Such adaptations, together with our
knowledge
of fluids,
this
field
constitute Applied
Mechanics.
Among
1836), Poncelet (17881867), Morin (17951880), SaintVenant (17971886), Weisbach (180671), Rankine (182072), Grashof (182693) and Bauschinger
(183493).*
Under Technical
ciples
Mechanics,
the
present
are
author
includes
applicable
those
in
prin
of
rational
mechanics which
especially
various
is
fields of engineering,
and some
of our
knowledge
of friction.
The book
The
first
deals with
bodies in motion.
The
for
fuller list.
STATICS
CHAPTER
Force; Definitions
in various
Any
action
of
would result in motion of the body acted upon, or in change of motion body is already moving, is called force; the word is a general term for push and pull. Our earliest notions about forces are based on our experience with forces exerted by or upon ourselves. Through this experience we have learned that a force has magnitude, place of application, and direction,
the
characteristics of a force.
we must of course compare it to some other force regarded as a unit. Many units of force are in use; the most convenient are the socalled gravitation units. They are the earthpulls on our standards for measuring quantity of material (as iron, coal,
express the magnitude of a force,
To
The earthpull by the name of the standard; thus the earthpull on the pound standard (also any equal force) is called a pound; the earthpull on the kilogram standard (also any equal force) is called a kilogram, etc. Since the earthpull on any given thing varies in amount
grain, sugar, etc.),
commonly
is
on any
of these standards
called
as the thing
is
But
this variation
need not be
the calculations.
The extreme
variation in
any gravitation
unit
is
that
magnitudes at the highest elevation on the equator and at the poles; this difference is but 0.6 per cent. For points within the United States the extreme variation equals about 0.3 per cent. For any two
its
*
between
In
common
is
Thus, suppose
and engages a teamster to deliver it by weight; to the consumer, the weight of each wagon load represents a certain amount of useful material, but to the teamster it represents a certain burden on his team due to the action of gravity on the coal. That is, weight suggests material to the one man and
that a dealer
sells coal
by
weight,
Art.
points on the surface of the earth, the variation equals that in the values of
g in the formula g
32.0894
(i
e)
computed
for the
two
places;
e elevation
above sea
deal
is
level, in feet.
The
we
shall
exception
is
which the force is applied. A notable earthpull, or gravity, which is applied not to the surface of a
body
to
body but throughout the same. All such are called distributed forces. The places of application of some forces are very small compared to the surfaces of the bodies to which they are applied, and for many purposes these places may be regarded as points of application; any such force is called a
concentrated force.
The
line
of action
of a concentrated
force
is
line
its
and containing
its line
point of application.
is
A concentrated
right,
force
may act
left,
along
of action in
up or down,
etc.
toward the
be.
That
as the case sense refers to " arrowheadedness " (see next paragraph).
toward the
up, or
may
Since a force
a vector quantity,*
it
vector (a straight line of definite length and direction), the length of the
and the
is
Thus,
if
rails (Fig.
i)
12 tons, then the vector Aa (0.4 inch long) represents the magnitude direction of the pressures, the scale being one inch " equals " 30 tons.
and
If
is
repre
magnitude by drawing
it
We
might extend
this
by
we
will
Statics.
vector quantity is
a scalar quantity.
Chap,
is
definitely expressed in
may
force
effect of
any
applied to a rigid
body at
in
its
rest is
the same,
no matter where
own line of action The principle may be the force is applied. roughly verified by experiment, when the
force acts
is
1
B
Fig. 2
at rest, with
it
con
rigid
spring balances.
The
springs
are
elongated
on account
a
force, as F,
and
if
be applied at A, the springs will suffer additional elongations which in a way are a measure of the effect of the applied force. If the point of application of F be changed to B or C, the spring readings will not change; hence the effect of F will not have changed.
Generally,
cussed,
first
it
when many
and
dis
would be
by a
line
and a
vector, the
to represent the
may
be drawn where
forces act(Fig. 3) of
convenient.
boom
There are three forces; namely, a downward force at pin i, one toward the left at pin 2, and one downward at pin 3. The lines marked ah, cd, and ef are the lines of action of the forces
respectively; the vectors AB, CD, and EF (drawn where convenient but of proper length and direction) represent the
the forces.
The scheme
letters
two lowercase
of action of a force,
value
Fig.
marked is reby the two capitals used; thus the first force mentioned above would be called the force AB. The part of the drawing of the forces and the body (here, a derrickboom)
in
use.
common
Any
force so
in
which the
lines of action
is
are represented
called a
drawn
is
called a vector
of
diagram.
The
scales of these
and those
Art. 3
7
of forces collectively considered
is
Any number
of forces.
in
The
the
same
plane,
if
and noncoplanar
so intersect;
if
they are
called concurrent
and nonconif
current
their lines
if
according as the
etc.
of
can be
and
parallel,
Force
concurrent
fcolinear
<
i
,,
Coplanar
\ nonparallel ....
'
4
5
concurrent
Noncoplanar
<!
L...
6
7
Two sets of forces acting on a rigid body are said to balance, when their combined effect on the rest or on the motion of that body is nil, so that if the body is at rest, for example, then it would remain at rest even if all the forces ceased to act. Two sets of forces acting on a rigid body are said
to be equivalent
would balance the other set reversed (sense of what amounts to the same thing, if each set acting The resultant of a set of forces singly would balance some other third set. is the single force which is equivalent to the set; or, if no single force is
if
either set
or,
equivalent to the
set,
is
set.
The
two
The
is
any one
which
is
equivalent to that
Having given a
is
force
The
The
if
necessary,
set.
The
for
(b)
determining
the
resultant
of
If
two concurrent components of a given force. Parallelogram Law. I. Composition of Two Concurrent Forces. two forces acting upon a rigid body be represented by lines OA and OB,
is
OC
of the parallelogram
Chap,
OABC.
of Fig. 3 at points
For example, take the two forces applied to the cap of the boom i and 2, their value being 2 and 1.2 tons respectively, Extending the lines of action to their intersection O let us suppose. (Fig. 4), then making OA = 2 tons and OB =1.2 tons according to some
we
cording to the law, this line represents the resultant completely; that is, the magnitude of the resultant is OC =^2.2 tons, the line of action of
the resultant
is
colinear with
of the resultant
is
from
It
OtoC.
The law can be
spring
balance,
verified
by means
of the apparatus
in
shown
in Fig. 5.
consists of a drawing
board mounted
weights
Wi and W2
two weights, some cord, and a small ring. When the are suspended somewhat as shown, then the ring is
Fig. 4
Fig. s
Fig. 6
subjected
to
three
forces: pull
of
Pi
is
magnitude
which
P3
is
the equilibrant of Pi
and
P2,
= W2, and an upward by the spring balance. Since the resultant of Pi and P2 is equal and
Wi,
pull P2
indicated
opposite to
and
It
law
So on the board, just under the strings, equal to Pi and P2, and complete the parallelogram OABC; then measure OC and compare its direction with P3. We find that OC equals P3 (by scale), and is
will represent
we
lay off
OA
and
OB
To
test
it consists of a tub of water, a floating drawing board, three smoothly running pulleys, three weights
Nails are driven into the drawing (Wi, W2, and W3), and three cords. board at any points Ni, N2, and N3; the weights are then suspended by cords passing over the pulleys, and tied to the nails as shown; then if each weight is less than the sum of the other two, the board, if not too
large, will
position
of rest
without touching
its
the tub.
weight
(or gravity),
(Pi, P2,
and P)
Art. 3
and W3
ec^ual
respectively.
Obviously the
first
two and so
and opposite to and colinear with P3. Pi and P2 by the parallelogram law: extend the lines of action of the pulls Pi and P2 to their intersection 0; from there lay off OA and OB equal (by some convenient scale) to Pi and P2; complete the parallelogram OABC. Then OC represents R; on comparison it will be found, as before, that OC is equal and opposite to and colinear with P3, and hence OC does represent the magnitude and line of action of R. Since P3, and hence R, passes through (the intersection of Pi and
the resultant of Pi
and P2
We
of
P2), this
experiment emphasizes the fact that the line of action of the re
sultant of
two concurrent
The point
its
of application of
two concurrent forces acting on a rigid body be hy AB and BC, then their resultant magnitude and direction by the side ^C of the triangle
If
R R
in
OC
or
By
using accurate apparatus the foregoing tests for verifying the parallelogram law
accurately. Such verifications are as satisfying to many students as " mathematical proof." What about such proof? Some writers assert that the law is
can be
made very
fundamental, and not susceptible of deduction from anything more simple and obvious than the law itself. But many deductions or proofs have been proposed. All necessarily
is
justified
by
experience.
We
of
moments
(Art.
5)
The
principle
that the
moment
any point in their plane equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the two forces about the same point. Let P and Q denote the two concurrent forces and R their resultant. Suppose that P and Q act in OA and OB respectively (Fig. 7) the body upon which they act is not represented and let the lengths OA and OB represent the magnitudes of the forces P and Q to some scale, that is OA ^ OB = P ^ Q. OABC is a parallelogram, and CD, CE, BF, and BG respectively are perpendicular to OA,OB, OA, and OC. Now the moments of P and Q about equal zero; it follows from the principle of moments that the moment of R about equals zero also, and hence the line of action of R passes through
E/,_
~"'~,,
/
/^_
'^0
^_^
p
Pi^
_
0.
Now
is
=
of
CE^
P
and
CD; and
P
C
^
Q = CE ^ CD,
It follows
or
But these two moments are opposite in sign, and so their from the principle of moments that the moment of R about C equals zero, and hence the line of action of R passes through C. The moments of P, Q, and R about B are respectively, P X BF, o, and R X BG; then, according to the principle of moments, R X BG = P X BF, or R ^ P = BF ^ BG. The area of the parallelogram is OC X BG; also OA X BF. Hence, OC ^ OA = BF ^ BG; and from the last proportions R ^ P = OCiOA; that is, OC represents/? according to the same scale that
about
are equal.
algebraic
sum
equals zero.
OA
represents P.
lO
Chap,
ABC.
(Fig.
For example,
8) as shown.
let
two
forces of 2
and
1.2
tons be applied at
and 2
li
AB
and
and
BC
of these forces,
and
AB
then
BC
AC
to
par
of the
^C
The
gram.
mined without a
We sketch
and then
and
For example,
the forces
* equal
</>
their resultant R.
ABC
is
AC
ABC =
100^
180
60
120.
Then from
150 cos 120
(the angle
+ 150^ 2 X
=
100
47,500, or
between
sin
CAB/sin
120
150/i?, or
CAB
Employing the
foregoing method, the following general formulas may be worked out magnitude and direction
for determining the of the resultant,
2
Ri
sin
= p2\Qi^
<^
PQ
/3
cos
<^;
sin
Q/R, and
sin
sin
</>
P/R,
in Fig. 9.
where P and
</>,
a,
and
marked
When
,
90 degrees) then
^2
2.
p2__Q2^
and
tarn
a=Q/P.
Thus,
two components. We draw AB anywhere equal (by some scale) and parallel to F; join any point C with A and B, and draw lines through any point in ab parallel to ^C and BC; then AC and CB represent the magnitudes and directions, ac and cb the lines of action of two forces equivalent to F, that is, components of F. For the resultant of these two component forces is F, as shown by the tribe required to resolve the force
figure,
under discussion
is
(bodies),
lines
of
some other definite object suggested by the square. It in mind the fact that forces act only on material things action of the forces represented in any given figure are
forces act.
definitely related to th
Art. 4
II
Since
C was
taken at random,
it is
plain that a
many
different pairs of
components.
is
more
or
n), equal to 350 pounds, into two components, one of which must act along the lefthand edge of the board and the other through the lower righthand corner. Since the
less definite.
let
it
Thus,
be required to resolve
(Fig.
must be concurrent, the second component must act through AB equal and parallel to F and draw from A and B lines parallel to the two components; then AC and CB represent the values (200 and 320 pounds respectively) and the directions of the components. An important case of resolution is that in which the components are at Each is called a rectangular component or reright angles to each other. Rectangular components can generally be comsolved part of the force. puted more easily than by geometrical construction. Let F (Fig. 12) be the given force to be resolved into horizontal and vertical components, the
three forces
i;
point
so
we make
12
the forces of the given set; then find the resultant
force
Chap,
R"
Taking the given forces in the order and Fi 13) numbered, we first they are say, draw AB parallel to Fi and equal in which convenient scale, then BC in the direction of and equal to some by to Fi gives magnitude direction AC the and of R', the line of action of then F2; R' passing through O parallel to AC. Next we draw CD in the direction of
required:
Fig. 13
AD
and
R"
passing through
parallel to
AD.
Next we draw
DE
and
in
then
AE
Of course the
tion;
lines
AC, AD,
R',
parallel to AE. R'" passing through and R" are not really essential to the solu
they were drawn here and referred to only for explanatory purposes.
force polygon for a set of forces
The
succession
and continuously
those forces.
lines
directions of
is the figure formed by drawing in which represent the magnitudes and force polygon is not necessarily a closed
Fig. 14
figure;
Fi.
thus
ABCDE,
not including
EA,
is
and
Many
2
drawn
many
if
'11 different
ditional polygons
lines
AE
ABCDE
and Fi
of
direction
R.
The bare
con
now
be stated thus:
Draw
with arrow
the beginning to
end
of
Aet. 4
13
the magnitude
action.
resultant,
Algebraic Method.
let
Choose a pair
which
X and y axes, with origin at the point of concurrence of the forces to be compounded; then resolve each force into its x and y components
us
call
and imagine it replaced by them; the resulting system consists ihex and in the 3' axes; next find the resultant of the forces acting in the x axis, and the resultant of those acting in the y axis; finally, get the resultant of these two rectangular resultants; this is the resultant sought. For example, let it be required to determine the resultant of the six forces The acting upon the 4 foot board shown in Fig. 15.
at the origin,
of forces in
scheduled below.
The make
the figure;
the
sum
and that
of the
3'
is
tan~^
(7.22
T
3,40
2.123)
64 47'
The value
of
the resultant
is
R=
\/34o^
F
7.22^
7.98 pounds.
14
and OB, and
Chap,
OD
OC
simple algebraic
method
when
9$
Thus,
di, 62,
and F3
(Fig. 17)
their resultant,
and
and
and the
R'
cos
01
Fi^
02
+ F2' + FzS
=
F2/R,
cos
^3
Fi/R,
cos
F3/R.
For the resultant of Fi and F2 (represented by OC, Fig. 17) equals F2'') also the triangles ODA, Fa^)!, and hence R^ = (Fi^ (Fi^ Fs''
are rightangled
Sit
A, B, and
respectively,
and hence
Fi/R, cos ^2
= OB/OD =
F2/R,
etc.
be resolved into three noncoplanar concurrent forces by Thus, let OD (Fig. 18) represent
first,
given force F;
of
which
OD
is
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
according
paral
by OD.
Inasmuch
as
many
OD
as diagonal,
many
The
ponents
(Fig.
practical
case
is
resolution
is
into
definite
rectangular axes;
then there
The comlet
may
and 7 the angles between F and the axes, and Fx, Fy, and Fg the x, y, and z components respectively; then, since OX, OY, and OZ are projections of OD on the rectangular axes,
19) be the force to be resolved, a,
Fx
= F cos a,
Fy
= F cos
jS,
Fz
= F cos 7.
Sometimes the direction of the force F to be resolved is given by means of two angles, one being the angle between F and one of the desired components, and the other being the angle which the projection of F on the plane of the other two components makes with one of those two, as for instance a and 4> (Fig. 19). Then F may be resolved best in this way: first, resolve
Art. 4
it
15
two components F cos a (along the x axis) and F sin a (in the plane of and 2 axes), and then resolve F sin a into components along the y and F sin a cos c^. and 2 axes, that is, F sin a sin ^ny number of noncoplanar concurrent forces can be compounded graphically by means of their force polygon, but this method is not practiinto
the y
cable generally, because the polygon is not a plane one; however, it could be drawn in " plan and elevation " so as to furnish the resultant sought.
The
algebraic
method
is
preferable;
it
is
carried
out as follows:
First,
select three
rectangular axes of
resolution
concurrence of
its x,
y,
and
and 2), with the forces to be compounded; next components, and imagine it replaced
(here called x, y,
by them, thus
and
compound
For example,
forces acting
on a 4 foot cube
The
the 10 and the 15 pound forces act through quarter points of certain edges as shown. The x, y, and 2 components of the 18 and 40 pound forces are obviously as scheduled adjoining.
force
is
Since the 15
its
pound
x component
makes with the 2 axis = tan~^ f = 36 52', its y and 2 components are 15 sin 36 52' = 9, and 15 cos 36 52' = 12 pounds respectively as scheduled. Fig. 20 The components of the 10 poimd force were determined as follows: Since Ya = 5 and YO = 4 feet, the angle which the ID pound force makes with the y axis is tan~^  = 51 20'; the y component of the force equals 10 cos 51 20' = 6.25 as scheduled, and the other rectangular component (in the zx plane) equals 10 sin 51 20' = 7.81 pounds.
F
l6
Chap,
signs of the
The
ant
X, y,
sums
of the x, y,
and z components show that the resultdownwards and forward. Its angles with the
cos"' (13.31
r
and
29.7)
63;
cos~^ (1525
j
29.7)
43.
5.
Moment
of a Force;
Couples*
I. The Moment or Torque of a force with respect to a point is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance between its line of action and the point. The perpendicular distance is called the arm of the force with respect to that point, and the point is called an
origin
or center oj moments.
Experience
suggests
is
the
notion
that
the
moment
Fig. 21.
body about a line through the point and perpenand the point. Such a notion can be quite accurately by means of a simple apparatus represented in It consists of a board mounted on a horizontal shaft, a heavy body, and the pail which can be suspended horn the
board; the shaft rests in ball bearings so that
practically
no resistance to turning
is
exerted
body and the pail, is well balanced so that gravity would not cause it to turn from any position. Now, let the pail containing shot be hung from B, C, D, etc., in succession, the amount of shot being taken so that the heavy body will be supported, OA not being horizontal necessarily. Then in each case the turning effect of the pull at B, C, or
the pulls at B, C, D,
are equal.
A And if
;
effects of
moments
of these pulls
ments
will
and shot) about O be computed, then those mobe found equal too, and therefore moments are measures of turn
ing effects.
It follows from the definition of moment that the unit moment is that of a unit force whose arm is a unit length. There are no oneword names for
any
of these units of moment; the units are called footpound, inch ton, etc., according as the unit length and force are the foot and the pound, the inch and the ton, etc.
In a discussion involving the moments of several forces, it is generally convenient to give signs to the moments to indicate the directions (clockwise or anticlockwise) in which the several forces turn or tend to turn the body to which they are applied about the origin in question. In this
book, clockwise rotation
is
Art. s
17
lOOlbs.
30
i8
Chap,
Art. s
19
AB
the resultant of Qi reversed and Pi, and the diagonal Since the resultants are resultant of Q2 reversed and P2. the BA represents the P couple and the so and balance, they colinear and opposite, equal,
represents
reversed
couple balance.
of the
etc. (2) When Pi, P2, Qi and Q2 are two couples are equal, then each couple is couple, the forces of which intersect Pi, P2, Qi,
Hence,
and
is
equal
to
and has
the
same
and
moment
of the couple.
Proof follows:
Let F (Fig. 26) be the given force, and P1P2 the given couple. (If the forces of the given couple are parallel to F, then imagine the couple shifted
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Now suppose that AB and BC represent parallel.) and directions of Pi and F respectively; then AC represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of those two forces. (The line of action of the resultant is R' parallel to ylC and through the inLet CD equal AB; then AD represents the magnitersection of Pi and F.) tude and direction of the resultant of R' and P2, and hence of the three But AD is equal and parallel to BC; hence this final forces Pi, F, and P2. resultant is equal and parallel to F. (The line of action of this final resultant Since R is is R, parallel to BC and through the intersection of R' and P2.) the sum point of equals any F about equivalent to F, Pi, and P2, its moment moment has no point; but that F of the moments of F, Pi, and P2 about about such point, and hence the moment of R equals the sum of the moments of Pi and P2 (the moment of the couple).
until
the magnitudes
from the foregoing that a force R can he resolved into a force equal and parallel to R, and a couple whose moment equals that of R about any point on the component force. Thus the moment of the couple component depends on the line of action chosen for the force component. Independent proof
It follows
20
Let
Chap,
(Fig. 27)
component is to pass. First we resolve R into two concurrent components, one of which passes through 0; take any point on R (as a) for the point of concurrence and any direction
second comThese components we call Ci and C2 respectively. To determine Ci and C2, we draw
to represent R, to Ci
(as ab) for the line of action of the
ponent.
and AC and BC parallel and Co respectively; then AC = Ci, and CB = C2. Next we resolve Ci at O into two components parallel to C2 and R, which components we call C3 and C4 respectively. To determine Cs and d, we draw from A a line Fig. 27 parallel to C3 and from C a line parallel to d, and so locate D; then AD = C3, and DC = C4. Ob\'iously now C2, C3 and are equivalent to R, that is, they are components of R; and as required (equal, parallel, and opposite) constitute passes through 0, and C2 and a couple. Moreover, according to the principle of moments, the moment of equals that of R about any point on C2, C3, and about that point; but the '"'"''^^^f^^M^
AB
d d
Nonconcurrent Forces
I.
First Method.
so,
to
nearly
the
forces,
and
so
on
until
the resultant of
Fig. 28
For example,
shown
(i) Composition of a Force and a Couple and (2) Resolution of a Force into a Force and a Couple can be performed also as follows (student should supply figure): (i) Replace the couple by an equivalent couple whose forces equal the given force, and place the couple so
its forces is colinear with and opposite to the given force. These two forces balance; the other force of the new couple remains, and it is the resultant sought. (Study of the steps in the process shows that the resultant force is equal and parallel to the original force, and that the moment of the resultant about a point on the line of action of the original
that one of
moment
of the couple.)
(2)
Apply two
and opposite
to each other.
given force can be grouped into a force and a couple, and they (the force and couple) are the components sought. (Study of the. steps of the process shows that the component force is equal and parallel to the given force, and the moment of the couple equals that of the given force about the given point.)
Art. 6
21
its
they consist of
own weight
pressure on the back (6000 pounds), that on the top of the base (9000 pounds),
of the base.
The
resultant of the
first
three forces
now be
determined.
forces,
We
draw
AB
the 16,000
pound
and then
join
tude and direction of the resultant of R' (parallel to AC and through point i)
and BC to represent the 6000 and A and C; AC represents the magnithe two forces, and the line marked
is
We
next draw
CD
pound
force,
and join
A and D;
and 9000
(through
AD
(and hence also of the three given forces), and the line marked
point 2 and parallel to
It
AD)
is
be noted that the magnitude and the direction of the resultant is For nonconcurrent forces it found just as for concurrent forces (Art. 4). is necessary to draw the lines of action of the intermediate resultants
(R',
may
R",
etc.), in
When
so,
the foregoing
method
fails
because there
no accessible intersection of
two
two
equal, opposite,
and
colinear forces,
of action
which
will
taking their
forces;
common
is
line
first
somewhat across those of the given method, compounding first any pair of forces
whose intersection
accessible, etc.
2.
Second Method, applicable to any coplanar forces. two concurrent components, resolving
We
in
first
re
such a
way
Fig. 29
also
(Fig.
force and one of the last two remaining components in general, concurrent, and so we readily find their resultant, which is For example, let Fi, F2, F3, and F4 the resultant of the given forces.
first
balance
or
destroy
each
other;
these
compounded.
First
we draw a
force polygon
as
ABCDE;
tri
then
common
vertex of the
angles of resolution.
nitude and
AO and OB represent two components of Fi in magdirection, BO and OC two components of F2, etc.; thus this
22
resolution gives several pairs of equal
Chap,
OB
and
BO,
first
OC and
point,
i,
CO,
i,
OD
and DO.
The components
2
taken to act
etc., ti
through point
those of F^ through
those of Fz through 3,
where oh intersects F2, point 3 where oc intersects 7^3; etc. Thus the components OB and BO are colinear and they balance; likewise OC and CO, and OD and DO. Only the first and last components AO and OE remain; their resultant is represented hy AE in magnitude and direction, and its line of action is ae (parallel to
AE
oe).
The common
etc.,
when
The
to
first,
05
second method, the beginner had best reason out the variAfter some
(i)
The two
strings intersecting
on the
line of action of
any
drawn
to the ends
force,
and oc. (2) The string which joins points in the any two forces is parallel to the ray which is drawn to the common point of the two sides of the force polygon corresponding to those forces, or, the string joining points on be and cd is parallel to OC. (3) The bare construction in the second method is simply this: Draw a force and a string polygon for the forces, then draw a line from the beginning to the end of the force polygon and a parallel line through the intersection of the first and last strings; the first line represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant (sense being from the beginning to the end of the force polygon), and the second line is the line of action of the resultant. This second method is not so simple in principle as the first, but in the second there is more opportunity for varying the construction to keep
intersecting
on
be are ob
lines of action of
may
given forces.
Though many
be taken anywhere on any of the string polygons may be drawn for a given set
may
same line of action of the resultant; that is, the and last strings of all string polygons lie on one
3.
When
It
may
seem, at
first
thought,
zero;
would
Thus,
let
and Fi
the
first
(Fig.
30) be a forceset
for
method
whose force polygon ABODE closes; using compounding, we find that the resultant R" of the
Art.
first
is
23
is
three forces
given by
^D
is
in
its
,
l^e
equal, opposite,
in
direction,
parallel to F4,
and ad and so
is
t^
The arm
of this couple
tne perpendicular distance between Ft and R", and so the moment of the couple is the product of Fi (or R") and the arm (according to the scale
of the space
diagram)
is
apparent from
and
AO
(acting in
and
is
OE
and
(acting in oe).
parallel,
The arm
or
of the
couple
and
last strings, ao
and
oe; the
moment
of the couple
is
the product of
OA
EO
(according
^=
Fig. 30
.^D
i"^^
Fig. 31
J^A^
to the scale of
the sense
is
The
length of the
depend on the order in the first method; and upon the position chosen
method.
ations.
set
independent of
these vari
be verified
by
actually
and thus arriving at different couples. The couples are all equivalent to the same forceset and so equivalent to each other, and
variations
5).
Parallel Forces. If the forces be given sign, those in either direction being called positive and those in the other negative, then the algebraic sum of the forces gives the magnitude and sense of the resultant, the
sign of
the
principle of
equals the
sum indicating the sense of the resultant. According to the moments (Art. 5), the moment of the resultant about any point algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about that point, and
24
Chap,
20 lbs.
Art. 7
25
and the moment equals the algebraic sum of the moments of given forces, For example, let us find the resultant of the five a definite quantity. Their algebraic sum is forces acting on a 10 foot board, as shown in Fig. 34.
zero,
and so
their resultant
force,
is,
presumably, a couple.
Compounding
all
but
the 40
pound
we
down
A60lb&.
401bvf
ward, 7.5 feet to the right of the left end of the board, and so the resultant
is
"20 lbs.
SOlbs.
SOlbs.
a couple whose
moment
is
(40
Fig. 34
2.5)
ioo footpounds.
Instead of actually determining the forces of the resultant couple as explained, it is usually sufficient to determine the moment of the resultant couple; this moment equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the
given forces about any point.
taining that the resultant
is
we compute
(40
the
momentsum
for the
moment
5)
(60
3)
(30
i)
(50
i)
5)
= +100
footpounds;
and
moment
may
2.
a single force, given in magnitude and direction by the line joining the beginning and end of the force polygon for the forces. It follows, therefore,
that the component of that resultant force along any line equals the algeFrom this braic sum of the components of the given forces along that line.
we can get the components of the resultant along any two rectangular axes; and from these components the magnitude and direction of Acthe resultant itself can be readily determined by obvious means.
principle
moments
moment
of the resultant
about any point must equal the sum of the moments of the given forces about that point; and this requirement fixes the position or line of action of the
resultant.
^6lbs.
For example, let us find the resultant of the six forces acting on a board, 4 by 4 feet, as shown in Fig. 35. The angles which the forces make with the horizontal and
the arms of the forces with respect to the center of the board are recorded in columns 2 and 3 of the
schedule on page 26; they could be computed trigonometrically or could be scaled from a larger drawing.
of
51b5^
Fig. 35
recorded in columns 4 and 5 respectively, and the moments of the forces with respect to the center of the board in column 6. The algebraic sums of the x
and the y components are +3.40 and 7.22 pounds respectively; hence R = V'3.40^  7.22^ = 7.98 pounds The signs of the sums indicate that R the acts toward the right and downward; the angle which R makes with
26
horizontal
is
Chap.
tan~^ (7.22
J
3.40), or 64 47'.
14.14
and
its
The sum of the moments is moment of R also equals 14.14, R lies of moments (the moment being negative),
feet.
arm
is
14.14 ^ 7.98
1.77
Thus,
determined.
Art. 8
27
about any point equals the sum of the moments of the couples; hence any couple whose moment equals the sum of the moments of the given couples
may
Moment
Line.
of a
Force
Couples
I.
Moment about a
Art.
it is
5 relates to
moments
and
of forces
and
couples.
In some
on noncoplanar forces
convenient to
this
is
make
use of the
moment
respect to a line;
component being parallel to it and the distance from the line to the perpendicular
the other
component
equal).
For example,
let
on a
or
line,
moments as
it is called.
MN
is
any plane
make
the
OACB
is
a parallelogram with
OC
Fig. 37
(representing F) as diagonal,
lar
and
sides perpendicu
and OB represent the perpendicular and parallel components {Fi and F2) referred to; and the moment of F about LL' is the product of Fi and PL. The moment of a force with respect to a line is a measure of the tendency of the force to turn the body to which the force is applied about that line. Thus, when the force is parallel to the line the moment is zero, and obviously the force has no tendency to turn the body about the line. Again, and
parallel to
LL'; then
OA
when
the force
is
moment
of the force
about
from the
and
it is
shown
product measline.
Finally,
when the
(Fig. 37),
force
is
and that
of Fi)
moment
But F^ has no turning effect; therefore But it was explained that Fi X LP measures the turning effect of Fi, and therefore that
of
are equal.
effect of F.
In a discussion involving moments of several forces about a line, it is generally convenient to give signs to the moments to indicate the directions
(clockwise
or
line
counter)
if
in
about the
rotation
is
it
Whether a given
in
a par
view should be assumed on the line or axis of moments and outside of the body, so that all rotations would be seen lookticular discussion a point of
ing in the
same
direction.
When
*
the axis of
moments
is
also
an axis of
28
coordinates, then
it is
Chap,
Principle of Moments.
If
two
sets
of
forces
are equivalent
(Art.
2),
then the
momentsum
for the
for
mobe
mentsum
^1
This
will
may
and 6*2 denote the two equivalent sets of forces, and ^3 a third set which would balance Si and hence also ^2. Since Sx and ^3 would balance, they would not turn the body on which they act about any line; hence the momentsums for Si and ^'3 with respect to any line are equal in value but Likewise, the momentsums for S2 and S3 with respect opposite in sign.
to that
sums
It
same line are equal in value and opposite in sign. The momentand S2 being equal to the same thing, are therefore equal. follows from the preceding that the momentsum for any set of forces
for ^i
same
line.
Also, the
the
momentsum
of its
the same
This last principle suggests a second method for computing the moment of a force with respect to a line, more simple than the first method
in
some
is
cases:
which
Resolve the force into three rectangular components, one of moments; compute the moment of each of
100 >b5
37.2
and add the moments algeFor an example, of a 100 pound force which acts upon a 4 foot cube as shown in Fig. 38, with respect to those edges marked X, F, and Z. The x, y, and z components of the force are 37.2, 74.2, and 55.7 pounds respectively (see Art. 4); these components must be concurrent with the given force. Taking A as the point of concurrence, the moments are comabout the
axis,
the
moment
puted as follows:
X 4 + 557 X 4 = "74; 260; and '37.2 X 4 + With point of con74.2 X 2 = 297 footpounds. currence taken at B or at any other point in AB, the same result would be obtained for the moment.
742
37.2
55.7
X^ =
2.
Couples
Two
or
torques,
same are
equivalent.
Proof of this proposition for coplanar couples is given in Art. 5; proof for noncoplanar couples follows. Let Pi and P2 (Fig. 39) be the forces of one (not shown) the forces of the other, and p and q the arms couple, and
Qi Q2
of the couples respectively;
then by supposition
Pp =
Qq.
According to
Art.
5,
the
(2
that the
moment and
a couple in its
that of the
couple.
Art. 8
parallel
29
and P^; then the arm ab of the S couple equals />, and abed is a parallelogram. We now show that the P couple would balance the reversed S couple; it will follow that the P and 6* couples are equivalent, and hence also the P and Q couples. The resultant R' of P] and
to Pi
and equal
52 {Si reversed) equals the resultant R" of P2 and S\ (Si reversed), and R' and R" are parallel and opposite in sense. Moreover, R' lies midway between Pi and 52, and R" lies midway between P2 and Si; therefore each resultant acts through
the center of the parallelogram abed, and hence
The
'
Si, S2
is
Fig. 39
do
also.
The
the
a eouple.
in Arts. 6
and
7.
For
re
case of
The given
in
couples
can be
result
is a couple, and hence the resultant of the given ones is also a For the case of nonparallel couples: Imagine each of the two couples to be replaced by an equivalent couple, and let the four forces of
ant of these
couple.
new
couples
so placed (in their respective planes) that a force of one couple will balance
See Fig. 40 (perspecwhich shows the two replacing couples, there marked P1P2 and P3P4; ex is the angle between the planes of the couples. Since
tive),
resultant
is
any couple
couples, its
braic
sum
of the
moments
of the given
The
any number of couples equals the sum Proof: Consider first two couples, say the
41) be
*
two whose resultant was found in the preceding paragraph. Let ABC (Fig, an end view of Fig. 40, looking along the line AA'] that is, ABC of
The
vector of a given couple
is
tion of vector
to
immaterial);
its
length
its
equal
to the
moment
of
some
scale understood;
and
must point
in the direction in
3
Fig. 41
is
Chap,
ABC
of Fig.
40 in true proportions.
Then
AM
(perpendicular to
AB),
AN
(perpendicular to AC),
and
AO
(perpendicular to
BC)
are respec
moments
and Ff;
let
Vector
AO
is
the
sum
and AN, provided that OMAN is a parallelogram; we now show that it is a parallelogram. Angle MAO = 13; since in the triangle MAO and ABC two sides are proportional each to each and the inof the vectors
AM
it
follows that
OM
it
is
AC,
or parallel to
lows that
is
ON
is
perpendicular to
similar
to
reasoning,
fol
AM.
Hence
OMAN
it
a parallelogram.
Obviously,
if
an important special
case.
We
take
the
three
planes
as
coordinate
planes,
and
call
Vy
and
Vz,
and the
hence
re
C and
its
vector
v.
Then
{v^^
Vy"^
+ ^z^)^;
v,
Also,
if
01,
4>2,
of
v^/v^
cos 02
Vz/v\
hence
cos 02
Cx/C,
Cy/C,
cos 03
Cz/C.
from the preceding that a couple may be equivalent to two or which are therefore components of that couple; also, to resolve a couple we have only to resolve its vector, the component vectors being the vectors of the component couples. The resolution of a couple into three components whose planes are mutually at right angles is an important special case. Let C be the couple to be resolved and v its vector,
It follows
more
couples,
by
a,
/3,
and
7, the coordi
nate planes having been taken to coincide with the planes of the desired component couples. Let Cx, Cy, and Cz denote the component couples,
x, y and z axes respectively, and Vx, Then Vx= v cos a, Vy ^ v cos /3, and Vz =
Vy
and
7;
v cos
hence,
Cx
=C
cos a,
Cy
=C
cos
iS,
Cz
= C cos 7.
9.
I.
Parallel Forces.
is
It
is
shown
parallel forces
are given
by
the algebraic
sum
Art. 9
31
sum
sign,
and those
The
may
arms
with respect to two rectangular axes, each perpendicuSuch arms can be computed readily from the principle that the moment of the resultant about any axis equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about the same axis. For an example, we find the resultant of four forces which referred to a
of the resultant
lar to the forces.
set of
zaxis;
They
in the first
column
the schedule
32
single couple (Art. 8).
Chap,
will
be denoted
by
in detail
how
to determine
and C.
Let
(Fig. 42,
T^i
body not shown; O the point through which R is to pass; and OX, OY and OZ any convenient axes of reference. Let Pi and Qi, acting at (Fig. 42), be equal and parallel to Fi; similarily, let P2 and Q2 (not shown) Then the force Pi and the act at O, and be equal and parallel to F^; etc. couple Pi^i (Fig. 43) are equivalent to Pi (Fig. 42); the force P2 and the couple F2Q2 are equivalent to P2; etc. Now the axial components of Pi,
Art. 9
33
In general,
and
C may
forces.
C may
its
plane be unchanged;
there remain R'
assume such
shift
until
intersects
R may
be
compounded
of C,
and the second force These two cannot are not coplanar.
If the
be compounded; they are the simplest set equivalent to the given system,
and
plane of
C happens to be parallel to R, then C and R can be compounded into a For single force, and the resultant of the given system is a single force. shifting C about until C and R become coplanar, then they may be compounded readily into a
There
torque
is is
In general, the system of forces has a torque about every line through O.
one
line
which
is
of
line
greatest.
The torque
about that
has no
moment about
a line through O, the torque of the system about any such line
about that
line.
of
C is greatest
about
The
line
is
given by equations
of the
system by equations (3). The system of forces has no torque about a through parallel to the plane of C, (perpendicular to the line or axis of
and
line.
CHAPTER
10.
I.
II
FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM
Principles of Equilibrium
some meaning by external force one which is exerted on the body under discussion by some other body, and by internal force one which is exerted on a part of the body under discussion by another part. (The word body is used here in a broad sense to denote any definite portion of matter, as a locomotive, a bridge, the steam in a boiler, the water in a pond, etc.) For illustration, consider the
It is convenient in
It consists of three
main members {AB, CD and DE), a pulley, a winding drum and a hoisting chain; it is supported at A (ceiling) and at B (floor). The
external forces acting on the crane consist of
the weight of
earth), the pull
/I
all
down on
by the by
Tx^/
(exerted
'^.\y
y/Mw//////////////////,
Fig. 45
and the supporting force at B by The members exert the floor). by (exerted they come towhere other upon each forces with refforces internal are but these gether, erence to the whole crane. With reference to
the external forces are
its
AB,
at E, C,
else,
and
adjacent portions of the post, as the upper and lower halves, exert forces on each other, and these forces are internal with refer
Any two
body
at rest constitute
a balanced
re
said to be in eguilibrium.
Obviously, the
and this fact is sometimes called the general sultant of kind of a force system. The general conany equilibrium for condition of thus, for any system whatever, conditions; subordinate dition implies
such a system
is nil,
sum sum
any
zero.
of the
and moments
any
line equals
34
Art. io
35
of (A)
By means
for
any system
in
Thus, for a coplanar concurrent system, (A) gives ZFx = o, ZFy = o, ZFu = o, etc., where x, y, u, etc., are axes of resolution; and (B) gives 2ilfa = o, I,Mb = o, 2Mc = o, etc., where a, b, c, etc., are origins Not all of such equilibrium equaof moments in the plane of the forces.
equilibrium.
tions are independent, however; that
is,
Thus,
any coplanar concurrent system, then 2F does not necessarily equal zero, but if also ^Fy = o, then the resultant equals That is, 2^Fx = o and SF^ = o are two zero, and it follows that SFu = o. similar equation (as ZFu = o) is not third independent equations, but any
if
2Fx
o for
independent of them.
librium for any
or conditions of equi
and
sufficient to insure
We
will
now deduce
these
Colinear Forces.
There
namely,
(i)
is
It can
be
2/^
or (2) llMa
o.
Form
their
(i) states
sum
(2)
that
the algebraic
sum
moments
common
On
tion of equilibrium
a closed one.
is
For
if
ZF =
o,
or
SM = o,
or
ditions of equilibrium.
(i)
2Fx
= 2F =
o,
(2)
2/?
= ZMa =
o,
or
(3)
SMa = 2^6 =
o.
Form
(i) states
along two lines x and y (in the plane of the forces) equal zero; algebraic sum of the components of the forces along any line (as
algebraic
that the
and the
a and
sum
of the
moments
about any
and the
0, their point of concurrence, to be inclined to the x axis); and (3) that the algebraic sums of the moments of all the forces about two points (not
colinear with the point of concurrence of the forces) equal zero.
For
in
any case the resultant is zero, as will be seen from this: (i) According to Art. 4, the resultant of the system, if there is one, is a single force R, given
hy R== V(2F,)2f
equal zero.
(2)
(2F)2;
and hence
o,
if
2Fx
o and 2F
if
o,
If
^Fx
there
is
one,
R must must be
a equals
zero,
if 2Ma = o, then the moment of R about R ^ o. (3) The resultant, if there is one,
of concurrence
if
2Mo= o
36
then
Chap,
also;
if
ZMa =
is
o,
then
must equal
zero, b
The
(iii)
forces closes.
no resultant.
in
two forms;
namely,
(i) S/?
= SM =
^Ma
= ^Mb =
Form
of the
(i) states
sum
of the forces
(in the
moments
(2)
zero;
sums
of the
moments
points equal zero, the line joining the origins not to be parallel to the forces.
For either
if
set of conditions is
make
ant zero, as
there
is
may
is
be shown thus
In Art.
7 it is
one,
is
And
it is
2F =
o,
then the
resultant
2M = o,
=
o,
if
then
there
force,
is
no resultant.
If Sil/a
the resultant
also
ZMb =
o,
then the
moment
of the
zero,
There are two graphical conditions of equilibrium, namely, a force and must close. For if a force polygon closes,
if
there
is
one,
is
a couple;
if
not a couple.
There
They can be
stated in three
2/^x
and
(3)
Form
(i) states
the forces
sum
of the
moments
of the forces
about
and points to be in the plane of the forces; (2) that the algebraic sums of the components of the forces along any line x and the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about two points, a and b, equal zero, the line x and that joining a and b not to be at right angles; and (3) that the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about three points, a, b, and c, equal zero, the points not to be colinear. For any set of these conditions is necessary and just sufficient to make the resultant vanish any point equal
zero, the lines
as
may
if
there
2Fj,
is
one,
is
a single force or a
is
And
(i) if
^Fx
o,
not
If
and 2Fx
if
2M =
o,
o, it is
no resultant.
the resultant
a force
Art. io
37
if
couple;
l^Ma
o,
it
is
also
SMt =
is
o,
then the
moment
zero.
of that
(3) If
must equal
liMb
zero,
if
force
must equal
if
2ifa
o,
the resultant,
if
there
one,
through
a;
o,
ZMc =
o,
There are two graphical conditions, just like those for parallel coplanar nonconcurrent forces; namely, a force and a string polygon must close.
For
if
if
there
is
one,
is is
not a not a
couple,
(v)
and
so there
is
no resultant
There
2Fx
that
is,
= ^Fy = 2F, =
o;
all
rectangular axes,
if
and
z,
equal zero.
For as shown
there
is
one, equals
V(SF^)2
(SFJ^
{^F.Y,
and
so
if
the conditions
conditions of equilibrium.
(i)
There are three independent algebraic There are two convenient forms; namely,
SF = SMi =
Si/a
o,
and
(2)
2Mi =
Silfa
= ^Ms =
o.
Form
of the
(i) states
sum
of the forces
moment
about two
not parallel to each other equal zero; (2) that the algebraic
sums
of the
mo
ments about three coplanar nonconcurrent nonparallel lines perpendicular to For (i) if SF = o, the resultant is not a force; if the forces equal zero. = o, the resultant is a couple whose plane is parallel to the first line or 2Afi moments axis of (and to the forces) and if '2M2 = o, then the plane of the couple must also be parallel to the second axis; but all these conditions of parallelism cannot be fulfilled unless the two forces of the couple are colinear, in which case the two forces balance, so that there is really no re;
sultant.
(2) If
2^/1
that
= 2M2 =
is,
o,
and
2; if Sil/a
o,
must equal
(vii)
zero;
make
Noncoplanar
Nonconcurrent
Nonparallel
Forces.
There
o;
are
six
ZF^
that
is,
LFy
ZF,
ZM:c
= ZMy = ^M, =
lines
the algebraic sums of the components of all the forces along three and the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about three noncoplanar axes equal zero. (It is generally most convenient to take the For the resultthree lines and the three axes at right angles to each other.)
28
ant of the system,
if
Chap, there
9)
;
ii
is
one,
is
if
SF^
2Fj,
SF^
o,
and
if
21f ^
= 2My = SM^ = o,
no
If
resultant.
every force in the given system (in equilibrium) be represented by a vector, and all these vectors be projected on three rectangular coordinate
planes, then the three sets of projections
in
equilibrium
cases
it
(proved
below).
In
some
may
be more convenient to In
three conditions
deal with
these
projected systems.
general, each
furnishes
or equations of equilibrium,
in all;
making nine
nine,
and only
six are
independent.
To
be
let
(Fig. 46)
rium and
its
body not shown). A, B, and C are projections of the vector F on the xy, yz, and zx planes respectively. Obviously, the X and y components of A equal Fx and Fy respectively; the y and z components of B equal Fy and F^ respectively, and the z and x components of C equal F^ and Fx respectively, as indicated. Since the given system is in
equilibrium,
and
Now 2Fx
the
is
also the
sum
of the
is
also
sum
of the y
components
of the
of the
is
also the
sum
sons
of the
moments
and
(4)
forces
about 0.
Hence
(i), (2),
yl system.
^system and
(5) assert 2.
in
the system.
(i)
single force
cannot be in equilibrium.
(2) If
must be
colinear, equal,
two and
opposite. (3) If three forces are in equilibrium, then they must be coplanar, and concurrent or parallel. Proof: Let the three forces be called Fi, F2, and 7^3; since Fi and F2 balance F3, Fi and F2 have a single force resultant R colinear with F3; since Fi and F2 have a resultant colinear with F3, they lie in a plane with F3. If Fi and F2 are concurrent, then R is concurrent with them and hence F3 also; if Fi and F2 are parallel, then R and hence
F3
is
parallel to
them.
When
is
Art. io
39
between the other two (Lami's
theorem)
that
is,
Fi
sin
^
sin
F2
sin
/3'
a"
^
sin /3" sin 7'
Fs
sin
7"
where
13'
and F3 are the forces, a and a" the angles between F2 and F3, ^" between Fi and /^s, and y' and 7" those between i^i and F2 those and For it follows from the triangle of forces, ABCA (in which (see Fig. 47). AB, BC, and CD represent Fi, F^, and F3 respectively), that ^5/sin5C^ = BC/dn CAB = CA/sin ABC. But BCA = a', CAB = /3', and ABC = y'; also a' and a", ^' and (S", 7" and 7"are supplementary. Hence sin ' = a sin ",
Fi, F2,
etc., etc.
allel,
When
same direction and the middle one in the opposite direction, and the moments of any two of the forces about a point on the third are equal in magnitude and opposite in sense, or sign.
(4)
When
four
Fig. 47
of
any two
of the forces
(a)
if
Hence,
the
first
second two
Q}) if either
also,
then the
parallel to
parallel
to
the forces.
Principles (a)
and
{b)
force systems,
3.
Summary.
The
Coplanar Forces.
Colinear,
= ^M^ = o; or llMa = ^Mb = Parallel, or 2Ma = Zilf^ = o. Nonconcurrent nonparallel, ^Fx = llFy = ZM = o; or 2Fx = ^Ma = ^Mb = o; or SM^ = ^Mb = ZMc = o.
Concurrent, 2F^
SF = = 2F =
o; or
Sif
=
or
o.
= o; 2/^i; 2M = o;
SFx
o.
Noncoplanar Forces.
Concurrent, ZF^
Parallel,
Nonconcurrent nonparallel,
The
rent forces, the force polygon closes; for nonconcurrent forces, the force
and
40
the string polygon close.
Chap, n
There are graphical conditions of equilibrium for is very limited, and they are there
II.
1.
in Art.
The
lo under
We now
principles in
two
is
particular problems.
Typical Problem
(i).
system of
coplanar concurrent
forces
in
equilibrium, and all the forces except two are wholly known; the lines of action of these are known, and their magnitudes and senses are to be de
termined.
The
if
graphical
method
is
problem; but
simple.
the angle
method
To make
solve graphically,
it
we draw a
are in
close since
will
they
knowns
the pin
be determined.
acting on
48.
(A pin
passes through holes in the members, OF, OG, OH, and OJ, thus fastening them together at 0.) There are four forces acting on this pin, one exerted
in
equilibrium.
(Strictly, there is a fifth force in the system, the weight of the pin, but These four forces that is small compared to the others and is negligible.)
are coplanar
assume that they act in the directions (generally not far from the fact) as shown; of furthermore, we will suppose that the magnitudes and directions of two of Now to determine the other the forces have been detennined somehow. represent the 80 ton force accordtwo, P and Q, completely: We draw AB to tons; then from C, a represent 20 ing to some convenient scale; and BC to mark their intersecP, and to parallel line parallel to Q, and from A, a line magnitudes the represent Q and P respectively; tion D. Then CD and DA must be confluent Q polygon vector closed and, since the arrowheads in the are other possible There DA. direction the P in acts in the direction CD and
We
same
result as the
one explained.
Art. II
41
To
of the three
namely,
o.
2Fx
= ^Fy =
first set
o,
2F^
= ZMa =
o,
or
XMa = SM^ =
for
Taking the
49),
and
(Fig.
we
get
2Fx = Q
ZFy
20 tons
Fig. 49
and Q, we get
P=
10.04 and
=733
tons.
When
Fi/sin
(Fi,
the
system
13
is
/^2/sin
Fa/sin
(Art. 10),
is,
F2 and F3 denote the forces, and a either angle between Fo and F3, /3 either angle between F3 and Fi, and 7 either angle between Fi and F2.)
To
illustrate,
we
in
upon a
cylin
a trough formed by two smooth f inThere are three forces acting on clined planes (Fig. 50). the cylinder; namely, its own weight (100 pounds), and
der which
lies
from the between Fi geometry of the figure that the acute angle = 80, and that = 40, that between F2 and and between Fi and F2 = 60; hence Fi/sin 80 = F2/sin 40 = loo/sin 60, or F, = 1 13.7 and F2 =74.2 pounds.
the center of the cylinder as shown.
* Whenever a force whose sense is unknown is to be entered in a resolution or moment equation, a sense should be assumed for that force and adhered to in the solution of the equation. The correct sense is indicated by the sign of the computed value of that force; a positive sign indicates that the sense assumed is correct and a negative sign that the
sense assumed
is
wrong.
book, by a short line across the assumed arrowhead (Fig. 49). contact, and they exert forces upon each other (equal and t When two bodies are in
the moment.
opposite), the forces are, in general, inclined to the surface of contact, The components of either of the forces men
assumed plane
for
W
'W/////I
and normal pressure respectively. Fig. 51 furnishes the simplest illustration; it represents a heavy body A supported by a rough surface B, and subjected to a push P. The surface B exerts a force R on A (inclined as shown), and
called friction
TrmrmrnTTTmnrrm V^/
Fig. 51
and the normal pressure exerted by B on A. Obviously, this friction is the resistance which B offers to the tendency of A to slide over B. So long as there is only tendency to Experience has shown that the friction is a maxisliding, this friction equals the push P. mum just as sliding impends, and also that the smoother the surfaces of contact, the smaller is the force required to cause sliding, and hence the smaller this maximum resistance to sliding. We are thus led to the conception of a perfectly smooth surface as one
42
Typical Problem
equilibrium and
all
(ii).
Chap,
u
in
system of
coplanar
concurrent
forces
is
To
we might determine
is
resultant reversed
the
also be solved
is,
by means
of principles
To
sion in the
\
52)
1fi\
which a body
a force
is
Uc
W 100 lbs
Fig. 52
as shown.
The
W, P, and
and these three forces are in equilibrium. To solve graphically, we draw AB to represent W, and BC to represent P;
then
call
CA
To
solve algebraically,
6.
we
F and
its
Then, using
^
the conditions
ZFx
\
o and ZFy
o,
we
get
20 cos 30
F sin
=
B
o and P^
100
cos 6
20 sin 30
give
o;
these
91.6
J''
solved
simultaneously
C
yig. 53
pounds, and 6
10 54'.
As another example, we determine the force which the inclined plane (Fig. 54) exerts on the body
jected to a pull
A when
it is
sub
P =
not ensue.
action
The weight
of
(100 pounds), P,
and the
re
R
it,
to the plane,
we
0,
get
20
100 sin 30
+ i? cos 9
and
i^ sin ^
100 cos 30
o.
we get
R =
91.7 pounds,
and
70 53'.
resistance, only
which can
ofifer
no
frictional
normal reaction.
is
course ideal, but there are surfaces which are nearly perfectly smooth.
will call these will
be called rough.
If the surface of contact between two bodies is curved, then we speak of the friction and normal pressure at any elementary portion of the contact, meaning the tangential and normal components of the pressure at that element. If the contact between two bodies is small, practically a point, and they exert forces R upon each other there, then normal pressure means the component of R at right angles to the plane which is tangent to the surfaces at the contact, and friction means the component along that plane. If one or both the bodies is smooth, then any pressure exerted between the two at any point
of the contact
is
Chapter IV.)
* "
Tension in a cord " refers to the forces which two parts of a taut cord exert upon each
other.
Suppose
thai;
AB (Fig.
and imagine a
Art. II
2.
43
Many
upon
in
is
in
service.
To
lo
most beginners.
be solved
in
it
And
yet in
many
stances the whole problem can be resolved into several simpler ones, often
like
problem
(i),
which
may
In this connection
only two
rest.
be convenient to
if
member
it;
of
any device
as a oneforce piece
if
upon
as a twoforce piece
forces
If
act
upon
it;
etc.
is
a twoforce piece
at
must be equal, opposite, and colinear; each force acts in the line joining their points of application, and the reactions which the piece exerts (upon the members which act upon it) also act along the same line.* If a threeforce piece is at rest, then the three forces are coplanar, and concurrent or parallel (Art. lo, 2). If a fourforce piece is at rest, then the resultant of any pair of the four balances the other pair. We now illustrate how to resolve the apparently diflficult problem into
it
Example.
fastened together
consist of
six
pieces
ABC =
100 degrees,
Fig. 55
AB =
stone
foot,
BC =
foot
inches,
CD =
foot,
and BB'
i
feet.
Required the forces which act on each piece when the tongs suspend a
whose weight
A A' =
foot 6 inches.
Apparently, the trigonometric relations between the parts are not simple;
so
we
and
first
we draw
the tongs to
scale.
between the ends of the cord. Since the part AC it at its right end equal and opposite to P';
e.xerted
in
this
exerted
Similarly, there
i.s
AC
is a force acting upon BC at its left end These two equal and by the part AC. and BC together. By magnitude of the tension
meant the magnitude of either of the forces. * Action and reaction are equal, opposite, and colinear if they are concentrated. This is a brief statement of Newton's Third Law of Motion, and it means that when one body exerts a force upon another body then the latter also exerts one on the former, and the two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. By action is meant either of these two forces and by reaction the other one.
44
tongs neglected).
Chap,
The pin
is
is
acted upon
by DE,
DC
and
DC,
and,
as shown at center. The first force equals looo pounds and acts upwards; determination of the other two presents typical probto represent the looo pound force, and from lem (i). So we draw and N lines parallel to the other two, thus fixing 0; then NO and OM repIt follows that DC resent the magnitudes of the two forces (620 pounds). are subjected to end pushes or compressions of 620 pounds. CBA and The first is a threeforce piece, the forces being applied at C, B and A. acts parallel to CD as shown and equals 620 pounds; the second is exerted by the twoforce piece BB', and hence acts along BB'', and the third must be concurrent with the first two and so acts along the straight line through A. Determination of the two unknown forces presents typical problem (i). So we draw PQ to represent the 620 pound force, and lines from P and Q
MN
DC
R; then
QR
RP
that at
(1315 pounds).
BB'
is
I.
to apply
them
to a
common
and
ii
Typical Problem
all
system
the forces except two are wholly known; the lines of action
two are known and their magnitudes and senses are required. method is the better one, by far, for solving the problem. There are two sets of conditions of equilibrium available; namely, (i) 27^ = 1,M = o, that is, the algebraic sum of the forces and the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces each equal zero; and (2) Sifo = 'LMb = c, that is, the momentsums for two different origins equal zero, the line join
The
algebraic
2000\b5. loooibs.
Soooibs.
i
:
/
A
R.
i 7'
The second set is recommended, and the origins of moments a and b should be taken on the lines of action of the two unknown B forces. For example, consider the beam
>
>i<?'M3>i<
^2
represented in Fig. 56 under the action of three loads (its own weight neglected),
^^'^ supported at
Fig. 56
reactions of the
forces just
moment
origins
mentioned constitute a system in equilibrium; therefore, taking on Ri and R2 respectively, and assuming that Ri and R2 act
2000
upwards, we get
and
SMi = 21/2 =
+ 2000 X16 +
X
6
1000 1000
3000
??2
X i?i X
10
10
= =
o,
o.
Art. 12
45
gives Ri =
The
first
$oo
sign means that R2 acts downward on the beam and not upward, as sumed. As a check on the solution we try whether XF = o; thus,
2000
The
1000
3000
+ 6500
500
is
o.
that the force and the string polygon for the forces close; the process of To constructing and closing the polygons determines the unknown forces.
illustrate
we take
First,
the
beam shown
in Figs.
reactions.
should
knowns represented first, thus AB, BC, and CD (Fig. 58) representing the 2000, the 1000, and 3000 pound forces respectively; then the lines of If R2, say, action should be lettered to correspond, ah, he, and cd (Fig. 57). since the force EA, is taken next, it would be lettered DE, and Ri would be
the
^000 lbs
^OOO'"*
2000lb51000lbs.
Fig. S7
Fig. 58
Fig. 59
polygon for
all
must
close.
It
remains
now
to locate
it
may
started at
if it be started at i (on ah), then strings oa and must be drawn through that point; oc must be drawn from 2 (where oh cuts he), od from 3 (where oe cuts cd), and oe from 4 (where od cuts de) and from 5 (where oa cuts ea) hence the closing string oe passes through 4 and Finally, the ray OE, parallel to oe, is drawn, thus determining E; DE 5. represents R2, and EA Ri. Fig. 59 shows another solution; Ri is taken as the fourth force DE\ and R2 as the fifth E'A.
;
2.
We
in
equilibrium, not
of
principles
statics alone,
problems.
A beam
resting
it
necessarily, which cannot be solved by the and are therefore called statieally indeterminate on more than two supports furnishes a simple
ports {A, B,
46
loads.
If
Chap,
and
Rz), with
forces in equilibrium
attempt to solve the equations simultaneously for the three unknowns. Such attempt would fail, even though each
jP.
Pz
equation would be
X
correct,
because
would not be independent there being only two conditions of equilibrium 'Rj IR, 'rj ^<^r ^ system of the kind under consideraFig. 60 tion (Art. 10 under iv) and so the three equations would not determine the three unknowns. Doubters are advised to try to determine Ri, Ro, and R3 in this way in the simple case where the spans and the loads are equal, and the loads are applied at the centers of
I
three
'^
the
the spans.
How may
equilibrium
(a
force system in
is
statically
is
determinate
or
indeterminate?
of this book;
by which
is
is
of the parts
or supports are not strictly necessary for the equilibrium of the structure.
For example,
in Fig. 60
if
one support
beam on
tv/o
supports would,
No
statically inde
terminate problems are given in this book without notice; but the student
may meet
he
is
now reminded
to write out
than there are algebraic conditions of equilibrium for the system under
consideration (Art. 10), with the expectation that the equations
solved will
of con
And
so
it
is
well to
know
the
number
13.
Their use
will
be explained
to
two particular common problems. A system of coplanar nonconcurrent non I. Typical Problem (iv). parallel forces is in equilibrium, and all except two are wholly known; only the line of action of one of these two and a point in that of the other are known, and it is required that these two be determined completely.
The
by means
of
any one
SF, = ZFy =
XM = o;
2i?x
Art. 13
47
For an example, consider the roof truss represented in Fig. 61. It sustains two loads, 3 5, 000 (weight of roof and truss) and 50,000 pounds (wind pressure).
The
wall,
left
end
of the truss
is
merely
rests
on a
SO.OOOlbs
fastened to a wall;
must be
may
be inclined.
Let
be required to determine
the
left
these reactions.
We call
6.
reaction
and the
inclination of
B
Fig. 61
Then
the
first
set of
XMb = +35,000 45 50,000 X (60 cos 30) 2F^ = Bco5d 46,400 pounds. 50,000 sin 30 = o, sin 6 50,000 cos 30 35,000 and 2/^y = 46,400 = o; these solved = 51 54'. simultaneously give B = 40,500 pounds and
equilibrium equations gives
A X go =
o,
or
A =
+B
it
is
unknown
known, to be replaced by two in the form of typical problem Thus, in the preceding example the unknowns would be A (v) (see next page). and, instead of B and 6, B^ and By. After finding Bj, and By, one could easily get B and 6.
force,
whose point
of application
(unknown) components.
Then
the problem
is
The
is
eftected
by drawing the
system
is
force
and
making both
in equilibrium.
To
lb5.
illustrate
we
example.
We
first
ABC
C
Fig. 62
is
and continue
with a
through
The end
to be
determined, then
the righthand reaction.
DA
will represent
To
find
we must
we next mark
OC.
the lines of action of the several forces to agree with the nota
To make
use of the
known
point
tion), the string polygon must be begun at that point. The string oa one to draw through that point (to ab), and then ob and oc as shown.
the
must pass through points i and 4, and so is determined. draw the ray OD (parallel to od), and thus determine D (the intersection of CD and OD).
string od
The Next we
The
force
method
is
R =
known
forces,
P=
the
whose line of action is known, and Q = the force whose point of application is known. Find R, and then imagine the wholly known forces replaced by R; R, P, and Q would be in equilibrium. Now a balanced three force
48
system
is
Chap,
if
intersects P, then
and
if
is
parallel to P, then
is
also.
then determine
1 1
;
P
if
and
from the
determine
and
To
illustrate,
we
and BC (Fig. 63), to represent the two loads; then AC represents the magnitude and direction of their The line of action of R is ac, parallel to AC and passing through resultant R. the intersection of ab and be. (When
of the foregoing example.
we draw
AB
the wholly
50.0001b5.A(
known
is
forces
are noncon
current
it
necessary to construct a
We next R and P,
is
and
Fig. 63
the line
Finally
we complete
Q.
(v).
AC DA
for R, P,
and
Q; then
CD = P
is
and
DA =
2. Typical Problem
parallel forces
in equilibrium,
and
known; only the lines of action tudes and senses are required.*
known, and
their
magni
The
by means
of
any one
SFx = SF =
2M = o;
2/^^
= 2Ma = Mlb = o;
or l^Ma
= ^Ah = ZMc = o.
For example, consider the crane represented in Fig. 64. It consists of a post the post rests in a depression in the floor a. boom CD, and a brace EF; below, and against the side of a hole in the floor above. The external forces acting on
AB,
(8 tons), the
named
(0.8, 0.9,
and
i.i
The upper
two
forces
zontal force on
exerts
the post;
on the post, one horizontal and one vertical. Let it be required to determine the magnitudes of these reactions.
'^^''mwi^
The
then
0.9
entire external
is
Fig. 64
described
the
II
in equilibrium.
and By
respectively,
first
set
equilibrium
equations become:
I.I
A =
9.86;
XFy
2Ma = 8 X 20 = 9.86  A = o, or
10.8 tons.
is
* If the three
unknown
problem
indeterminate.
Art. 13
49
general graphical solution
is
The
two
stand for the three forces whose lines of action only are known.
of these, say
is
P and Q, replaced by their resultant R'; one point in that known, the intersection of P and Q. Then S, R', and the known resultant be in equilibrium, would and the given problem has been transformed forces problem iv. first typical So we determine S and R', as explained in i, to into resolve R' two components parallel to P and Q; these compothen and nents are P and Q. To illustrate, we take the preceding example, and we call the two lower reactions P and Q, and the upper one 5 (Fig. 65). The re'sultant R' of P and Q passes through the lower end of the post. We draw the polygon etons 0.9tons ABCDE for the knowns, and continue
it
The
is
as
yet
unknown end
of that line
to
be
the
FA
will
all
represent
R'
since
polygon for
the forces
must
close.
To
find
F we
must construct a
string
polygon; so
we mark
OA, OB, OC, OD, and OE. The string polygon must be begun at the lower end of the The strings to pass through post, the point of application of FA or R'. that point are of and oa (Art. 6), and so we draw oa to ab; then ob, oc, od, and Now point i is in of, and point 6 is also; therefore of is deteroe as shown. mined. The ray OF is drawn next (parallel to of), thus determining i^; then EF and FA represent 5 and R', as already stated. Finally we draw through
a pole 0, and draw rays
a horizontal; then
FG and GA
represent the
vertical
graphical
method
we determine the resultant R known forces; R and the three partly unknown forces (P, Q, and The special S) would be in equilibrium.
of the wholly
any
pair as
P and Q
and so must be conNext we solve the system R\ R, and S (if concurrent by Art. 11, and if parallel by Art. 12). Finally we complete the force polygon for R, S, P, and Q. For an illusare in equilibrium,
FiG. 66
current or parallel.
50
tration
Chap,
we take
The resultant R of the called P and Q, and the upper one 5 (Fig. 66). The loads is I0.8 tons acting as shown (construction for R is indicated). resultant R' acts through point i; and, since R and .S are concurrent at point 2, R' acts through point 2 also. We now draw the force triangle AEFA Finally we draw for R, S, and R' AE representing R; then EF represents S. lines from A and F parallel to Q and P, thus fixing G\ and then FG represents
,
P, and
GA
The
represents Q.
14.
I.
and (vii). The three following illustrations deal with concurrent, parallel, and nonconcurrent nonparallel forces respectively. (Fig. 67) weighing 1000 pounds is suspended from a (i) A heavy body ring over the center of a street 60 feet wide; the ring is supported by three ropes OA,OB, and OC; A and B are points on the face of a building as shown, and C is a point on the face of a building (not shown) on the opposite side of the street, OC being
Art. 10 under (v), (vi),
perpendicular
to
the face of
the buildings.
ring,
we
is
call
system
concurrent.
in
it,
To
we
deter
forces
use the
sums
of the
com
AA'/OA'=
30 28';
B'OC^ tan'
and
sin
il/
B'C'/0C'=s8
40';
BOB'=
tan"'
BB'/OB'
= 46
11'.
The
X, y,
sin 28
4'= 0.405 L, L
components, respectively, of L are L cos 30 28' 30 28'= 0.507 L, and L cos 30 28' cos 28 4' =
o, o,
0.760 L; of
0.721
M,
M they are cos 46 11' sin 38 40'= 0.4325 M, M sin 46 ii' = and and M cos 46 11' cos 38 40'= 0.5405 M; of N they are
looopound pull they are
o,
N\
of the
1000,
and
o
o.
The
algebraic
sums
of the X, y,
and
components are
0.405 L
\
0.4325
\
\
=0
Solving these
{0.507 L f 0.721 M 1 o 1000 = o, 0.760 L 0.5405 M + iV  o = o. equations simultaneously, we find that L =
846,
M=
792,
and
N=
1072 pounds.
Art. 14
SI
(ii) A body weighing 1000 pounds is suspended from the ceiling of a room by means of three vertical ropes; the points of attachment at the ceiling lie at the vertices of an equilateral triangle ABC (Fig. is the projection 68) whose sides are 10 feet long; of the center of gravity of the body upon the ceiling. The tension in each rope is required. We call the tensions in the ropes fastened at A, B, and C, respectively, L, M, and N. The four forces acting on the body constitute a parallel system; the conditions of Fig. 68 equilibrium for such are that the sums of the moments of the forces about any three coplanar nonparallel axes perpendicular to the The lines AB, BC, and CA are good lines to choose as forces equal zero. axes of moments. With respect to these lines the moment equations are
respectively,
NX
1000
8.66
1000
2.10
o,
8.66
1000
4.15
o,
and
MX
(iii)
8.66
2.41
=0,
Solu
single rail
= 278, and N = 243 pounds. shows that L = 479, shows a velocipede crane. The crane can be run along on a below, tipping being prevented by two overhead rails which guide
a horizontal wheel mounted on the top
of the crane post.
1.25 tons,
and
it is
center of gravity
post.
is
when
is
1^
at
right angles to
toleft
ward the
:
(Fig. 70).
There are
three support
ing
forces
or
reactions,
one
on each wheel.
Since the lower
Fig. 70
rail is level,
the
rails in their
roll,
and there
is
no reaction of the
is
The
rail
directed horizontally
and
evi
dently as shown;
as shown.
We
call
component reactions Ax, Ay, 'Vi Bx, and 5, 'v> and the
upper reaction C.
The
52
consist of the reactions
Chap,
ii
of the crane,
and the
load.
For
noncoplanar nonconcurrent nonparallel systems there are, in general, six conditions of equilibrium, but this system has only five because there are no
" z forces " (see the figure).
The
five conditions of
equilibrium are
(i)
2F,
2i^
1.5
0;
(2) (3)
(4)
(5)
2if^
From
tons,
1. 10
(5) it follows
C =
and Ax =
tons.
2.25 ^tons;
from
and
(3),
that By
1.65
We now
of a
making use
the forces
system
be represented by vectors, then the projection of the vectors on any plane represents a
force
rV
TY
system also
10
in
equilibrium
Fig.
(see
Art.
under
(vii)).
71
yz,
shows
and
zx
From
or
elevation),
=ByX
tons;
10
2.75
o,
By
1.65
and 2ifB = or Ay = 1. 10
1.5
Ay Xio +
tons.
2.75
=
16
o,
From the
xy projec
ZMa = C X
5.625 tons.
X
\
o,
or
C=
From
10
5.625
Plan.
Fig. 71
X 6 = o, = ^i X 10 +
tons.
'ZMa = or Bx = 2.375
5.625
BxX
tons;
o,
erally be solved
method
is
an equivalent coplanar system. This indirect regarded as simpler than the direct one when the forces of the nonof
by means
The two
For one example we use the data of example (i). Instead of ropes OA
y
V
0,/
7H
rB
and
OB
(Fig. 67),
/ r^
/
5A.
and
also
p./
l\/
Ml
same
COC.
Such a rope fastened to and to the Ce N 0' building at would help to support the ring in its place, 8.nd would leave
the tension in
forceSj
Il0001b5.
T
Fig. 72
'
1000,
OC
iV,
unchanged.
Thus the
ring
and the
pull
of the
new rope
force tri
Art. 14
angle,
53
shows that the pull N = 1070 and P = 1460 OA, OB, and 00' in their true relations, pounds. We the imaginary rope into components in pull 1460 the resolve then we and off OQ equal to 1460, and then on lay we Thus ropes. real the along and ON, OMQN; and find parallelogram the complete OQ diagonal the
FGHF,
OM
elevaFor another illustration The requirement is to determine the forces acting at the top of each leg On account of this load, each leg of the tripod due to a load of 1000 pounds. of that leg, and so is under the action of two forces, one applied at each end
tion.
and 790 pounds. we take a tripod (Fig. 73), shown in plan and
those two forces act along the axis of the leg. We imagine a single leg in the plane of any two, and in the same vertical plane with
OD
to replace
OA
and
and OB.
Then
there
would be three
forces applied
by
OC
and OD.
So we
draw a force triangle for these three forces FGHF; shows that the push of OC is GH = 565, and that of OD is HF =650 pounds. Next we lay out
it
650 pounds; then resolve 0"P into two components along the pair 0"A" and 0"B" by means of a parallelogram 0"MPN. Thus we find that 0"M and 0"N represent the pushes of AO and BO,
or 340 pounds.
0"P = HF =
CHAPTER
15.
I.
III
SIMPLE STRUCTURES
Simple Frameworks (Truss Type)
The frames herein considered consist of straight members, and the axes of all the members lie in one plane; such are called plane frames, and the plane of the axes is called the plane of the frame. In order to make the
axes of
to
lie in
of the
one plane, and the truss symmetrical with respect members must be made in parts or with forked For example see Fig. 74, which shows plan ends.
and elevation of a joint of a frame at which four members are pinned together, one vertical (double), one diagonal D (single), and two horizontals Hi and
Hi (each double). Wooden members are generally bolted together with more or less mortising; steel members are riveted together or joined by pins through holes in the members, the axes of pins and holes being perpendicular to the plane of the frame.
All frames here
and, furthermore,
is,
it
is
member
by
and equally
forces lies in
of these
two
member
lies in
by a pin on each Thus all resultant pin pressures will be and we will have only coplanar forces to
We
in that case
and so the
joints only,
we assume that the loads are applied to and in such manner that the line of action of each the pin at the joint. Then each member, if its own weight
54
Art.
is
is
55
is subjected to forces (pin pressures and loads) at its two pin somewhat as shown in Fig. 75 or Fig. 76, where P' and P" denote pin pressures and L' and L" loads. Let R' denote the resultant of P' and L\ and R" the resultant of P" and L". Since R' and R" balance, each acts along
neglected,
holes only,
R'
Tension
?'/
NP"
Compression
'^
"
^nn^ A
^,^___
R'
R"
Fig. 75
Fig. 76
member, and hence each member is under simple tension or parts of the member, as m and n, exert equal and opposite forces upon each other; A (Figs. 75 and 76) denotes the force exerted on m by n, and B that exerted on n by m. Since A balances R' and B balances R" A and B also act along the axis of the member. And obviously, if R' and R" are pushes (the member in compression), then A and B are pushes; and if R' and R" are pulls (member is in tension), then A and B are pulls. And conversely, if A and B are pushes, then the member is in compression; and if pulls, then in tension. By stress in a member is meant either of the two forces which two portions, as m and n, exert upon each other.* We are now ready to explain a method for determining the stresses in the members of a simple truss due to given loads we begin with an
the axis of the
compression.
Any two
Example.
Fig.
equal 60 degrees; it sustains two loads of 2000 pounds each and one of 1000 pounds. First,
it
^^^^I'"*1
\
is
A
/'"
reactions
A and
B.
Since
all
the
external
forces acting
V
\
'
are in
equilibrium,
30
1000
^Ma ^ B X 40 2000 X A/ T X 10 2000 X 20 = o, or5 = 2750 A pounds; and Svlfs = ^ X 40+ 1000 X 30 + 2000 X 10 + 2000 X
20
/"'\ \ \,. / \, \ / V/ / \b \
' 1 i
I
'
,^"^^
^^'
'^'^
^^'
"^
o,
or
1000
= o,
A = 2250. IIF = 2250 2750 2000 2000 which result checks the computed values of A and B.
We now
truss near
direct our attention to the joint A, the small part of A (or " pass a section " about A and consider that
part of the truss within the section), that part (see Fig. 78).
*
and then note all the forces acting on There are three such forces, the reaction 2250
it to designate the forces which any two parts of the same body exert upon each other; that is they use it as a general term for an "action and reaction" (Art. 11). Most engineers, however, use the term in a more restricted sense to designate the force which one part of a body exerts upon an adjacent part at the surface of division. is
The term
stress
defined variously.
Some
writers use
any two
different bodies or
56
Chap,
pounds, and the two forces exerted upon the part under consideration by the
remainder of the truss; they are marked Fi and F2, and both are assumed to
be pulls.*
This part of the truss, as well as every other part,
is
at rest,
and
Fi and Fi presents typical problem (i) method for solving: 'LFy = F2 sin 60
We
o,
2250
or
is,
2600;
is
the
is
the stress
com
SFi
Fi
2600 cos 60
is tensile.
o,
or Fi
= +1300;
ing the forces acting on the part of the truss within the section (or " considering forces at joint 5"),
we
The
pounds and the two forces exerted on the part under consideration by the remainder of the truss; they are marked F3 and F4 and are assumed to b'e
pulls.
= +1588
(tension),
and F4 = 3177 (compression). Next we might discuss joint C, D, or E and determine two more stresses. Fig. 80 represents joint C and the forces acting upon it so far as known. Stress
_
^
^
\
27501bil gyjOibsT
I3p01 b5.
\/ Ny
ZOOollba.
1588^^5.
K
1
1000 lbs
lOOOlbs.l
'
\
1444 lbs
^'=7\ / \
666 lbs.
Fig. 82
31771bs.
2600 lbs.
Fig. 79
Fig. 80
Fig. 81
CA was determined to be a tension of 1300 pounds; therefore the part of CA not shown in the figure exerts a pull of 1300 on the part shown as indicated. Similarly, the part of CB not shown in the figure exerts a pull of 1588
in
pulls.
Solution
= +1444
(tension),
and Fg
= +866
Taking
joint
next,
we
forces exerted
on the joint by the remainder of under a compression of 2600 pounds, hence figure acts on the part shown as indicated;
CD was found
shown
a
pull.
under a tension of 1444 pounds, hence the part of DC not on the part shown as indicated; F7 is assumed to be
ZFx
o shows that F^
it
= 2021
is
(compression);
2Fj,
we
find that
and
all
mined.
If 2Fa;
o and SFj,
is
ceding computations
*
satisfactory.
In simple trusses the kind of stress (tension or compression) in any member is apparent. When the kind is not apparent, we might follow the suggestion in the footnote, page 41.
But
for uniformity
we
is
will
pull.
is
cording as
its
computed value
AxT. IS
Directions.
57
method for "analyzing a truss" (determinmembers) can be formulated into brief directions as follows: (i) Determine the reactions (supporting forces) on the truss if possible. (2) Consider a joint at which there are only two unknown forces, and then determine those two. (3) Repeat (2) again and again until all stresses have been determined. (These directions do not pro\ide for a certain contingency which may arise; see 2 for a case and directions for
foregoing
ing the stresses in its
The
meeting
it.)
We now
Fig. 83 will
be used;
it is
supported at
the
method but omitting the The truss shown in each end, and supports three loads of
by
this
5000
5000 1 lbs.
I
Obviously each
total
equals
onehalf
load.
lbs.
On
joint
action,
and the
AD
and AE)\
we
stress
13,000 tension.
forces
\n
On
load
joint
there
are
four
(the
=^
5000
in
^^'
AD
unknown); solving that system, we find that the stress compression, and that in DC = 12,500 compression.
four forces (the stress in
DE =
joint
DE
E
On
there are
AE =
DE =
EG =
4335
we
and that
in
8667
tension.
2.
We now
how
to
it;
the truss
shown
in Fig.
84 furnishes an
illustration.
aooiibs.
we determine
joint
800, lbs
Then we take
lbs
AB
GF
joint
and
43" to
joint G,
and
find stresses in
and
re
GI
>i<
to be
/e'>l<
(tension)
No
Fig. 84
unknown stresses, and the difiiculty is already met. Now if in some way we could ascertain the stress in almost any other member, then we could continue to apply the rule. For example, if we knew the stress in HB, HJ, or HI, then consideration of joint would determine the two unknown stresses there; consideration of joint B would give stresses in BJ and BC; consideration of joint C would give stresses in CJ and CD, etc. Now there is a way to
o
ascertain the stresses in
Chap, in
those members,
the truss.
Fig,
CD, JD, and HI, hy passing a section through and solving the force system acting upon either portion of 85 represents the lefthand portion and all the forces acting
^
^'"'
^7
/ss
upon it; namely, the three loads, the left reaction, and the forces which the righthand part exerts (^i, ^2, and 53, assumed to be pulls). Solution of this force system presents typical problem (v) (Art. 13). To
determine
Si,
for example,
the intersection of
^
z&oolibs.
^2 and S3
tension.
and
find
Si=
s^
1600 pounds
1200 jibs.
we proceed
In order to determine the stress in any particular member of a truss the following direction may be tried: Imagine the truss separated into two distinct parts (" pass a section " through the truss); pass is one of the members it in such a way that the member under consideration
Fig. 85
cut by the section, and so that the system of forces acting on one of the two parts is solvable for the desired stress; then solve the system for the desired
(The system of forces acting on one part of the truss consists of the loads and reactions on that part, and the forces, or stresses, which the other part exerts upon it. In plane trusses this system is always coplanar; it can be solved if it is concurrent with not more than two unknowns, or if it is nonstress.
concurrent with not more than three unknowns, provided that the three
.
unknowns are not parallel nor concurrent.) Foregoing direction may be applied not only to bridge over the difiiculty
sometimes met in connection with directions in i, but also when it is desired to determine the stress in a particular member quite directly without first computing stresses in several other members. For example, let it be required to determine the stress in BC (Fig. 86), the truss being supported at its ends, span ^ = 32 feet, rise CG" = 8 feet, and five loads as shown. Obviously
1000
lbs.
Fig. 86
Fig. 87
section cutting
BC, BG, and OF gives shown in Fig. 87. The taking moments about the
cos 26 34'
intersection of ^2
and ^3
o, or 5i
(joint G),
we
get
5i
X8X
4000
X
is
16 f 3000
= 5600,
tensile, as
assumed
moment
equation.
Art.
59
3.
Warning
is
all
by the
that
is
to
say,
there are
Only the
plete trusses,
and
redundant members.
is
it
is
Adding two
more members makes a complete truss of two triangles; and each addition of two members as shown extends the truss and
leaves
it
complete.
If
m=
m =
2
number
j
of
= number
truss,
of joints, then
t,.
A
is
Fig. 88
Fig. 89
Fig. 90
pinconnected quadrilateral
(Fig.
it is
89)
it
For an incomplete
truss,
w<
is
27
3.
(Fig. 90)
is
member;
it
member removed.
Figs. 91,
92,
For a truss
with a redundant
member
m >
t,
examples
Fig. qi
Fig. 92
Fig. 93
In the foregoing
it is
each
member can
For a
16.
I.
As
in the algebraic
methods
we imagine the
truss
separated into two parts, and direct our attention to the external forces acting
upon either
part.
The
notation
work described in Art. 2 can be advantageously systemized as follows: Each triangular space in the truss diagram is marked by a lowercase letter, also the space between consecutive lines of action of the loads and reactions (Fig. 94) then the two letters on opposite sides of any line serve to
;
6o
designate that line, and the
Chap, hi
same
magnitude
is
a great
As an
stress in
illustration
each
Fig.
94.
Evidently
onehalf the load, or 2000 pounds. We " pass section " a, and
equals
left
and
closes; in constructing
yl.B is
it,
the
unknowns
will
be determined.
Beginning
drawn
BC
to represent
500 pounds and then a line from A (or C) parallel to the line of action of one unknown, and a line from C (or A) parallel to the other, are drawn. The last two lines determine D (or D'), and the closed polygon is A BCD A (or A BCD' A) hence the forces in the members cd and ad are represented by CD and DA (3000 and 2600 pounds) respectively. It is seen from the force polygon that CD is a push, and DA is a pull; hence the members cd and ad are in compression and tension respectively.
;
B
500 lbs
ba
DFig. 95
>'A
EOOOlbs
3000
lbs.
Fig. 96
We may next pass section (3, and consider the forces acting on the smaller (and simpler) part of the truss (Fig. 96); they are the load 1000 pounds, the
stress 3000 pounds (compressive), and the stresses fe and de. Their force polygon may be drawn thus: DC to represent 3000 pounds (compression),
CF
from
parallel to
last
The
two
lines
DCFED;
by FE and ED (2500 and 866 pounds) respectively. Both members are in compression. We next pass section 7, and consider the forces acting on the smaller part of the truss (Fig. 97) they consist
;
^/a
26001b5.d
^
D
^L a
.2
a
pounds (tension), the stress 866 pounds (compression), and the stresses eg and ga. Their force
polygon
may
be drawn thus:
\? E
pounds (compression), Fig. 97 a line from E parallel to one of the unknowns, and a line from A parallel to the other. The last two lines determine G, and the force polygon is A DEC A;
(tension),
DE
to represent 866
AsT. id
6l
in the members eg and ag are represented by EG and GA and 1732 pounds) respectively. Each member is in tension. On account of the symmetry of the truss and loading, the forces in the remaining members are now known. In drawing the force polygon for all the external forces on the part of a
about a
joint, it will
be advantageous to repre
sent the forces in the order in which they occur about the joint.
force
if
polygon so drawn
the order taken
is
will
and
if
counterclockwise
ABC DA
a clockwise polygon for joint b of Fig. 94; A BCD' A is a force polygon for the "forces at joint i," but it is not a polygon for the joint, because the forces are not represented in the polygon in the order in which the
(Fig. 95) is
forces occur
about the
joint,
joint.
the counterclockwise
ABCDA.
drawn separately as
will
polygons for
It
in the
member
is
possible to
will
mem
number
of lines to
be drawn.
a
stress
diagram.
Such a combination of force polygons is called Fig. 98 is a stress diagram for the truss
shown.
of
the stress diagram consisting of solid lines with Figs. 95, 96, and 97, it is seen to be a combination of the latter three
figures.
It will also
all
a stress diagram.
Directions for constructing a stress diagram for a truss under given loads:
(i)
Determine the reactions. (In some exceptional cases this stage must be omitted; also stage (3). See 2 for two illustrations.)
(2)
(3)
may
or
all
(loads
and
reactions), representing
them
is
which
their points of
(The part
the joints.
On
They must be clockwise or counterclockwise ones, according as the polygon The for the loads and reactions was drawn clockwise or counterclockwise. first polygon drawn must be for a joint at which but two members are fastened; the joints at the supports are usually such. Next the polygon is drawn for a point at which not more than two stresses are unknown; that is, of all the members fastened at that joint the forces in not more than two are unknown. Then the next joint at which not more than two stresses are unknown is con
62
sidered, etc., etc.
Chap,
iii
which
may
it
To
we analyze
Fig. 99;
(000
:s
supported at
its
ends.
draw the
is
Supposing the reactions to have been determined, we and reactions ABCDBF A, at the left; it
a clockwise polygon.
I
We may
it is
joint
pression
and gf
in tension.
FABGF* Member
CDEHC.
is
joint 2, 3, or 4;
Member
ch
is
in
compression
gh
is
and eh
in tension.
If the
For joint
3,
the polygon
correctly
in
is
tension.
line
GH
parallel to gh.
2.
directions.
In case the reactions cannot be determined in advance, the stress diagram can still be drawn if the truss is statically determinate. Fig.
ii
its
in
clockwise or counter
determined at stage
tion of the reactions of the stress diagram.
(2) of
is
The
stress
truss
is
supported by a shelf
Fig. ioi diagram can be constructed by drawing in succession proper polygons for joints i, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The reaction at B is determined by the polygon for joint 5; that at A by the polygon for joint 6.
A and
tie
B.
The
is urged to make sketches of the bodies (parts of truss) upon which the whose polygons are being drawn, act. A force acting upon the "cut" end of a member and toward the joint is a pu'ih, and the stress in the member is compressive; if the force acts away from the joint, it is a pull, and the stress is tensile.
The student
forces,
Art. i6
Fig.
1
^3
02 shows a truss the analysis of which is not fully provided for in the Thus, suppose that the reactions have been determined; the directions. then that for joint i may be drawn first, next that for joint 2, and polygon for
joint 3.
then no
i', 2', and 3' can be drawn; but which there are but two unknown stresses, and so
no more polygons can be drawn, as yet. If in any way the number of unknown stresses at a remaining joint could be reduced to two, then the polygon diagram could be completed. for that joint could be drawn, and the stress then the polygon for determined, be could or ij, jm, in stress mf the if Thus,
joint 4 could be
5, 6, 7,
and
8.
lbs.
1000
I
Ibi.
1000 lbs
1000 lbs.
VA\^
ig
1000 lbs.
Fig. 102
The
difficulty here
I
pointed out
is
direc
be met by means of the direction in 2 of that article, which explains how to determine the stress in a particular member quite directly and independently of any stress diagram or polygons for joints. Thus to determine the stress in w/we pass a section as a,
tions in
may
and solve the external system of forces (including stresses in the cut) which acts upon either part of the truss for the desired stress. proceed with the stress diagram as already pointed out. There ways of meeting the difficulty presented in this form of truss, but
explained
is
members Then we
are other
that here
We
will
now
same
truss.
Evidently
ABCDEE'D'C'B'A 'FA is a clockthe loads and reactions. The polygon for joint i is FABGF; The polygons for is GBCHG; that for joint 3 is FGHIF.
3'
2',
and
and H'G'FI'H'
respectively.
The
on the part of the truss to the left of section and 6, the left reaction, and the forces exerted on the left part This system may be solved of the truss by the right (stresses el, Im, and mf). graphically or algebraically; the algebraic method is much the simpler, arms
forces acting
i, 2, 5,
at joints
from the truss drawing. Thus to ascertain the stress mf, we take moments about the intersection of el and Im, and get 1000 X
64
7.5
Chap, rn
+ 1000 X
mf = 3425
15
+ 1000 X
22.5
+ 500 X 30 4000 X
difl&culties.
30
{mf)
17.5
o,
or
in the stress
Next we represent the stress mf in its proper place diagram at MF, and then draw the polygon for joint 4; it is
(tension).
MFIJM.
Completion presents no
17.
The frames here considered, like the trusses of the preceding articles, are plane and symmetrical with respect to the plane of the frame. For example, the crane represented in Fig. 103 consists of a post MN, a boom PQ, and a
brace
brace
KQ;
lie,
the
boom
consists of
is
and
two pieces between which the post and the its lower end by means of side pieces Like the trusses, these frames are assumed to be pin
forked at
and the
may
include a
member which
pinned to
points;
The result of these conditions is member of the frame is generally not a simple tension or compression, the member being bent as well as stretched or shortened. We will not attempt to determine the stresses in the members of these frames
but limit the discussions to a determination of the forces which act upon each member, the pin pressures, reactions of supports, etc.
In general
the pressure of
of that member.
N
Fig. 103
its
own weight
they are
K nor Q is
axial or else
,
K and Q cannot be axial and then balance W and so neither acts axiaUy. they are parallel, then neither K nor Q acts axially.
In some consideration of frameworks, the weights of some or
all
members upon the frame, and so we may have to do with a. member acted upon by only two forces, pin pressures. On such a member, the pin pressures do act along the
are negligible in comparison with other forces (loads) which act
Art. 17
axis of that
65
member,
and
so
must be
of every force
(magnitude
and
direction) acting
it
of the crane or
loads on
or both.
(i)
The
method
of
procedure
rized as follows:
a sketch of the entire crane, and represent as far acting upon it; apply the appropriate conforces external the all possible as system, and then determine as many of force the to equilibrium of ditions
Make
the
unknowns
as possible.
(2)
Make
a sketch of a
member
or of a combina
tion as they are on the crane, and represent as far as possible all the external forces acting on it; then apply the appropriate conditions of eqmUbrium to
as
many
of the
unknowns
as possible.
other forces remain to be determined, then continue as directed in bearing in mind the law of " action and reaction " (Art. 11). We will
give two examples of analysis employing both algebraic
now
and graphic
methods.
Example (i). We analyze the crane represented in Fig. 103; the crane =18, and N by sockets in the ceihng and floor. is supported at = NK = 3 feet; it bears a load of 8 tons on the boom at PQ = 14,
MN
MP
members
neglected.
Fig. 104
rA
to
66
under Art.
tons; since
13.
Chap, hi
Since
o,
'LMp=
o,
Q=
o,
P^ =
10.67
XFy =
Py=
1.14
Py
acts
downward.
Finally,
P = V{io.6f+
is
10.73 tons,
clination of
all
the forces
may
be
made and
For example, we might have post; or the brace, the boom, and the crane, the boom, and
The student
is
make
the
The graphic method of solving the various force systems may be carried out as follows: The system acting on the entire crane consists of four forces, and so the resultant of any pair of the four forces, as Nx and Ny, balances the other pair; therefore that resultant is concurrent with the second pair and acts in the line 12 (Fig. 105). So we draw the force triangle ABC A for those three
forces
(making
AB
BC represents and CA Next we resolve CA into components parallel to Nx and Ny, and find that CD and DA represent Ny and Nx respectively. The forces on the boom being three in number (the load, Q, and P), they must be parallel or concurrent, and because two (the load and Q) are concurrent, all must be; thus the line of action of
P
is
determined.
So we
may draw
the
force triangle
Floor
W^^p^///////yy////////^^^^^
making
find that
Fig. 106
Example
tration,
For
another
illus
we analyze
It consists
of a hollow post
MN
boom PQ,
\rt. 17
67
and a pinconnected frame KPQ. A single roller is mounted on the pin K, and two on the pin P, so that as the piston moves the frame moves with it, Thus there are twelve parts: a post, a boom, all rollers rolling on the post. two struts KP (one on each side of the post), two ties KQ (one on each side), a pin at P, one at Q, one at K, two rollers at P and one at K. We take the
load as 10 tons and
x=
15 feet,
of the parts.
including the piston, with aU the external 2Fx = o shows that forces acting upon it.
M = Nx,
= and SMat = o shows that and L = post. of (10X15)^^ where h height iV cannot be found from this force system; so The we try the frame with rollers (Fig. 108) the load, the it are external forces acting on
.
and the
result
68
Chap, hi
The
as follows:
Four
forces act
on the portion
of the crane
shown
in Fig. oi
in,
the
CA
The
resultant
L and
R2 acts
line 12.
through their intersection and through that of Ri and the load, hence in the The load, Ri, and R are in equilibrium; so we draw a closed force
ABCA
(Fig. 112);
AB =
10 tons,
BC =
21.4,
and
lOYtons
Fig. Ill
Fig. 112
represents R.
Finally
we
resolve
represent
L and
R2 respectively.
10 tons,
L =
R into its two components; CD and DA There are four forces acting on the boom, 10 tons, the pin pressure P, and that at Q
Q
is
The
first
pair of
forces
named
and
by another
through
a couple and
is
parallel to Q,
We now
and one through A parallel to 12; then BE L and P. Finally, there are three forces acting on the pin at P, namely, R2 (or CB), P (or BE), and the pressure of the braces KP (Fig. in). These three forces being on equilibrium, the last one is represented by EC. Example (iii). We now make an analysis of a crane taking into account the weights of the members. For this purpose we take the crane described in example (i) and assume that the weights of members are as follows: = 0.8 ton, PQ = 0.9 ton, and KQ =1.1 tons. The load is taken, as in example (i),
(Fig. 112) parallel to Q,
represents
Q and AE
MN
so far
from the axis of the post, and the boom 22 feet long. shows the entire crane and all the external forces acting upon it as known. Determination of the unknown reactions M, N^, and Ny
0.9 tons
tons
iVx
8.09;
8.09;
'0.8 tons
10.8.
Fig.
all
115
represents
the
post and
K
8.09^
acting
upon
so far as known.
The
N
lO.O&tons
pressures on
tons
Fig. 114
exerted
by members which
force
not
Fig. 115
two
members,
and
boom and
The
its
sures being
Art.
69
vertical
component. The force system acting on the post contains four unknowns, namely, Px, Py, K^, and Ky. Not all of these unknowns can be determined from a study of this system alone; but two of them, Px and Kx,
can be so determined.
12.13 tons.
Fig. 116
'LMk = o
gives
Px =
12.13,
^^^ ^^x
it
o gives
Kx =
so far as
known.
The
is
is
unknown
represented
by means
of its
(unknown) components.
Determination of the
l2.l3ton5<
0.9
tons
6 tons
1
10.95
tons
pi
12.13
Gl
>l2.13ton&
Fig. 117
unknowns in the force system presents typical problem (v). 2Fx = o gives Qx = 12.13 tons; SA/q = o gives Py = 0.95; and 2F = o gives Qy = 9.85. Ha\ing found the value of Py, we find from ZFy = o for Fig. 115 that Ky =
10.95 tons.
To
is,
acting on the brace (Fig. 117), and then test whether the force system
balanced, that
whether S/^i
o,
XFy =
o,
and
2M =
o.
18.
Cranes.
Continued
is
In
this article
we show how
Generally, a pulley
We assume here that the tensions Ti and T2 (Fig. 118) on opposite sides of the pulley on which it bears are equal. This assumption impHes perfect flexibility of rope or chain and a frictionless pin supporting the pulley.
or chain
The
pressure
those tensions, or 2
T cos ^ a,
2
and
it
bisects
the angle
between their
parallel
lines of action.
o),
If the
(a
P=
T;
if
{a
90),
P=
(i).
Example
at the floor
sists of
1.414 T,
Fig. 119 represents a crane
and a collar bearing on the wall bracket H. The hoisting rig cona simple hand winch mounted on the wall at W, a chain, and pulleys
Pulley at
as shown.
is
12 inches in diameter;
the load
rig,
is
onehalf ton.
The
the following:
On
the entire crane, including the top pulley (Fig. 120), there
70
Chap,
of the chain against the pulley equivalent to
iir
two
components, onehalf ton each, as shown. Taking moments about the lower to be 0.0S7 ton; from SF^ = o and SFj, = o, we find that end, we find
5i
Fig. 119
Fig. 120
Px = 0.413 and Py =
0.5 ton.
All
vertical
HP
1
are simple
GK =
G GJ =
and / show
ton (com
JK =
JP =
ton (compression).
Mem
ber
HP is
KG; a push of 0.57 ton along KJ; and a push of i ton along PJ. Example (ii). Fig. 121 represents a common type of derrick. It is supported by a footstep at the bottom of post and at the top by two stiff legs
the following forces: a pull of 0.35 ton along
^2T
>
""'^W////////////////////'
A
Fig. 121
which extend backward to the ground or other base; the spread (angle between their horizontal projections) being 90 degrees so that the derrick can swing about its vertical axis through 270 degrees. Sometimes the derrick is
Art. i8
yi
off
on the ground. Obviously the pull on a stiff leg is greatest when the boom is in the same plane with that leg; the pull on a cable is greatest when that cable and the boom are in the same plane and on opposite sides of the post. Let P denote this pull, and a the inclination of the cable to the horizontal or the inclination of the line joining the pivot on the post with the lower end of a stiff leg. Then taking moments of all external forces on the derrick about the footstep bearing, we get Ph cos a = Ws, or P = Ws/h cos a (only the weight of the load being taken into account). Calling the horizontal and the vertical reactions {at the footstep H and V respectively, we find that H = Ws/h and V = P sin a = W(i + tan a s/h). There are seven forces acting on the part shown in Fig. 122, which consists of the crane post, the winch W, the two sheaves S, and a part of the hoisting and topping ropes as shown. The forces are: H, V, and P (already explained) Q, the pressure of the boom on the post acting in a direction as yet unknown; ^ W, approximate value of the tension in the hoisting rope; T, which denotes the tension in the topping rope; and 2 T, exerted by the top pulley shackle. Of these seven forces, all except Q and T are already known. To find these we may proceed as follows Take moments of all the forces about the pin at Q, and thus find T; then take horizontal and vertical components, and thus find the horizontal and vertical components of Q, and finally Q itself. The First find the line of action force system can be solved graphically as follows of the resultant R of the two forces T and 2 T; then this R and the other five forces constitute a system in equilibrium, which solve for R and Q by methods explained in Art. 13; finally resolve R into its components T and 2 T. Fig. 123 represents a sheer leg crane. Example (iii). It consists of two front legs AC and BC and a back leg CD, all connected by a horizontal pin
at C;
the ground at
is
A and
,,^^jf
by a
holding
.^^^/^ h
down
works
in a
and a long horizontal screw which nut on the lower end D. The
is
^^^
.^^'^
'=^=~
^.f^^y //
^'^'^^^.^.^
I I
^^
to
move D,
thus
^^^^=s=^..
AB
and
out.
We
will
on the ends
of the legs
taking the following data: lengths of front legs 160 feet, distance between
their lower
ends 50
feet,
of
weight of each front leg 44 tons, of the back leg 53 tons; we take the crane in its position of greatest overhang, 64 feet.
feet,
The
external forces acting on the crane are the following (see Fig. 124):
the three weights, the holdingdown force Dy, the push of the screw Dx, the
A and
_. 72
pins at
Chap, ui
A and B;
is
represented
by two components
equilibrium for
along the
equal zero.
x, y,
There are six conditions of this system, namely, the sums of the components of the forces and z axes, and the sums of the moments about those axes
respectively.
Thus,
(i)
(2) (3)
ZM^=
=  A,\B^ = Ay X 25 +
o
J5^
25
+ 44 X
15
44
15
shows that
Dj,
Ay =
By,
from these
and
(2) it follows
that
Ay and By equal
(3)
83 tons.
No
other
unknowns
shows that Az
A, =
Bx,
and
(i)
that
A^\B^^D^.
V^
44 tons
1
75.8:.^
75.8'^
ze^^^l^^,
tons
l>^r;%7"^'
Fig. 125
Fig. 126
To
leg;
forces acting
on the back
there are four forces, namely, the weight of the leg (53 tons), the holdingdown force Dy (25 tons), the screw pressure Dz, and the pressure of the upper
call
Cx and
Cy
(Fig. 125).
This system
is in
25
151. 6
758 = o, or D^ = 53.8 tons; SF^ = C^  53.8 = o, or and I^Fy = Cj, 25 53 = o, or Cy = 78. Returning now to equations (i) and (5), we find that Ax and Bx = 26.9. To get Az and B^ it is necessary to discuss the forces on one of the front legs. There are three forces, the weight 44 tons, and the pressures at the ends; each of the pressures is represented (Fig. 126) by three components, 26.9, 83, and B^ below, and Qx, Qy and Qz above. The system being in equilibrium, we take moments
D^
1452
+ 53 X
^'
538;
line
through Q; thus 5^
64
26.9
39,
26.9,
Qy
= o, or and Qz = 8.41
20
B^
tons.
Art.
73
in Fig.
The forces acting on the upper pin (at C) are represented means of their components. We now give another solution of the foregoing example,
making use
<
127,
by
if
lb. 2 tons
n
e
equilibrium
75.8'
KJ2'>H32'i
represented
vectors, then
by
the projection of
those vectors on
Fig. 127
force system
under
coordinate planes,
we
End
53.8ton5
*
Elevation
plan.
From
o
elevation,
^Ma =
2i//>
gives
Dy=
2%
tons;
shows that Ay
By]
=
we
and By
83 tons.
No
Z)^
538
53.8,
or
A^ and
26.9 tons.
A^=
For
full
by Tolhausen.
CHAPTER
FRICTION
19.
I.
IV
Definitions
Definitions, Etc.
Thus,, if
resisted
by the
force
second.
(Fig. 129) is
is
exerting
some such
on ^, and the component of R along the surface contact is the resistance which B offers to the sliding Of course
to R;
or tendency.
'W/////^//M^///M/////'//////'
exerts
on
a force equal
is
and opposite
either of
Fig. 129
The
is
component
pressure;
surface of contact
is
called friction,
normal
called normal
F and
respectively.
If the surface of
and normal
ment.
take place.
to the element
is
Friction
Only
4 lbs.
W////////////. '///.^////////A '5
'''//////////////y,
'^6' V///.ii'///////A
YW
YW
Fig. 130
YW
The amount
of the
of static friction
slip.
tendency to
between two bodies depends upon the degree Thus suppose that A (Fig. 130) is a block weighing
is
subjected to a hori
and that the pull must exceed 6 pounds to start the block. Obviously when P = 2 pounds say, then F = 2; when P = 4 pounds, then F = 4; etc., until motion begins. So long as P does not exceed 6 pounds, F equals P; that is, F is passive and changes just as P changes. The inclination of the reaction R also depends on the degree of the tendency to slip. When
P=
NOR = tan^ f^ =
74
11 19';
when
P=4
pounds,
Art. 19
75 t%
NOR = tan'
the friction
=21
F and
it
the angle
NOR
it
obtain
The
friction corresponding to
impending motion
is
We wnll
denote
by Fm,
since
maximum
is
The
two surfaces
corresponding to any normal pressure between the surfaces and that normal pressure. We will denote it by /i; then
= FJN,
or F,
ixN; also,
> nN.
is
The
two surfaces
is
normal pressure and the total reaction when motion (see Fig. 130); then denote it by
tan<^
If
impending.
We
will
= Fm/N;
hence
tan</>
n.
a block were placed upon an inclined plane, the inclination at which slipping would impend is called the angle of repose for the two rubbing surfaces; it will
be denoted by
p.
The
angles of friction
and repose
for
two two
Suppose that
\^
(Fig. 131) is
forces
on act on
is
down
the incline;
its
own weight
is
R of
that
the plane.
is,
Since
at rest,
^^
\ffff^
and since motion impends, the <0^ ^^^ ^^^ angle between R and the normal is the angle of fricand p are equal. It follows, from the geometry of the figure, that tion B may be found in bodies A and for two friction The coefficient of static determine the pull P which and in Fig. 5 on as 130, several ways: (i) Place ^
vertical;
(/).
divided by the weight of ^. Or (ii) tilt B, and which gravity will start A down; then ju equals the tangent of that angle of inclination. In either method several determinaMany experiments have been tions must be made to obtain a fair average. that coefficients of static ascertained been it has and ways, in these made materials, character of rubbing surfaces the of nature the on friction depend reported (Coulomb experimenters Early used. if any be lubricant, kind and of is independent coefficient that the others) and Morin Rennie 1828, 1834, 1871,
A; then
fx
= P
of the intensity of
normal pressure;
and although
this
announcement was
yet
it
But Morin himself pointed out the two bodies influences the coefficient; and
as a universal law of friction.
when
is
Chap, iv
76
They give the spruce. constancy of coefficient for yellow pine and spruce. and pine (i) yellow (2) following for planed or sandpapered
tical
(i) (2)
n M
= =
= =
The
wood
to direction of slide.
o6
to 0.7
0.74
about
^3
o2
0.4
to 0.7
to 0.5 to 0.6
Timber on timber Timber on metals Metals on metals Masonry on dry clay Masonry on moist clay
Earth on earth
o2
oi5 to 0.25
oS^
^33
025 to i.o
clay,
0.38 to 0.75
io
Earth on earth, damp clay Earth on earth, wet clay Earth on earth, shingle and gravel
2.
0.31
0.81 to i.ii
of a
Tractive Force.
surface
<f)
(Fig. 132),
the inclination of
to the horizontal.
P a force applied to the body as shown, 6 being Then the force P required to start the
fxW
body
to
move
is
given by
P=
cos d
Wsm(f>
cos
{d
\
lisind
<f>)
.6
4
V
Fig. 133
w
e
Fig. 132
Fig. 134
Fig. 13s
The
components are
on A are P, W, and the reaction of the plane whose two and (when motion impends) Fm (Fig. 133). Now P cos Q = F, iV = PF Psin0, and Fm = m^V; these three equations solved simultaneously furnish the first stated value of P. The second value can be obtained from the first, or by solving the threeforce system acting on A as repreforces acting
A''
10),
P/PF
sin 0/sin
0);
hence
P=
M^ sin 0/cos
(6
(p).
Art. 19
If the pull
77
is
horizontal
(d
o),
then
P=
/iW.
but not too much, then the pull P required to start the body may be less than "the best angle of nW. In fact the least value of P obtains when 6 = (f),
traction equals the angle of friction,"
is
of the pull
Wsincj).
Proofs follow:
(i)
Evidently
cos
(0
<f),
(j))
is
is i,
or
when
as stated, etc.
(ii)
Or, let
AB
CA
parallel to P,
then
BC
and (and P)
AC he parallel to
will
R; then
represents R.
will
be changed,
be least
(or
when
BC
it
is
per
pendicular to
3.
A body
(j).
And
then
is
BC
P)
sin 0.
supported so that
can
slip
and
is
it is
do cause slipping, and the value of the friction is desired. We assume that the body is at rest, and determine the friction F and the normal pressure
then we compare
F is less than /jlN, there is no motion and the computed value of F is greater than fiN, then there is motion and the friction is
jjlN.
being
of 200
pounds applied
100
to the block at
N=
X
200 cos 30
273.2,
273.2
136.6,
and
offer so long as
N=
is
273.2.
Only
body
at rest under
we may make
which
of jric
two bodies
in contact,
may
(Fig.
136 or 137) denote the resultant of all the forces applied to or acting on the body A (whose
state
is
body B;
between
A and
about
B, and
DOC
equal the
OC
OD
is
does
not
is
no slipping;
is
does
fall
then there
slipping.
Proof follows:
As
i?
on a body, which
init
tends to slide over another, depends on the degree of the tendency; the greater
the tendency, the greater the inclination of
clination has a limit, that limit being equal to the angle of friction,
and
^o
obtains
Chap, iv
when
slipping impends.
it,
Therefore
when
along an element of
then
be.
When P
falls
cannot successfully oppose the component In the preceding example P of P which tends to move the body (Fig. 137). and the applied push pounds, 100 is the resultant of the weight of the block 10 t,2>' '^^'ith or the normal. of angle 200 pounds. That resultant makes an the cone and, inside 26 P falls hence or 34'; The angle of friction is tan"^
friction
according to the principle of the cone, motion does not ensue. As another application of the cone principle consider Fig. 138, which repreIt consists of a fixed sents (in plan and elevation) a type of simple hanger.
vertical rod
is
forked; there
slip
rod on account of
own weight
"SP
Fig. 138
be hung quite close to the fork. The mechanics of the device may be explained as follows: Obviously the rod reacts on the
load unless
it
When
slipping
impends
and O2C2 inclined to the normals an amount as shown. equal to the angle of friction
at
rest
(by supposition), the third force acting upon it must be concurrent with these two
of slipping, the load
must be hung from a point in the vertical through C. If the load is hung out beyond C, as at A, the hanger will not slip. For suppose slipping to would concur impend at Oi, then R at Ox would act along OiCi, and R and at a. To preserve equilibrium, R at O2 must also act through a, which Or suppose slipping to impend at is possible, since O^a is within the cone. would concur at m. To O2, then R at O2 would act along O2C2, and R and which is possible. In m preserve equilibrium, R at Oi must also act through the rod and C, as at between hung similar manner, it can be shown that a load
Friction in
Inclined Plane.
Some Mechanical Devices Let a = the inclination of the plane to the horizontal
body upon
(i)
(Fig. 139), p
</)
it,
coefficient of friction,
W=
weight of the
body, and 6
P and
{6
the incline,
The
pull
is
given by
W sin (a + 0)/cos
4>)
Art. 20
79
10) applied to the three
as can be
forces
shown by means of Lami's theorem (Art. acting on the body {P, W, and the reaction
sin (a
</>)
R
is
of the plane).
Thus
given
obis
4>
Pi/W =
W,
(ii)
+ 0)/sin (90 + 0)
</>
hence, etc.
is
Pi
minimum
</>).
(for
it
a,
and
when
is
<f>;
then
its
value
W sin (a +
For,
is,
vious that Pi
least
when
sin (90
+
is
6) is
greatest, that
when
d.
When
(a
>
vented by a suitable
slipping
down
is
given by
P2
P2
is
W sin {a 6
</))/cos (0
<^).
minimum when
4>).
(iii)
cf);
then
its
value
is
WX
is
sin (a
When
own
Fig. 139
less slip
<
<^),
on account of
is
its
weight.
The push
down down
given by
P3
Ps
is
W sin (0  a)/cos +
{(j>
d).
minimum when
the force
= 0;
then
its
(d
value
is
W sin
(</>
a).
When
P acts
o),
P3 are respectively,
(a W sin COS0
\ (/))
(a W sin COS0
<f))
W sin
((f)
a)
COS(f)
In order that the force P (Fig. 140) may start the wedge in 2. Wedge. ward to overcome the load W, the friction at the three rubbing surfaces must be overcome also. If the three rubbing contacts are equally rough and =
</>
their
common
is
inward
given by
Pi
W tan
(2
f a).
wm/m/m^wm///////?/////
Fig. 140
Fig. 141
Fig. 142
W,
Ri,
M;
also
(= R2), R3, and P acting on the wedge. The angles which Ri, R2, and R3 make with their normal components equal (p, since motion impends, by supposition. In Fig. 142, ABCA is a triangle for the forces acting
the three forces R2"
8o
Chap, rv
on M,
AB
representing
W; and CBDC
is
The given formula for Pi may be derived from these triangles by solving for BD, which represents Pi. From the first triangle (R2 = R2") cos 0/cos (2 + a) /W = cos 0/sin (90   a  0), or R2 = R2" =
on the wedge.
a)/cos 0. Therefore from the second triangle Pi/{R2 = R%") = sin (2 = IF tan (2 a). a)/cos Pj = [R^' = R^") sin (2 If the wedge angle a is less than 2 0, the wedge will not slip out under any
+ +
load
is
is,
the wedge
is
selflocking.
a),
when
T
a a
>
<
(guide at right of
or
W sm
(2
a)
cos a,
when
(guide at left of
M).
(Fig. 143)
may overcome
the resistances
also.
W,
the
must be overcome
If the con
FiG. 143
Fig. 144
Fig. 14s
rough and
their
common
down
is
given by
^1
cot (0
2W +
a:)
tan
,
Fig. 144 represents the forces Q, R\ and R2 acting on the wedge, and the forces acting on and Each of the
reactions
equal to
makes with
AB
representing
ACDA
is
triangle
acting
on the
wedge.
these
The given formula for Qi can be derived from triangles by solving them for DA, which represents
Qu
If the wedge angle 2 a is less than 2 0, then the wedge would not slip out under any pressures even when there is no push Q; that is, the wedge is selflocking. The force
{M and
N guided
above)
is
given by
'^^
Fig. 146
^^
cot (0
a)
+ tan
Art.
20
ol
Fig. 146 represents a simple jackscrew much used for raising 3. Screw. and lowering heavy loads through short distances. In the simpler forms, the screw is turned by means of a lever stuck through a hole in the head H There is frictional resistance between the screw and the nut, of the screw. also between the cap C and the head of the screw, unless the load can turn
= = the cap; load on the arm of P with respect to the axis of the screw; W r = mean radius of the screw,  (ri + ra); a = pitch angle = tan^ (h ^ 2 7rr), = tan^, where m = coefiEicient of friction. Diswhere h = pitch; and
Let
P=
</>
regarding the friction between the cap and head of the screw, the
required to raise the load (or
moment
move
W)
is
given by
Pia
If
TFr tan
+ ).
would not turn the
required to lower the
is less
screw; that
the screw
selflocking.
load (or
move
W)
is
Pia
Jackscrews are always
6 degrees generally.
= Wr ta,n
a).
made
self locking,
With a
PiC
4 degrees and
=
=
6 degrees (m
o.i),
0.18
Wr
and P20
o035 Wr.
Derivation of formulas for Pi and P2: At each point of contact between the screw and nut, the latter exerts a pressure dR whose normal and tangential
component we
(i)
call
dN
and dF
respectively.
rise,
(j)
motion impends, the angle between dR and the vertical is at \ a. Taking the sum of the vertical components of all the forces acting on the screw, and the sum of the moments of all the forces about the axis
;
dF
acts
downward on
of the screw,
we
get
(<!>
W + ^ dR cos
and
Pia
\
a)
=
=
o,
or cos
((t>\
a)'E
dR = W,
(ii?
"EdR sin
(</>
+ a) r
o,
or r sin
((^
f a) (0
Pia.
= Wr tan
acts
0;).
upward as shown at B; and a. when motion impends, the angle between dR and the vertical is Taking the sum of the vertical components, and the sum of the moments
When
dF
<t>
as above,
we get equations which yield the required result. = allow for the friction between the cap and the head of the screw, let n with the coefhcient of friction, and R = the effective arm of the friction there (If the surface of contact between the cap respect to the axis of the screw.
To
82
Chap, iv
flat
and a
full circle,
is
then
R
is
is
mean
radius.)
The
friction
moment
at the
cap
ixWR;
(i) (2)
Pa = Wr tan (0 Pa = Wr tan
(</>
+ a) + fiWR,  a) + fiWR.
Fig. 147 represents, in section, a. journal in Worn Bearing. 4. Journal the contact between the two is in a worn bearing, wear much exaggerated; clockwise and slip, along a Hne practically. When the journal is about to turn angle of fricthen the bearing exerts a reaction R', making an angle <^ (the journal is the tion for the surfaces in contact) with the normal ON; when
about to turn counterclockwise and slip, then the bearing exerts a reaction R" inclined at an angle with ON, but on the other side. If the radius of the journal is r, then the perpendicular from the center to R' and R" equals r sin <^,
(}>
and the
</>
tangent to R' and R". This circle is called the friction circle for For smooth contacts sin nearly equals tan (j> or /z, and journal and bearing. hence the radius of the circle practically equals iir.
the journal
(j)
Fig. 147
Fig. 148
fix upon the line of action of the reand bearing when motion impends; the line is tangent For example, consider the bell crank shown in Fig. 148, the to the circle. journal being i inches in diameter and the coefl&cient of friction 0.3; the requirement is to determine the least force P, acting as shown, which will overcome Q (that is, start the bell crank to turn clockwise), and the pressure on the
We
bearing then.
The radius of the friction circle is f sin tan~^ 0.3 = 0.18 inch. Since there are but three forces acting on the bell crank {P, Q, and R), they
is,
is
and so its line of action is known. To determine the values of P and R, we draw AB to represent Q by some scale, and lines through A and B parallel to P and R to their intersection C; then BC and CA represent the magnitudes and directions of R and P respectively, (Which one of the two tangent lines to take can be determined by trial. Thus, trying ON, the contact between journal and bearing would be at N, and the tangential or frictional component of the pressure on the journal would
Art. 20
83
be as shown, not consistent with the assumed tendency to slipping. Obviously the other tangent is the correct one, and on investigating for the friction we find that such component is consistent component of R when acting at
slip.)
The
force
P which would just permit Q to start the bell crank to turn counterP
Then R would act along the would be represented by C'A. When P has any value between C'A and CA, then slipping does not impend, and the line of action
clockwise could be determined in a similar way.
tangent
ON, and
of
or members,
L (Fig. 149) of a machine or structure is pinned to other parts and there is slipping or tendency to slipping at the pins, then the pressure exerted by each pin on the link does not necessarily act through the
When
a link
center of the pinhole there.
If slipping
line of action of
is
the pressure
is
circle;
and
it),
if
the link
a twoforce
member
colinear
(only the two pin pressures acting on and must act along a line which is tangent
Which one of the four tangents to take in a given case depends upon the direction of the tendency to slipping at each pin, and whether the link is under tenTo ascertain the correct tangent, try any one as the line sion or compression.
of action of the
frictional
two pin pressures R, and then investigate the i?'s for their components to ascertain whether the directions of those components
are consistent with the directions of slip; only one tangent will satisfy all
Fig. 149
For example, suppose that the tendency is for a to increase and /3 to decrease; if the pressures put the link under tension, then the two pressures act along tangent number i at points Ai and A2, and if the pins put the link under compression then the two pressures act along
the conditions for a given case.
tangent number
2 at
points Bi
and
B^.
The
so small
the link as the line of action of the pin pressures so long as the link
at rest
and
of
tendency to
slip.
5.
wrapped.
the cylinder
is
Chap, iv
and P2 may be quite unequal without causing slipping over the When slipping impends, then the cylinder, as may be easily verified by trial. of friction and on the angle of coefficient the on ratio of these pulls depends of friction, a = the angle = coefficient = the pull, the larger wrap. If P2 m system of logarithms = Napierian the of base e and of lap expressed in radians,
the pulls Pi
(2.718), then as
proved below.
For a given value of Pi, P2 increases very rapidly with a as shown by Fig. 151, which is the polar graph of the foregoing equation, P2 and a being the variThe following table gives values ables, e= 2.718, M taken as \, and Pi = OA.
of the ratio P2/P1 for three values of the coefficient of friction
and
for twelve
(Slipping Impending)
Art. 20
85
[ioge
loge
Integration gives
Pj^'
fx
^0j";
hence,
Pie*^.
P2
log.
Pi
^Jux,
or P2
For an example consider the bandbrake shown in Fig. 154. It consists of a rope or other band wrapped part way around a brake wheel W, the two ends of the band being fastened to the brake lever L;
the lever
Obviously any force as and if the wheel tends to turn (on account of some turning force, not shown), then P induces friction between wheel and band. We will now show how great a frictional moment
is
pivoted at Q.
can
Fig. 154
induce.
Let
tension in
moment, P2 = the larger the brake band (on the side as marked
the
to rotate as indicated), Pi
M=
= arm
of P.
= arm of Pi with respect to Q, (h= arm of P2, and Consideration of the forces acting on the brakestrap shows
consideration of forces acting on the lever shows that
is greatest when slipping impends, and These three equations solved simultaneously show that
that
M ={Pi Pi)r;
Pifli
V
Pa =
+ P2a2.
Pi
For a given P,
then P2
e*^.
M = Pa
For example,
radians), r
let
(e'*
i)r
=
(a^e'"'
+ ai).
=
I,
10 feet, n
inches.
=
2
320
tt
(=
5.5
9,
Then a
5
about
and
e*"*
765 footpounds.
CHAPTER V
CENTER OF GRAVITY
21.
I.
It
is
shown
two
fixes
parallel forces Fi
and Fj
A Bin
a,
point
P so that
AP/PB =
This proportion
independent of the angle between AB and the forces, P Therefore ii AB were a rod and Fi and F2 the weights is also, so independent. of two bodies suspended from A and B, then the resultant R of Fi and F2 would always pass through the same point even if the tilt of the rod were changed
slowly so as to leave the suspending strings parallel. parallel forces be applied at definite points A, B, and
Furthermore,
if
three
of a
body
(Fig. 155),
and if R denotes the resultant of Fi and F2 as before and R' the resultant of R and F3 (and so also the resultant of Fi, Fo, and F3), then CP'/PP' = R/F3.
This proportion
fixes
P'
(in
CP), and
it is
ABC.
Therefore
fastened at P, and Fi, F2, and F3 the weights of bodies suspended from
B, and C, then the resultant of the three forces would always pass through
P'
if
the rods were slowly turned about leaving the strings parallel.
of parallel forces
any number
have definite points of application on a rigid body, the resultant of the forces always passes through some one definite point
of the body, or of its extension,
when
the
body
is
The
forces
forces of gravity
parallel force
on all the constituent particles of a body constitute a system having definite points of application; therefore all those
have a centroid.
That
(its
is,
all
the particles of a
body
its
extension,
is
turned about;
Art. 21
this point is called the center of gravity of the body.
ters of gravity of
87
The
many
and methods
for
(or of a collection
which consists
Let
yl,
of simple parts
of gravity
are known.
etc.,
the
X2,
}%
let
Z2,
the coordi
nates of B, etc.
Also
W denote the
Q
its
center
and
x, y, z,
is
the coordinates
of Q.
Since
etc.,
W2, W3,
the
moment
of
W about
Fig. 156
any Hne equals the algebraic sum of the moments of Wi, W2, W3, etc., about the same moments about the yaxis, we get
Thus, taking
Wx =
Wixi
+ W2X2 + W3X3 +
>
from which equation x can be determined. Similarly, by taking moments about the xaxis we can get y. To get z, we imagine the body turned until the and the coordinate axes are assumed fixed to the body, yaxis is vertical,
or,
what comes
to the
same
thing,
we im
become parallel to the yaxis, and then take moments with respect to the xaxis. A name for the product of the weight of the body and the ordinate of its center of gravity with respect to a plane will prove convenient; we will call such product the moment of the body with respect to the plane.* Then the
equations mentioned can be rendered in the form of a proposition as follows:
the
The moment of a body with respect to any plane equals the algebraic sum of moments of its parts with respect to that same plane. (i) As an example we determine the coordinates of the center of gravity of a slender wire 43 inches long bent as represented by the heavy line in Fig. 157.
If the
is
several straight portions beginning at the left are as listed in the schedule
under W.
X, y,
The
2;
and
planes in
*
and the moments of the parts with respect to the yz, zx, and xy the last three columns respectively. The coordinates of the center
not of course have anything to do with turning effect like the ordiline or point). To distinguish these moments, the moment, not very appropriately, however. See also
This
moment does
sometimes called a
statical
moments.
Chap, v
88
of gravity of the
x=
'
177.5
ly ^
43
'
4.13 in.; y
148
^
43
z)
=
F
3.44
in.; z
192
2;
^
43
447 in
Art. 21
89
of the
mainder of a body with respect to any plane equals the moment minus the moments of the parts taken away.
(iii)
whole
of cast
in
As an example, we determine the center of gravity of a cylinder iron (specific weight 450 pounds per cubic foot) with a conical recess end and a cylindrical hole in the other, shown in section y
in Fig.
1
one
59.
The weights of
/"]< 4.'.'.>< 
5 ">\
of
W.
The
and
under x and y
the
moments with
respect to the yz
327.5
26.2)
260.3
pounds; the moments of the piece equal 78,6) = 1353.9 and 2620  (61.5 (205.0
1637.5
314.4)
~
=
therefore,
r
1353.9 ^ 260.3
52,
and y
2244.1
260.3
Part.
Fig. 159
8.6 inches.
90
Chap, v
of gravity to the knifeedge is then the horizontal distance from the center of the center of gravity distances horizontal the W'a/W. In this manner center of gravity located. the and got be can supports from several knifeedge through three plane the from body of a gravity of center The distance of the
points of the
body can be determined if the body can be supported at the points and if certain weighings can be performed as described. Let A, B, and C = dis(behind B and not shown) be three such points of the body (Fig. 161) a
;
tance of
W=
are at the
same
level as
shown
Fig. 161
Fig. 162
and W" = weight recorded by the scale when A is higher than B and C by any amount h (Fig. 162). Then the distance y of the center of gravity from the plane ABC is given by
in Fig. 161,
Va2
'
h^
w'
 W"
a.
Proof:
it
From
get y
follows that
ously
etc.
we
the first position it is plain that W'a = Wx; from the second W"a cos 6 = W{xcosd  ysinO). Solvin g these simultane= {W  W") (a cote)/W; but cot^ = Va  h^ ^ h, hence,
22.
1. Lines, surfaces, and (geometric) solids have no weight, and therefore they have no center of gravity in the strict sense of the term as defined in the preceding article. However, we do speak of the center of gravity of those geometric conceptions; and
surface, or
we mean by
line,
The
(of
or solid
line),
is
and volume
the solid).
and
solids as being
The term centroid has when applied to lines, surnew term is given preference
in this book.
If
a given
line, surface,
apply the principle of moments (Art. 21) to it. Thus, \i the whole materialized line, surface, or solid, Wi, Wi, W2,
of all the parts into
etc.,
the weights
which we imagine
it
divided, x
91
and
the
Wx
PTiXi
+ Wtx^ + Wzxz +
etc.,
W
be
(L, Li, L2, Lz, etc.) or areas {A, Ai, A2, A3, etc.) or
may
and therefore
it
follows
volumes (F, Vi, V2, V3, etc.), from the preceding equations that
for lines,
Lx =
for surfaces,
Ax=
Vx
and
for solids,
^1X1
of
foregoing formulas can be rendered conveniently in a single statement words or proposition by means of a new term which we now define. The moment of a line, surface, or solid with respect to a plane is the product of the
length of the
line,
The
(The
moment
moment with
respect to the
moThe moment of a line, surface, or solid with respect to any plane equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the parts of that line, surface, or solid into which we imagine the whole divided, with respect to that same plane.* The principle of moments can be used to determine the centroids of
planes.)
two
The
proposition or principle of
ments, then,
is
this:
geometrical bodies which can be divided up into parts whose magnitudes and centroids are known. Three examples follow: (i) Let it be required to locate the centroid of the line
all
moments
about
10
OY
o
lO''M
^^^' ^^^
10
15.71
6.366,
or X
4.20
inches.
(ii) Let it be required to locate the centroid of the shaded area in Fig. 164, which represents the cross section of a "channel" (a form of steel beam much
used in construction).
0.40
We
by
5 inches,
its
The
trapezoid from
1. 3 1
The
given by 3 (0.90 0.80) ^ 3 (0.90 0.40) = second column of the adjoining schedule gives the
areas of the parts; the third, the centroidal coordinates with respect to the base
*
to
To
distinguish these
do with turning effects like the moment of a moments, the former are some
92
of the section;
Chap, v
and the
last,
the
moments with
The
dis
7.70 ^ 9.8
0.79
Art. 23
93
quadrant have been taken away; given that the centroid of the triangle is 2 inches from OY and 4 inches from YC, and that the centroid of the quadrant
is
2.54 inches
nates,
from OX and CX (see Art. 24). The appear in the adjoining schedule. moments and
is
The
portion 144 7973 square inches, and the moments of the the to with respect part shaded y and x axes are 864 (72+266.9) = 525.1 = cubic inches respectively. Therefore x = 71.8) 864 494.2 (288+ and
28.27)
525.1 ^ 79.73
(36 +
6.59,
and y
4942 ^ 7973
6.20 inches.
Part
^^^^
''
94
(i)
and
central angle
= 2a
= o.
r cos
(Fig. 167).
The
radius
is
which bisects the central angle is a line of on that line; if that line is taken as x axis, then y
2
The length
(p;
of the arc
ra (a expressed in radians),
dL =
rdcj),
andx =
becomes
2
rax
a
(ii)
r d<f)'r
COS
(I)
=r^
j
fJ a
cos
4>d(t)
r"^
sin a;
or x
(r sin
a)
i
a.
nates.
The preceding problem will now be solved without using polar coordiSince x^ + / = r\ xdx + ydy = o, or dy = (x dx)/y. Hence
dL = Vdx^
and
2
+ ^y2 =
I
gxVi^ xV/ =
wV Cl'Jv
dx r/y
dx rj^/r^
x\
rax
xdL =
2 r
*^ r cos a
r^
=
x'^
r^sina; etc.
(iii)
The
parabolic segment
AOBA
is
(Fig. 168);
altitude
a and base
b. it
be taken as the x
x and y be the coordinates of any point P elementary portion shaded is 2 y dx. Since the area of the segment and the equation of the parabola is 4 ay^ = b'^x, formula (2) becomes
f ab,
abx
Jo
2y dx' X
^ 2
r
=
=
p.
'I
xi
dx
 ba?;
5
Va^o
a.
and
2 ^
ba^
5
ab
3
ordinate
is {xi \
of
them
(infinite);
then the
mean
X2
~\
x^
{
i
n; also, let
Q =
the
and dQ
mean
ordinate equals
fa
+ 3:2+
ndQ
)dQ
JdQx
=
X.
Art. 23
95
The 2 a. radius = r and central angle (iv) Circular sector (Fig. 169); radius which bisects the central angle is evidently a line of symmetry, and so the centroid is on that line. If that line is taken as x axis, then y = o. The
p
area of the sector equals r^cc, a. expressed in radians; dA = pd(f)'dp, where = OP and P is any point in the sector. Therefore formula (2) becomes
r^ax
pd(j)dp X
I J
= =
Jo
j J
pd(j)dp'
cos <^;
and
(v) Conical or
2 r sin
 /^ sin
aj
^
r^a j
pyramidal
solid; altitude
a (Fig. 170).
and the x
pyramid on the
base
the sohd divided into plates or laminas parallel to the base; is called ^, say, then the area of the lamina represented
is
and the
is
volume
formula
of the lamina
(3)
is
dx Ax^/a^.
And
since the
volume
of the solid
^ ^a,
becomes
Aax =
3
r"
I
{dx' Ax^/a^) x
A/a^
f*"
/
x^dx
= Aa^
4
Jo
Jo
Fig. 169
Fig. 171
hence, x
= j a, that is, the perpendicular distance from the centroid to the base equals onefourth the altitude. Evidently, the centroid of every lamina lies on the line joining the apex and the centroid of the base; therefore the
centroid of
(vi)
all
is,
the solid)
lies
on that
line.
r (Fig. 171).
Obviously x
z;
is
given by
I
{dx dy dz)x.
Jo
Evaluating the integral and substituting for
its
value, \
irr^,
we
find that
x=
(2)
^r.
2.
For surfaces, we use formula Surfaces and Solids of Revolution. and select as element the surface described by an elementary part of the
96
generating curve
Chap, v
MN
(Fig, 172).
axis of revolution;
The
and
centroid of
its
axis,
x coorif
dinate
is
the surface of
TT
yds
X,
or
:*;
r j xy ds.
assigned
For
Fig. 172
solids,
we
use formula
(3),
and
Fig. 173
by an elementary part
plane
of the generating
MPN
(Fig. 173)
which
Thus,
is
if
PQqp
dV =
x
axis,
ir
{y^}
its
dx.
Now
in the
and
X coordinate
is
of revolution, then
Vx =
The
will
*
ir
I (yi^
yi^)
dx'X, or
x=yj
{yi^
yi^)x dx.
(yi^
yi^)x dx
These
relate primarily to
the determination of
the area and volume of a solid of revolution; they involve the centroid of the generating curve (i) The first theorem states that the or plane, and are therefore mentioned in this place,
area of a surface of revolution generated by a plane curve revolved about a line in its plane equals the product of the length of the curve and the circumference of the circle described by
the centroid of the curve.
of the curve, y
Proof: Let
MN
(Fig. 172)
be the generating curve, L = length from the axis of revolution, and A = area
Then
A =
2KydL and yL
y dL.
Combining these equations we get yl = L 2 ivy, which is the proposition in mathematical form. (2) The second theorem states that the volume of a solid of revolution generated by a plane figure revolved about an axis in the plane equals the product of the area of the figure and (Fig. 173) be the Proof: Let the circumference of the circle described by its centroid. generating plane, a = area of the plane, y = the ordinate of the centroid of a from the axis
MPN
of revolution,
and
V = volume
Then
from eq.
o
2 Try,
(2), a'y
= j iji yO dx h
(^2
+ yi).
F=
which
is
To
illustrate,
ABC
(Fig. 175)
we determine the area of the surface generated by revolving the circular arc about AC, and the volume of the solid generated by revolving the figure
Art. 23
97
(Fig. 174) rotated about positions of the centroids of the surface
(i)
d(t>;
XY
OX
The
r cos
and
be computed as follows:
y
The area
of the
hemi
sphere
=
(2
rsixKl),
</>,
and ds
IT
^ 2
TT/^)
xyds
sin
J
^ cos (f>d<l)
^r.
Fig. 174
(ii)
Fig. 175
Fig. 176
is
The volume
(t>d(f);
of the
hemisphere
f xr', j2
cos
<{),
r sin
</>,
and dx
r cos
X
3.
f^rr^ )
(js^
o)
(/x
(3 r/2)
cos^
(f)
s\n<f) d(f)
The
graphically or experimentally.
The
graphical
method
Let aaa'a'
be
to be located,
(i)
I
Take
OX and
(ii)
YX' on
opposite
apart,
Project
any width
of the figure as aa
on YX'
OX
as
Q,
intersections
Repeat
(ii)
for other
widths as
a'a' ^
and
then connect
included
by a smooth curve, (iv) Measure the area A and the area A of the given figure. Then A' I is the (statical) moment of A with respect to OX (proof follows), and hence the distance from OX to the centroid is y = A'l ^ A. Proof: Let w = any width of the figure as aa, and w' the corresponding width cc of the derived curve; then
points like c
by
this curve,
the
moment
of
with respect to
OX is
Iw'
y'wdy=
dy
w'dy
lA'.
To determine
stiff
cardboard into
and
by balancing
ABCA about AC. The length of the arc = 10.47 inches; the distance of its centroid from AC = 0.89 inch (Art. 24); hence A = 10.47 X 2 X 0.89 = 58.5 square inches. The area of ABCA = 9.06 square inches; the distance of its centroid from AC = 0.54 inch; hence V = 0.06 X 2 X 0.54 = 30.7 cubic inches. The theorems A = L 2i^y and F = a 2 ttj can be used also for computing y if A and Z,,
tt IT
or
V and
may
be), are
known.
98
24.
Chap, v
Centroids of
(Fig. 177).
Some
is
Circular
{r
Arc
.^JA
the centroid;
is
degree
0.0175 radian);
nearly
the distance
is
also rc/s,
its
where
arc.
than 60 degrees.
When
arc
2 r
is
r/x
0.6366
r.
When
the
a quadrant, then the distance to the center is V'2/x = 0.9003 r, and the distance to the radii OA and
is 2 r/ir is
Fig. 177
Triangle.
The
OB
0.6366
r.
centroid
its
per
pendicular distance from any side equals onethird the altitude of the triangle measured from that side. If rci, x^, and x^ are the coordinates of the vertexes
with respect to any plane and x the coordinate of the centroid, then x
\ {Xx\ X2
T3).
Trapezoid.
The centroid
1
is
on the median
(line joining
= (B6(5
h)a = + 6)' m
{2B
+ h)a
= (5+
siB
2h)a
'
+ b)
Two
(i)
Extend
AE
^C;
BE =
CD, and
extend
CD
so that
DF = AB;
(2)
the intersection of
FE
GH
is
and G2
EF
is
the cen
(i)
AC
and
and G2; divide it into triangles by the centroids Gz and d; the intersections of the lines
(2)
is
and draw lines through the third points as shown; these lines form a parallelogram whose diagonals intersect at the centroid of the quadrilateral.
Art. 24
Sector of a Circle (Fig. 183).
is
99
is
the centroid;
its
I {r sin a) /a, the divisor a to be expressed in radians radian) the distance also equals f rc/s, where s = arc.
;
degree
0.0175
Fig. 181
When
center
is
the sector
is
V2 r/3 r =
r.
4
is
;/3 TT
0.4242
0.6002 r; and the distance to the radii OA and OB is For a semicircle the distance from diameter to centroid
4^/3x =
0.4242
r.
Fig. 183
Fig. 185
Sector of a Circular
Ring
(Fig. 184).
center
is
R^
i?2
sm a
a
y2
the divisor
Segment of a Circle
center
is
185).
The
0.0175 radian).
(?
2 f ' sin^
a
a
12
3^
^=
 r^ (2
where
0.0175 radian).
Ok I a
Fig. 187
lA
Chap, v
its
extremities.
r,
between a quadrant and the tangents The distance of the centroid from the bounding tangents
Fig. i86, included
0.223
to their intersection
Ci and d
XaaX
is
0.315
r.
b)
are
marked
Elliptic
Segment
(Fig. 188).
The centroid
of the
segment
XAAX coincides
the cenof the
segment
YBBY
YbbY
inscribed circle.
Fig.
li
Fig. 189
C is the centroid; its distance from Right Circular Cylinder (Fig. 189). and its distance from the base is a)/h, the axis of the cylinder is \ {r tan
1 ^
_
(^2
^^^2
Q,)//^
When
the base (lower part of Fig. 189), then the distance from the centroid to the
axis
x\ irr, and to the base 30 ^^ The centroid of the surface (not including base) is on Cone and Pyramid. a line joining the apex with the centroid of the perimeter of the base at a distance of twothirds the length of that line from the apex. The centroid of the solid cone or pyramid is on the lines joining the apex with centroid of the base at a distance of threefourths the length of that line from the apex.
is
Frustum
a
of a Circular Cone.
Let R = radius
larger base, r
= radius smaller,
altitude.
The
base
r); r)/iR from smaller base I a{2 R 2 r)/(R \ r); is I aiR The distance from r). from a plane midway between bases i a{R  r)/{R the centroid of the solid frustum to the larger base is
+ Rr + r^).
let
Frustum
of a
Pyramid.
If
and
be
and smaller
bases,
and h the
altitude;
then
base
the distance of the centroid of the surface (not including bases) from the larger Whether the bases are regular or not, let A is \h{R\ 2 r)/(R \ r).
and a
altitude;
then the
lh{A\2
VJa +
3 a)/(A f
Vl^f a).
Art. 24
loi
Obelisk
and Wedge
(Fig.
190).
is
The
AB
\
distance from
ilie
AB
^h(ABhAb\aB}3
li b
ab)/(2
Ab
+ aB
\
2 ab).
o the solid
is
^h(A\a)/(2Aha).
Sphere.
The centroid
(Fig. 191) is
any zone (surface) of a sphere midway between the bases. The distance of the centroid
of
Fig. 190
of a
segment
is
r.
The
f (i
+ cos a) r =
f (2r
h).
Fig. 192
Fig. 193
Ellipsoid.
a, b,
x, y,
and
z coordinate axes,
and
and
c to
is given by x = f ^> 3' ~ f ^> 3^^ 2 = f c. Paraboloid of Revolution, formed by revolving a parabola about its axis. Let h = height of the paraboloid, the distance from its apex to the base, then is
/f.
CHAPTER
25.
1.
VI
ETC.)
Symmetrical Case.
When a cable
the horizontal and spaced so closely it sustains loads uniformly spaced along curve assumed by the that the loading is practically continuous, then the
cable
is
now be shown.
be considered
The symmetrical
first.
case (points
of suspension at
same
level) will
Let
AOB
(Fig. 194)
be
Art. 25
^3
of suspension,
At the points
at that point
is
16
^;V
wa (i
+ ^J
(4)
The
T/wa
ratio (denoted
by n
I.O
in the table).
T/wa =
n=
I04
point,
Chap, vi
AB.
and H' respectively = the two components of T along AY and There are three forces acting on the part AQ,  its load wx, the
The momentsum
origin
any
with
wx x/2
is
V'x
H' (QP)
Q as = o,
or V'x
wx^/2
= H'
(y cos ^
x sin
6).
(i)
This
axis.
To
The forces chord AB: /i under the middle point of the acting on the entire cable consist of the load wa, the tension at A, and that at B. Their momentsum with origin at B is
the vertical sag
and
waa/2
V'a
o;
hence
V^
=
is
wa/2.
(2)
The
forces
on the upper
half
AC
A,
and that at C.
'^'_rf + H'/,cos9 = o;
Substituting these values of
{a x) ^^ a^
hence
ff'
g^
72 wa''
,
(3)
re
tan
d,
or
>
(4/1
+ ^)
4/12
(4)
The
vertical distance of
if
hence
we
let y'
below the chord AB \s y Xxtand; denote that distance, the foregoing equation can be put into
any point as
4/1^
a'
(a
x).
(5)
Art. 25
105
of the slope at
The value
tion 4)
any point
__ =4dy
Let a and
/i
^
JC 8/1 ^.
ax
/3
a
.4
a a
o,
and
(6)
a);
then
tan a
{b\ 4/i)/a,
(b
4/i)/a.
Let Xo and jo = the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola (where dy/dx = o); then
Xo
a{b\ 4/i)/8/i,
and
yo
(b
+ 4/i)/i6/i.
vertical
(7)
Let
and
respectively
the horizontal
and
components
of T.
Then
H=
V=
and
since T^
H"^
\
V^,
we
find that
sin
11
^wi''h'^'ilh'A^n
where
larger;
i
wr
2 wi
J expression
is
sag
ratio fiiWi,
AB = /i
and
^
asec0.
The
last
shows
the tension
6,
made
increases as Wi
Let ai = the length of the Length of the Parabolic Arc AB (Fig. 196). chord AB, Wi = sag ratio /i r ci, and h = length of the arc AB. Also let
ds
is
made
smaller.*
[i
{dy/dx)^f dx.
get
From
(4),
we can
This
last
ds
+ 8wi(i 2J2 i/
1
2 
+ sin
x/a)
>
sec 6 dx.
Now
*
this
equation
is
in
til
the
form ds
2
{i\
X)^secd
2
dx,
sin
where
6].
X=
Let
(1
x/a)
[2 i (i
MN
NO
MO
It
is
and
be parallel
let
re
spectively; then
OMNO
AB, and
/S)
OM
represents
T and NO
represents S.
OR
tan a
OR
cos
tan
= MN,
cos
/3,
or
OR
(tan
a  tan
= MN.
tan 0)
But
OR = T
a = S a
and
MN
= wa = S cos /3
a.
(tan
tan
18).
(6),
we
FiG. 197
r cos a =
wa^l&Ji.
= 5 cos 0.
io6
Unless the sag
is
Chap, vi
relatively large ds
and
X) along the curve (see Fig. 196); hence (i to compared small is that means which
is
i.
nearly equal to
Therefore,
at
all
points,
we may expand
first
(i _j_
X) by
all
few
{i \
Thus we have
as a close approximation ds
iX^X^)secddx,
and
Substituting for
'
(i
+ Z
lX^)secddx.
finally get
(10)
is
If the
approximation made
in the derivation of
formula (10)
not per
missible in a given case, then one might determine the exact length of the cable AB somewhat as follows when a, b, and/i are given: We first locate the
vertex
of the parabola of
vertex will
be found either
which the cable is a part from equation (7). The between A and B, on the cable (Fig. 198), or
A'v
B'">
Tfi^^
Fig. 199
Fig. 198
199).
Then we determine
= i AOA' + h BOB' for Fig. 198, or h = ^ AOA'  \ BOB' for Fig. 199. For example take a = 800 feet, h = 300 feet, and /i = 200 feet. Let Xq and From equation (7) jQ = the coordinates of the vertex.
Xf,
(soo
^^^
+4X
200) 800
8X200
tji^o, ^^
and
Vo
16X200
i1S
Hence the cable hangs as shown in Fig. 200. The length AA' = 1348.6 feet according to (5), (a = iioo and n = 378.5 4 iioo); the length BB' = 530.9
^...250'>k
5S0'
f
><
Fig. 200
feet
according
1348.6
to
(5),
(a
500
and
78.5
500).
Hence
AB =
+iX
530.9
939.8
feet.
Art. 26
107
26.
Catenary Cable.
Symmetrical Case. A chain or flexible cable suspended from two and hanging freely under its own weight or a load uniformly distributed along its length assumes a curve called (common) Let A and B (Fig. 201) be the points of catenary. suspension of such a cable, C its lowest point, Q any other point of the cable, 5 = the length CQ, H = ten1.
points
sion at C,
a.t
T =
tension at
(),
Q,
a.
w =
= H or c = H/w. The forces CQ are H, T, and ws. Since they are in H, and T sin = ws; hence equilibrium, T cos ws/H = s/c. But tan <^ = dy/dx, therefore tan
c
length so that cw
acting on
cj)
(f)
dy/dx
s/c.
Now
since
ds^
dx"^
+ dy^,
{ds/dyY
(dx/dyY
and {ds/dxY
+
(2)
{dy/dxY; also
ds^ _
dyl
Integrating the
c^
S'
_c^
\ s"^
and
s'^
ds
c^\s^
dx
first
is
a constant of integration.
and hence
c^
+
s
S,
or
s
y2 y
(3)
we
1
get
cloge
+
=
^1'^)
sinh~^
(4)
when
=
X
o).
From
(3)
= Ic {e'l'^
c sinh
(5)
To
or (3)
(3)
we combine
(5)
and
(5) so as to
eliminate
5.
Thus squaring
we
get easily
= \c
ie^''^ \ e
^^'^)
X ccosh.
(6)
or
= clog,[^\/(^)'i] = .coshf.
at
(7)
The
slope angle
4>
any point
in
{x,y,s) is
given by
^an<^
s/c
\ if'"
e""^')
sinh {x/c).
(8)
xo8
See equations
(i)
Chap, vi
and
(5).
And from
equations
(2)
and
(3),
we
get
(9)
sin0
It follows
s/y
and
cos0
=
<^
c/y.
sin
= ws and
(9)
that
(10)
T
that
is,
wy,
ing from
to the directrix
OX.
Hence
increases
from
to A.
According
to the definition of c
H = wc.
In passing,
it
(11)
may
T cos ^ = H,
ponent
of the tension at
any point
Q = =
wc, constant
for a given
suspended cable.
As
202),
span
AB
(Fig.
/ =
sag,
and
length of cable
I,
ACB.
Any
two
catenary, as will be
A, X
get
Fig. 202
I a,
tuting in
= f {
Hence
substi
respectively
we
(/
+ ,)2
f\c
,2
+ i;2^
or or or
i
clj=\{lljy\.
1 ^Ic
(3')
(4')
(6')
\a =
and
c sinhi (1 //^)^
cosh (^ a/c),
(//c)
sinhi {\ l/c).
cosh
( a/c).
When
(6').
and / are given (3') gives c, and then a may be gotten from (4') or a and / are given (6') determines c but the equation cannot be only by trial or by some sunilar method; having thus solved directly, determined c, I may be gotten from (3') or (4'). When a and / are given, (4') determines c (solution by trial), and then / may be gotten from (3') or
I
When
(6').
Inasmuch
as these trial
long, computations
on some
In Fig. 203 be facilitated by means of diagrams. for values of the curves marked A give the relation between J/ a and l/a about 1.50. f/a from o to 0.5 and (corresponding) values of l/a from i to For example, let a = 800 feet and / = 160 feet. Then f/a = 0.20, and the corresponding ordinate (over f/a = 0.20) to curve A reads i.io; hence
catenary problems
l/a
may
I.IO,
and
800
i.io
Most
and the load per unit length dition to (3'), (4') and (6'),
in ad
T = w(f+c),
where
or
T/w=f+c,
(11')
T =
Art. 26
109
Most
of these
solved
by
trial only,
unless a diagram
is
available.
strength
required
Here
T/wa = f/a\
c/a.
(11")
This equation and (6') contain only two unknown quantities / and c, and the two equations determine / and c. But they can be solved only by trial.
After/ and
have been ascertained, then I may be computed from (3') directly. in Fig. 203 show the relation between f/a and T/wa.
I.30
MS
1.20
O
1
no
2.
Chap, vi
Unsymmetrical Case
on same
level).
The
The
as
vertex
C may
A and B)
in Fig. 204, or
In either
r
\ \
'^'
o
(lk)a
...rHikOa
ka
Fig. 204
Fig. 205
figure,
and B,b
AC, Most problems in this case as in the symmetrical case can be solved only by a trial method; hence diagrams are practically necesangle between
I
AB
and
arc
AB.
j;;
t^
Tr " "IJIT
rZ"
2"
"2.50
2.00
1.50
:2
1.00
50
Art. 26
of
III
Tjwa
(values at lefthand
margin) for
w =
To
illustrate, let
200
feet, 6
40
pounds per foot. On the curve for b/a = 0.20 feet, / 240 feet, find the point whose ordinate l/a = 1.20 and note in the lower group, we Hence / = 200 X 0.385 = 77 point is f/a = 0.385. of that that the abscissa = upper group, we find the point 0.20 of the (or b/a curve On the feet. Hence T/wa = 0.90. that its ordinate and note whose abscissa is 0.385
2
T"
and w =
200
0.90
360 pounds.*
* Fig. 206 was made from certain of the (more extensive) figures in Mr. Robertson's paper The following is an explanation of mentioned in the footnote at the end of this chapter. a method for the construction of such a figure. Let h = arc AC and h = arc BC (Figs 204. and 205); also let yi and yi = ordinates of A and B respectively, and ka and (t k)a the
abscissas of
A and
B.
Then
for .4, x
in
ka, y
=
(3)
yi
and
h.
Hence, substituting
equations
h; for B, x
r,
(k
i)a,
^2,
we
get
(3')
(^M?r
2!i
and
cosh k c
'
and
=
c
cosh (k
yi',
i)
(6')
of support
or 205), y
\c
\c j
We first assume a value and different values of a/c (say 0.02, 0.04, etc.); then (i) compute values of yjc and y2/c from (6') corresponding to those values of a/c (and k = 0.6); (ii) compute the values of h/c and h/c from (4') to correspond; (iii) compute values of l/c from Finally compute b/a l/c = (/i/c) + (k/c); (iv) compute values of f/c iromf/c = {yjc)  i. from b/a = [(yi/c)  (^2^)] ^ {a/c) (see Figs. 204 and 205); l/a from l/a = {l/c) ^{a/c)\ (See schedule) f/a ;from f/a = {f/c) ^ {a/c); and T/wa from T/wa = {yi/c) ^ {a/c).
This equation,
of k, say 0.6,
(3')
and
(6'),
u
yi/c
Ul
IV
V
h/c
VI
l/c
vn
f/c
VUl
IX
XI
a/c
yi/c
h/c
b/a
l/a
f/a
T/wa
0.6
+ D 0.4
%
S
0.3
^^1
0.
112
3.
Chap, vi
is
If the cable is
suspended from two points at the same level and the sag
to the span so that the slope of the catenary
small compared
is
nearly with a parabola of the given span and sag, and the formulas and re
(symmetrical case)
may
be applied to the
as follows:
That the catenary agrees closely with a parabola can be shown otherwise Expanding the exponentials in the equation of the catenary, we get (6) 1,
pX/c
+
20^
3
and
X ^
C
x^
oc^
c^
2C^
c"*
may
be written
2+^ +
we have
as
close
\
x'^/2 c,
or
x"^
2 c (y
c).
These are equations of a parabola whose axis coincides with the y coordinate axis and vertex c distant above the origin of coordinates. If the supports A and B are not at the same level (Fig. ig6) and the sag / of the cable is small compared to the distance between the points of support, then the slope of the catenary is nearly constant and the load per unit length of horizontal distance is nearly constant {w sec 6, where iv = weight of cable
per unit length, and
k
angle
BAX).
and make computations i, ii, iii, etc., as described; then plot three more curves and 209). Then we repeat for still other values of k. From the three sets of curves (Figs. 207, 208, and 209) we pick out sets of corresponding Thus for b/a = 0.2, we find the values of l/a, f/a and T/wa for the several values of b/a.
0.7 say,
(Figs. 207, 208
Art. 27
113
AB
and sag
/i,
and
may
be ap
stood that
of 2
=
27.
sec
6.
1.
Let
B,
ACB
A and
suspended.
ylC and
BC
the cable can be " laid out" in a drawing, the tencan be determined easily by constructing the force triIf
angle
according to and the two tensions. PQ = respectively) BC and ^C to (parallel QR some convenient scale; PR and graphical avoid wishes to one if Or, BC. and represent the tensions in ^C the trisolving by computed be may T2) and methods the two tensions {Ti give would solution angle algebraically. Such
PQRF
Ti
W cos
/3
i3/sin (a
3)
and
T2
W cos a/sin (a +
/3),
where a and
(Fig. 210).
AC
and
BC make
Fig. 210
Fig. 211
When
cable, the
cable takes up a definite position, but it is not easy to determine the slopes of the segments of the cable and the tensions. The difficulty lies in the algebraic computation.
in Fig. 211.
are
shown
in the figure;
drawn
to scale, but
may
known as yet. Let the inclinations be called a, 13, and 7 as shown; and Ti, T2, and 7^3 = the tensions in OA, AB, and BN respectively. At each point of suspension of a load {A or B) there are three forces acting; at A, the load Con1000 pounds, Ti, and T^, and at B, the load 2000 pounds, T2, and ^3.
sideration of forces at
A and
To cos
i3
of those at
gives respectively
Ti cos
a^
=
Ti cos /3
Ti cos 7
and and
Ti sin
a
/3
Tz sin
/3
T2 sin
h 73 sin
= =
1000
2000.
114
It is plain
Chap, vi
8 cos
+
six
cos 7
20,
and
8 sin
10 sin
j8
12 sin
six
4.
These
equations
jS,
may
unknowns
and 7); the actual solution is not simple. For similar cases with more than two loads, the work of solving the equations increases rapidly
(Ti, T2, Ts, a,
etc.)
Suspended loads can be chosen so as to hold points of suspension {A, B, in certain definite positions. For instance let it be required to deetc., to
We
Fig. 212
value for one of the weights and then compute the values
tension in
is
= 1000 pounds say, then we compute the from a force triangle for the three forces acting at A. PQXP such a triangle, where PQ = 1000 pounds (according to any convenient
Thus taking Wi
AB
scale)
and
PX
and
QX
are parallel to
OA and AB
respectively;
then
XQ
AB.
W2 which
This force
one of which
so
AB.
QXRQ, and
RQ
represents
W2 and
BC.
Finally,
we draw
at C, one of
the determined
BC, and thus find that W3 is represented by SR. Obviously any three weights Wi, W2, and TVs in the proportion of PQ, QR, and RS would
tension in
ligible.
It
is
assumed
in the fol
flat
Then
segment
of a length equal to
Let
ABC
(Fig. 213)
be a cable supported at
middle point B.
span
AC =
2 a,
=2!,
Art. 27
115
length
w,
= W;
problem
is
difficulties.
The equations
Thus
let
of
chord AB,fi
the sag
of the cable
the slope
(6) re
of the cable at
(Fig. 196).
Then according
and
(7'ai/a)aV8/i
(3)
From
(IF, S,
and
S),
it is
plain that
(4)
2Ssin^ = W.
These four equations determine the unknowns appearing in them, d, /i, S, and Thus by division, the last two give tan jS = 4 Wfi/waia; equating the two /3.
values of tan
/S
iZ/.=v/;rM'_,/..
ai
wa
(5)
ai
\ai/
ai
contain only two unknowns, the ratios (a/ai) and (/"i/ai), and the equations determine the ratios. Supposing the ratios determined we may find ai since a is given, and then /i. Exact simultaneous solution of
(i)
equations
but each equation may be graphed and then the coordinates of their intersection would be the desired values of c/ci
(i)
and
(5) is impossible,
and/i/ai.
The converse
of the preceding
problem
is
much
simpler.
It
is this:
Given
ax, the sag/i, and the weight of the cable 2 a, the chord the span give in per unit length w; required the load W. Equations (2), (3), and (4) /.* length the Equation (i) gives succession (3, S, and W.
*
AC =
AB =
University of Illinois Bulletin, No. 11 (191 2) by tric transmission papers by A. Gruell; Transactions American Institute of Electric Engineers, Vol. 30 (191 1),
the following:
Thompson. L. Robertson, Percy H. Thomas, and Harold Pender and H. F. changes. papers contain extensive tables and diagrams, and discuss effects of temperature
Wm.
These
DYNAMICS
DYNAMICS
CHAPTER
28.
I.
VII
RECTILINEAR MOTION
Velocity
a point
and Acceleration
moves
so that
it
Velocity.
call
When
all
is
traverses or describes
equal distances in
it is
said to
call
move
uniformly,
and we
we
nonuniform.
is
By
of
velocity of
moving point
moving,
or describing distance.
To
Any
it is
velocity
that of
light, for
example
but
moving uniformly and describing a unit of length in a unit of time for a standard. Thus, we use the foot per second, mile per hour, etc. The word per in these names of velocityunits is quite commonly replaced by the soHdus sign /; thus, foot per second,
to take the velocity of a point
etc.,
more convenient
In any uniform motion the velocity may be computed by dividing the distance traversed in any interval of time by the interval. Thus, if = the velocity, A5 = the distance traversed, and A/ = the interval of time, then
i;
= As /At.
of
all,
(i)
is
moving
we
all realize.
Not
matter up
example:
In a certain
To
bring
moved through
4
9.3
= =
6
17.3
8
27.4
10
39.6
12
53.4
14
69.4
16 seconds;
3.4
88.0 feet.
Any
regard as the average velocity for that time; thus, in the last 8 seconds the dis
placement
that time.
60.6 feet,
and 60.6
i
7.57 ft/sec
is
placement of 60.6
*
we have
listed
Art. 28
119
At
(sees.)
20
Chap,
vii
in a straight line
by
the guides G.
Let
= =
r/l,
n
co
(assumed constant),
(co
= number = angle in
QOP, and
2ivn), s
varying distance
from
is
its
highest position, 6
to
=
5
describe
angle 6
d (or
/),
Obviously, there
and
{= and
wt
2 irnt).
this relation
we need
When
the crosshead
is
s = {I \ r) CQ T OQ, T OQ according as the crank OP is above or below OX. Now CQ = (/2  r2 sin2 6)'^ = {i  c^ sin^ 6)^, and 0Q= zLr cos 6; hence 5 = (l { r) (i sin^ d)^ r cos 6.
from
equals
+ r;
c"^
t,
we
get ds/dt, or
v;
and
w,
we can
/
2(1
c2sin2
0)V
v for
From
Thus,
this general
let r
formula we
/
any particular
case.
per minute
OPq
say, d
= 30 inches (then c = \), and n = 100 revolutions = = 100 628 radians per minute). When the crank is at 2 (w = 90 and the formula gives v = 6280 inches per minute = 523
10 inches,
tt
The
may
must be regarded as having the same sign that ds/dt has. Now ds/dt is positive when s increases algebraically, and ds/dt is negative when s decreases
algebraically; hence the sign of the velocity of a
is
moving point
is
at
any instant
is
is
the
moving then. sign is When the mathematical relation between 5 and t is unknown, then equation But if (3) cannot be used to determine the velocity at a particular instant. the displacements of the moving point are known for a number of known intervals beginning or terminating at
the
same as that
of the direction in
S
"?
.
^ ^
I I !
i
?
1
average
velocity
for
those
intervals
as
explained
in
the
average velocities
by
iG
219
graphical methods.
Thus,
in Fig.
second.
is
Art. 28
2.
121
Acceleration.
is
is
A nonuniform motion
have acceleration.
if
is
said to be accelerated,
and
said to
If
by equal amounts
motion
uniformly accelerated;
is
motion
nonuniformly accelerated.
meant the rate at which its velocity is changing. To express the magnitude of any acceleration we must compare that acceleration to some particular acceleration as a standard or unit. Any
By
acceleration of a
moving point
is
rate of velocitychange
that
of a freely falling
might
be taken as a unit of acceleration but it is more convenient to take the acceleration of a point whose velocity changes uniformly by one unit (of velocity) Thus, we have the footpersecond per second, the milein one unit of time. perhour per second, etc. And, abbreviating the word per as before, these
2),
mi/hr/sec, etc.*
may be computed
by dividing the velocitychange which takes place in any interval of time by the length of the interval. Thus, if a = acceleration, ^v = the velocitychange and A^ = the interval, then
a
^v/^t.
(4)
In a nonuniformly accelerated motion the rate of change of the velocity is not constant but it varies continuously from instant to instant. To arrive at a
definite notion of the value of the rate or acceleration at a particular instant,
let
us consider an example.
The
and time taken from a "starting test " of an electric street railway car.
t
= =
o o
3 53
77
4
9.9
5
II. 9
6
13.7
8
16.4
9
17.3
10 seconds;
18.0 miles per hour.
2.8
15.2
Any
we regard
as
velocitychange
is
and
13.7 ^ 6
first
second
is
(Obviously a
seconds a velocity
J 22
Chap,
listed
vn
the velocitychanges
etc.;
(under Av)
to 6,
to 6, 2
to 6,
and
same
intervals.
to 6, etc.,
definite limit as
The column
of average
miles per
hour per second. The exact value of the limit is velocity, or the acceleration, when t was 6 seconds. Let Ay = the velocitychange Summarizing now:
At,
linear
Qa
= Av/M.
The true value of the acceleration at a particular instant of the interval is the limiting value of the average acceleration as the time interval is taken smaller
and smaller but always including the particular
notation
instant; or in the calculus
dv/dt
dh/dt\
in
(6)
rectilinear
Formulas (6), respectively, can be used for finding the value of a motion if the relation between v and t or 5 and / are known.
is
any Thus
known
to
move
2;
per hour) always equals onetenth of the square of the time (in
is
o.i
;
/;
then a
dv/dt
0.2
t.
This
is
= 0.6 miles per hour per second. For another example of the use of equation (6), we consider the motion of the crosshead of the crank and connectingrod mechanism described in i.
There we found that
/ V
/,
c sin 2 ^
is
constant,
we
get dv/dt or
2d
\ c^
sin^ d\
0)^
rw^ ( cos 6
f
(ic2sin2
From
we can
/
Thus
as in
10 inches,
30 inches (then c
I),
and n
100 revolu
minute (c<)=27rioo=628 radians per minute). When the crank is at OPo (Fig. 218), then 6 = go and the formula gives a = 410 inches per second per second. For meaning of negative sign, see next paragraph. The expression dv/dt, equation (6), may be positive or negative; therefore a
tions per
must be regarded as having the same sign as has dv/dt. when the velocity increases algebraically, and dv/dt
velocity decreases algebraically;
Now dv/dt
is
is
positive
negative
when
the
Art. 28
123
at
moving point
is
any instant
is
Thus
acceleration
is
posi
By
direction of acceleration
meant the
direc
which
is
When
/
(and
and
/)
are
(6) 2 3
4
6Seci.
velocity are known at stants near the instant in question, then a fair approximation to the acceleration desired can be obtained from the values of the average acceleration
for intervals beginning or terminating at the instant in question, as explained
Fig. 220
Fig. 220 shows a construction for in the example referred acceleration average determining the limit of the Another graphic approximately. limit represents the The ordinate 6 A to.
in
method
is
2.
(velocity
The foregoing explanations of two particular rates Note on Rate of a Scalar Quantity. and acceleration) will now be generalized so that hereafter we will not need to dewhich
will
come up
for discussion.
meant one which has magnitude only, not direction also. An amount of money, the volume of a thing, the population of a city, etc., are scalar quantities. Let X and y denote two scalar quantities which are related to each other so that any change
By
a scalar quantity
is
in
one produces a change in the other. If all equal changes in x produce equal changes in y, then y is said to vary uniformly with respect to x and y is called a uniform variable. If all equal changes in x produce unequal changes in y, then y is said to vary nonuniformly and y
is
called a
If
nonuniform variable.
a uniform scalar, then the graph which represents the relation between x and y is a straight line obviously, as for example in Fig. 221 where ji and y2 respectively denote values " The meaning of "rate of y with respect to a; of y corresponding to xi and X2 (values of x).
is
or "a;rate of y "
is
it is
x.
The
Thus,
if
computed by dividing any change in y by the corresponding change in x. Ax and Ay = corresponding changes in x and y {x2  Xi and y2  yi), and r = xmte
is
of y, then
Ay/Ax.
is,
Evidently r
is
all
values of
x,
that
is
constant.
Fig. 221
is
a nonuniform scalar then the graph which represents the relation between x and y which correline, as for example in Fig. 221 where vi and y. represent values of y spond to xi and x^ respectively. Any change in y divided by the corresponding change in x
If
is
a curved
124
is
Chap,
called the average rate of y with respect to x for the range xi average xrate of y for the range Ax (= x^ x\) in x, then
Ta
vii
commonly
X\.
Thus,
if
fa
^yl^x.
the chord
rate
is
represented by the
slope of
AB,
for tan
BAC =
^y/^x.
limit
amount
It approaches
a definite value as Ax
is
is taken smaller and smaller, xi approaching .vi for instance. taken as the true or instantaneous rate of y at the value y = yi{oix = xrate of y at any value of y, then
This
X\).
Thus,
dy/dx.
The
xrate of y at y yi is proaches A, that is, by the slope of the tangent at A. By means of the foregoing formula, we can determine the
represented
by the
^5
as
ap
.xrate of
In case we do not know the precise relation between x and y, that is, the equation y = / (x). this equation but do know values of y corresponding to several values of x, then we can de
termine the xrate of y at one of the values of x approximately. This approximate value can be obtained from the average rates for ranges of x which begin or terminate at the value of X for which the rate is desired as already explained in some of the preceding examples.
In the Features of a Motion Determined by Integration. disvelocity from the preceding article we showed how to determine the velocitytime {vt) law. the tancetime {st) law, and the acceleration from The process, in each case, is one of differentiation. By means of the reverse process, integration, one may determine the sl from the vt law, and the vt from the at law. We explain further by means of examples. Suppose that a point moves in a straight line according to the law v = dot
3.
+ 4.
In
all
ds/dt, or ds
=
s
v dt;
hence
\
in the
present instance, ds
(60
+ 4)
dl.
Integration gives
^ot'^
^t
+ C,
where C is a constant to be determined from "initial conditions." Let us suppose that s is reckoned from the place where the moving point is when t = o,
or that 5
5
when
is 5
=
f^
o;
and

C, or
C =
o.
Hence
limits,"
the
st
law
30
+4
I
/.
We
/
thus
Jds =
(60
+ 4) dt,
=
s
30 /2 f 4
/,
t/O
and
initial
will
line
cos
t,
initial
conditions being v
=
t;
when
sin
In
all
dv/dt, or
= o. dv = adt;
/ /
hence, in this
instance,
(initial)
dv
=
z)
cos tdt.
Integration
v
gives
/
+ C.
we
Substituting the
find 4
simultaneous values of
and
in this equation
+ C,
or
C =
4; hence
sin
f 4
is
we get
rdv=
t/4
r COS
t/0
tdt,
or
sin
t.
Art. 28
If
125
the
as law
for a
motion
is
by
integrating v dv
(dv/ds)
V.
=
^;
dv/dt
{dv/ds)
(ds/dt)
= 25
+ 3,
initial
conditions being
10
when
I
(2 s
4;
then
or
vdv
{
7,)ds,
^v^ =
s"^^
^s
22,
+ C.
and hence ^
v^
equation give
C =
s^
+ 35+
22.
And
in
any
rectilinear
motion
vdv
ads
where
Vi
^ {v^
v^),
when s = Si and 5 = ^2 respectively. = = ds/dt can be used to get "time." These dv/dt and v The formulas a = = {i/a) dv and dt (i/v) ds; hence by integration can be written dt
and
V2
 dv,
V,
and
^1
ds.
V
vi
Js^
for v to
These respectively give the time required s to change from Si to ^2. Let a Uniformly Accelerated Motion.
change from
to
V2,
and
for
is reckoned, and moving point from the origin at that instant. (Sometimes Vo and So are called initial velocity and initial distance, respectively.) Since a is constant, integration of a = dv/dt gives at once v = at\ Ci, and from the initial conditions (v = Vo when / = o), Ci = Vo, hence
eration,
So
and
Vo
at
{ Vq.
(i)
From
ds/dt
at
{
Vo
we
find
So
and the
initial
conditions
{s
=
5
by when
I a/2
integration that s
t
+ C2,
(2)
=
Vot
o)
make C2 =
So.
So',
hence
=
(2)
+
=
Eliminating
between
(i)
and
we
find that
v^
vo"^.
2a(s
If the initial velocity
v
So)
(3)
and distance
o,
then
at,
at^,
and
as
v^.
(4)
student
Although uniformly accelerated motions are important practically, the is advised not to make a special effort to memorize the foregoing
(i, 2, 3,
formulas
and
But,
if
he
will
memorize them,
then he should also remember that they are for a special motion, constant
acceleration.
motion nonmathematically
in the following
example:
somewhat
as
126
Chap, vii
tance would braking stop the train from 40 miles per hour, supposing the
retardation to be the
same at
all
velocities?
formly, the average velocity during the reduction from 40 to 20 miles per hour
equals onehalf of 4c
(=
0.303 miles)
is
0.303 ^ 30
= 0.0101
The time
average velocity during the stoppage would be onehalf of (40 f o) = 20 miles per hour or 29.3 feet per second, the distance travelled in the 72.8 seconds
would be
29.3
72.8
2133
feet.
29.
Motion Graphs
The
represented nicely
by
distancetime
(st)
is
a curve drawn
"upon"
and
t,
where
the time
elapsed from some instant of reckoning (usually taken at the instant of starting),
=
16 Sees.
some
Fig. 222
in
graph
is
proportional
to ds/dt
and
any point
of the
some
The
slope
inch of ordinate
inch of abscissa
10 seconds,
= =
100
(feet)
^10
(seconds)
8 seconds,
h BC
AC =
0.54, is
is
per second.
by
a slope scale,
we might determine
drop a pertangent
in the
measure
CA
and CB according to the proper scales and compute the ratio BC h AC (as measured);
this ratio equals the desired velocity.
in Fig. 222,
Thus,
Fig. 223
and
*
27
Several instruments have been devised recently for drawing a tangent to a plane curve.
A very
simple one
It consists of
a metal straightedge
with a por
OB
Art. 29
127
velocitytime (vt)
The
is
a curve drawn
upon a pair
V
any point
test
and time
/.
The curve
I05ec&,
Fig. 224
mentioned
The
slope of the
vt
graph at any
point represents the acceleration at the corresponding instant. To actually determine the acceleration from the graph, the slope must be interpreted by
proper scale or be computed in a manner analogous to that explained in the Thus, at the fifth second, the acceleraforegoing under distancetime graph.
tion
is
AC =
=
2.5
seconds
and
CB =
4.8 ^ 2.5
the curve " (between the curve, the time axis, and any two
by
Proof: Let
m=
velocity scalenumber
and n
is
second)
Thus,
vt
X and y be the lengths (inches) of the coordinates of any point P of curve (Fig. 225) then the corresponding values of v and / are my and nx.
let
;
the straightedge
mirror.
random but so that a portion of the curve is reflected from the and the curve CO are not smoothly continuous; there is a cusp at C. But if the instrument be turned about C until the cusp disappears, the curve merging smoothly Having located the into its image, then the straightedge A is normal to the curve OB at C.
is
laid at
The image
CD
normal at C,
it is
The
is
the basis of
Wagener's derivator (see Gramberg's Tcchnische Messungcn) by means of which the slope of a curve at any point can be read directly, without drawing the tangent or normal. An autographic form of (mirror) derivator has been devised by A. Elmendorf (see Sci. Am. Suppl.
for Feb. 12, 1916).
Guillery's
"aphegraphe"
full
is
first
another instrument for drawing a tanf^ent to a plane curve. be fitted to the cuive before the instrument proper can be
applied.
.\pril,
For
Mem.
1911, where
M.
how he
and
128
Further
let
Chap, vn
h and k
;
3C2
and to
Si
and
52,
the
values of s (space)
and
A =
area.
/^j
1
,
Then
A=
ydx =
rkv
I
dt
r'2
/
vdt
S2
S1
mn
Hence
and
{mn)
s^
Si.
{mn)
is
Thus,
in Fig.
oneinch ordinate
20 miles per
hour
Fig. 225
seconds;
29.3
(feet
per
second)
directly
(seconds)
146.5 feet.
The
area
may
be interpreted more
scale
of
ordinates (hence equal to the average velocity for the time interval)
by the
=16
is
10 seconds,
feet.
The
accelerationtime
{at)
is
curve
any
/.
and
Vi
V\=
adt
Jh
(see
preceding
article).
To
be computed
in
a manner
The
upon
velocitydistance {vs)
is
a curve drawn
of the
any point
senger train.* The subnormal at any point of the graph represents the acceleration at the corresponding instant. For, any subnormal as BC is
given by
^C
tan
BAC =
a
preceding
article
=
a.
dv/dt
{dv/ds) {ds/dt)
=
200 400
vdv/ds; hence
BC =
To
actually
determine
60O
800
1000
Fig. 226
proper
scale,
For
Fig.
1000 feet
one inch
50'
r
0.19
13,150 miles
The subnormal
297.
BC
* "Airbrake Tests
Westinghouse."
Page
Art. 29
129
600
A (when the train had made from the place where braking began) was 0.72 X 3.65 = 2.63 miles
(as) graph for a rectilinear motion
is
The
accelerationdistance
a curve
any point on or simultaneous, corresponding, values of a and s. "Area the graph represent under the curve " (between the curve, the 5 axis, and ordinates ai and a2)
drawn upon a pair
of rectangular axes so that the coordinates of
change
o^
ai
or
^2
^i.
is
given by
ads
vdv
^ {v^
v^).
motion
is
a curve drawn upon rectangular axes so that the coordinates of any point
on the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of i/a and v. "Area under the curve" (between the curve, the v axis, and ordinates i/ai and 1/C2) represents the time required for the acceleration to change from
ai to 02, or velocity
from
Vi
to
V2
is
given by
k.
^dv=
I),
dt=
Jh
kfor
The
a rectilinear motion
IS
curve drawn upon rectangular axes so that the coordinates of any point on
the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of i/v
and
5.
"Area under
represents
I
and
from
ordinates
i/i'i
and
i/v^)
sec.
to
V2.
is
given by
tu
t^
Example.
mechanism
is
to be de
sec.
in
whose accelerationtime graph is shown There are three distinct Fig. 227. In the first and laws of acceleration.
last
quarter seconds
the
16
acceleration
feet
is
per second
I'A
F
^/8
"z
per second;
in the
% %
sec.
from 16 to from
48;
and
48
to 16.
Preliminary
to the design
we proceed
i^o
to do, but
first
Chap,
vii
we
mately.
During the first quarter of a second the velocity changes uniformly, and the change is i6 X j = 4 feet per second; and if the initial velocity is zero, then OA (Fig. 228) is the velocity time graph for the first quarter second.
Since the velocity changes uniformly in the
velocity equals  (o f 4)
first
the quarter
=2X5
^ foot.
way
interme
In the second quarter the acceleration varies uniformly. The average acceleration for the interval from  to t^ second is 8 feet per second per second;
hence the velocitychange for that interval is 8 X yV = 2 foot per second, and the velocity at / = /^ is 4  ^ = 4.5 feet per second, and B (Fig. 228) is a point
The
portion
In a similar way, C, D, and intermediate points AD is curved, and the average velocity
any interval cannot be ascertained so simply. But estimating the average ordinate for the third eighth of a second to be 4.4, then the displacement for that interval is 4.4 X  = 0.55 feet, and C (Fig. 229) is another point on the
distance time graph.
approximately.
seconds by this
In a similar way we might determine other points Determination of the graphs for the third and fourth quarter method presents no difficulties, so we pass on to a second
quarter, dv/dt
initial
is
16, or
dv
16 dt; hence v
v
^
accordance with
o,
conditions assumed,
=
v
o when
C=
V
and
z;
= =
16
first
quarter.
From
that equation
we
s
/
find for
ds/dt, ds
vdt
16 tdt,
and
= Sf +
o;
Since
initial
conditions assumed, s
o when
=
/
hence
C =
and
is
the equa
From
that equation
we
I, 5
I as before; at
= i
5
/,
 foot; etc.
80
/
256
/) (//
or
t'
80
 256  128
equation of
f C.
AD
(Fig. 227);
hence
/2
is
ing,
Continuthe equation of the velocitytime graph for the second quarter. ds/dt = 80 /  128 /2  8, or 5 = 40 /^  42I /^  S / h C; but S 2
/
when
I,
hence
of
C =
of the distancetime
The equations
in a similar
= 40 /^  42! /^  8 / f is the equation f and 5 graph for the second quarter. the graphs for the remaining quarters could be obtained
,
way.
in
gration;
fall
(and corresponding value of v or s) which does not within the period to which the equation under consideration pertains.
use no value of
are
rtRT.
30
131
For
a
For
c
z;
= =
/2
10
16 16, 5=8/216/+
= =
8.
time graph for a rectilinear motion; in the first six seconds a = 4 feet per o second per second, in the next ten seconds a
and
4ft.persec.persec.
in the last 8
seconds a
1
6 sees.
16 sees.
24
231
it
graph,
O
6 sees.
I6secs.
velocity.
24
shows
dis
the
corresponding
tancetime graph,
initial
D IE
\(
Fig.
233
vs
shows
graphs;
72
IF
1
the
as and
M
240'
Fig. 233
>k96'>l
OGHJ
is
the latter.
30.
I.
One
If a point moves uniformly Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.). along the circumference of a circle then the motion of the projection of that point on any diameter is called a simple harmonic motion. Obviously the
projection {Q)
moves
to
and
and
diameter twice while the point (P) in the circumference, goes once around. By amplitude of the s.h.m. is meant onehalf the length of the path of Q, equal
to the radius of the circle,
'^y frequency oi the s.h.m.
of
to
number
of excursions of
is
By
meant the time required for one complete to and fro oscillation of the moving point Q, equal to the time required for one excursion By displacement of the moving point Q is meant its of P around the circle.
distance from the center of the path;
it is
according as
on the positive or negative side of the center. Let us now consider a simple harmonic motion to ascertain approximately Suppose that the circle (Fig. 235) to be the path of P, and the its nature. The yt (spacetime) and the yd vertical diameter, say, the path of Q. graphs for the motion of Q can be constructed very easily. We mark any
is
number, say
tively
and
shown.
we lay off any convenient length oT to represent oT into sixteen equal parts numbering the points Finally we project points o, i, 2, etc., of the circle upon
132
the verticals through the corresponding points
projections are on the yt or yd graph.
o,
i,
Chap, vu
etc.,
2,
of oT.
These
The
any
hence the
_2/'
Art. 30
133
Since cos 9
gests
sin (d
\
^ir), v
m sin
(5
tt).
v sug
an easy method for drawing a vd graph, showing how the velocity varies with d, and hence with /. First we draw an auxiliary circle with radius equal to 2 Trn according to any convenient scale; divide the circumference into any convenient number of equal parts, as sixteen; and number the points of
division as in Fig. 236, that
is
On an
Fig. 236
we lay
off
oT
to represent 360,
number
etc.,
represent 6
22^, 6
45, etc.
Finally
we
project points
o, I, 2, etc., of
through points
2,
etc., of
oT.
v9
graph, for the coordinates of any point on the curve are corresponding, or
simultaneous, values of d and rw sin
tt)
or
v.
Inspection of the vd graph verifies what was said about the acceleration.
It
rapidly
when V
is
is
the acceleration of
vd
is
V (Fig. 235) changes more path than when near the center; hence greater near the ends than near the center. Since the
its
graph
also a
vt
The curve
is
steepest
when 6 =
90
and 270 (when V is at the ends of its path), and horizontal when = o and 180 (when V is at the center of its path); hence again the acceleration is greatest at the ends of the path, and zero at the center. When the moving point V is approaching the center of its path from either side then V is getting up speed, and hence the acceleration of V is directed toward the center; when V is receding from the center, then V is slowing down, and hence the acceleration is directed toward the center. Therefore the acceleration is always directed toward the center.
A general
time
/.
will
let
now be
derived.
We
take
the motion of
and
cct.
the acceleration at
any
Now
dv/dt, v
rco
cos0,
and dd/dl
co;
hence
(2)
a=
These are (general) formulas
Since sin
gests
rorsind
ror sin
for a in
tt),
terms of d and
rw" sin (d
\ ir).
respectively.
sin {6 for
This
last
formula sug
an easy method
134
6,
Chap,
also with First
vii
and hence
t.
we draw an auxiUary
with
any convenient scale; divide the circumference into any convenient number of equal parts, say sixteen; and number
radius equal to rw according to
Fig. 237
them
is
numbers
in Fig. 234.
we
lay off
OT
to represent 360,
On an and subetc.,
OT
numbering as shown;
represent d
22^, 6
45, etc.
Finally,
we
project points
2, etc.,
of
the circle horizontally to meet the corresponding vertical lines through points
o,
I,
2, etc.,
of the
Hne OT.
These points of meeting are on the ad graph, any point on the curve are corresponding, or simulta(6 \ir),
or
a.
In Fig. 238 the foregoing described distance, velocity, and acceleration graphs are superimposed; the solid curve is the yd graph, the dashed curve the
vd
is
Fig. 238
Fig. 239
Time dated from the instant when Q was at the positive end of its path. We might continue to regard the s.h.m. as taking place in the vertical diameter It will be more of Fig. 235, reckoning time from the instant when P was at Y.
convenient to consider the motion of the projection of
diameter; then
on the horizontal
we measure
and
as before.
It is easy to
show that
x=rcosd = rcoso:t;
Time dated from
let 6
v= r(j}sm6=
the instant
when
some intermediate
point.
Let
(Fig. 239)
as Pq,
and
= PoOP
and
= XOPois
angle of lag
s.h.m.
when Po executed by V,
J
below OX.
Now,
(0 f e);
XOP =
a
+
r(j?
co/
e.
In the
r sin (^
e)
rco
cos
sin (0
+
+
e).
ZT,
z;
r cos (0 F e)
rw sin
(5
e)
a=
to? cos (0
e).
Art. 30
135
These Formulas jor Velocity and A cceleration in Terms oj Displacement. do not depend on the way in which time is reckoned. Referring to the foregoing formulas we see that
V
0}
Vr^
co'^s.
s"^
=
y.
ior
Vi
{s/rY,
where
s.h.m.;
The graph
it is
0:
Vr^
s~
is
an
ellipse.
Fig. 241
jection of
shows that graph for the motion of the procircle. When P is where indi
H
is
is
represented
co5 is
it is
a straight
is
represented
by
HA.
if
Hi
136
Chap,
vii
The
As n
(i, 2,
and
3) are simpler
rate, as will
be shown.
length of crank,
r/l,
co
= number
(assumed constant),
by crank per
its
t
unit time
(co
2 ttw), s
the varying
d
position
=
as
angle 6
{Q
oit
2 wnt).
It follows
figure,
s=
Now
And
(i
{l\.r)
I
c^ sin^ 0)2
is
l{i I c^ sin^ 6
\,
c"^
sin2 6)^
r cos 6.
\d^ sin^ 6
etc.
(binomial expansion).
since c
we have
as a
/
good approximation
c^
Ui and
c2 sin2 0)^ 5
=
=
(i
r (i
cos 2
d),
(i)
v (velocity of
Now
if
we
crosshead),
co,
the
r(ji
(sin
+ ^ c sin 26).
is
(2)
Differentiating again
constant
6).
we
get dv/dt or
(3)
ru)^
(cos 6
s,
{
cos 2
is
moving
toward the crank, and positive acceleration a means that velocity toward the crank is being added to the velocity. In order to furnish a comparison between the foregoing approximate formulas
of Art. 28,
we
32 for a
Art. 30
137
To
180,
and
rw (i
c).
C is approximately simple harmotion resembles the motion of Q (Fig. 243) which is a In Fig. 244 we have marked nine corresponding posiLength of Rod Length of Crank
Q and
are
0,
C.
points O,
I, II,
sponding positions of C. In the lower part of Fig. 244 the paths of Q and C
(with the points i, 2, 3 and I, II, III, marked upon them) have been brought
m
t>
w
?
V
~
o
yi
It
is
seen
VUVlll
00
by
00
05 "
o Q
00
;;
00
Q and C
of
in
any
 J. //.//. 5
Fig. 244
7 8
is
The
sponding to
And we
more nearly
is
simply harmonic.
To
arrive at a
of the
motions of
ing to equations
243)
(2),
and
s
(3).
The
r (i
variable distance
we
will call
then
cos
6).
/,
we
Q
(5)
rcc sin 6,
and
differentiating again
we
9.
eration of
Q
a
ro}"^
cos
(6)
Now
compare (i) and (4), (2) and (5), and and (6) and note that the formulas for (3) the motion of C contain an "extra " term. Each of these terms depends on c (= r/l),
or on the "obliquity " of the connecting
rod
Fig. 245
(maximum
of
line
stroke
OC).
in
The
smaller c
(the
longer
crank), the smaller are the extra terms,
the
rod
comparison with
the
nearly
is
the motion of
and so the longer the rod the more the crosshead a simple harmonic one.
138
Fig. 245 presents a
Chap,
vii
C and
the
motion of Q.
the second.
The
Vc
is
lines to
the velocitydistance
{vs)
graph and Ac
the acceleration
Vq
and Aq
for
is
The graphs
i
^ 3).
For
31.
The preceding
upon the moving bodies. In this article we explain in what manner any recmotion of a rigid body depends upon the forces acting upon it. In Art. I. First View and Form of the Fundamental Principle. 2 it is explained that the units of force most used by engineers are the socalled gravitation iinits, equal to the earthpulls on certain things called standards of These units have slightly different values at different places; thus weight. we have the London poundforce, the New York poundforce, etc. Some writers define the poundforce as any force equal to the earth's attraction on the standard pound weight at London or at sea level in latitude 45, thus making the unit force invariable or an "absolute " one. Besides these units
word weight is used in at least two But we will continue to 4). use it in a single sense, to connote the earthpull on a body, and we employ a separate word (mass, see 2 of this article) to connote the amount of substance Our two weighing devices, beamscale and springscale, or stuff in a body. A beamscale measures differ in a certain feature which is worth noting here. the weight (earthpull) of a body in terms of the local unit of force, say the pound force for the place where the weighing is done; a springscale measures the weight of a body in terms of an invariable unit, say the particular pound A beamscale will not detect the force for which the scale was graduated. change in the weight of a body with change of place because the magnitude of the unit (pull on the poise) changes just as the weight of the body changes.
In Art.
2,
we explained
senses in
common
springscale
if
of place.
Firsthand knowledge of the relation between motion and the forces acting on the moving body must rest on observation or experiment. Let us consider The motion takes place under a simple case of motion, that of a falling body. the action of the weight of the body and the resistance of the surrounding air. But if the falling body is quite dense, the air resistance is negligible compared to the weight until the velocity becomes quite large. Observations have shown
that such a
body
falls
we
infer that
any
Art. 31
139
if
to inquire
what
is
the effect on a
body
of
an applied force of
some other magnitude, say a force equal to double its weight or onehalf its weight? If we could intensify or dilute the earthpull upon a body by a
(gravity) lens or screen, then
we
could
make a body
fall
from
its
by observing the
Unfortunately for our purpose, we cannot so concentrate or dilute the fall. gravity but we can dilute it indirectly by means of an "Atwood maof force The essential parts of that machine are a chine," designed for that purpose.
light pulley P mounted on a smooth horizontal axle (Fig. 246), some blocks of metal which can be suspended as shown by a light flexible
cord,
for getting
the acceleration of
and
B when
the
the system
is
allowed to move.
Neglecting the
we regard A and
in
as
difference
their
weights
Wa) as the driving force. Experiments with this machine show that A and B move with constant acceleration, all and when runs are made with various driving forces
(Wb
then
^^^
.,
to the
driving forces.
In
it
this
made very
small but
cannot be
made
force
It
acceleration relation stated holds even for driving forces larger than the weight
body moved; and we assume that when any forces are applied successively so as to make it move in g, straight line, then the accelerations are Or, if F and F' = the magnitudes of two proportional to the forces respectively. forces applied to any body in succession, and a and a' = the accelerations
of the
to the
same body
respectively, then
F/F'
If
a/a'.
IF
F/W =
a/g, or as
it is
more commonly
written,
F = (W/g)
is
a.
force.
When
it is
upon
a single force acting in the direction of the acceleration (proved in Art. 35).
to the line
of motion;
sum
of the
components of
on
the
is
body along
any
Thus,
if
the path
taken as an
z
X axis
and two
axes, then
SF=o, 2F, =
where SPx, "^Fy, and llF^ stand
and
^F, = R,
sums
of the x, y,
and
com
140
ponents of
all
Chap,
vii
Furthermore, as proved
K=
J?
W ^^ a.
(i)
Any
g
unit of force
may be
used for
and
W in equation
is
and
a.
When
then, strictly, the numerical value of g used should correspond to the "locality " of the unitforce used. That is, when one
used
(i),
for
is
implying the
New
As
York poundforce
New
York.
already stated, the variation in g is negligible in most engineering calculations, and we generally use 32.2 feet per second per second or even 32 for simplicity.
may
be used in equation
is
(i).
to be preferred in place
Examples.
ing on
it
in a straight line
and
if all
known so that R can be computed, then the acceleration can be determined easily by means of equation (i). If the acceleration is known then we can determine R easily, and from R we can find out something
are
surface
5 by pounds, P =
a pull
acting as shown.
body being dragged along a rough horizontal Suppose that the body weighs 100
40 pounds, and the friction resistance = 10 pounds. We will A and the normal component of the force exerted
B.
between
A and
The
forces acting
on
N de20
B on A,
component.
N + 40 sin
i?
100, or iV
86.3 pounds.
40 cos 20
10
27.6.
Equation
(100
r
32.2) a, or a
/b3.
_/o
1^
40,
lbs.
Fig. 247
2.
Fig. 248
Fig. 249
Fig. 250
by a
pull
equal to 50 pounds;
body being dragged up the rough inclined plane A weighs 60 pounds and the coefficient of
A and B is I. We determine the acceleration. Three forces act on A, namely the weight, the pull, and the reaction of B. The last force is represented by two components (TV and F) in Fig. 250. Resolving at right
friction for
we
get
N=
we
60 cos 30
get
7?
52
13
hence
F=
^2 ^
4=
1^ pounds.
50
60 sin 30
pounds; hence
(60 ^ 32.2) a, or a
Art. 31
141
passenger elevator gets up speed at the rate of 4 feet per second
3.
A certain
per second, and can be stopped at the rate of 8 feet per second per second. We discuss the pressure on the shoes of a standing passenger weighing 160
The
is
forces acting
on the
is
man
are his
own weight
shoes (upward).
upward, hence
R = P 160. Equation (i) becomes P 160 = (160 P 180 pounds. During the next period, constant speed,
During retardation the acceleration
fore
4.
is
32)
X4 o and
gilso.
20, or
160.
There
R=
160
P=
(160 h 32)
P=
120 pounds.
determine the reaction of the car (Fig. 251) on A during the period of getting up speed at the rate of 2 feet per second per second; A weighs 1000 pounds. We suppose the floor of the car so rough that A does not slip. There
We
are
two
forces acting
on
the pressure
of
the floor.
on
path,
we
P
^
cos 6
2.
(1000
^ 32.2)
X
=
Solving these
we two simultaneously we
pounds and
(The horizontal component of P is friction. To must be rough enough to furnish such a resistance.)
150
Ibi,
^31
Fig. 251
lOOOIbi
^6'>i.
Fig. 252
Fig. 253
142
pressure;
Chap,
vii
get iV
we
and F = friction. Then resolving forces normally to the = M^ cos a; therefore F = ijlN = /AV cos a. Resolving along cos a) = {W ^ g) a, or get R = W sina F = W (sin a cos a) a = g (sin a
/jl
(J.
path we
the path
If the
2.
plane
is
perfectly
smooth n
o,
and a
g sin a.
Physi
cists avoid the (common) double meaning of the word weight by employing the word mass to connote amount of material, substance, or stuff, in a body,
and weight
this book.
on the body. Such usage is followed in measured in different ways; for example, Hquids generally by gallon, earthwork by cubic yard, cloth by square yard, brick by thouBut mass means amount of substance as measured sand, iron by ton, etc. by a beamscale. Our standards of mass (commonly and legally called " standards of weight ") are the pound and the kilogram. These are certain pieces The mass of a body, of metal preserved in London and Paris respectively. measured as just explained, does not change with change of locality, and this
to connote the earthpull
Material
is
is
in
The
accordance with our conception of material, substance, or stuff. forceacceleration relation, F = (W/g) a, can be put into an alternative
form which is preferable from some points of view. Thus suppose that two bodies whose weights at the same place are Wi and W2 are subjected to equal forces F; let g = the acceleration due to gravity at the place and ai and a^ = the accelerations produced by the two forces F. Then F = (Wi/g) Ci
Wi/g)
02,
or
ai/a2
= W2/W1.
two bodies are proportional
to the
That same
is,
the accelerations of the two bodies are inversely as their weights at the
place;
and
weights (at the same place), the accelerations of the two bodies are inversely proportional to their masses. This relation and that between the accelerations
produced
in a
body by two
be expressed in
to
make
it
move in a
directly
straight line,
to the
proportional
to the
force
and
mass of
body inversely, or a
^F ^
m.
This proportion
F = Kma,
where
i^T
is
for expressing
magnitudes of F, m, and
the value of
a.
This
is
mentioned.
We may
at pleasure,
fix
any two
of
(i) choose units of F, m, and a and deduce the value of X; or (2) choose a value of K and units for the quantities F, m, and a, and then deduce the proper unit for the
in
two ways:
third quantity.
On
plan
(i)
we
poundmass, and the foot per second per second as units for F, m, and
and
Art. 31
143
then determine
The motion
feet
32.2.
of a falling
falls,
such a one.
say 10 pounds
then
F=
10 pounds,
m=
about 32.2
X"
10
322, or
K=
(i)
i
On
plan
(2)
we take
and then
choose
and a at pleasure, and deduce the proper unit of F; or (ii) choose (i) Physicists units of F and a at pleasure, and deduce the proper unit of m. second per second as unit per centimeter and the take the gram as unit mass,
units of
of acceleration; then the corresponding unit of force
{K =
i) is
such a force as
gram an
(ii) If we take the pound as unit of call this force the dyne, unit of acceleration, then the corresecond as per second per force, the foot
They
= i) is such a mass which will sustain an acceleration second under the action of a force of one pound. per second of one foot per This unit of mass has no generally accepted name, but it is sometimes called
sponding unit of mass (K
"engineers' unit of mass," also "slug "
and "geepound."
called a systematic set of units,
also a
A
or
set of
is
kinetic set.
We will
F=
ma,
when
several forces
in a straight line,
(2)
R=
where
a
ma.
For a
falling
body
R=
W and
(3)
g;
thus
when systematic
W = mg,
Therefore
or
m=
W/g.
R=
(W/g) a as in
i.
To
and
(force)
A body whose mass is one gram, falling at under the action of a force (earthpull) of one Paris gram, and has an acceleration of 981 centimeters per second per second. Hence a force of 0.001019 (= I H 981) Paris grams would give to a body whose mass is one
tion in the case of a falling body.
Paris, falls
gram an
that force
Therefore
is
dyne
is
London, falls under the action of a force (earthpull) of one London pound, and has an acceleration of 32.2 feet per second per second. Hence a force of one London pound would give to a
one pound,
32.2
slug
32.2
pounds (mass).
CHAPTER
32.
I.
VIII
CURVILINEAR MOTION
Velocity
and Acceleration
moving point
at a
Velocity.
In
common
rate at
parlance, velocity of a
certain instant
means the
is
So understood, velocity has magnitude and sign only, and is therefore a scalar quantity. In the preceding chapter (on rectilinear motion) we used the word
in this sense; in the present chapter
we
use the
is
word
in a
broader sense
so
that
it is is
moving
is
point
moving point from some fixed origin measured along the path, then the magnitude
of ds/dt for that instant.
of the velocity at
V
Or
if
magnitude
of velocity,
ds/dt.
(i)
If the
is
point
constant,
interval At.
is moving uniformly, then the rate at which distance is described and is given by As/^t, where As is the distance described in any The direction of the motion at any instant (and the direction of is
moving point at that instant. To illustrate, imagine a lofoot wheel mounted on a horizontal axis which points north and south, and suppose that the wheel
is
south.
When
is
tt
180
and
is
this usage.
The magnitude part of a velocity is called speed by some writers; we follow Thus in the preceding illustration the speed is 5655 feet per minute;
is
changes in direction.
2.
is
Acceleration.
its
The acceleration of a moving point at any instant changing then. velocity not speed V deis
If
notes the (varying) velocity of a moving point and v the (varying) speed, then
the definition states that the acceleration
as
is
dv/dt.
the rate most readers are unfamiliar with the rate of a vector quantity chapters in most books on differential calculus deal with rates of scalar quantities only we explain in considerable detail just what is meant by the rate ot
Inasmuch
144
Art. 32
H5
first
we
Hodo graph.
point varies.
This
is
how
the velocity of a
moving
It is constructed
by laying
off
and then the free ends of the vectors are joined by a Thus, suppose is the hodograph for the motion. that A BCD (Fig. 256 ) is the path of a moving point P, and that the vectors at A, B,C, and D represent the velocities of P when at A, B, C, and D respecIf 0'A\ O'B', O'C, and O'D' (Fig. 257) are drawn (from any point O') tively.
successive velocities,
smooth curve.
The curve
bed
Fig. 258
Fig.
256
from
to D.
The increment
P moves from /I to D say is represented by the vector A'D' magnitude and direction). The change in the speed = length O'D' (The hodograph should not be confused with the speed time length O'A'. The latter is represented in Fig. 25S where ab, he, and cd represent the curve. times required for P to move from A to B, B to C, and C to D respectively, and the ordinates over a, b, c, and d represent the speeds 2XA,B, C, and D.)
1.8
2,0
2.2
2.4Secs.
Fig. 259
Fig. 260
Fig. 261
We are now ready to explain the meaning of rate of change of velocity; we base our explanation on a simple case of curvilinear motion. Suppose that a point P starts at Q (Fig. 259) and describes the circle shown in such a way that
the distance traversed (in feet) equals double the cube of the time after startRequired the acceleration say, when t = 2.4 ing (in seconds), or 5 = 2 t^.
seconds, or
of the
5
2.4^
27.65 feet.
The curve
in Fig. 260
2.6,
is
the hodograph
motion
from
1.6 to
146
in question.
s
Chap,
viii
It
2t^,d
s/20 (radians)
was constructed from the adjoining schedule, computed from = 2.865 ^ (degrees), and v = ds/dt = 6 P.
(sec.)
Art. 32
147
The
the limit of the directions of the average acceleration, and obviously this On the original drawing the angle limit is the tangent to the hodograph at '.
between this tangent and the horizontal is 24 degrees. For emphasis by contrast we will determine the way in which the speed changes during the motion under consideration. Speedincrements are listed under Ho in the schedule; average rates of change of speed for the respective
timeintervals are listed under A17 A/.
The
as A^
taken smaller and smaller but always termmating at / = 2.4, is about 28 feet per second per second, and this is the rate at which the speed changes
is
(dv/dt) at
2.4 seconds.
Let
AB
(Fig. 262)
O'A' and
P when
and
respec
Then
vector A'B'
the velocityin
crement for the interval A/ while P moves from A to B; (chord A'B') ^ A/ is the magnitude of the average acceleration for the interval,
is
the direction
^^^ ^^^
of the (instantaneous)
passing
A] and the
as
is
Now hm
(chord A'B')
^
A^
lim
(arc A'B') i A/ graph at A', and s' is the distance of P' (the point in the hodograph corresponding to P) from any fixed origin on the hodograph; and the limiting Finally, direction of the chord A'B' is the tangent at A'.
ds' is
the acceleration of
to the
is
to ds' /dt
and
parallel
to
tangent
to the
hodograph
P' corresponding
P.
is
gent to the path but always toward the concave side of the path. It may be noted also that since the velocity of P' equals ds'/dt and is directed along the
is the
s'
same as
(distance
by the scale of the hodograph diagram. As an example of the use of our final result, that the acceleration of P is given by the velocity of its corresponding point in the hodograph, we determine the
acceleration of a point which describes a circle at a constant speed.
(Fig. 263)
Let
be the point,
and
the speed of P.
The
hodograph
is a circle whose radius equals v\ A' corresponds to A and P' to P; and hence A 'O'P' equals 6. We measure the distance 5 (traversed by P) from A, and s' (traversed by P') from A'. Then s'/v = s/r, or s' = sv/r. Now
148
the velocity of P' equals ds' /dt
is
Chap, vin
(ds/dt) (v/r)
v'^/r,
is
and the velocity of P' OP); hence the directed from P to O and
magnitude
is v^/r.
The method
to
Why
Fig. 263
method developed at length? To make plain the meaning of acceleration in curvilinear motion and particularly to show students,
in
in
and
is
is
Thus
in the preceding
v^/r,
example
it
was found
o since v
whereas dv/dt
was found that the acceleration is directed along the normal to the path. In the motion discussed at length (where 5 = 2 /^), it was found that the magnitude of the acceleration when / = 2.4 seconds is about 66.5 feet per second per second; but, smce v = ds/dt = 6 f, dv/dt =
12
t
28.8 for
2.4.*
33.
I.
Components
of Velocity
and Acceleration
like
Components of Velocity.
and
s)
Velocity,
For our purpose components parallel to axes are most useful; such components are called
Note on Rate of Change of a Vector Quantity. We shall have to deal with the rates of Therefore we now generalize our notions on the rate
of this vector quantity (velocit}') just arrived at so as to prepare for the rates of these other
p, in
Let OA, OB, OC, etc. (Fig. 264), represent successive magnitude and direction, vector OB representto,
OB
to
at time
to
OC at time /s,
to
t^,
etc.
the intervals
t^, ti
tz, /i
etc.,
are represented
etc.
The average
be found by dividing the change by the time; thus for the interval /i to tt the average rate = AB r (^2 /i),
of these
intervals
may
this rate
is
= AC
i
{tz
/i)
For the interval t\ to is AB. and the direction of the rate is AC.
which the average
Fig. 264
{t2
In general, both the magnitude and the direction of the average rate
of a vector
rate
is
taken or computed.
ti,
By
is
say,
meant the
AB
^
/i)
(ti
as
^2 is
taken
limit
and
closer to
r {t2
ti.
AB
is
/i)
The magnitude of this limit = limit of chord AB h = dS/dt where dS = elementary portion of the arc
to
ti)
the direction of
the hmit
Imagine a point
p at each instant.
velocity of
move
in the
curve
AD
OP
The
velocity of
P=
dS/dt and
direction at
any instant
is
tangent to
is
(the
moving end
of p).
Art. ss
149
Axial Components.
parallel to the x, y,
i'l
Let
v^, Vy,
x,
y,
and
v^
and
P
(i)
and
dx/dt,
dy/dt,
v^
dz/dt.
These formulas state that each axial component of the any instant equals the rate at which the corresponding coordinate In the following derivation of the forof the moving point is changing then. mulas we assume for simplicity that the path of the moving point is a plane
(Proof follows.)
velocity at
curve
in the
xy plane; proof can be extended readily to include the case of Let P (Fig. 265) be the moving point, v = the
magnitude
of the velocity of P,
and a
makes with the x axis. Then v^ = v cos cos a. = dx/ds, and sin a = dy/ds; hence
a,
and
Vy
v sin a.
But
ds/dt,
ds dx
dx
"'"dlTs ~Tt'
^"^"^
'"'~
Fig. 265
Fig. 266
For an example, we determine the x and y components of the velocity of a point P which moves in the circle of Fig. 266 according to the law 5=2 t'^, s (This is the motion discussed at length in the being in feet and / in seconds. = 20 cos preceding article.) It is plain from the figure that x = 20 cos
(5/20)
20 cos
(o.i^^);
i)x
hence
20 sin
zj^
(o.i/^) 0.3 1
= 6f sin
{p.if).
4 sin (0.8 radians) = 24 sin 45.8 = The negative sign means that the component of the 17.2 feet per second. In a similar way it can be shown that velocity is directed toward the left.
When
seconds, say,
= 6 X
Vy=
Other Components.
is
tangent to
its
hence, the tangential component of the velocity equals the velocity itself, and the velocity has no normal component (along the normal to the path). For
formulas for components of velocity along and perpendicular to the radiusvector of the moving point see Hoskins' "Theoretical Mechanics," Ziwet's,
or any other standard work on that subject. Acceleration 2. Components of Acceleration.
is
The most
components
for
I50
our purposes are:
axial
Chap,
vtri
(i)
Those
and z),
called
components;
(2)
the
moving point
Axial Components.
acceleration of a
axial
Let
dVx/dt,
a^,
ay,
and
az
and
Vz
the (varying)
Oy
dvy/dl,
a^
dvjdt.
(2)
(Two proofs
axial
Vy
follow.)
acceleration of
at
These formulas state that each axial component of the any instant equals the rate at which the corresponding
is
changing then.
Since
Vx
dx/dt,
d^x/df,
it is
^
ay
d'y/df^,
a,
dh/df^.
(3)
assumed
in the
path
of the
moving point
is
a plane curve
xy plane.
LetP
(Fig. 267)
be
v\
the moving point, and O'P^ (Fig. 268) be parallel and equal to the velocity
Fig. 267
Fig. 268
then P'
tion of
is
Let a
the
magds'
Then
ax
=
Vx
a cos a and ay
a sin
a'.
But a
sin a'
ds'/dt,
where
denotes elementary length on the hodograph (see Art. 32); and since the
coordinates of P' are
and
Vy,
cos a'
=
,
dvx/ds',
and
dt
=
dt
dvy/ds'.
4.
Hence
^"""^
''''
_ ~
^^_ ~^
ds'
of
For discussion
'^
^^^'
^9
moving point see texts referred to in i Let AB is an alternative proof: (Fig. 269) be a portion of the path of the moving point P, and let O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities of P when at A and B. Then A'B' represents the change jj^ ^Yic velocity while P moves from A to B, and A'M
The
following
and A'N represent the x and y components of this velocitychange. Let A'Q, tangent hodograph at ^', represent the acceleration of P when at A. Then
to the
Art.
,i$
151
in the
For an example we determine the x and y components of the acceleration motion of the preceding example (see Fig. 266). In that example it was shown that the general value of the x component of the velocity (true for any
is Vx
instant)
/
sin (o.i
t^)
hence
t
12
sin (o.i
i^)
1.8
/^
cos (o.i
l^).
And when / = 2.4 seconds, say, Gx 29.4 feet per second per second. similar way the value of Cy can be found from the general expresssion for
Tangential and Normal Componenls.
respectively; other notation as before,
In a
Vy.
They
and
r
will
be denoted by
at
and a
Then
(4)
d'^s/dt",
and
v'^/r.
(Two
proofs follow.)
the rate
is
propor
tional to the square of the speed directly and to the radius of curvature inversely.
Where
the speed
is
increasing, dv/dt
is
positive
and
at
as the velocity;
decreasing, dv/dt
negative and at
is
The normal acceleration a is mo\ang point toward the center of curvature. (The words tangential and normal refer to the tangent and normal to the path at the point where the moving point is at the instant in question.)
opposite to the velocity in direction.
directed from the
always
Fig. 270
Fig. 271
= velocity of P at ^, and Ad = the angle between the normals (and the tangents) to the path at A and B. Also let O'A' and O'B' be equal to and parallel to V and v + Av respectively; then A' and B' are on the hodograph and angle A'O'B' = Ad. The acceleration of P when at A is parallel to the tangent A'Q. Let A'Q represent c; then A'AI and A'N respectively represent the tangential and normal components of a. Hence
Let
(Fig. 270)
AB
\
^v =
its
velocity at B,
at
acos(f)
77 cos dt
<^,
and
a sin
4>
To
we need
Let
CC
OC
be any curve,
vectors of
A7
Ap the radius a convenient "pole," p and p the angle COC, Al the arc CC, yp the angle between
at C.
siiwp
From
calculus,
p dy/dl
and
cos
1/'
dp/dl.
152
Chap, vin
(Fig. 270)
become
V dd/ds'
and
ds'
cos
4>
dv/ds'.
Hence
ds' dv
dt
dv
dt
dd
ds
dB
dt
dd ds
ds dt
v^ ^
ds
dt
For an example we determine the tangential and normal components of the Since 5=2^^, acceleration in the motion of the two preceding examples.
V
t"
and dv/dt
12/
a;
at
Also a
v'^/r
36 ^^,20
1.8
/^;
at
per
59.7
axial or tangential
and
= V a/ +
Cy^
flz'
Vat^
z
+ an\
by
The
The
{at^
angles which a
x, y,
and and
cos~^ (a^c/a),
angle which a makes with the normal equals tan"^ {at/ an).
From
a^)5
it
at
{=
an
o.
And an{=
o only when
o or
oc,
that
is,
moving point
*
infinitely great.
The
following
is
an alternative proof:
Let AB
(Fig. 272)
of
the moving point P, and O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities of
tively.
P when
at
and
respec
is the hodograph for .IB; the chord A'B' represents the change moves from A to B; and the tangent A' a represents the acceleraLet v = the magnitude of the velocity a,t A, v \ Av = that at B, tion a of P when at A. the angle beAd the angle between the normals (and the tangents) at A and B, and tween the acceleration and the velocity at A. Then at = a cos(^ =
Then
,.
hm
,.
hm
A'B',. lim
A^
A'B' coiEA'B'
Ai
(cos,
= nm
,.
,.
A'E
At
=
At
,.
(ii }
Ai.)
cos
lim dv
j.
Ai*
=
dt
At
i
ti
At
r
it will
lim  cos A0 2V At
,.
Av
hm
=
sinA9
=
ds
dv ^^ = y hm A9
,.
Ad
At
dt
be seen that a
a sin
= hm,.
A'B'^mEA'B'
At
,.
=
dO
dt
EB'  hm At
..
= hm =
r
fi
(j^Av)^nA9
At
hm
,.
sinAff
At
Av ,. , h lim  sin Ad At
,
= v hm
Ad

At
+o=
,
vj=
" 7; r dt
Some
students find
it diflficult
where the
moving point is at the instant in question, notwithstanding detailed calculations (as on pages 145 and 146) for a specific case and mathematical derivation of the general formulas for the normal component of acceleration.
" If the
Let us consider the matter from the perplexed student's own standpoint. He may ask, moving point has an acceleration along the normal, why does it not acquire velocity along the normal ? " If he will grant that velocity cannot be acquired instantaneously but
it is
is
Thus
is
moving
ART. 33
153
(see Art. 30).
of the velocity
components moving point P of the projection of the point on that same line, enables one to get the formulas for velocity and acceleration in a simple harmonic motion very easily. Thus let P, Fig. 273, be a point describing the circle uniformly, and Q its projection on the horizontal diameter;
Simple Harmonic Motion
along
The
any
line
of a
() is
of
the s.h.m. (radius of the circle) = 2 feet, and the frequency of the s.h.m. Then the (revolutions of P per unit time) = 100 vibrations per minute. =21 second, = feet per minute per i26o feet velocity ofP=27rX2Xioo ^ 2 21= of P the acceleration and shown; as directed along the tangent at P = 220 feet per second per second, directed along the radius PO. Now when PO makes an angle d = 30 say, then the velocity of Q is 21 sin 30 = 10.5 feet per second; the acceleration oiQ = 220 cos 30 = iSo feet per second per second, directed toward O whether P is travelling clockwise or counter clockwise.
obtains
when
() is
at 0; that value
The
greatest acceleration of
is
obtains
when Q
is
at
end
of its path;
that value
Fig. 273
Fig. 274
Let
its
amplitude, n
frequency.
P =
2 irrn
and
of
acceleration
irrn^ H r
=
6.
Trhi^r.
and acceleration
3.
2 irrn sin d
and
ir'^nr
cos
Let
the velocity of
projection
and a
direction of projection
projectile
(Fig. 274) at
and the horizontal), x and y = the coordinates of the any time t after projection, v = the velocity of P, and
at
moves from A to B. Let O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities A'B' represents the velocity acquired by P in the interval, and this acquired velocity has a component not only along the normals at A and B, but along any other normal to AB. Or, the student may say, "Since the velocity is always there cannot be an acceland hence has no normal component directed along the tangent But here is a case which may convince him: a ball thrown eration along the normal."
A and B
respectively; then
air.
down, and
at that position.
is at all times vertically every position of the ball a component along the normal (Strictly the acceleration is not quite vertical by reason of air resistance,
The
but neglecting
this fact is of
no consequence
here.)
154
a
Chap, vni
the acceleration of
at the time
/.
The only
jectile
during flight
is
gravity.
all
vertically
dy
downwards at
Since there
flight,
is
o and
g.
during the
and we
ucosa.
The y
velocity
/,
is
decreased at
is gt,
all
times
by
the y acceleration
is
g.
In the
interval
that decrease
and
sin a, the v
velocity at
any time
is
given
by
Vy
sin
gt.
(2)
/
is
given
by
X
= u cos a
'
t.
(3)
The y
/ is  [(w sin a {u sin a gt)] = w sin a  gt. The y displacement for the interval equals the product of the average y velocity and the time or y = usina t ^ gf^. (4)
/.
They
may be
arrived at
more
directly
dvx
dvu
Thus
integrating the
first
equation
we
find that Vx
C\,
where Ci
is
a constant
of integration
whose value
cos a.
is
Integrating
/ = o, and on and t in the last equation we find that C2 = M sin a; thus Vy = gt \ u sin a as before. Now integrating Vx = dx/dt = u cos a, we get x = u cos a / f C3. From initial conditions x = o when / = o; therefore v = o \ Cz, or C3 = o, and x = u cos a ^ as before. Integrating Vy = dy/dt gt ]r usm. a, we get y = \ gf^ { usina 1 \ d.
gt
{
C2 where C2
another constant
conditions Vy
= m sin a when
From
Ci
initial
o,
conditions y
and y
\ gt^
\
= o when u sina t as
'
o;
therefore
{

C4 or
before.
The
a parabola as can be
shown from the equation of the trajectory. To arrive at the equation we may combine equations (3) and (4) so as to eliminate /. Thus we find that
y
2u'^ cos^
=
^
xu^ sin
gx^.
(5)
Range
time of
At the end X
gt^
of the range,
o;
hence the
flight is
given by u sin at
o,
or
/
(2
sin a)/g.
The range
(3)
when
7
=
g.
R=
(u^ sin 2 a)
Art. 34
155
greatest
when y
o.
The formula
for
a =
45. That greatest value is u'^/g. At the highest point of the trajectory Vy that point is given by m sin a g/ = o, or
= o; hence = {u sin a)
The
height
when
found
thus
H=
^ {usin a)2 ^
g.
H also
when x =
^ R.
34.
Motion
of the
Center of Gravity
of
a Body
simple
In Art. 3 1 we found that any rectilinear motion of a body depends in a very way upon the forces acting on the body. The relation between the
of a
body (whether
is
rigid or not)
exerted on the
I.
body
as
is
we
Particle
motion.
made between
of different points of the particle, for they are equal, or practically so;
and
dis
by displacement
is
meant the
"Laws
remains
of Motion.'"
particle.
particle then
2.
it
i.
When no
force
is
exerted
upon a
at rest or continues to
move uniformly in a
it
straight line.
When
upon a acceleration is the same as the tional to the force directly and
single force is exerted
particle exerts
particle^ then
is accelerated;
and
its
magnitude
3.
propor
mass
When
one
and
opposite.
The form of statement here of Motion. however from that in which he announced them (1687). They are based on observation and experience. Newton was led to them through his study of the motions of heavenly bodies. No other moving bodies have been so accurately and extensively observed, and the agreement of the laws
These are
differs
essentially Newton'' s
Laws
used
has already been referred to (page 43, footnote). This law is doubted by some beginners in this subject. The doubt is sometimes expressed in this
Law 3
way: "When a horse pulls on a cart, then, if the cart pulls back on the horse an equal amount (as the law states), why is it that they generally move forward? " Close attention to the forces which act on the horse and on the cart should clear up this doubt. There are three forces exerted on the horse, his weight (exerted by the earth), the pull of the cart, and the reaction exerted by the roadway on his hoofs. When the horizontal (forward) component of
iS6
the reaction on his hoofs exceeds the pull back
Chap,
viii
by the
There are three forces acting on by the earth), the pull of the horse, and the reaction
forward.
wheels.
the cart,
its
weight (exerted
of the
roadway on the
When
may
of the cart, the reaction of the roadway on and that on the cart; the horse and cart start to move when the horizontal component of the reaction of the roadway on the horse exceeds that on the cart.
be explained like this: There are four forces acting upon the
the horse,
Law
is
2 is
discussed at length in Art. 3 1 for the case of rectilinear motion, but It covers curvilinear motion, as well as
rectilinear,
We
inasmuch as no reference to kind of motion is made in the law. cannot give a real illustration of a particle moving under the action of a But miagine a particle projected in some way, and then subsingle force.
the particle
in a curved path.
would move
earthpull
ligible in
(A
ball in flight
through the
is
air is
a near apforces,
illustration.
This ball
acted upon
by two
and
air resistance; at
moderate
may
be neg
The law
the acceleration of the particle agrees at each instant with the direction of the force, and that the magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to
<x
F^
m,
where a
acting
the acceleration,
it).
F =
a
cc
the force
upon
It
is
shown
F/ni can
such
for F,
m, and
a.
Units
may
be chosen so that
(force),
K=
1;
dyne
gram
(mass),
and
We
= I (as in Art. 31), thus implying the use of systematic units. Law I is really included in law 2. For if there is no force acting on a particle
2)
;
during any particular interval of time, then the particle has no acceleration
of the particle,
is is
whatever
rests;
it
may
the velocity
zero at the
the particle
the velocity
is
not zero
initially,
is
in
magnitude and
direction, that
is
the particle
in a
straight line.
This fact
statement in a
separate law.
The word
inertia
is
involved more or
state of a particle
tant, as
it
less in
is
and
2.
rest or
reluc
which we
We
is inert.
Art. 34
157
"Force of inertia " is a term which students sometimes use to express a notion, but generally in a vague way. For example, concerning the motion of a hockey puck projected without spin along the surface of smooth ice, it is stated
sometimes that the puck is urged on by the (or statement is at variance with the laws of motion.
force urging the
its)
force of inertia.
This
The only
forces acting
ice.
the puck, after projection, are gravity and the reaction of the
was
(forcibly) projected,
it
moves onward
for a time
because
There
is
on no
it
of the ice.
Were
the
ing
it
of
no force to change
its
rectilinear motion).
For another
axis,
on the
upper side and near the end of the stick remote from the
pins are stuck about the coin to hold
If
it
in place
when
rotated.
the pins are not too strong and firm, then the stick
may be
rotated so rapidly
that the pins will give way, and the coin will "fly off."
say, the coin will be
is
"thrown
off
by the
force of inertia."
Such statement
is
The
following
is
a description of the
rotated, there
re
phenomenon
are
two
forces acting
its own weight (or gravity) and the on the coin, (upward and equal to the weight). When the stick is
ro
by some from our experience and observation that the coin presses against the outer pins (remote from the axis) and that those pins press against the coin. Thus there is no force acting on the coin tending to throw
forced into an unnatural state (curvilinear motion)
of the pins.
We know
it off
eventually
as the speed
is
increased
it
on.
The
coin
of the
make them
it
is supposed to have and with velocity equal to that of the coin at failure. Of course this natural motion is shortlived, because after the coin
by the coin
broken
loose,
has
left
the stick,
it is
as it were (gravity) which interferes with the inclination mentioned (tangent). along the straight line the coin move of to
When
F",
be forces acting
the acceleration,
and
m=
the mass of P.
Obviously
accelera
some
tion.
single force
same
R would
have to act
iS8
acceleration
Chap, vrn
and equal ma. This force is the resultant of the forces F' F", etc., which actually produce the acceleration.* Let a the angle between the direction of the acceleration and any line, say the x axes of a coordinate frame. Then R cos a = ma cos a, or Rx = max where Rx and Ox denote the x com,
ponents of
and a
respectively.
components
2.
of the
Two
is,
OR
More
Particles considered
of particles.
cles,
We
that
Among
upon any
particle of a
particles of another
body; such a force has been called an external force with reference to the body under consideration (Art.
body by
an internal force with reference to the body. According to the third law of motion, if one particle of a body exerts a force upon another, then the second exerts a force upon the first; and Hence, a system of internal these two forces are equal, colinear, and opposite. forces consists of pairs of equal, colinear, and opposite forces.
called
Imagine the
line
last
ponents
particle
along
any
sum
the com
down
for
and then imagine the lefthand members to be added and also the righthand members; these sums are
Fig. 276
equal of course.
To
the
first
sum
contribute nothing, since those forces occur in certain pairs as already explained; hence the
by SFx
m",
as
sum depends only on the external forces. We will desum of their components along some line, say an axis of x, customarily. The second sum is m'a X + m"ax" + where m',
/
etc.,
Ox',
x components
found as follows:
Let
sum can be
x',
any instant
of the motion,
and x
instant; then
m'x'
+ m"x" +
xZjm.
This foice R is called resultant in accordance with the definition of the term in Art. 3, where first used. For if R were reversed, then acting alone it would give the particle an acceler*
would be zero. R between concurrent forces and their resultant developed in Statics hold here also for F', F", etc., and R. t Masscenter is another name for center of gravity. The former term seems more approation
a;
therefore
is
Art. 34
159
we
get
components
ticles,
and
Vx is
Differen
tiating again
we
m'aj
+ m"ax" }=
axSm,
If
where Ux is the x component of the acceleration of the masscenter. equate these simplified expressions for the sums mentioned we get
now we
2F, = Max,
where
that
is
(i)
is
written in place of
21 w,
Since 2 Fi does not include internal forces, Cx does not depend on those forces;
to say, the acceleration of the masscenter of a system of particles does
all
is
not depend at
upon
internal forces.
Equation
follows:
we
will
motion of the masscenter. It may be put into words as In any motion of a body {ivhether rigid or not) the algebraic sum of the
line) of all the external forces equals the
product of the
mass of
that line.
the
body and the component of the acceleration of the masscenter along It is worth noting that equation (i) is just like the last equation of
which
relates to the
motion
of a particle.
of the
mass
center of a
body
is
The
use
presupposed; but
is
if
W/g
be written in place
2),
where
ZFx = {W/g)ax
and any unit may be used
for
unit for g
and
ax.
Only x, y, z, u, etc. would be independent; the others would be superThus we would have
SFx = Max,
^Fy = May,
2F, = Ma,.
it is
When
first
two
directions.
more convenient to and at right The component of the accelerthe components in the first two
usually
same
place),
we may
(Masscenter
is
out reference to center of gravity, and then the identity of the two points
demonstrated.)
i6o
Chap, vin
Art. 34
correct.
i6i
is
The
velocity
hence
fl
Now
Pi
11F
78 feet per second per second, directed toward the axis of rotation. P2 cos 30 = (30 ^ 32.2) 78, and 'LF3 = Pi cos 30 Pi sin 30
+ P2 sin 30
=
62.3
and
30 = o. Solving them simultaneously for Pi and P2 we get P2 = 48.0 pounds. The negative sign means that we made
it
acts
downward and
"bob
is
exerted
by the upper
end
3.
of the box.
point by a cord, arranged so the bob and cord can be rotated about a vertical
See Fig. 279 which represents such a pendulum by and end views; /1 5 is a forked vertical shaft; GG are guides fastened to the shaft, between which the bob may swing. When the shaft is rotated, the cord will deflect from the vertical. We now determine this deflection for any
constant speed of rotation.
to the center of the bob; 6
Let
angle of deflection; n
= number
of revolutions
W
sin e
is
weight of bob;
T,
The bob
is
W,
of
2P = T
AF^n,
SF3
=TcosdW=
= =
o;
^Ft =
is
P=
Mat.
When
the speed
sin 6.
The
velocity
tt /
sin
hence a
ir'^nH sin 6,
and
P sin
(^V/g)
ir'^nH sin 6.
T cos 6
simultaneously for d
we
o.
get
cos^
g ^ {4Tr^nH).
Also
T=
W 4ir^nH
^ g;
and
since at
o,
P=
Fig. 280
on a curve "
in
a railway track.
We
upon
one
Imagine the
parallel
rail
pressure on each
and one
ponents are
parallel.
We
will
call
the resultants
l62
of the three sets Ri, R2,
Chap, vin
P2 of
and R3 respectively. Besides these three resultants on the car the weight W, the pull Pi of the car ahead, and the the car behind. Unless the curve is quite sharp Pi and P2 are practiunder the middle of the car; we
will
so.
assume them to be
curve), the vertical,
Then
we
(PF
get
4
Ri cos
i?2 sin
where
= (W ^ g) a and r = radius of
g) v^/r,
the curve;
 Ri sin
Solving the
72,
R2 cos
(f)
W
d)
o;
and
Pi
for
 Po 
i?3
(TT
J
g) at.
first
Ri and R2 we get
T^ f
cos
<i
\gr
sin
and
P2
It
obvious from the expression for Ri that the resultant flange pressure may be equal to zero for certain values of v, r, and 0. It will be zero if {v cos 4>)
is
^ gr
sin
<i>,
or
tan
*
v^/gr*
outer
This formula, or some modification of it, is used to determine the proper elevation of the The following is a practical rule deduced rail on railroad curves, except as noted below. from the formula: "The correct superelevation for any curve is equal to the middle ordinate
whose length
in feet
is
1.6
is
hour."
On
times the speed of the train in miles per modified as follows: " No speed greater
than 50 miles per hour should be assumed in determining the superelevation by the above method even though higher speed may be made. No superelevation exceeding 7 inches is permissible and none exceeding 6 inches should be used except at special locations on passenger
tracks."
zero.
arrived at
by making ties of the track perpendicular to the resultant the car and any object resting upon it, or perpendicular to a
in the car.
 P
CHAPTER IX
TRANSLATION AND ROTATION
35.
Translation
A translation is such a motion of a rigid body that each straight Hne of the body remains fixed in direction; there is no turning about of any line of the body. The coupling or side rods of a locomotive (connecting the driving wheels on either side) have a translatory motion when the locomotive is
running on a straight
track.
It
does not require rectilinear motion of each point of the moving body. But rectilinear translations are most common, and such translations have been
quite fully discussed in Art. 31.
body in translation are alike. For, let A and B be any two points of the body, and A' and B' be the positions of those points in space at a certain instant and A" and B" their positions at a later instant. By definition of translation the Hnes A'B' and A"B" are parallel; and since the lines are equal in length the figure A'B' B"A" is a parallelogram, and A' A" and B'B" (the displacements of A and B respectively) are equal and Since the displacements of all points of the moving body for any parallel. interval, long or short, are equal and parallel, the velocities of all points at any
The motions
of all points of a
and hence also the accelerations. By displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a body having a motion of translation is meant the displacement, velocity, and acceleration respectively of any one of its points. The general principle of Art. 34, relating to the motion of the masscenter of a
body moving
any way, when applied to a translation, takes this form: the of the external forces along any line algebraic sum of the components the body and the comof the mass of acting on the body equals the product gives three inThis line. that along body ponent of the acceleration of the
in
Ma.,
^Fy=
May,
2F. = Ma
where The
x, y,
and
lines of resolution.
resultant of all the external forces acting on a body having a motion of translation is a single force; its line of action passes through the masscenter, the force
is directed like the acceleration of the body,
of the
the acceleration.*
will
and its magnitude equals the product Assuming that the resultant is a
The student
is
system of forces
is
a force, a couple, or a
163
164
proposition, on the basis of their experience; for, they will say,
if
Chap, ix
the resultant
But it can be demonstrated as follows: Let Fig. 281 body and points i, 2, 3, etc., its constituent particles; the external forces acting on the body are not shown. Suppose that the acceleration is directed, say, toward the right, and let a = the magnitude of that acceleration, and m\, W2, m^, etc. = the masses of the particles respectively.
represent the
Then
the resultants of
all
re
Now
this
system
of
is
equivalent
to all
and
on the system
of particles;
and
and that of the real system are of action, and sense. But the internal forces occur and opposite forces (Art. 34), and so constitute a
balanced system and contribute nothing to the resultant of the real system.
Hence, the resultant of the external system and that of the imaginary system
are identical.
We
proceed
now
from the
latter
system.
Fig. 23i
Fig. 282
through the
The system
of earthpulls (gravity,
G) likewise con
Hence systems
so that the line
and
and
is
AB
G are still
the
more
The
difference
in the
of corresponding forces;
systems / and
G coincide
(in
the body)
but the
resultant of system
the resultant of system / (and the resultant of the external system) also passes
From
m2(i
Fig. 281
it is
= o^m =
Ala.
external forces about
the
moments, or torque, of
all the
any
line through the masscenter equals zero, for the resultant of those forces
has no
Art. 35
165
line.
r.
o,
r,
o,
r.
o,
(i)
and Tz denote the momentsums for three noncoplanar lines Or we may take moments about any three lines and equate the torques of the external forces about the lines to the moments of the resultant {Ma) about the same lines respectively.
where
T^, Ty,
Examples.
i.
The
car
is
on the bottom of the prism. There its are only two forces acting on the prism, own weight and the required pressure P. See the figure where P is shown resolved into two components (Pi and P2) at the base of the prism. The (unknown) distance from the point of apof the car
plication of
P to
is
de
noted by
Pi
X.
 248^) = = 2000; 2015 pounds, and the inclination of P to the vertical = tan~^ (248/2000) = 8 25'. To determine x we take the torque, of the forces acting on the prism,
line
through the masscenter and perpendicular to the Thus 248 X 2.5 2000 x = o, or to zero.
(P2
0.31 feet
3.72 inches.
24S pounds
is friction,
and the
floor
and
prism must be rough enough to develop such a value, to prevent the slipping, here assumed not to occur. Thus the coefficient of friction must be not less
than 248 ^ 2000 = 0.124 or about oneeighth. If the coefiicient were less than oneeighth, the friction developed under the prism, say 200 pounds, could not give the prism an acceleration of 4 feet per second per second, only 3.22. Hence the prism would eventually be left behind. The prism is not "thrown " in such a case, as some would describe the pheoff by the force of inertia
nomenon, but the car slips out from under the prism.) 2. C and C (Fig. 284) are two parallel cranks, their
mechanically so that they rotate together with equal speeds and in the same direction. P is a bar pinned to the cranks. We
/^
^
/^
^^^
is
on B when the mechanism There are three such forces the weight We will of B and the pressures of the pins on B. neglect the weight, or assume that the plane of the
discuss the forces acting
in
motion.
cranks
Fig. 284
is
lies
upon the
bar
is
uniform then
if
it
seems reasonable to
since
sum
of their
are parallel;
so they
zero.
66
Chap, ix
and a
its
acceleration,
is
The
If
= <3 + Q = Ma, where = mass and the pressures act in the direction of a. the same as that of the center of either pin P.
is
the cranks be
made
in the direc
and it equals V"/r (Art. 32), where v = velocity of P and r PO; hence 2 Q = Mv^/r = (W/g) {fir), or(^ = \ Wv^gr. 3. Imagine a locomotive raised up off its track, and that steam is "turned
tion
PO
on"
side
made
then
the
If the
connect
first side
Each pressure
its
(The weight of the rod induces pressures equal to  PF upwards.) When the locomotive is running on its track, then there is superimposed upon the motion of the side rod just discussed the forward (or backward)
The
sum
of v
of the locomotive
sum
Now when
constant
acceleration
is
zero,
V"/r
and
and
is
running on a track, the pin pressures on the (lone) side rod are as when the
locomotive
is
Let
V =
let
speed of locomotive,
R =
r
i
^ (W/g)
r
W =275
=
pounds,
R =
2.75 feet,
and
F =
then
^ (275/32.2)
X X
i
(88 ^ 2.75)^
4425 pounds.
of the side
rod prob
lem
In Fig. 285 each pin pressure on the rod is represented by two components, hori
and
vertical.
The
vertical
com
moments
of
Fig. 285
(pressures
gravity
midlength of
the
rod)
equals zero;
The
Let a
ay
lute, acceleration of
of the rod
cz^
and
X2 =
Max,
and
2YW = May,
and
ay for
or
Y=
^W + May).
Then
Presently
we show how to
find ax
any position
of the cranks.
Art. 35
167
from the above we can determine A'l  X2 and F. The values of Xx and Xg depend upon the load or pull on the locomotivCj and how it is distributed among the driving wheels. But Y does not depend on the pull, only on and Qy.
We now discuss
acceleration,
r
the motion of one of the crank pins with the view of obtainOy. Let V = the velocity of the locomotive, A = its
It will
R=
be convenient to
was
in its lowest
Let
be the distance of
Then
Fig. 286
and
y
a^
Now
dd/dt
=
dx
d'^x/dl'^
and
dy/dt"^,
and
for use
below
V=
ds/dt
= R dd/dt,
or
V/R.
Thus
^
,,
dd V  = ds rcose^=Vrcose.^V^i  ^ cos dj
dVf
r.r
dd
'^^^Vr'''V^^R''''^'dt
^cosdj\rsme; <^u R^
dV
Thus
dd
V^
locomotive.
seen that a^ and Oy depend on the velocity and acceleration of the The largest values of c^ and a obtain at high speed, and then the terms (in the expressions for a^ and ay) are small and negligible compared to
it is
the
terms.
the locomotive
is
a^
= (V/Py r sin 6,
and
ay
= (V/Py r
cos
6.
When the rod is in its lowest position, 6^0,0^ = 0, ay = {V/RYr, Xi = X2, and F = I W ^ ^ (W/g) (F/7?)V; the forces F act upward on the rod. When 6 = 90, a^ = (V/R)h, a^ = o; the resultant of the two forces X acts toward the right and equals (W/g) (V/R)h, and F =  W. When the rod is in its highest position d = 180, a^ = o, ay =  {V/R)h; Xi = X2, and F =  W ^ (W/g) {V/R)h; for high speeds F acts down on the rod. When 6 = 270, flj = (V/R)h, Qy = o; the resultant of Xi and Xi acts toward the left and equals {W/g) {V/R)h, and F =  W.
68
36.
Chap, ix
Moment
of Inertia
and Radius
of
Gyration
Perhaps
depend not only on the mass of material of the body from the axis
body to rotating about a fixed axis seems to the body but also on the remoteness of the
^
s
Fig. 287 represents a simple of rotation. " apparatus by means of which one can roughly "sense It consists of a vertical shaft 5 to which a this fact.
grooved pulley
arm.
r
Fig. 287
P and cross arm A are fastened rigidly, and a heavy body B which can be clamped on the cross
The
pull or turning effort
may
be applied by
It is
means
.^
of a cord
pulley.
shown
"
of a
is
proportional to the
"moment
this article is
devoted to a discussion of
moment
is
preparation for the following article.* The moment of inertia of a body with respect to a line
ucts obtained
the
sum
of the prod
body by the
square of
etc.
its
= moment
r^, r^,
from the
then
/
miTx^
+ nhr2^ +
/=
Swr^;
or
if
the
body
is
continuous, then
jdMr^,
its
(i)
where
dM denotes
distance from
moment
of inertia
is
it
taken.
is
The elementary
portion
line,
else there is doubt as to what distance to take for r. It is plain from the foregoing formulas that a unit of
moment
of inertia de
pends upon the units of mass and distance used. There is no singleword name Each unit is described by stating the units for any unit of moment of inertia. " and in accordance with the "makeup in it, involved of mass and distance
*
"moment
of inertia,"
and he explained
its
appro
choice of the
Motus Corporum SoHdorum," p. 167) somewhat name, moment of inertia (Ger. tragheitsmoment), is based on
as follows:
The
analogies in the
In a translation the acceleration is equations of motion for translations and rotations. proportional directly to the "accelerating force" and inversely to the mass, or "inertia," directly to of the moving body; and in a rotation the angular acceleration is proportional
the
moment
and inversely
to a quantity, Xmr~,
depending on the
of inertia."
mass or
inertia.
may
call
"moment
Then we have
and rotations
respectively,
linear acceleration
and
inertia).
angular acceleration
= (moment
of
force)/(moment of
169
Thus, when the pound and the foot are used as units of mass and
moment
of inertia
is
called a poundfoot
when
of inertia of
any
right prism
cross
Thus
if
we take
as elementary portion a
dM =
{adA)
where a
the
dA
density;
(2)
and
1=
p
a8
I
dAr\
is
called the
moment
it
about the
appendix B).
in length,
it is
Since a
moment
of inertia
is
one dimension
in
can
sometimes
to
The
radius of gyration of a
such a length whose square multiplied by the mass of the body equals
to that line.
moment
or
of inertia of the
any
axis
and
M=
its
mass, then
M = I
The
of a
k=
y/JjM.
:
(3)
all
radius of gyration
may be viewed
as follows
If
we imagine
the material
of inertia of of inertia of
body concentrated
moment moment
line,
body about that line. The material point body for the particular line. To furnish still another view of radius of gyration we call attention to the fact that the square of the radius of gyration of a homogeneous body with respect to any line is the mean of the squares of the distances of all the equal elementary parts of the body from that line. For let r^, r^, etc., be the distances from the elements, dM, to the axis, and let n denote their number (infinite). Then the mean of the squares is
equals the radius of gyration of the
is
W+
the body.
rs^
f
)/ = {n^dM
+ r^^dM +
)/ndM = I/M = k\
Obviously the radius of gyration of a body with respect to a line is intermediate between the distances from the line to the nearest and most remote particle of
This fact
Examples.
i.
will assist in estimating the radius of gyration of a body. Required to show that the moment of inertia of a slender through the center and inclined at an angle with the rod is
x^MP
sin^ a,
where
M = mass,
Let a
length,
and a
Appendix A.
lyo
X
Chap, ix
(Fig. 288).
the distance of any elementary portion from the middle of the rod = 5 {a dx), and the distance of the element from CD Then
AB
=
dM
sin a.
Hence
I
JU
8adx'
yV
x^
sm^ a
8a sm^
=
3
'
ISAu
and
this reduces to
MP sin^ a,
since 8al
= M.
Fig. 288
Fig. 289
2. Required to show that the moment of inertia of a right parallelopiped = mass (ab) where about a central axis parallel to an edge equals yV = perpenthe lengths of the edges which are of the parallelopiped and a and b See Fig. 289 where the s axis is the one to which this dicular to that axis.
moment
dxdydz;
z axis
of inertia corresponds.
its
We
mass =
x^ +3'^.
Hence
a/2
J b/2
Jo
(x2
etc.
Required to show that the moment of inertia of a right circular cylinder = its mass and r = the radius of its with respect to its axis is  Mr"^, where We use the special method for prisms (see equation 2) and choose polar base. coordinates (see Fig. 290) then dA = pdddp and dM = 8 {ap dd dp) hence
3,
I=a8 fdAp' =
a8
P^^ dp'de
,
'"
''^'^' ""
etc.
Fig. 290
Fig. 291
Required to show that the moment of inertia of a sphere about a diameter = its mass and r = its radius. We might begin with equation is I Mr^ where exam(i) but we will use a special method, making use of the result found in
4.
ple 3.
We
made moment of
diameter
moments
inertia of each lamina; and then add the Let XX' (Fig. 291) be the diameter in
Art. 36
171
question,
is b (iry'^dx).
section of one of the laminas; then the mass of the lamina According to example 3 the moment of inertia of this lamina (cylinder) about its axis (XX') is ^ 5 (iry^ dx)y^. Hence the moment of inertia
and
PQ a
of the sphere is
J
2.
5 (tt/
dx)
ttS
J_
(r2
 ^2)2 dx =
j% dw
r^
etc.
las.
radii
There
Parallel Axis Theorem; Reduction or Transformation Formuis a simple relation between the moments of inertia (and the of gyration) of a body with respect to parallel lines one of which passes
By means
of inertia,
many
calculations of
it
moment
examples following);
may
be stated as follows:
The moment of
any
moment
of
inertia with respect to a parallel line passing through the masscenter plus the
Or,
product of the mass of the body and the square of the distance between the lines. if / = the first moment of inertia, 7 = the second (for the line through the
masscenter),
M = mass, and d =
I
Proof. Let
= l+Md\
(4)
(Fig. 292) be the masscenter, and body (not shown), LL the line about which the moment of inertia is /, and OZ a parallel line (through
P any
moment
of inertia
is
d.
For convenience we take x and y axes through O, the former in the plane of the two parallel lines and
the latter perpendicular to that plane.
z
Let
x, y,
and
Fig. 292
the coordinates of P.
The square
x'^
of the disy'^,
tance of
from the
z axis equals
hence
7=
dM
x)^
(x"^ \
y^) .
The
from the
line
LL
equals (d
+ y,
hence
+ d'JdM 2dJxdM.
=
Md"^.
If
(4)
is
Now
/,
now we show
integral
is
o,
then formula
of the
The
third
proportional to the
moment
if
to the yz
plane; but this plane contains the masscenter, and hence the
zero (Arts. 21
moment
equals
and
23).
Thus,
Tf
JxdM=
If
CxdW/g =
(i/g)Wx.
we
by M, we get
I/M = I/M
f d^, or
(5)
k^\ d^
172
that
is,
Chap. IX
the square of the radius of gyration of
to
any
line
through the masscenter plus the square of the distance between the two lines.
According to
(5) k is
is,
pared to
d,
2).
body perpendicular to the line in question are small comthen k/d is small compared to i and k equals d approximately (see
,
example
to
moment
of inertia
is
approximately equal
of cast iron
Md\
Examples.
i.
9 inches
3 feet
with respect
According to example
2, I,
moment
The square
of the distance
29.25 inches^;
hence the
moment
of inertia desired
4940 f 507
i
29.25
19,760 poundinches^
2.
4.27 slugfeet.
steel
rod
inch in diameter
According to example
its
axis
is
5 0.5^
0.125 inches^.
According to equation
12.01, nearly the
(5)
= V (0.125
3.
+ 144)
cone
with respect to a line through the apex and parallel to the base
4 c^) where Af
l r
mass
radius of
its
base,
and a
>
We
made
find the
specified
moment
line,
the moments.
For conrequired
and the
line for
inertia
is
The moment
is
of inertia of the
lamina
dM
x"^
where
dM =
the mass
of the
lamina and x
J dMx"^
/
its radius.
Hence
its
moment
of inertia
about the x
+ dMy"^ (see equation 3), and the moment of inertia of the entire cone = {\dMx^ + dMy^), the limits being assigned so as to include all laminas. We choose to integrate with respect to y, and so must express dM
axis
and X
X
in
terms of
y.
From
similar
r/a, or
ry/a; obviously
dM =
4
a*
dirx^dy
8t (r^y^/a^) dy where
irr^Sa
density.
Hence
= C
I
Trr^hfdy
Jo
C'^Trr^v^dv ^^ f Jo V^ = a
,
irr^a^
20
 =
etc.
Aet. 36
173
Composite Body.
By
this
term
is
The moment of inertia of such a body with hub, several spokes, and by adding the moments of inertia of all computed be respect to any line can that same line. The radius of gyration to respect with the component parts equal the sum of the radii of gyration of the not does of a composite body
a rim.
component
parts.
It
(3),
where /
= =
moment
3.
of inertia of the
its
mass.
Let
radius of gyration, a subscript with k referring to the axis with respect to which Also k is taken; thus kx means radius of gyration with respect to the x axis.
mass and
density.
Let
its
length,
=
^
the axis.
Then about an
axis
tV
l^
sin^ a;
about an axis through one end of the rod Slender Rod Bent into a Circular Arc
arc, then
kx
sin^ a.
(Fig. 294).
Let
+
=
a
radius of the
''"
[i
(sin
ky"^
 r^
[i
(sin
cos a) /a].
The
j^2
divisor
^2 (^^j^g 2
a must be expressed in radians (i degree = 0.0175 radians). axis is through O and perpendicular to the plane of the arc).
0H^
P'iG.
295
Fig. 296
Fig. 297
295). The
kx^
axis
OX
axes
and
is
c;
tV
(^^
Both
(3
^")
OX
and
OY
contain the
radius and a
altitude; then
kx'^hr^
radius,
V = tV
r^~
''
+ ')
radius, r
iY
Let R = outer
I
inner
^^^.^
= h(R' +
r');
ky'^
= HR'
is
+ + U')
Right
The
x axis
^
^__^_^,Fig. 298
M=
I ahhb.
iy4
Right Circular Cone (Fig. 299).
is
Chap, ix
M=^
irr'^ad.
base,
Let R = radius
radius of smaller
sphere.
Let
radius.
For a diameter
I^^Sirr^b.
k^=ir^;
Fig. 299
Fig. 300
Hollow Sphere.
inner radius.
For a diameter
yfe2=
(^5_^)_^ (/23_^).
and
__
^^^Tr{R'r>)8.
Ellipsoid.
Let
k^
2 c
= =
length of axes.
length
2 c,
l (a2
j2)
^^ Trahcb
(a2
b"").
its
Axis.
Let
its
height.
Ring
(Fig. 300).
The
=
and
is
parallel to the
K''hR'+l r;
ky'
7^2 __
h = Tf'Rr'd
7^
(R'
I r').
^.2.
2 ^2J^r2^ (7^2 _^
^2),
4.
When
the body
moment
may be simpler. There methods available. This method is available if the body can be By Gravity Pendulum. suspended and oscillated, like a pendulum, about an axis coinciding with or parallel to the line with respect to which the moment of inertia is desired. Let T = the time of one complete (to and fro) oscillation, c = distance from = weight of the pendulum, g = the masscenter to the axis of suspension, acceleration due to gravity, k = radius of gyration, and I = moment of
be computed
then an experimental method
are several experimental
inertia
k=
T Vcg
2
TT
and
= VcW 54
TT'^
(i)
Art. 36
^75
are based on
t he
Above formulas
fo rmula for
period of a pendulum
desired, then
T=
2tv
Vk^cg
remains to
Hne about which the moment of inertia ''transfer" / to that Hne (see 2).
The
desired
the same axis about which the suspended body " mathematical pendulum," a very small bob with cord oscillates suspend a adjust the length of the cord so that the periods suspension (see Art.
vation as follows:
moment of From
;
inertia can
= Vd, and
= Wd/g,
(2)
where
and
k,
W,
the distance from the center of the bob to the axis of suspension The foregoing result is c, I have the same meaning as above.
(for the
of the
mathematical pendulum
By
Torsion Potdulum.
The
=
torsion
pendulum here
referred to
consist of
an
elastic wire
suspended
would end
being fashioned or terminated in a disk so that objects, whose moments of inertia are to be determined, may be suspended on the wire and made to
oscillate
about
its axis.
Let
tion) of the bare pendulum, h = the (observed) period of the pendulum when (as a cube or cyUnder) it is loaded with a body A which is so regular i.\ shape can be computed oscillation of axis the about inertia of moment that its
and h = the (observed) period of the pendulum when it is loaded with the body B whose moment of inertia is desired; further let h = the (computed) moment of inertia of A and I2 = the m.oment B about the axis of
easily,
suspension.
with or
desired.
is
should be suspended so that the axis of suspension coincides B) about which the moment of inertia is
Then
l2=h{kt)^{ht).
This result
is is
(3)
pendulum
based on the fact that the square of the period of a torsion proportional to the moment of inertia of the pendulum with Thus,
if
the
moment
of inertia of the
CI, k^
=C
(/
+ /i),
and
/o
= C
(/
+ A).
C and
I and thus
may
be combined so as to eliminate
cannot be suspended so as to
make
(of
is
it
iy6
37.
I.
Chap, ix
Rotation
line of the
is
A rotation
is
body or
body remains
fixed.
The
fixed line
The motion of the flywheel of a stationary engine is one of rotatiorv^ and the axis of rotation is the axis of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted; the motion of an ordinary clock pendulum is one of rotation, and the axis of rotation is the horizontal line through the point of support and perpendicular Obviously all points of a rotating body, except to the axis of the pendulum. those on the axis if any, describe circles whose centers are in the axis and whose planes are perpendicular to the axis. The plane in which the masscenter of the body moves will be called the plane of the rotation, and the intersection of
rotation.
the axis of rotation and the plane of rotation will be called center of rotation.
points of the
All
body on any
move
alike;
on the plane of the motion represents that of all body itself is represented by the motion of
is
projection.
By
meant
by any
line of the
all
Obviously
interval,
same
and we
axis.
as
If
the center of rotation. Let P be any point the paper, and and 6 the angle XOP, OX being any fixed line of reference. Fig. 301 ^g customarily, 6 is regarded as positive or negative according OX when turned about toward OP moves counter clockwise or clockwise. di and 6i denote initial and final values of 6 corresponding to any rotation,
Oo
6\.
The
of the
is
its
angular
displacement occurs;
otherwise stated,
it is
body perpendicular
Hence,
if co
The
is
timerate at which
dd/dt (see Art. 28,
OP
Note).
de/dt.
(i)
Any
is
body
all
imply as wm/* the angular velocity of a body rotating uniformly and making a unit angular displacement in each unit time. There are several such units; thus, one revolution per minute, one
for angular velocity
The formulas
The
last is the
For dimensions
and
acceleration, see
Art. 37
herein.
177
An
of dd/dt.
Since dd/dt
body
at
any instant
it
is
The angular
acceleration of a rotating
If,
body
is
co
as in the preceding,
then the general expression for the timerate of the angular velocity
do:/dt;
hence
if
acceleration,
dio/di
d^d/dtK
(2)
The change in angular velocity which takes place during any interval of time divided by the length of the interval gives the average angular acceleration for
that interval.
tion
is
If the velocity
The foregoing formulas imply as unit * the angular acceleration of a body whose angular velocity is changing uniformly and so that unit angular velocitychange occurs in each unit time. One revolution per second per second, one
radian per second per second,
etc.,
sign,
the
co
An
angular acceleration
Since dw/dt
same as that
of dw/dt.
angular acceleration
is
and
linear acceleration
Let
in
P of a rotating body and the angular velocity and acceleration of the the distance of P from the axis of rotation, s = distance travelled
fixed point in the path of P,
by
and
the angle
described
by
the radius to
P in
or
Then
s =^ rd ii
dhe expressed
in radians;
ds/dt
r dd/dt,
roi.
Differentiating again,
we
at
=
(=
r do^/dt,
v'^/r)
or
rco^.
ra;
also
Here
of
at
of the acceleration
(Art. 34).
2.
Equation of Motion.
We
sum
fact (Art. 36, footnote) that in the case of rotation the angular acceleration
is
of the
moments
body directly and to the moment of inertia of the body inversely, both moments being about the axis of rotation. Or, if To and Iq be used to denote these moments, and a = the angular acceleration, then a is proportional
acting on the
to {Tq ^ Iq)
;
and,
if
To
= ha =
Mko'a,
and
acceleration, see
(3)
Appendix A.
178
Chap, ix
where
ko
its
rotation.
W/g
is
be written for
any unit
of force (in(3).
may
be used in
it
The
the
foregoing
motion
the
for a rotation;
may
(Fig.
be deall
acting
on
each
particle
of
body.
Let
P'
302)
its
all
mass, and
a'
its
acceleration.
and the tangential, normal, and axial components of this force are m'o/, m'an and o respectively. Similarly the tangential, normal, and axial components of the resultant of all the forces acting on the Fig. 302 second particle P" are m"at", m"an", and o. All the radial or normal components are directed toward the axis of rotation, and all the tangential components clockwise or counter clockwise. Now the torque of all the forces acting on P' equals the torque of m'at and m'an ; this torque =
the forces acting on P' m'a'
,
m'at'r'
all
P" = m"ai"r"
on
all
+ m"at"r" +
The
m'r'ar'
m"r"ar"
cvSwr^
ah.
Now
all
external forces.
and opposite
forces.
have no torque since they consist Hence, the torque of the ex
Examples.
Ua.
It is supported on a fixed horizontal shaft 3 inches in wrapped around the disk, and then a pull P = ^...j'_.^
and
3 feet in diameter.
diameter.
A
is
cord
is
100 pounds
What
is
the angular
The
and
cord are the weight of the disk and cord P, and the reaction of the
Only one of these, P, has a moment about the axis of rotaare assuming that the disk is homogeneous so that the center of gravity is in the axis of rotation, and that the shaft is
shaft.
tion.
We
'
'^"^
frictionless.
Tq of equation (3)
is
therefore 100
1.5
150 footpounds.
Now
is
the square of the radius of gyration of the disk about the axis of rotation
is .T053
0.125^) = 1. 133 feet^ (Art. 36). And since the weight of the disk I (1.52 pounds, its moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is (1053 ^ 32.2)
1.J33
37.0
2.
= 370 slugfeet^. Hence the angular = 4.0 radians per second per second.
Suppose that a turning force
"
is
150
^
P in the preceding example is supplied not but by means of a body suspended from the cord, and suppose that the body weighs 100 pounds. Obviously the system (disk and suspended body) moves with acceleration hence the two forces acting on the body (gravity
"by hand
;
and the
pull
Art. 37
179
(direction of the acceleration of the body).
downward
That resultant
is
100 P, and it equals the product of the mass and acceleration of the body, The torque on or 100 P = (100 V 32.2) X a where a = the acceleration. = = tangential = a the But a. P /a and 1.5 37.0 the disk is P X iS,
acceleration of
of the disk
1.5
X
a
a, or a
1.5 a.
P=
i
(100/32.2) a,
1.5
P=
37.0 a,
and
=1.5
a,
example
in this
example
is less
The
value of
84.1 pounds.
3.
A = 64 pounds, of P = 96 pounds, and of of friction under B = I ior sliding, coefficient assume pounds; pulley 144 = 2 feet 6 inches, and the radius pulley of diameter take axle friction zero;
In Fig. 304 we take weight of
C=
10.6 inches.
We
show
Let a = acceleration of A how Obviously a = 1.25 a. = the pulley. of acceleration (angular) and B, and a and C. On A there A, B, each body on acting forces the consider Let us now On (see Fig. 305). cord pull of the the Pi and pounds) gravity are two, (64
96 /bs.
B F
Fig. 304
Fig. 307
Fig. 306
gravity (96 pounds), the pull of the cord P2, and the
D
(see Fig. 306
re
where
axle,
represented
forces,
by two components
and F).
is
On
the cord.
the cord
is
of of
to the pulley
Pi,
and
at
it is
Hence the pressure of the cord against the pulley equals the resultant of Pi and P2 (Fig. 307), and that pressure is equivalent to Pi and P2. Therefore the equation of motion becomes (Pi  P2) 1.25 = (i44 ^ 32) (10.6 ^ i2ya
a = 3.5 a. Since the acceleration of B is toward the right,  ^N the resultant force on it acts in that direction and equals P2  P = P2 Since "^ <i = = P2 = hence 192 32) = P2 (96 3 Po 19.2; and 96 that direcin A acts on force resultant the the acceleration of A is downward
4.5
0.778
^,
tion
and equals 64
Pi;
hence 64
Pi
(64 ^ 32) a
2 a.
Now
Pi
solving
^^2)
1.25
3.5 a,
P2
192
3 a>
and
64
2 a,
l8o
together with a
Chap, ix
= 1.25 a, we j&nd that a = 6.19 feet per second per second, = per second per second. The equations also show that radians and a 4.95 = P2 = 37.77 pounds. and pounds, 51.62 Pi
38.
Axle Reactions
Rotating bodies are commonly supported by shafts I. Simple Cases. upon or with which the bodies rotate. In such a case, axle reaction means the force which the shaft exerts upon the rotating body. To determine
such a force we
make
The
any
along sum of the components on a body, moving in any way, the body and the component of the accelera
three independent equations, one for each of three rectangular lines of resolution.
If the
lie
any
others,
Let the
circle (Fig.
30S)
of rotation
and plane
of the
path
of the masscenter),
and
be the masscenter.
two.
Then
the axis of rotation, the line OC, and a line perpendicular to the
FiG. 30S
first
The
(OC being a radius and and tangential (the third line being parallel to the tangent at C). Now let I1F<,I!F, and ^Fa = the algebraic sums of the tangential, normal, and axial components of all the external forces acting on any rotating body; at and a = the tangential and normal components of the acthe axial component of the acceleration equals celeration of its masscenter
spectively axial, radial or normal
normal
of the circle),
zero;
and
M = the mass.
2F, =
Then
Alat,
:SF
= Man,
2F, =
o.
(i)
Systematic units (Art. 31) must be used in the foregoing. If W/g be substituted (Art. 31) then any unit may be used for force (including weight), any for
for time.
Let
the masscenter,
rotating
a =
angular acceleration,
velocity of
velocity of the
body
ra,
and
v'^/r
in equations (i).
is
then the
181
components
i. AB (Fig. 309) is a bar of wrought iron 1.5 inches (perpendicular to paper) X 4 inches X 6 feet, suspended from a horizontal axis at A. Suppose that the bar is made to rotate and is then left to it r, self rotating under the influence of gravity, the axle reaction, and the initial velocity given to it. Suppose further that the initial velocity was such that when the bar gets into the
Examples.
any
is 60 revolutions per Required the axle reaction in the position shown. = 120 The only forces acting on the body are its weight
minute.
Ri and R^.
We
Fig. 309
actions of Ri and
Ri cut the axis of rotation, and the equation of motion (Art. becomes IF Now I = (IF/32.2) ^2 = (120/32.2) 7.01; (2 sin 35) = la. 37) hence a = 5.26 radians per second per second, and Cj = 2 X 5.26 = 10.52
feet per
The angular
6.28^
per second.
become
120 sin 35
Ri=
=
(120/32.2) 10.52
(120/32.2) 78.8
R2
120 cos 35
29.7,
= 39.2, = 294.
and
= 392 pounds. brake for retarding the motion of the drum C and suspended body IF. Let IF = 2000 pounds, weight of the drum = 1800 pounds, radius of gyration of drum about axis of rotation =2.5 feet, coeflBcient of
From
2.
the
first
Ri
AB
Fig. 310
friction "
P is 1000 pounds.
= 0.5. Suppose that IF is descending and Required the axle reaction on the drum. Fig.
311 shows
all
its
own weight
(1800 poimds),
of
by two components N (normal pressure) and the rope, and the axle reaction represented by two
a consideration of the forces acting on the brake
6.5) ^ 1.5
in
components Ri and
it is
R2.
From
plain that
N=
(1000
X
of
4333
2167 pounds.
Now
order to get
is
l82
weight of the body the velocities of
Chap, ix
T is
a
greater than
W but
2167 y.
less
than F.
drum and
the acceleration of the suspended body, then the equations of motion are
2)
T^
T
These equations and a
2000
and
T)^^^
T =
2103 pounds.
equals zero,
2167
R2
4333
2167,
and
8236 pounds.
R2
= V{2i6'j'^ 8237') = 8500 pounds inclined upan angle of 14I degrees with the vertical. Axle reactions cannot be determined by means 2. Nonsimple Cases. The of equations (i) in some cases; moment equations must be resorted to. moment equation To = ha (Art. 37) is available for all cases but additional
Therefore the axle reaction
left at
ones
may
be needed.
It will
be recalled that To
is
the torque of
all
the external
lines,
we
will presently
first for
common, symmetrical
Body
of
any Shape.
Let the
shapes.
axis of rotation
be taken as the
z axis of
an
on the positive
k>x4
<
S Q
I
/
Fig. 312
Mrcc
Z
Fig. 313
t
'
symmetry
'Mru)'
Fig. 314
Fig. 315
The
MFco2,
(i)
2F, =
llFy
T,=
a
a
fzx
dM +
aj2
Cyz dM,
(4)
(2)
= M?a,
0,
Ty= 
yzdM or
Mk'^a.
zx
dM,
(5)
(3)
2F. =
T,= ha =
and
(3) follow
(6)
from Art. 38 (page 180); (6) is equation (3) of Art. 37, the notation being changed to agree more appropriately with Fig. 312; (4) and (5) will be deduced immediately. The method used for arriving at (4) and (5) is like that used to get (6).
Equations
(i), (2),
Art. 38
183
of the resultant of all the forces acting
The moment
puted;
on each particle
is
com
then such
moments
summed; and
since the
this sum is the value of the torque of moments being used. Let P (Fig. 312)
any
The resultant of all the forces acting on the particle P equals ma. Components of this resultant along and perpendicular to PA equal mrur and mra. The first component acts in the (radial) direction
its
by P, and a
e the
varying angle
PAB,
(x, y, z)
the coordinates of P,
its
mass,
acceleration.
PA
component
of a.
The
the
moments of the resultant ma about the x and y axes respectively equal sums of the moments of its components; these sums are
and
If
mra cos 6s + mror sin 6z mazx + mcJ'yz, mra sin dz mroi^ cos 6z = mayz moihx.
all
now we add
axis,
aLmzx{ orllmyz,
and
allmyz
(j?'Lmzx\
and these reduce, for a continuous body, to the righthand members of (4) and (5). (i) The body is homogeneous, has a plane of symmetry, and rotates about an axis perpendicular to that plane. In this case, (4) and (5) become
Tx
For:
and
Ty
=
(.v,
o.
(4') (5')
The xy plane
(Fig. 312)
now
z).
a corresponding
(x, y,
And
geneity of the body the masses of the particles may be taken equal. It follows that Swsx = o and Hmyz = o for the two particles. Therefore, these
zero,
body equal
Let Fig. 313 represent the plane of the symmetry section of the body, C the center of rotation, Q a point on OC extended so that OQ = k/r. In general, the resultant of the external forces is a single force
acting in the xy plane, and through Q.
The components
of the resultant
OC
the
first
always
toward
eration of C.
The
and
(6)
may
satisfy equations (i), (2), (3), (4'), (5'), be regarded as sufficient proof.
When
forces
is
is
the angular velocity is constant (a = 6), the resultant of the external a force directed along the radius CO and in that direction; its value Mroi^. When the masscenter is in the axis of rotation (r = o), the reis is
sultant
a couple;
/.
its
plane
is
its
moment
When
o,
the resultant
is nil.
184
(ii)
Chap IX
The body
is
In this case,
(4)
and
T,
(5)
become, as in
(i),
Tx
For:
and
(4") (5")
Let Pi and P2
is
(Fig. 314) be any symmetrical pair of particles (so that perpendicular to the axis of symmetry and is bisected by that
(x2}'2Z2)
Also let the coordinates of Pi and P2 be (xiyiZi) and Evidently these coordinates are related as follows:
respectively.
(xi
+ X2)
r,
yi= 
y2,
and
Zi
Z2.
On
account of homogeneity, the masses, taken equal; hence for the two particles
nii
and
m^, of the Pi
and P2 may be
and
wiyiZi
miZiXi
miyiZi
o,
+ WiZi(2 r Xi)
all
2 miZi?.
It follows that,
fyz dM
where
in the
s
o,
and
XOY
and hence i
(i)
o.
Thus
finally,
we
see
from
(4),
(5),
and T^
The body
is
In
and
and
(5)
become
r,
Yox:
for
=  afzx dM,
Ty
= of
'^""^zx
dM.
(4'") (5'")
symmetry
there
is
in this case;
hence
any
(x, y, z)
y, z).
It follows
thatjjs
dM^o,
and (5), that T^ and Ty have the values stated above. In general, the resultant of the external forces is a single force as in cases
(i)
and
(ii);
but in this case, the resultant acts not in the xy plane but in a
which
is
jzxdM ^
Mr.
Q' is the point where the Une of action of the resultant pierces the plane of symmetry. Proof of the foregoing statements is left for the student to supply.
The
(6)
fact that the described resultant satisfies (i), (2), (3), (4'"), (s'"),
and
may be
regarded
as sufficient proof.*
a rotating body
unless well
It is common experience that Dynamic Balance. and "balanced" exerts forces upon its shaft
which
Art. 39
185
velocity of rotation.
be due to the "centrifugal action " of the rotating body; and the components A rotating machine part so shaped are called " centrifugal " forces or pulls.
or loaded that
is
it exerts no resultant centrifugal pull said to be in "running " or "dynamic balance."
on
its
shaft or bearhigs
of designing for
or proportioning the various (simple) parts of the rotating body, a motor crank shaft for example, so that the centrifugal pulls of all the various parts
will
neutralize.*
Even
after
careful design
and manufacture
of
a crank
running balance
The
tions (i) to
conditions for dynamic balance can be stated with reference to equa(6): (a) The masscenter of the body must be in the axis of
rotation
{r=
o);
this
insures
(see Art.
(b)
The
zero;
"products
this
of inertia"
must equal
with
fulfilled
For: When (a) insures dynamic balance. and the angular velocity is constant, the righthand members
(i) to (6)
equations
The
axis
is
axis of rotation of a
body which
is
from
axis.
all
external
even gravity,
it
39.
I.
Pendulums
By this term is meant the common pendulum, Gravity Pendulum. axis so that it can be made to oscillate horizontal on a suspended that is a body real pendulum is sometimes called a A gravity. of influence the freely under
compound or physical pendulum to distinguish
it
sisting of a masspoint or particle suspended by a massless cord; this latter is Let T = the period or time of one called a simple or mathematical pendulum. oscillation, k = the radius of gyration of the fro) and (to double or complete
pendulum with respect to the axis of suspension, c = distance from the center of gravity of the pendulum to that axis, and 2 jS = the angle swept out by the pendulum in one single oscillation. Then, as will be shown presently, the period is given closely by
T =2T Vk'/cg,
*
(i)
For a good treatment of dynamic balancing, see the book by Dunkerly or Sharpe on
For a description of an ingenious balancing machine, Akimofif's, see American Machinist
18, 1Q16.
Balancing of Engines.
t
for
May
X
For a theory of balancing of engines based on these conditions extended see Lorenz,
Tecknische Mcchanik,
Band
I.
86
j8
Chap, ix
is
provided that
of
small.*
Since
jS
any pendulum is independent of /3; that is all small oscillations of a pendulum have equal periods or, as we say, they are isochronous. When g is expressed in feet per second per second then k and c should be expressed in feet; T will be
in seconds. of equation (i) let OG (Fig. 316a) be a pendulum in any O the center of suspension, G the center of gravity; let W = the weight of the pendulum, c = OG, and 6 the (varying) angle which OG makes
swinging position,
is
There are three forces acting on the pendulum, gravity, the supporting force at the knife edge, and the pressure of the surrounding air. The moment of the first force about the axis of suspension is
shown.
Wc sin 6;
the
the resultant
two forces we take as negligible. Hence pendulum in any position = Wc sin 6 practically. torque on the
moments
of the other
The angular
acceleration
Wc sin 6= 
{W/g) m^QldC,
the negative sign being introduced because sin Q and d^d/df are always opposite in sign.
It follows readily
(Pe/df
= 
=
will
A sin
d,
where
of
6,
is
an abbreviation for
jS,
cg/k^.
We
and
that
is
is
approximation we
may
and have
deydf
= 
Ad.
To
integrate
this
simply,
let
dd/dt;
then d^O/df
du/dt
(du/dd)
{dd/dt)
Ad,
or
udu = Ad dd.
we
get
Now
integrating
and replacing u by
dd/dt,
where Ci
is
a constant of integration.
Remembering that
dd/dt
the angular
we note
and
that where d
^, there dd/dt
o;
there
^AjS^h
Ci, or Ci
.4/32,
finally
dd/dt
*
AWp^d\
The
is
given by
r = 2,rVFAg[i
If
/3
(iysin^^}(i.^ysin^^+
].
the value
is
i. 001 2 2;
and
of the bracket
nearer unity.
if /3
Hence the
less
Art. 39
187
The positive sign is to be used when dd/dt is positive; that is when the pendulum is swinging in the positive direction. Now let r = the time required for the pendulum to swing out from its lowest to its highest position on the To get a value of this time we right, that is while d changes from o to /3.
integrate the preceding equation as follows:
VA
Let
t'
dt^
Jj
Jo
\/,32
or
02
sm1 V V TL /3jo
,4
W V
eg
the time required for a swing from the extreme right position to the
is
/3
to o.
To
we
Jo
Ji3
V/3202'
y
to
Ai
^\p
eg
Hence
and
was
b e expected.
as
complete oscillation
= 47 = 2x V^/t:g,
Let k
through
k^
=
its
to
an axis
^R
\ c
and hence
gc
g\
(2)
cJ
all
Contrary to
common
belief,
increases in
c,
For examinc,
T with
reference to a variation in
we
find that
dT^
dc
TV {c"
?)
cV[gc(c2fP)]*
than
k,
Now
when
and positive
c
greater than
Hence when
its least
c is less
than k an increase in
c increases T.
decreases T;
c
c is greater
than k an increase in
When
k,
then
dT/dc
o,
and T has
and
also c
I;
hence
pendulum
given by
(3)
r=27rv77g.*
physical
to be equivalent.
k"/cg
l/g, or
k'/c.
(real)
pendulum concentrated
exist
into a point
only in imagination,
but a
bob suspended by means of a cord may be regarded as a That is the period of the cordbob pendulum = t V77^ where / = the distance from the axis of suspension to the center of the bob. For k/ for the cordbob pendulum is small compared to i, and hence equation (2) gives T = 2w ^c/g
real
pendulum made
of a small
practically.
j88
(Fig. 316a),
Chap, ix
whose distance from the center of suspension equals k'^/c. Then, as just shown, the period of such an (imaginary) simple or mathematical pendulum would be 2TVQ/g), where / is the length OQ or k'^/c; hence
the period would be
2
tt
Vik^cg), that
is
pendulum.
For
dulum.
this reason
is
The
dis
tance from
is
GQ = c
c
a
0,
w]
"The
centers of suspension
and
of
oscillation of
is if
pendulum
be suspended from
(Fig. 316b),
center of oscillation.
For,
the
then
It follows
erty of interchangeability that the periods of a penduFig. 316, a, b, c and from Q are equal. lum when suspended from The pendulum is our best device for accurately determining the acceleration due to gravity at any place. We have only to determine the period T and the length k^jc of a pendulum at the place, and then compute g from the But it is not easy to determine k^jc directly. formula T = 2 k y/ {]r I eg)
.
Captain Kater
made
centers of suspension
and
oscillation to
length Wjc
pendulum
where
in principle;
shown
at a
known
distance apart;
desired.
is
The
but by shifting the weight and trying repeatedly, the periods can be made equal. When the periods are equal, then either knife
would be
edge
(a
is
different,
the axis of oscillation for the other as axis of suspension, and O1O2
distance)
is
known
pendulum
or the
Kater pendulum the value of g for Washington was determined to be 980.100 centimeters per second per second. Values by comparing of g at many other places have been determined more simply
W'lc of the formula.
By means
at
based on the principle that the squares of the periods of oscillation of any pendulum at two different places are inversely proportional to the values of g at those places hence if Ty, and T = the periods
other places.
This comparison
Washington and some other station and g place, then g = 980.1 {Tw/Tfat
Art. 39
2.
1 88a
This consists of a heavy bob suspended Torsion Pendulum. by means of a Ught elastic wire, the wire being firmly embedded Any horizontal couple appUed to the bob will in the bob and in its support. turn the bob and twist the wire. If the couple is not too large so as not then the angular displaceto stress the wire beyond its "elastic limit" ment of the bob will be proportional to the moment of the couple applied. = the moments of two couples apphed successively and That is, if C and 6 and 6' are the corresponding angular displacements produced by the couples, then 6/6' = C/C. Hence, the moment C required to produce any displacement is given by C = {C'/d') 6. In any displaced position of the bob, the wire exerts a couple on the bob equal to the appUed couple. If the bob were released from any position of (moderate) angular displacement j8, it would oscillate under the influence of the couple exerted by the wire. We will assume that this (varying) couple follows the law expressed
vertically
above.
Then
equation
Since a
3, Art. 37)
C
6
=^
la, where
/
a.
and
drd/df,
and
and
written
where
is
an abbreviation
for {C'/d') ^ /.
This
last
equation
is
apply to
be changed to B.
is
TT
C/6' \/[iI=^v/c^
tt,
The
or
^
T=
/
2ir\/l^{C'/d').
(i)
= Mk^ = {W/g) k' where = weight and k = radius of gyration of the bob with respect to the axis of the wire. If, in a numerical case, is taken in pounds and g in feet per second per second, k should be expressed in feet, in footpounds, and 6' (always) in radians; T will be in seconds. C'/d' (the ratio of the moment of any twisting couple to the angle of twist produced)
is
is
the
moment
stiffer
Formula
(i)
less
the period.
i88b
Continued from page 184.
Chap, ix
When
forces
is
is
constant (a
o),
a single force
R = Mro)^)
{
acting as
shown
315 and
its
dis
tance from
CO
is
/zxdM
When
the masscentre
is
T
Mr.
o),
the resultant
is
couple whose
moments about
the x, y,
<a~
and
ai zxdM,
When
both a and
r
o,
the resultant
a couple whose
moments about
ar
zxdM, and
o.
CHAPTER X
WORK, ENERGY, POWER
40.
I.
Work
is
Definitions, Etc.
said to be
Work
it
is
has
many mean
by the agent exerting moves so that the force has a component along the path of the point of application. This component will be called the working component of the force; and the length of the path
Work
is
the force
also
of the point of application the distance through which the force acts.
The
work done by the force is taken as equal to the product of the working component and the distance through which the force acts. The meaning of this measure of work done by a force is clear when the working component is constant. For example, suppose that the body represented in Fig. 317 is moved along the line AB by a number of forces, two of which (indicated) are constant in magnitude and During any portion of the in direction. J^''^ r^i _5__ motion, as from A to B, the work done by l,,,Jy,,[Zj^ Fi is Fi(AB) and the work done by F2 is {F2 cos 6) AB. This expression when written F (AB cos 6) means the product of the force and the component of the displacement along the line of action of the force, which is a " view" of amount
amount
of
'
of
work done by a
force sometimes
is
other.
When
arrive at an expression
work somewhat
Let AB
we may
(Fig. 318)
be the path of the point of application of one of the forces acting upon a body not shown, and P any point on the
path.
'A
Let
/'
the force,
F and
path at P.
I^iG.
318
displacement
or tangential
component
( Ft
of
work done by F during the elementary 'ds or Ftds where Fi means working F; and the work done by F in the displacement
Then
the
=F
cos
4>
from
to
B =
be assigned so as to include
all
elementary works Ft ds in the motion from A to B. It is worth noting that if the force F acts normally to the path at all points, then Ft = o always, and
the formula gives zero for the work done
189
by
F, as
it
should.
190
Chap, x
unit work
is
The
the
work done by a
force
The unit of work depends upon the units used for force and distance; thus we have the footpound, centimeterdyne, etc. The second unit is also called erg; and 10^ ergs = i joule. The horsepowerhour and the watthour are larger units of work. They are the amounts of work done in one hour at the rates of one horsepower and one
unit force acting through unit distance.*
When When
force
by
it
may
be
convenient to give signs to their works according to this commonly used rule:
the working component acts in the direction of motion, the work of the
is
regarded as positive;
when
work
is
regarded as negative.
The formula J F
ds,
initial
and
if
and B,
tive in the direction of motion from some fixed from the " positive tangent" around to the line of action of the force as shown Forces which do positive work are sometimes called efforts; in the figure.
Work Diagram.
work
If
then the curve joining the consecutive plotted points might be called a " work
The portion of the diagram "under the curve" (between the curve, the 5axis, and any two ordinates) is called the work diagram for the force F for
ing forcespace" (Fts) curve.
"
^ia>i
"
'"I
ordinates.
The
by the
Proof: Let
is,
m=
number; that
abscissa (inch)
unit
ordinate (inch)
= m
let
I
units of Ft (pounds)
and unit
= n
I
units of 5 (feet).
/ij
Also
A =
C^
r^
area;
J
then
A= Jx,
Hence,
ydx=
nhp^s
I
Ja
is,
Ftds= mnja
/
work
mn
number mn
{mn)
work; that
A = work
F
is
By
by the distance
*
Si,
or b
is
a,
gives the
represented
Appendix A. work done by a resistance on a body work done by the body against the resistance.
of unit work, see
t
The
(negative)
Art. 40
191
the
work diagram.
and
When
s,
that curve
is
straight, that
is,
when Ft
varies uni
mean
(a
final values.
320
is
a facsimile of a record
made by
the traction
dynamometer
and ordinates represent " drawbar pulls" (the pulls between the tender and first car of the train). Thus, the figure is a work diagram. To determine the area of such a diagram as this we first draw in an average curve "by eye," and then ascertain the area under this curve in any convenient way.
by the
train,
3 tons
\//^vMv***^^'^^VV'^^^
6 ins. =
/
Mile.
V V
Fig. 320
Fig. 322
(i) The work done by a force which is conand direction equals the product of the force and the projection of the displacement of its point of application upon the line of action of the force. For, let F = the force, APB (Fig. 321) the path of its point of application, ^ = the (variable) angle between and the direction of the motion of the point of application P. Then the work done by F is
2.
stant in magnitude
F cos (j)ds = F
ds cos </>,
where ds
is
an elementary portion
of the path.
Now
ds cos
is
the projection
of the element ds
line parallel to F,
and
Cds cos
<^
is
the
sum
sum AB.
of the projections
the projection of
APB upon the line. But the APB = the projection of the chord
in
(ii)
body
of its weight
the work
or ascended.
yii y2
,
etc., their
ji" jo", etc., their distances above that plane at the end of the motion (see Fig. 322) where a' a" is the path of the first particle, b'b" that of the second, etc.). Also let denote
,
distances above
and final heights of its center of gravity above the plane. Then the works done by gravity on the particles respectively, are Wi {yi y/'), K'2 iyi y^"), etc., and the sum of these works can be written
initial
{wiyi
+ W2y2 +
{wiyi"
W2yi'
+...).
192
AP.
The
the
first
term of
of these
this
sum
sum = Wy', and the second = Wy" works done on all the particles equals
hence
Wy'
(iii)
y").
of forces having a
The
algebraic
sum of
by any number
common
etc.,
work done by
etc., and Rt = the components of the forces and of the resultant, respectively, along the tangent = Rt F" F"' Now Ft to the path of the point of application. = Rtds, and F/" ds \Hence Ft' ds Ft" ds (Art. 4).
the forces,
R=
their resultant,
fFt'ds^ fFt"ds\that
is,
CFt'"ds\
fRtds;
their
the
sum
of the
resultant.
(iv)
and opposite
forces in
any
X2
necessarily
Fdr
or
r^i
I
F dr
according as the forces tend to separate or draw the points of application not constant together; F = the common magnitude of the two forces
and
r2
initial
and
values of
r.
Let
A and B
(Fig. 323)
application of the
y^/y'
^
Fig ^2^
V
^"_;:::^:^^^;^
p^^^
/By"
y.
acting on a body two forces any intermediate stage of the displacement, and suppose that the path of A is Let x',y' be the ^i^^2 and that of B is BA. (For coordinates of A, and x", y" those of B.
not shown
at
be the points of
figure we have taken the paths of A simplicity ^ J in V and B as coplanar. The following proof could
be extended to cover the case of any paths. The paths are not necessarily due to the forces F alone; but since we are concerned with the work done by
these
no mention is made of any other forces concerned According to the preceding paragraph the work done by either force F in any displacement equals the sum of the works done by the X and y components of F in that same displacement. Hence in an elementary
two
forces only,
F on ^ = (F
\
cos
dx'
F
sin 6 dy'),
and the
work
forces
oi
F on B =
{F cos 6 dx"
FsinO
is
dy").
It will readily
be
+ sin 6 {dy"  dy')]. seen from the figure that (x"  x') + (y" y')^ =
F[cosd (dx"
dx')
r';
and,
by
differentiation,
we
x')
find that
(x"
{dx"
dx')
{y"
y')
{dy"  dy')
rdr.
Art. 41
195
r
Dividing by
and transforming we
cos 6 {dx"
find that
dx')
in the elementary displacement is F dr, and the work done in the displacement from AiBi to A1B2 equals the integral of F dr between the limits as stated. Obviously, changing the senses of the forces F (in the
figure) so that
and
total
41.
Energy
body is such that it can do work against body is said to possess energy. For example, a stretched spring can do work against forces applied to it if they are such that it may contract, and a body in motion can do work against an applied force which tends to stop it; the spring and the body, therefore, possess energy. The amount of energy possessed by a body at any instant is the amount of work which it can do against applied forces while its state or condition changes from that of the instant to an assumed standard state or condition. The meaning of the standard condition is explained in subsequent articles. The unit of energy must, in accordance with the above, be the same as the unit of work. Thus we have the footpound, footton, centimeterdyne (or erg),
the state or condition of a
it,
When
forces applied to
the
I.
Mechanical Energy.
body
is
Energ>^
is classified
has energy.
energy which the body has by virtue of its The amount of kinetic energy possessed by a particle at any instant
the
instant to
work which it can do while the velocity changes from its value at that some other value taken as a standard. It is customary to take
this being understood,
is
by a
particle
giving up all its velocity." The kinetic energy of a single mass and velocity are m and v, respectively, equals  mv'^. Proof: Let Fi, Fi, F3, etc., be the forces which act on the particle P (Fig. 324) and eventually stop it; and let AB he
whose
the path,
Vi)
and
the
o.
Then we
particle
bodies (which exert the forces Fi, F2, F3, etc.) equals  mvi^, during the motion. Now, the work done by the forces Fi, F2, F3, etc., on the particle is
Fi cos
(f>ids
^
*
Fa cos
(f>2
ds
+''
'
/ (Fi
cos
<^i f
F2 cos 02
ds,
194
where
4>i,
Chap,
02, 03, etc.,
and the
its
direction of
motion
(Art. 40).
exerts forces
on
neighbors, equal
its
and opposite to
particle
on
neighbors
is
(Fi cos 01
+ F2 cos 02 +
Jnat
ds.
= m dv/dt,
where
at is
the tangential
work done by
P is
m (dv/dt) ds ^
m {ds/dt) dv =
mv dv
^ mv^.
The kinetic energy of a body (a collection or system or particles) is the sum of the kinetic energies of the constituent particles of the body. We will now evaluate this sum for certain common cases, namely, (i) translation,
(ii)
rotation,
(i)
combined translation and rotation. In translatory motion all particles of the moving body have at each
(iii)
and
instant equal velocities; hence, the simi of the kinetic energies of the particles
is
+
=
"^^
their
common
(2^0, where Wi, nh, etc., = the masses of velocity at the instant imder consideration.
Or,
will
be in footpounds, foottons,
tons, etc.
(ii)
according as
is
expressed in pounds, or
In a rotation about a fixed axis the velocity of any particle of the body
equals the product of the angular velocity of the body, expressed in radians per
unit time,
Hence, the sum of the kinetic energies of the particles of the body
I mi
(ri co)2
f
1712
(r^f^y
oj^
Zmr,
where
co
and
ri, ^2,
rotation.
But
I,mr^
the
moment
of inertia of the
axis of
rotation;
is
given by
=
where I
the
i /co2
i Mk^o:'
h (W/g) kW',
(2)
= the moment of inertia described, and k = the radius of gyration of body about the axis of rotation. If 32.2 is written for g, then k should be expressed in feet and co in radians per second (w 2 wn where n = revolutions per second). Then E will be in footpounds, foottons, etc., according
as
W
(iii)
is
A body which
rolling,
Uke a wheel
M^^
+ Hco^ = I
{W/g)
v'
+ i (W/g) oi\
(3)
Art. 41
195
where
mass
of the body, v
the
moment
of inertia of the
an
axis
same
is
axis,
The
portions ^
Mv^ and
/co^ of
the kinetic
As an example
we
which
i
is
M = 400
is
32.2
second.
and Hence
 12.4
cxi,
is
turning,
is
4"
+  12.4 X
4.5(4 ^
3)'"
148.8 footpounds.
Potential Energy.
is
work against
allowed to
move
so that they
permitted to resmne
is
its
natural length.
The "change
we conceive
of the
Energy
is
of a
configuration, and potential energy more commonly. The amount of potential energy possessed by a system in any configuration is the work which it can do in passing from that configuration to any other
tion of
called energy of
the system
taken as a standard,
takes place.
it
The standard
it
may
it is
convenient to so select
tial
that in
energy
is
positive.
A most common
body.
case of potential energy is that of the earth and an elevated In this case, standard configuration means one in which the body and
Practically,
it is
necessary to regard
the earth as fixed and the energy as resident in the elevated body.
of potential energy of
an elevated body
is
would do upon the body during the descent into the standard or lowest position, = the weight and this work is given by Wh (see preceding article), where of the body and h = the distance through wliich the center of gravity of the body can descend. Kinetic energy and potential energy 2. Other Forms of Energy.
It
is
the opinion of
some that
all
energy
Iq6
is
Chap,
kinetic.
it is all
Whether
either of these
views be correct,
mere
we
if
shall deal
Thermal Energy.
thus,
A
is
hot body
may
such a one
may
may
drive a steam
do work.
By
giving up
its
and, hence,
by
definition, it possessed
energy in
heated
state.
Not only
is
known, but
a
is
definite
the
amount of energy. Thus, one British thermal unit (B.T.U.), which amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water
=
=
778 footpounds.
And
(at
one (small)
calorie,
which
the
amount
4.187
10^ ergs
is
15 degrees).
is
common
is,
theory
that heat
is
motion
of molecules, that
Chemical Energy.
thermal energy
kinetic.
and
their
com
combine and produce heat which, as we have seen, is a form of energy. We rightly say, therefore, that the coal and oxygen before combination possessed
energy.
in cases
Based on
where heat
that internal
hence
According
potential;
and
after,
Electrical Energy.
If a
work may be done by the latter. As the work is done, the electrical condition of the battery changes, and we therefore ascribe the energy to the batter}'.
The energy is called electrical because it is due to a change of electrical condiThe nature of electrical energy is even less understood than that of tion. thermal energy, and no commonly accepted explanation of it has yet been made^
42.
I
.
Power
In
common
And
many meanings
(see diction
ary).
Thus we hear
power
of a giant,
power
press, etc.
of things mechanical,
we hear such
expressions as a powerful
On reflection we note that derrick, a powerful cannon, a powerful pump, etc. probably does not refer to the same expressions the adjective in these three
and pump. A derrick is probably called powerbody, or exert a very great (lifting) force. heavy ful because it can lift a very powerful because it can project a heavy shot called A cannon is generally
feature of the derrick, cannon,
Art. 42
197
we
to the shot.
A pump
is
probably called
in a short
powerful because
it
much work
Use
lete.
of the
word power
one time.
in engineering
literature at
Such usage
is
Thus we read
power
(But Goss in his LocoHenderson his Operation, and in Locomotive seem to prefer motive Performance, Tests Exhibits, of the Pennsylvania and Railtractive force and in Locomotive road System at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, we find " tractive effort The other two uses of the word power to denote (i) to denote that pull.) work or energy, and (ii) rate at which work is done or energy is transmitted Thus in the same textbook we find: or transformed are c[uite common. (i) " the actual power utilized is onehalf the energy available," and (ii) "the power of the plant is about 470 horsepower" (258,500 footpounds per second, see below). And in another book there appear: (i) " the power of the rotating shaft could be converted into electrical energy," and (ii) '"the
;
Company.
power
is
here measured in kilowatts " (one kilowatt equals 10'" ergs per second,
It
see below).
this
In
common
quoted above, we
power
in a single sense,
namely,
as the rate at
which work
is
done.
may be
locality,
and absolute.
= =
=
The dynecentimeter
watt which
is 10'^
second
is
and the
kilowatt
1000 watts
io^ ergs
per second.
The Bureau
of
American horsepower as the exact equivalent of 746 watts, thus making " Thus defined it is the rate of work exthis horsepower an absolute unit. pressed by 550 footpounds per second at 50 latitude and sea level, approximately the location of London, where the original experiments were made by James Watt to determine its value. The continental horsepower is similarly
' '
30', or Berlin." f
For dimensions of a unit of power see Appendix A. Circular of the Bureau of Standards, No. 34.
198
2.
c^^
'^
Measurement of Power.
There
is
common
electric
elec
use which measures power directly, the wattmeter. power and reads in watts, hence the name wattmeter.
trical is generally
measures
of
work done
or energy transmitted in a certain length of time; this work or energy divided by the time gives the average power for the period. And to measure the
work or energy generally requires the measurement of a force; this force multipUed by the distance through which it acts (as explained later) gives the work Thus most appliances for ascertaining power measure force first or energy. Dynamomof all, and so are properly called dynamometers (forcemeasurers). the first of Those absorption and transmission. eters are of two kinds, second the of those and measure, kind absorb or waste the energy which they dynamometers many great it. A kind transmit the energy or nearly all of
have been devised. Only one of each kind is here described.* k simple form is shown in Fig. 325. AA are two bearing Prony Brake. blocks which bear against the face of the pulley on the shaft of the motor or other machine whose power is to be measured; BC is the beam, one end of which is supported on a post D which rests on the platform of a weighing scale; BB are nuts by means of which the pressures between the pulley and the bearing blocks may be changed and consequently the frictional drag also when the pulley is turning. The drag on the brake tends to depress the end C
when the
pulley
is
rotating as indicated.
'
w/!nu//f
'
Fig. 325
Fig. 326
Let 5
when
the pulley
is
speed, the brake then absorbing the energy which is to be measured; n = the revolutions of pulley per unit time; a = the horizontal distance from the
support of
and
X=
Then
P=
If
(5
X)
2 Kan.
(i)
S and
and n
then
X)
an
horsepower.
(2)
The meaning
Let F =
*
ichs'
appear from the following derivation of formula (i). the total frictional drag on the pulley while the energy to be measured
of
will
descriptions of
For
full
Flathers'
Experimental Engineering.
Art. 42
is
199
diameter of pulley.
the pulley
is Fir
by
F ird, and
dn.
Now
w =
weight of D; then
plain from
+ Wb = (S  w) a, or Fd = 2[S  {w + Wb/a)] a; and hence P = [S  (w like (i) except that X replaces w + This last equation
Fig. 326 that
\Fd
\
Wb/a)]
wan.
obvi
is
Wb/a.
Now
ously
Wb/a
to
is
W;
hence
is
that portion of
S due
and w. X can be determined directly as follows: Loosen the screws BB and insert a small roller between the top of pulley and the upper block A, but without shifting C; then read the scale. That reading = X,
for the pressure
=w
Wb/a.
H.j^f^^y V,
t....^x....J
kbH
V'b
H
Fig. 327
Fig. 328
This consists of four pulleys, A, B, C and D Tatham Dynamometer. Pulleys F, a weighing beam G, and a belt HIJK. E and (Fig. 327), two levers D are and pulleys C dynamometer; of the frame the on A and B are mounted knife on supported are in turn, which, levers the on idlers and are mounted from suspended L and Hnks knifeedge and by frame edges resting on the the from supported is beam weighing the shown; all as the weighing beam,
frame at N.
are vertical,
levers.
The dimensions
and
and
A and B extend backwards to connect with machines In all cases, the to be measured is transmitted. energy between which the in I is greater tension the that made so should be machines connections to the machine possible, if and, "slack"); / and /(/"tight" than that in
The
shafts of
whose power
is
When
the
if
dynamometer
the
to be determined should be connected to or be on the shaft of pull on the weighing is in operation, then L and
beam; and,
beam be balanced by
Let
5 =
the
200
scalereading,
Chap,
D^
diameter of
and
P=
power; then
P=
STrDn.
;
For Sir D is the work done by the belt on A in one turn of A and, hence, the work done per unit time is Sir Dn. Fig. 328 shows the forces acting on the various parts, and makes plain how the poise measures P2 Pi Thus, from the righthand lever Qi = Pic/b; from the lefthand lever Q2 = P2c/b; and from the weighing beam Wx = Hence, P2  Pi = {Wb/ac) x. Now, Wb/ac (Q2 Qi)a= (P2  Pi) ac/b. is a constant, and so it is possible to graduate the scale beam (mark values of X on it), so that the readings will give the corresponding values of P2 Pi. (No mention has been made of the weights of the parts. These are counterbalanced by a balancing weight on the scale beam as in an ordinary platform
scale.)
3.
To
the cylinder of a steam or gas engine per stroke or per unit time, use
of
made
an instrument called an indicator. The indicator makes a diagram or " card" from which the intensity of the pressure on either side of the piston
at
any point
Fig.
form
of indicator as used
is
a cylinder;
is
spring
is fixed;
D
is
is
a,
When
the piston
moved the pencil simply makes a vertical line on the card; when the frame is moved the pencil makes a horizontal line.
To
is
connected
is
suitable reducing device so that the frame gets a motion just like
When
the instrument
connected up, as just described, then the pencil describes a curve, something
GHIJG, the upper portion GHI being drawn during the forward stroke and the lower portion IJG during the return. The ordinates to the curve from the line of zero pressure K represent pressure per unit area in the
like
depending on the
course.
piston.
Fig.
The
330
is
end
of the cylinder,
work done on one side of the piston (per unit area) during the forward stroke, and the area BEFCAB But the first work is represents the work done on it during the return stroke.
pressure.
The
area
ACDEB A
represents the
Art. 42
positive,
2^
and the second negative; hence the work done on that side of the is represented by the area enclosed by the curve
Similarly, the area of the dotted
CDEFC.
other
side
the piston
during
toandfro
stroke.
The mean
effective
^iq. 330
one for the headend and one for for the headthe crankend of the cylinder. Let pi = mean effective pressure
area of crosssection of the cylinder, Then A' = area of crosssection of the piston rod, and I = length of stroke. strokes consecutive two during the work done by the steam in the headend A') I, and the = piAl; that done by the steam in the crankend = p2 {A
end, p2
A =
total
sum of these expressions. mean effective pressures {pi and P2) for the two ends of cylinder). the cylinder is sometimes called the mean effective pressure (for the of the average = the a area) Let p = this mean effective pressure (per unit
work done
is
the
The average
of the
what amounts to the same thing, the the crossarea of the crosssection of the cylinder minus onehalf the area of per unit piston the of strokes = of the number section of the piston rod; n presently, shown be will as Then, = length of stroke, as before. time; and /
areas of the
two
is 2
is
F =
plan.
(i)
in feet, If the customary units are used, namely, p in pounds per square inch, / in footpounds is P, above, then minute, per a in square inches, and n in strokes
P =
a^^^
horsepowers.
33,000
To
justify 2 pal:
As
p^^i
_[_
p^
(^1
A')
I.
+ P2)AP2A']1,
p2 nearly,
or
X
p2
l(Pi ^
P2)
(a
 j^^A'Y
^ nearly.
Now
pi
and therefore
(pi
P2)
Hence the
I {pih P2) {A
h ^') I
or
2 pal.
= 2 plan. Let 5 = the For a singleexpansion, twocylinder locomotive, " piston speed," the actual distance which a piston describes in its cylinder
In
and
P =
pas.
(2)
202
Chap, x
With customary units for p, a, and 5 (pounds per square inch, square inches, and feet per minute respectively) the foregoing formula gives P in footpounds Since the piston speed and the velocity of the locomotive are per minute. related, it is possible to express the indicated power of a locomotive in terms Thus let v = the velocity of the locomotive, and D= diamof its velocity.
eter of the driving wheels;
cylinder equal to 2
s
/.
and a displacement of the piston relative to Hence v/s = xD/2 /, or 5 = (2 l/irD) v. Substitutformula for P, we find that
ing for
in the preceding
4 pal
(3)
where
c?
= diameter
of the cylinder.
(Strictly
of the
and D, and
feet per
minute
gives
Both formulas for P show that the power of a locomotive is zero at starting, and would increase exactly with the velocity if the mean effective pressure were the same at all speeds. The mean effective pressure depends upon the boiler pressure obviously, and on the cutolT and piston speed.* The American Locomotive Company
P in footpounds per
minute.
line
A BCD
(Fig. 331), as
mean
effective
pressure with change of piston speed, for the manner of running (cutofif, etc.) which
60
o
engine
men
usually employ.
Thus, for
all
;q4o
speeds up to 250
effective pressure
mean
?0
taken at 85 per cent of the boiler pressure; at 500 feet per minute, Let it is taken at about 65 per cent, etc.
po
boiler pressure
and
K=
ratio of
mean
which
may be
that p
= Kpo.
Then
be written
p _
A^o^^.
(4)
Thus, for a given boiler pressure the power varies as Ks. The line OEFGH (Fig. 331) is a graph of the preceding equation, the maximum value of P being
It appears, then, that for the American Locomotive speed coefficients, the power increases uniformly up to a piston speed of 250 feet per minute, then less rapidly up to a maximum value at about 700 feet per minute, then remains nearly constant up to about 1000 feet per
Company
High Pressures
a test
in Locomotive Service,
which shows
clearly
how
the
mean
made by him.
Art. 43
203
43.
Principles of
I.
Principle of
Work and
Kinetic Energy. In any displacement upon it, if any, do more or less work; and,
is
There
is
it
we
now show.
be
its
Let
(Fig. 332)
be the particle;
m=
Vi
its its
mass;
OAB
path (not
v^
velocity at A,
all
and
its
R =
the resultant of
and Rt
the component of
Then
the
work done by
is
all
placement ds
gential
Rt
ds.
But Rt
is
= mat = ^ dv/dt,
= m
where a
tan
component
of the acceleration of P.
the
displacement ds
(dv/dt) ds
done in the
total displacement
AB
is
mvdv =
^ mvi^
\ mv^.
Now
P.
^ mvz^
is
;
is its
kinetic
energy at
the
hence  mvz^
nivi^ is
Thus we have the simple relation, in any displacement of a particle, work done by all the forces acting upon it equals the increment in the kinetic energy of the particle. If the total work done is positive then the increment in the kinetic energy is positive also, and there is a real gain and increase in velocity; if the total work done upon the particle is negative, then the increment in the kinetic energy is negative and there is a loss and decrease
in velocity.
etc.,
rigid necessarily).
In
any displacement
of the body,
work done by
(<
forces acting
i(
li
a a
<(
upon Pi " p
a
etc.
jj
f
__
"
'I
p
n
13,
II
((
(I
c(
ic
etc.
Adding we get
kinetic energies
total
work done on
total
all
particles
= sum
by
of increments in their
it
all the
external
upon
it
In a displacement of a rigid body the total work done by the internal forces
equals zero.
Proof:
body
is
rigid
the distance between the points of application {Pi and P2) of these two forces
204
Chap, x
does not change, and hence (Art. 40) the total work done by these two forces But all the internal forces occur in such pairs; hence, the total equals zero.
work done by
the principle,
the
in
all
Thus we have
work done upon
any
From
these principles
it
gaining kinetic
The
increment in kinetic energy. Since work is of the form force or space, we may state that the " spaceefifect " of force is kinetic distance (The " timeeffect" of force is momentum, see Art. 45.) The foreenergy.
work done
going principles are especially well adapted for ascertaining the change in when it is possible to compute the total velocitysquare, rather velocity
means we may ascertain also something about the forces or displacement which accompany any given change in the kinetic energy of a body. We illustrate by means of some It is dragged .4 (Fig. 2>2>z) is a body weighing 400 pounds. i. Examples. along a rough horizontal plane B by a force P, inclined as shown; P = 80
By
their
pounds.
^
The
coefficient of friction
is
about i/io.
10 feet?
What
is t)ie
first
In the
first
^'"f/iii/inii'
20 feet?
sin 20
The normal
all
pressure between
B
Fig. 333
we know
A
by
no work on
ID feet
work
yl
in
= (80 cos 20) X 10 = 752 footpounds; the reaction of B on A does = 37.3 X 10 = 373 footpounds. Hence, the total work done on = y52 373 = 379 footpounds; and this is also the amount of the gain Let Vi = the the kinetic energy of A during 10 feet of displacement.
first
energy of
A A
first
10 feet
Vi
pounds.
Hence
379, or
foot
V2
velocity of
V2^.
at the
end
there
= the = 6.21
during the
first
20 feet
758 footpounds,
6.21
758, or
V2
Such a problem can be solved also by first finding the acceleration. Thus, since the resultant force acting on ^ = 80 cos 20  37.3 = 37.9 pounds, the
acceleration
37.9
(400/32.2)
^1/305
0328
vi.
= 3.05 feet per second per second. The first 10 feet = the velocity acquired ^ the acceleration The distance = the average velocity X the time; that
Art. 43
is,
205
10
vi
0.328111, or Vi
is
Obviously,
the
2.
first
method
more
A piece of timber
12"
12"
16' is
The
AB, two
feet
to swing.
What
reaches
are
its
kinetic energy
and velocity
when
it
lowest
position?
its
The
forces
We
neglect
pulls are
normal to the
Fig. 334
direction of the displacement of their respective points of application; therefore the pulls
800
1600 footpounds.
the total
Now
of translation
no
1600 footpounds.
turning
and therefore
at each instant all points of the timber have identical velocities (Art. 35). Hence, ii v = the velocity in the lowest position, then
f (800/32.2)
3.
v~
1600,
its
or
=
=
is
certain flywheel
and
both with respect to the axis of rotation rotating at 100 revolutions per minute, and
of
10 inches.
The wheel
is
set to
then
left to itself,
under the influence of axle friction and air resistance after Required, the average torque of the resistances. The moment of inertia of
the wheel and shaft, about the axis,
(400/32.2) (10/12)^
=
tt
8.64 slugfeet^.
The angular
released,
velocity,
100/60
10.47
 8.64
474 footpounds.
above, gravity and the normal pressure of the bearings act on the wheel and
shaft,
= average torque but these do no work during the stoppage. Let then the work done by them during the
is
stoppage
M 2^84. =
and
its
528
M footpounds. This equals the gain in the $28 M = 474, or M = 0.90 footpounds.
is,
A
A
(Fig, 335) is
is
3 feet in diameter,
9 inches.
pounds, respectively.
The weights of A, B, and C are 100, 200, and 300 The system is released and allowed to move
under the influence of gravity and the resistances brought into Required the velocity of the suspended weights when action.
they have
C
moved through
and the
10 feet.
the
gravity,
axle reaction,
Fig. 335
and rope
and the
fibers of the
rope.
If the
rope
is
2o6
in
slip
Chap,
the rope do
little
work; this
will
is
be neglected.
If
done by the internal forces. The work done by air resistance is small unless the speeds of the moving bodies get high; The work done by the frictional component of the axle it will be neglected. is the frictional moment which we will assume reaction per turn isil/2 tt, where
is
has been found to be 10 inchpounds. In the displacement under consideration, ID feet for B and C, the wheel makes 10/3 tt turns. Hence, the total work 2x) (10/3 x) = 66.7 inchpounds = 5.6 footpounds. done by friction = (10
1000 footpounds.
We
and C its work = 300 X 10 neglect its work on the rope as small.
or\.
200
10
Hence, the
Now 1000 5.6 = 994.4 footpounds. of velocity angular the then second; per the required velocity in feet let V of energy kinetic The = per second. 0.6677; radians the wheel =.v^ 1.5
total
300
200
v~\
\
I
2
N2
{o.ob'jv)^,
232.2
232.2
where 7
= moment
2.
Now
=
(100/32.2)
X
^
(9/12)^
z)^
1.75 slugfeet
8.16
v
foot
pounds.
994.4
8.16
v;
hence
11 feet
per second.
5.
diameter
and their axle weigh 2000 pounds. Their of gyration of wheels and axle is 9 inches. radius the and 33 inches
is
They
ute,
(Data not from an actual rolling a distance of 1000 feet. When released, the resistance. rolling average the Required, experiment.) = 6.28 radians second = per revolution one wheels the of velocity angular
per second, and the linear velocity of their centers second. Hence, the kinetic energy =
I
tt
33/12
2000
2 32.2
6.282
30J0 footpounds.
This
of
is
neglected.
Hence,
3010/1000
2.
3 pounds.
Moving Trains.
We
will
energy to some
train problems.
First,
now apply the principles of work and we briefly consider the forces directly
concerned with the motion of a train consisting of engine, tender, and cars. For convenience we regard the train as consisting of two parts, namely, the
locomotive (engine and tender) and the cars; notation as in Art. 42, 3. For simplicity we regard the locomotive as being driven by Locomotive. an imaginary (forward) force F equivalent to the steam pressures. To be
Art. 43
207
v;
hence,
F = p dH/D.
This force
F we
will
call
The
resist
and
its
level track
may
(i)
friction in
its
;
ienced
by the
all
may
regard
resistance acting
backward on the locomotive. We call them machine resistance, vehicle resistance, and frontal resistance, respectively; and we designate them by Rm, Rv, and Rf. The sum of these three is called locomotive Thus, we regard a moving locomotive resistance, and will be denoted by Ri.
as under the action of the following forces (see Fig. 336)
:
^
\ \
Fig. 336
^J^^r
till
{Rm
ing forces of the track (having no components along the rails), the drawbar
pull T, the locomotive resistance
+ ^w + Rf),
in Fig. 337.
effort F.
The
shown
c
y^
nn
11
locomotive
is
t
Fig. 337
tilt
is
straight
and
dH/D)
T  Ri]L = o;
hence
T=
{p
dH/D)
Ri.
2o8
If the velocity is
Chap, x
is
where
velocity of locomotive
and a
its
acceleration.
Hence
T=
If the
ip
dH/D)
 Ri
Ma.
locomotive
is
Company
{Bulletin,
pounds are as
follows:
Rf
R^,
= =
is
R =
The
by
of
The
the journal friction at the axles of the wheels; the air resistThe miscellaneous forces, due to oscillation and concussion.
known only
in a very general
way.
Because of lack of knowledge of these separate items of resistance, and, for convenience, it is customary to " lump" them into a single equivalent resistThus we may imagine trains to be without ance, called train resistance.
actual track, journal,
air,
etc.,
resistance,
but subjected to
train.
this equivalent
backward on the
may
forces,
namely, the
drawbar
and a supporting
force exerted
by
Many
"
experiments
resistance, special
dynamometer cars" (equipped with instruments for measuring and recording speed of train, drawbar pull, steam pressure, wind velocity and direction, The methods for determining etc.) being used for that purpose nowadays. the locoOne method is this: train resistance are very simple in principle.
motive drags the cars along a straight, level track at a constant speed; the drawbar pull and the speed are measured. Then the (total) train resistance
for that
speed equals the drawbar pull. But level stretches of track are not always convenient of access, and constant speeds are not easily maintained. = the ascent or descent of the center of For an experiment on a grade let
L =
W=
weight of
cars,
T =
average
Then
the
grade
resistance
train resistance.
as
the
is
train
i IS
{TRt
Rg)
L =
E,
Art. 43
209
where
is
the gain in kinetic energy of the cars during the run, to be regarded
if
as negative
there
is
Hence
Rt
TRg E/L.
This gives average train resistance for the speeds of the run, or, perhaps, the Another method is based train resistance for the average speed of the run.
on the power equation (the rate at which work is done on the cars equals the rate at which they gain kinetic energy); this is
Mv^
dt\2
Mva,
where
M = mass of
cars, v
velocity,
and a
acceleration.
Hence
Rt
If the train is
= T  Rg Ma.
There
dis
are
many
cussion of these
many
and
rollingstock,
It is practically
News
formula,
+ j F,
where
pounds per ton (weight of cars), and V = velocity Recent experiments have shown very clearly that train resistance (per ton) depends very much on the loading of the cars, being much less for heavily loaded cars than for empties, and not so much on velocity as formerly
r
train resistance in
belie\'ed.
in Bulletin
The American Locomotive Company No. looi states that " The best data
pounds
for 72ton cars to 6 to 8
about
2.5 to 3
pounds
and "for
20
40
Tons per
Fig. 338
60 Car.
also
the
following as an
approximation
_ V \where
39.6
{
0.031
w
velocity in miles per hour
4.08
0.152
ton,
and
V=
Illinois Bulletin
No.
43.
2IO
Examples.
Chap.
and tender) weighs 178.5 tons, There are two cyhnders, 23 inches (diameter) X 32 inches (stroke); the drivers are 63 inches in diameter; and boiler pressure Required the maximum drawbar pull which is 200 pounds per square inch.
i.
this
The
cylinder
effort is
KpodH/D = {K
200
232
X 32)
=
^ 63
if 53,800 pounds.
Now
^
(it
2 vl/ir
(2
20
32)
63)
6.465
miles
per
569 feet per minute. The speed about 0.60; hence the cylinder effort is 0.60
hour
53,800
32,300 pounds.
The
22.2
frontal resistance
0.24
20'
96 pounds;
106
about 4 pounds per ton or 4 locomotive resistance is about 2740 pounds, and the
2350 pounds; the vehicle resistance Hence, the total (178.5 106) = 290.
maximum
drawbar pull
32,300
2.
2740
What
According to
about 3.5 pounds per ton or 6300 pounds P. R. R. (Fig. 338), the resistance about it is total; according to C. B. & Q., 2.5 pounds per ton or 4500 pounds formula, it is about 4.4 pounds per ton or Schmidt's According to total.
7920 pounds total. 3. The locomotive (example
i) pulls
Required to show graphically how the cylinder effort and the various track. resistances vary with the velocity, assuming laws of resistances, etc., as in
the preceding examples. the piston speed 5
As
in
example
F=
is
iiT
53,800;
2 vI/ttD
velocity of
Thus we have
fiRT.
44
211
line
lines
and
3 at
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
roooo
212
is
Chap.x
a machine does not convert or transmit the entire input. The difiference between output and input, for the same interval of time of course, is called By efficiency, in this connection, is meant the ratio lost energy or loss simply.
of
is if e
efficiency,
i
then
output
input.
are designed for a definite rate of working or for a certain load Then we speak of the efficiency of a machine at full load, called its full load. halfload, quarter overload, etc., these efficiencies being different generally.
Most machines
The two
of the
some notion
of the efiiciencies
more common
machines.*
Fullload Efficiency of
Per cent
cent
6085 7585
5075 520 520
Common Common
9698
.
95
Steam
boilers
engines turbines
Gas and
Electric
oil
engines
Ballbearings .. .. Spur gear cast teeth, mcludmg beanngs. Spear gear cut teeth, including bearings. Bevel gear cast teeth, including bearings. Bevel gear cut teeth, including bearings.
.
.
9^ 99
93
96 92 95
dynamos
motors
transformers.
*
. . .
The
to B,
efficiency of a
combination of machines. A, B, C,
transmitting
B
=
toC,
etc., is
For, let
61, 2, ez,
etc.
A,B,C,
etc.,
and
of
^ =
the efficiency of the group. Then if exE = the input for B; the output oi
the output of
last
C =
^
eze^eiE
machine
{eie^ez
)E
^
E =
exe^ez
or
e\' ei' ez
For example, if a dynamo is run by a steam engine, then the efficiency of the combination or set = the product of their separate efficiencies, say 0.20 X
0.90
There are certain rather simple apHoisting Appliances, Etc. can overcome a relatively large force given a pHances by means of which
2.
resistance;
example, the lever, the wedge, the screw, the pulley, etc. Such an appliance is generally operated by means of a single force, which we
as, for
*
most values For detailed information see IMead's Water Power Engineering, from which Gebhardt's Steam Power Plant Engineering; and Franklin and
Art. 44
call
^'3
driving force
is
and denote by F;
is
it is
the appliance
or
desired to overcome
we
when
the force
a weight, by t^;
it is
many
"common
of application of the driving force result in equal displacements of the point of application of the resisting force;
re
spectively take place along the lines of action of the driving and resisting These displacements, or their components along the lines of action forces.
of the forces respectively
will
if
we
In a common appliance, the work done by the driving force and (by the appUance) against the resisting force are respectively Fa and Rb; hence the
efficiency
is
given
by
e^ Rb^
Let Fo
if
Fa.
(i)
the effort which would be required to overcome the resistance R = Rb. Substituting in (i) we find
that efficiency
given also by
e
= Fo^F.
if
(i')
Let Ro
less;
the resistance
which
could overcome
then
Fa =
Rob.
Substituting in (i)
e
we
given
(i
also
by
= R^Re.
discussion can be operated
Most
of the appliances
now under
backward
as
For example, the lever, the wedge, the screw, etc., can be heavy body as well as to raise it. Some of these appliances, which can be run either way, will run backward without direct assistance when loaded; that is the load will overcome the internal friction. Such Some will not run backward unassisted; appliances are said to overhaul. Such appUances are that is the load cannot overcome the internal friction.
well as directly.
used to lower a
said to selflock.
(direct) *
An
is
efficiency
appliance will overhaul or selflock according as its greater or less than onehalf, if the works done in
overcoming
sistance, a
friction in a
(usual case).
Proof:
b
As
if
F =
the effort,
and
w.
corresponding displacements of
friction, all in
re
the
Fa = Rb
half,
\
Now
then more than onehalf of the work Fa is expended usefully (against friction in is Rb is greater than w, and hence R could overcome the backward motion. If the efficiency (forward motion) is less than onehalf.
R)
that
* When a machine is run backwards it is said to have reversed efficiency, by (considerable) In such case the load (on the hoist, for example) extension of the definition of efficiency. In case the machine resistance. is the effort, and the applied force is regarded as the useful considerable stretch selflocks so that the applied force (P say) must assist the load, then by P is regarded as the useful resistance; the computed (reversed) efficiency imagination
of
is
negative.
214
then
less
Chap, x
onehalf the
work Fa
is
is
Rh
is less
than w,
and hence
By
speed.
meant the
is
when
the appliance
(i),
mechanical advantage
given by
(2)
R/F =
work; that
a/b
loss or
Obviously the value of the ratio a/h does not depend on the
wasted
is, it is independent of the efficiency. (The ratio depends solely on the geometrical proportions of the appliance.)* Hence we may assume e = I and write a/b = R'/F' where R'/F' means the mechanical advantage of the appUance if it were without friction. Finally,
R/F =
or,
R'/F'
(2')
(mechanical advantage)
(efficiency c)
(mechanical advantage at
=1).
etc.),
and
it is
more convenient
moments
and
and a and
/5
corre
sponding angular displacements, in radians, of the wheels to which Ti and T2 are applied. The works done by the force F and against R during the displacements a and
/3
are Tia
and
T^^.
is e
TS/Txa,
and
Ts/ri
(3)
Reasoning as
in the preceding
= T2/T1 =
i.
where
T2 /Ti
means the
if
ing torque
Hence
(3')
T,/T,
e T^'/T,'.
We may
result
call
may
be stated as follows:
= (efficiency = i).
is r,
e)
(me
Examples.
h,
is
i.
The
is
the
mean
is
/.
the length of
the lever
What
shown
is
when
it is
overcoming
*
(raising) IF?
It
==^
(r/l)
tan (^
+ a),
where
When
F and R
respectively,
then the ratio a/b is sometimes called the velocity ratio of the appliance, for the velocities Thus we have for such cases of the points of apphcation of F and R are as a to b.
mechanical advantage
efficiency
velocity ratio.
High mechanical advantage requires high velocity adage "what is gained in force is lost in velocity."
ratio, b small
Art. 44
is
215
(f)
is
{h/2
irr).
Hence the
expression
W uniformly
is
Let
it
be so understood in
taken to denote the angle of kinetic friction (see Art. 45). what follows. If the screw were frictionless then
(r/l)
is
=
2.
tan
^
tan
((^
a).
Hand
cranks
or
C
drum
The
is
The crank
gears
is
18 inches long;
the
in diameter;
A' and
are 20
advantage
on C.
of
the appliance
when a crank
to 5
;
used
'
and C.
turn of A',
= 36X X
83.8
25
900 TT.
83.8.
If the efficiency is
is
0.80
67.
See equation
as follows:
Let P'
^I'
=
B',
and
T',
T=
tooth
B
342
and C,
6'
obliquity *
of
represents
wheels, transmitting
power by
friction (developed
by
press
would be equal to
The
and
plane
The common
is
the
"pitch point."
locities of
To
two gears
The angle beany standard book on Mechanism.) tween this normal and the common tangent of the pitch In some gears circles is called " obliquity " of the normal.
this
obliquity
it
others,
varies.
OT
Fig. 342
the
common
circles,
AO
the normal
A and BO
by
0'
and
were
(in contact)
2l6
obliquity of
Chap, x
T,
and R'
resistance,
appliance
shafts
it is
is
frictionless, or e
i.
all on the supposition that the Then, considering torques on the three
plain that
P'
i8
r
3.
locos^'
lo cos ^
r'
cos
6',
mechanical advantage
is,
as before, 83.8
0.80
= i, = 67.
is
for a liftbridge,
but there
liff
span
'^0
Equalizing sinaff
ffack
gearing at
opposite
end of span
T.'
iLA
^ ^TZc^f^FTi^ IThfi
r^
s^
IT
z.
Truss of
<
lift
span
'\
Liff
span
Let TV denote the the normal, at the contact pohit, and hence through the pitch point. resultant of all the pressures on the frictionless teeth of either gear; obviously iV passes
let
through 0. Imagine iV resolved at O into components along and perf)endicular to OT, and Then the (frictionless) torques exerted by the driving t denote the first component. and driven gears on each other are respectively
iVt I dx
and
A"t \
di,
(i)
where
d\
and
On
is
contact,
by an amount equal
At two
approaching, the pair touching at A, the directions of the frictional forces are such that., At two teeth which are receding, 4>. the obliquity (to OT) of the tooth pressure R' is Q'
the pair touching at B, the directions of the frictions are such that the obliquity (to OT) of In either case, the Hne of action of the tooth pressure <^. the tooth pressure R" is B"
cuts the line joining the centers of the gears between the pitch point
of the driven gear.
O and
the center O2
It follows that the line of action of the resultant of all the tooth pres
and O2. on either gear cuts the line O1O2 in a point C between Let .V denote the distance from C to 0, R the mentioned resultant, and Rt the component of R parallel to OT. Then the torque exerted by the driving and the driven gears on each other are respectively
sures
Rtildix)
If e' is
did2
and
Rtihdi+x).
e'))
approximately.
(2)
di
\
d2
For, let Ti be a torque applied to drive the driving gear, and Tj a resisting torque applied to
Tsrfi
T,d2,
(2).
Ti
= Rt
ih di
+ x),
Ti
= Rt
{h d.
x).
Art. 44
217
mechanism on the other end of the Hft span not shown. All mechanism rests on and moves with the lift span. There are fixed tower posts adjacent to the lift span as shown, and on these posts there are fixed
a duplicate
this
vertical racks
The pinions
is
are driven
which engage spur pinions GG of the operating mechanism. by the motors or hand capstans, and thus the Hft span
raised or lowered.
The intermediate
number
a motor pinion
cross shaft gear
A B
CC
diameter,
14 inches
126
36.00
10 .00
20
counter shaft bevel gears DD counter shaft spur pinions EE operating shaft spur gear FF operating shaft pinion GG bevel pinion on hand operator A' bevel gear on hand operator B'
60
15
30.00
8.36
29 .00
11 94
52 15
16 24
is
12.72
19.08
The
lift
span
is
done against
between the racks and the pinions G to overcome the (internal) friction in the counter weight mechanism. It is estimated that a vertical pressure of 5000
pounds
is
How
great a driving
We
mechanism.
Let
T/ be
Then
the
and
= = =
T/ j%^,
tI
Ti ~\%^ ,
Ti' VV' In
36.9 T/.
But 36.9 r/
per cent.
pinion
T2',
or T2 jTi
36.9.
We
to be as follows:
A and
X
0.92
Then
is
5, 96 per cent; C and D, 92 per cent; E and F, 96 the efficiency of the transmission from the motor to the
0.96
0.96
Hence the
ratio of
T^lT^
0.85
arm
= pinion G
36.9
31.4.
is
The
5.97
a;
(see footnote
is infinite,
on page 216).
(2)
equation
as written
not usable;
it
can be written
=
(i
in the present
e')
problem, becomes
(i
11.94
0.98, say)
is
0.12 inches.
5000
6.09
30,450 inchpounds
2537 footpounds.
Hence Ti
is
2l8
Chap, x
^
Art. 44
219
fixed pulley (Fig. 345),
for example,
is
Tackle. When a
ing,
used for
lift
P=
KW or W/P =
(i
i/K;
for lowering,
W=
KP,
or
P/IV = i/K.
When
W/P =
is used for lifting, IF = P + T = P + P/K, or = P \ S = P \ KP, or W/P = i + A'. K)/K; for lowering, In a similar way we can determine the mechanical advantage of any com
For example, consider the tackle repreThere are two separate pulleys in each block A and
''/(//////////{
^i
'//(///////////^
i,
Fig. 345
Fig. 346
B.
The
pulleys in a block are generally alike in size but are here represented
Let
P=
and
W=
and P4
When
the tackle
used for
P3
P3
P4
+ P4,
we have
also
P
or
P
K^
W/P =
When
Pi
the tackle (Fig. 347)
(A'3 f
is
+ A' f
i)/A4.
A"P, P2
/CPi
K^P, Pz
= KP^ 
A^P, Pi
= KPi =
A'4P.
/////////////////////.
//////////////////
w//'/jum>
w////(////M.
Uw
jw
W
Fig. 347 Fig. 348
And
or
since
TF
TF
Pi f P2
+ P3 + P4,
j
we have
= AP + A^P +
A''P
A^P = P (A
F
A^
f
K^
\
K^)
W/P = A (i
A+
A2
A^).
220
Special {Chain) Hoists.
Chap, x
Fig.
fastened together.
The
pulley
grooves have pockets into which The chain of the chain is prevented.
thus slipping
If
endless
and
is
reeved as shown.
there were no lost work, then the tension in each portion of the chain to block
(Fig. 350),
be as indicated in the
of the pin in block
Now if R
and the pulls on the block A would and r = the distances from the center
moments about
PoR
h ^Vr
WR,
or
Pq
RliR
r)\
the ratio, HV^o = 2R/{R r) may be made very large by making The mechanical advantage is
r small.
IF
W
Po
P
where
Rr'
P =
W
=
and
efficiency.
These
hoists are
made
up to
3 tons;
relatively low,
lists.
from about 25 to 40 per cent according to the manufactiuers' In the socalled Duplex and Triplex hoists the upper blocks are screw
At
full
from about 30 to 40 and from 70 to 80 per cent. We will now show how to apply some of the preceding prinExample. ciples and formulas in a computation relating to the operating machinery of the vertical lift bridge represented in Figs. 351 and 352. The Hft span when down in place rests on two piers. When up it is balanced by two counterweights as shown. Each counterweight is suspended by means of two pairs
of oneinch cable;
over a sheave and downward to a point of attachment on the lift span. At each corner of the lift span there is a spirally grooved drum carrying two onehalfinch cables.
Each
is
its
As the drum is revolved, one cable is wound upon it and the other is paid out. The tw^o drums at either end of the span are mounted upon a single crossshaft A, which carries a bevel gear B. The gears BB mesh with bevel pinions DD mounted on the longitudinal shaft C which also carries
a bevel gear E.
meshes with a bevel pinion F on a vertical shaft which This capstan head takes a horizontal lever by means To lift the bridge he rotates the of which a man operates the mechanism. capstan headed shaft in the proper direction and drives the drums; they wind
the uphaul cable upon themselves and pay out the downhaul cable as already'
described.
Art. 44
221
length of the lever (radius of circle in which the
The
man
walks as he oper
ates) is 6 feet.
The
pinions
F and
D are alike;
E
each
is
and has
21 teeth.
The
bevel wheels
inches in diameter and has 53 teeth. lift span 54 inches, and the sheave shafts are 3^ inches in diameter. The amount. onehalf that weighs weighs 68,000 pounds and each counterweight
and B are also alike; each is 16.87 The drums are 18 inches, the sheaves
Thus the span would be perfectly balanced, if the mechanism were frictionless and the cables without stiffness and weight, and no effort would be required
to operate the bridge.
Drurriia
Drum
Tower
Brat
1^
[A
Drum%\
Diagram
of Operating
Sheave^
Drum
Machinery.
Counterweight
4"Sheave
Court terweiqht
7777777rr777777mTmmr,
Side
Elevation.
Fig. 351
Cross
Section.
Fig. 352
In the following computation the weight of cables is neglected. Then the tension in each counterweight cable on the counterweight side of the sheaves When the span is being is onefourth of 34,000 pounds or 8500 pounds. sheave is less than 8500 of the side following or other on the lifted, the tension
pounds.
Call that tension T\
then
or
8500
= KT,
r=
8500
^
222
(see
Chap, x
under " pulley" above). We will take K == 1.06; then and hence the hft on the span due to counterweights = 8
pounds.
T =
8020 pounds,
8020
64,160
64,160
Let a and
at the
respectively
hand
lever
and the
resistance 960
3.43
21
18
Hence,
if
960 H 50 = 19.2 pounds; and the effort P by means of the actual mechanism = 19.2 ^ e, where e = the efi&ciency of that part of the mechanism which transmits from P to the resistance 960 pounds. The efficiency of each pair of gears and necessary bearings we take as 0.95; the efficiency of a drum about i h 1.03 =
960 pounds tension in one rope
required to produce that tension
0.97; hence e
= 0.95 0.95 0.97 = 0.875. Therefore P = 19.2 ^ 0.875 == 22 pounds, and the effort (at the lever) required to develop a tension of 960
pounds at the four driuns = 4 X 22 = 88 pounds. The computation can also be made as follows: We regard the total force Q exerted at the hand lever and the force of gravity on the counterweights as two efforts which overcome the (useful) resistance (gravity on the lift span) and the wasteful resistances in the entire mechanism. For any rise b of the
liftspan the
effort
I
^
and
I.
=
68,000
6,
or
(J
87 pounds.
Kinetic Friction
of
Motion,
is
bodies
bodies
when
is
The
two
between them.
kinetic friction).
coefficient is less
The
is
pressure and the total pressure (resultant of the normal pressure and the
One
than the
per second (about f foot per hour) lead them to conclude that "it
highly
probable that the kinetic coefficient gradually increases when the velocity becomes extremely small, so as to pass without discontinuity into the static
coefficient."
is
no abrupt
Am.
Art. 45
223
static
change from
to kinetic coefficient.
kinetic coefficient
may
experiments* indicate that the coefficient for dry surfaces probably decreases progressively from the value of the static coefficient as the velocity increases.
24
Coefficients of Friction
*
Chap, x
Materials
Lubrication
lO
40
10
43 36
0.37
30
Oak Oak
Poplar.
. .
60
43
55
40
.
40
72
10
40
20 32
Cast iron.
Oak Oak
Poplar. Poplar.
. . . .
80 40 120 40
120
30 037 073
041
53 28 26
070
none none none none none none water water water water water water
soapy Metals on oak, dry wet soapy Metals on elm, dry. Hemp on oak, dry.
.
.
wet.
Art. 45
225
this resistance
moment of take dA =
iJ.(W/irR^)dAp.
We
moment =
Jo
r Tm w
Jo
iddp'^dp
pWR.
3
Thus the actual resistance may be regarded as a single force = pW with an arm ^R; and, for example, the work done against friction per revolution or the power lost may be computed simply on that basis. Thus the work done per revolution =  irpWR, and the power lost =  irpWRn where n = number
of revolutions per unit time.
(ii)
In a similar
moment
in
We
would
moment
to be
1pW{R^r^)^ {R^r^).
Hence we may regard the
f {R^
= pW
with an arm
r')
(i?2
r'~).
Fig. 353
Fig. 354
Fig. 355
Fig. 356
(iii)
In the conical pivot (Fig. 355), the total normal pressure, and hence the by wedge action. Let p = the intensity of normal
dA = pdA
the elemen
= W;
that
is,
pdA
sina
W = pA sin a, or p = A W sin a
But A sin a = the horizontal projection of the actual surface of contact. Hence the intensity of the normal pressure is independent of a, the pivot angle. For Fig. 355, p = W/tR; hence the normal pressure on the elementary area dA is {W/irR)dA and the frictional resistance = p(W/TrR^)dA. The moment of this resistance about the axis of the shaft = p{W/TR^)dAp, and the entire resisting moment = the integral of this expression. For simplicity in integration, imagine dA to be of such shape that its horizontal projection equals pdddp (see Fig. 355). Then sin adA = pdddp, and the
resisting
moment =
7r
pL ^^pWddp^dp^
Jr2
pW
sin
Jo
irR^ sin
a 3
'R.
226
Chap, x
resistance as a single force
R
(iv)
In a similar
moment
We
would
resisting
moment =
IjW
sin
2
R^
i?"
a3
r^
r^
= nW/sin a
with an arm
f^)/{R^
r^).
Journal Friction.
frictional resistance at
moment
is
This coefficient
the ratio of the frictional resistance to the pressure between journal and the Thus in a certain experiment there were 20 babbitt bearings susbearing.
taining a 2yVinch shaft; the load per bearing
24 watts were required to run the shaft at 350 revolutions per minute. Since 11 24 watts = All the power was used to overcome the journal friction. 49,600 footpounds per minute and 350 revolutions per minute corresponds to
that
11
a (shaft) surface velocity of 223 feet per minute, the total frictional resistance = 49,600 T 223 = 222 pounds or I I.I pounds per bearing. Hence the coefficient
of journal friction in this particular instance
was
ii.i
is
2000
0.0055.
The
its
bearing
By nominal
meant the whole pressure divided by the product of the length and diameter of the bearing. Thus in the experiment just mentioned, the length of each bearing was 9!^ inches; hence the nominal intensity was 2000 (2tV X 9i) = 90 pounds per square inch. It has been found from numerous experiments that coefiicients of journal friction depend on (i) the method of lubrication, (ii) the lubricant, (iii) its temperature, (iv) the velocity of rubbing, and (v) intensity of pressure on the
bearing.
Tower* and Goodmanf report the following relative showing effect of the method of applying the lubricant:
(i)
coefficients as
Method
Tower
Goodman
Bath
Saturated pad Ordinary pad Siphon
.00
.00
6.48 7.06
1.32 2.21
4.20
* Proc. Inst.
t Mechanics Applied
Engineering, 1896.
Art. 45
(ii)
227
following table (according to Tower) indicates
The
how
the coefficient
Numbers
are relative.
oil
227a
pressure.
follows:
Chap, x
The
lubrication
Number
Journal Bearing.
II
steel
nickel steel
IV
nickel steel
V
wrought iron white metal
bronze
The heavy
each figure represents the average law for the five combinations, and the other two curves relate to the two combinations departing most
line in
result.
^ g
0.010
it a. 0.005
Art. 45
22711^
Tests to determine the coefficients of friction for ball, flexible roller, and babbitt bearings for line shafts have been made at the University of WisconThe diameter of the shaft was 2^^ inches, the speed 150 to 450 revolusin.
tions per minute, the load 700 to 2250
per square inch for the babbitt bearings); the extreme (natural) variation of the temperature of the lubricants was from 65 to no degrees Fahrenheit. For absolute values of the coefficients for the various conditions named, see
report of the tests.*
The
RELATIVE VALUES OF COEFFICIENTS OF JOURNAL FRICTION, AT LOAD OF ABOUT 1200 POUNDS PER BEARING.
Peripheral Speed
100 ft/min.
77 deg.
300 ft/min.
77 deg.
Lubricant Temperature.
100 deg.
100 deg.
25
36
2.7 4 5
Soc.
Mech. Engrs.
for
March, 1914.
CHAPTER XI
MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE*
46.
I.
Linear
Momentum and
Impulse
of a
(Linear)
Momentum.
mass and
By momentum
We
thus,
moving
particle is
meant
velocity.
momentum
of a collection of particles is
meant the vectorsum of the momentums of the particles. For example, let m' and m" = the masses of two particles (Fig. 362), v' and v" = the velocities of the particles at a certain instant, and suppose that AB = m'v' and BC = m"v" according to some
convenient
scale;
then'
AC
represents
the
two particles. Since the component of the vector AC along any line equals the algebraic sum of the components of the vectors AB and BC along that line, it follows that the component of the momentum of a pair of particles along any line equals the algebraic sum of the components of their momentums along that Obviously, this proposition can be extended to a collection of any number line.
of the
momentum
of particles. follows:
velocities;
X.
m' ", etc. = the masses of the particles; v' v", etc. = their and v'^, a" x, etc. = the components of these velocities along any Une Then the component of the momentum of the collection along this line =
Let m',
m"
^'^'^
__
yn"v"x
+
/,
Now
.
if
x' , x",
etc.
moving
particles,
and x
at the
same
+ m"x" +
we
= xHm
(Art. 34);
.
. .
and
differentiating
with respect to
get m'dx'/dt
\
ni"dx"/dt

{dx/dt)llm, or
m'v'^
+ m"v"x
+....=
VjJZm
is,
Mvx,
where
M = 2m =
That
momentum
product of the mass of the Hence, collection and the x component of the velocity of the masscenter. the component momentum is just' the same as though all the material of the
of the collection of particles equals the
body were concentrated at the masscenter. In the case of a body having a motion of
at
have
their
any instant
velocities
in
in direc
and
This chapter
is
Art. 46
229
vector
sum = m'v
and
+ m"v +
of unit
vTtm
= Mv,
where
their
common
velocity
M=
The
definition of
of a
momentum impUes
momentum
equals the
mass moving with unit velocity. The magnitude No of the unit, therefore, depends on the units of mass and velocity used. The single word has been generally accepted for any unit of momentum.
momentum
body
dimensional formula for momentum is F'T' (see appendix A), that is, a unit momentmn is one dimension in force and one in time. Hence, any unit of momentum may be and commonly is called by names of the units of force and time used. Thus the unit of momentum in the C.G.S. system is called the
dynesecond; in the ''engineers' system," the pound (force) second,
etc.
In Art. 34
exert
it is
depend at
all
upon each other but on the external forces; also that the algebraic sum of the components of the external forces along any line equals the product of the mass of the system and the component of the acceleration of the masscenter along that
line,
that
is,
n + i^"x+
where
F'x, P"x, etc., are the
is
Mi.,
a
(i)
components
line x,
and
ax
Now
ax
equals the rate at which the x component of the velocity of the masscenter
changes, that
is,
ax
dvx/dt,
where
Vx is the
x component
masscenter; hence,
Max =
F'x
M dvx/dt = d{Mvx)/dt;
+
.
.
and
finally
(2)
F"x
d{,Mvx)/dt
of the system,
But Mvx
is
is
momentum
and d{Mv^/dt
hence the algebraic sum of the x equals the rate at which the x
component of
the linear
momentum
changes.
The
law.
But
practically
was derived from the law of motion an alternative form of the the former seems to apply more simply in certain cases and
it is
essentially
flat plate.
Required
the angle
upon the
Let
W=
and a
between the
and the plate as indicated. We suppose that the water does not rebound from the plate with any considerable velocity; then the momentum of the water after striking has no component normal to the plate. The before striking is {W/g)v, and momentum of an amount of water equal to the component of that momentum along the normal to the plate = (W/g)v sin a; hence the change in the (normal) component momentum is iW/g)v sin a. This change takes place in unit time; therefore, it is the rate at which
jet
230
Chap, xi
momentum
is
jet.
is
The
jet exerts
the plate
on the
plate.
w/m//w^/w7i^;/w,.
Fig. 363
For another example, we will determine the pressure on a bend in a pipe = the weight of by water flowing through it at constant velocity. Let the water flowing past any section of the pipe per unit time; v = velocity of the water, assumed to be the same at all points of inlet and outlet cross Also let sections of the bend; and a = the angle of the bend (Fig. 364). A^ = the time required for the body of water AB to move into the position A'B'. The momentum of the body of water at the beginning of the interval = that of AA' \ that of A'B; its momentum at the end of the Hence the change in the momentum interval = that oi A'B \ that of BB' of the body of water in the time Ai = momentum of BB' momentum of AA'. These momentums respectively are in the direction BB' and AA'; each equals {WM/g)v. Hence the change of momentum under consideration is where OM and ON represent the two morepresented by the vector = 2{0M) sm\a; hence the change = mentums just mentioned. But 2{WM/g)v sin ^ a, and the rate at which the change occurs = 2{W/g)v sin ^ a. The direction of this rate is MN; it bisects the angle a. This rate of change of momentum is maintained by the forces acting on the body of water in A 'B. Those forces consist of gravity G, the pressures Pi and P2 (of the water) on the front and rear faces of the body, and the pressure P of the bend upon it. Their resultant R = 2{W/g)v sin  a, and R bisects a. If R, G, Pi and P2 are known then P can be determined. For it is such a force which compounded with G, Pi and Pi gives R. The pressure of the water on the bend = P.
MN
MN
essentially of a
For another example, we take the jet propeller of a ship. This consists pump which takes in water from the sea and ejects it from
v
Let and
W = weight V velocity
of of
= V
is
v.
Hence the
etc.)
The absolute velocity of the jet (relaamount of momentum produced by the per unit time = (W/g) (V v). The
the body of water within the passages at any instant equal to (W/g) {V the water exerts an equal force forward on the passages.
v);
Art. 46
If
231
the algebraic
sum
of the
components
zero,
along any
line
of the external
then the rate of change of the component momentum (along that Une) equals zero; hence, if the sum remains zero for any interval of time, the component momentum remains constant. This is
forces acting
on a body equals
known
if
momentum.
is
It follows that
momentum
remains
solar
solar
constant.
system.
system,
The grand illustration of this principle Even the nearest stars exert no appreciable attractions on the and so the members of the system move under the action of
Accordingly, the component
of the
furnished
by the
their
mutual attractions only. the system along any line does not change; the linear constant in amount and direction. It follows that the masscenter of the system moves uniformly, and in a straight line. If the magnitude and direction of a force are 2. (Linear) Impulse. constant for any interval of time, then the product of the magnitude of the
force
and the interval is called the impulse of the force for that interval. If the magnitude varies, then the impulse for any interval equals the sum of the impulses for all the elementary periods of time which make up the interval
that
is
impulse
=
lim [F'At
+ F"At +
If
j Fdt,
where
the direction of the force varies, we regard the impulse for any elementary portion of time as a vector quantity having the direction of the force, and then in principle we add (vectorially) the elementary impulses for all the portions of time which make up the interval.
F =
That
is
to say,
we
integrate
Fdt
quantity.
Units of impulse depend on the units of force and time used.* Each current single word name for any unit of impulse.
unit
is
There
is
no
named by
it.
the
names
and time
;
involved in
impulse
is
the dynesecond;
is
system"
the
pound
elementary inpulse
F dt
Fig* "365
the resultant of the impulses of the x and y components of F (or .v, y, and 2 components, if preferred). Hence the x, y, and z components respecthe force tively of the impulse of F equal the impulses of the components of
If
F.
we
any
.
interval
ti
ti,
say,
we
get
f'^F'^dt
rV".(f^
f
= MvJ'  M^J = A
(M^x),
(3)
where vj and vj' = the x velocities of the center of gravity of the system at Equation (3) can be put into the following times ti and fe respectively.
*
See appendix A.
232
principle of {linear) impulse
Chap, xi
ponents
along any
of the
line
of the impulses
line,
and momentum.
The
algebraic
sum
of the
any system
component
of
mentum
ferring to
the
sum and
any interval
how The principle of impulse and momentum answers such questions as, certain vetime produce to a much velocity in a given time? or how much is required how much time For example, it is required to ascertain locity?
40 feet per second to a certain body by sliding it along a by means of a constant push of 20 pounds, the body weighing 100 pounds and the frictional resistance of the rail being 8 pounds. The external forces acting on the body are gravity, the push, and the reaction of the rail, the horizontal and vertical components of which are friction and the " normal pressure." Only the impulses of the push and friction have comto give a velocity of
horizontal rail
line of
motion; hence
20
/
(100/32.2) 40,
/
where
Therefore
of this
8) ^
10.3 seconds.
Solution of such
a problem
by
earlier
methods
book would be as
(100/32.2)
follows:
feet
Let a
the
acceleration;
then a
/
=
^
(20
3.86
second.
Hence
40
3.86
10.3 seconds.
47.
I.
Impact or Collision
of a blow,
Blow. Momentum
two
colliding bodies
is
force of a
of the
vaguely.
then the
first
two terms
are taken to
mean
just
the
momentum and
moving body
is
If the motion
one of
Mv =
pound
is
W may be expressed in any force unit. If the momentum is in poundseconds and the energy in
footpounds.
Force of a blow means the pressure which two colliding bodies exert upon each other. The pressure changes during the collision. Analysis of this
variation
is
of this book.
We
will deal
In the
first
place,
it
a spaceaverage and a
of
timeaverage.
We
by means
an example, but we
body along a
first
Let us suppose
that the
pull varies uniformly with respect to time, from a zero value to 40 pounds in 20 seconds (see Fig. 366). Then the timeaverage is represented by the
how
Art. 47
233
hence
it is
the time;
20 pounds.
We wish to find now how the force P = the value of the pull at any time Also let M = mass of the force is P = 2
Let
^.
varies
t
after
body;
t,
a and v respectively
s
the
acceleration
and
Then
Yji",
r7
ir7i,
and
r^
t\
The
total displacement
last
(^i)
in the 20 seconds
=
2 (3
(1/3
M)
8000.
It follows
from the
equation that
t
(3
Ms)^\
hence
P=
Ms)^.
This equation determines the graph shown in Fig. 367, from which it is apis more than 20 pounds, or the timeaver
40
lbs
234
Chap, xi
done on the cylinder up to each stage was computed. Amounts of compression and corresponding amounts of work were plotted to determine the curve. Curve C is a static curve but for a higher speed. D is a socalled dynamic
curve.
It
was obtained from drop or impact tests in which each crusher was "hammer" dropped upon it. The hammer
c o
1
O
e o
Art. 47
235
^T,
^ inch and time of impact about xmiTT second; the weight of hammer was pounds and the drop 15 inches. For the copper crushers used the maxi
mum
was
2.
its
value
slightly less
motion
compara
bodies exert on each other are enormous compared with other forces acting
on the
bodies.
For example, the spaceaverage pressure between two billiard second is about 1300 pounds. There
motion
we may
neglect the other (ordinary) forces acting on the bodies, gravity for example;
that
is
jointly as
Hence, according to the principle of conservation (Art. 46), the momentum of the two bodies jointly is not changed by the impact.
forces.
If
same
called direct;
otherwise,
oblique.
the pressures which two colliding bodies exert upon each other
during impact are directed along the line joining their centers of gravity, then
the impact
is
called central;
if
otherwise, eccentric.
of
impact) on each body acts through the center of gravity of that body and
it.
of each
body
after collision
is
one of
and
A and B be the two bodies, Ml and M2 = their masses, Ui and ih. = their velocities just before impact, Vi and V2 = their velocities just after impact respectively.
Let
We
regard these velocities as having sign; velocity in one direction (along the
line of
Then
the
momentum of the two bodies before impact = MiUi fit = MiVi \ M2V2. Since the momentums before and
we have
MiVi
+ M2V2
MiUx
7I/2M2.
The
A and B
are
moving
if
in the
same
Thus,
toward the right before impact, at 8 and 10 feet per second say, their momentum is 8 ^1/1  10 7I/2; but if A is moving toward the right and B toward the
left,
their
momentum
is
Mi
10 M2.
It
A and B
collide
directly
and centrally the velocity of separation is always less than and opposite' to the velocity of approach, and the ratio of these two velocities seems to
236
Chap, xi
depend only on the material of the two spheres. The ratio of the velocity of separation to that of approach (signs disregarded) is called coefficient of restituThe following are approximate values of tion; it is generally denoted by e.
e for
a few materials,
glass II, ivory , steel
and cork
,
wood about
\,
clay
and putty
o.
Now
ih (or W2
is
Ui),
the
Vo
first
with
(reVi).
reference to
garded as fixed)
of
separation
Vi
(or v^
we have
Equations
V2 v.
{vi
v^/{ui
(2)
U2)
e,
or
{vi
V2)
e (th
U2).
Vi
(2)
(i)
and
and
give
= u^(i+e)j^^j^^{u,u.);v2 = i^{i
one of the colHding bodies
is fixed,
+ e)j^^^^^
=
Vy
(3)
If
say B, then 1^
o,
and M2
eui.
is
the mass of
and
its
We assume as before that the bodies A and B Oblique Central Impact. have a motion of translation before impact; then the pressure on each during the impact acts through the center of gravity and produces no turning. Let Ui and 1/2 = the velocities of A and B before impact; Vi and F2 their velocities after impact; Ui and M2 = the components of Ui
and U2 along the
tact);
^'
.
V]_
Thus we have
fine of
A and B when
in con
and
V2
along that
of
Z7i
line;
and Wi and W2
the components
and U2 at right angles to that line. See Pjg Fig. 369 which represents one of several possible ways of oblique collision. Since the impact pressure on either body has no component transversely to the line of pressure XX, the component of the momentum of either body at right angles to XX is not changed. Hence the transverse component of the velocity of either body is not changed by
the impact.
The
V2
and
vi
and
are given
by equations (3). The final velocities Fi and Vi by its components Vi and Wi, and V2 by
F2,
its
Let L = the
+
i M2U2')
then
L=
(i
M,U^'
Vi"
(^
MiFi^
Vi"
+ \ M2V2').
and Fg^
Now
hence
f/i^
^2^
+ W2\
+ Wi",
(3)
V2^
+ W2^;
Z=
Substituting for
Vi
^2^).
and
V2
their values
,
M1M2
s.
Art. 48
237
elastic bodies (e
For perfectly
i),
L =
in
o.
(i
is
e) is
not
quantity.
since (th
ito)
is
not zero,
always a
[{M,M2)/(Mi + M.)] (ih  u^y. The foregoing is essentially Newton's analysis of impact. Several more recent analyses have been made independent of any coefificient of restitution but taking into account the vibrations set up in the colliding bodies. On account of the difficulties of the problem they include only impact of spheres and cylinders end on. Explanation of these analyses fall beyond the scope
o),
the loss
of this book.*
48.
is is
Angular
Momentum and
linear
;
Impulse
of a
I.
Angular Momentum.
The
momentum
moving
particle
momentum
is
mv (where
m=
mass
of the particle
and
its velocity),
now and assign position to the momomentumvector. The position, or positionline, of the
go farther
particle
is
We
vector quantity,
tion
the line through the particle in the direction " of a particle is a " locaUzed
and a
more commonly
called.
apply the term moment of momentum to a product which is analogous to the product which we call moment of a force about a line. Thus the moment
of
We
momentum
of a
moving
it is
particle
about a
is
line (or
angular momentimi as
of the
also called)
the product
component
of the
momentum
perpendicular
component being parallel to it and the distance from the line to the perpendicular component. (Compare definition of
moment
example,
of a force
let
about a
line,
Art.
8.)
For
(Fig. 370)
moving
whose
OC
the direc
and
OABC
a parallelogram
Fig. 370
and perpendicular to the line LL\ an axis of moments. (QQ is a plane perpendicular to LL' represented to make the figure more plain.) Then according to some scale OC represents the momentum mv, and OA and OB represent components of mv perpendicular ajid parallel to LL' respectively. The angular momentum of the particle about LL' is OA X PL. It follows from the definition of
sides
are
parallel
* See Love's Theory of Elasticity, Vol. 2; Nature, Vol. 88, p. 531 (1912) for an instructive paper by Prof. Hopkinson, on "The Pressure of a Blow"; also Journal of the Franklin Inslitutc, Vol. 172, p. 22 (1911) for an account of some determinations of the time of impact of metal spheres.
238
Chap, xi
the term, that the angular momentum of a particle about a line parallel to its momentum is zero; and about a line perpendicular to its momentum the angular momentum is the product of the momentum and the distance from
There
in
is
ing particle
about a
line
which
is
momentum.
as follows:
we
resolve the
momentum
axis ot
is parallel to
the
and moments then the other two are perpendicular to the axis add the moments of the two perpendicular components about the line; the sum equals the angular momentum of the particle. Proof: Imagine the
,
momentum OC
and
two rectangular components OA and then OA into any two rectangular components perpendicular to LV. These last two are not shown in the figure but their relations to OA and the axis LL' are shown in projection on the plane QQ in Fig. 371. The moment of the component O'M about LL' is O'AI X L'm
(Fig. 370) resolved first into
OB
as before,
'
U^
X
Fig. 371 Fig. 372
= O'M X
of the
O'L' sin
fi
= O'M
sin
fx
X O'L'.
sin
O'L'
= O'N
sin
The moment of the component Hence the sum sin 7 X O'L'. = sin O'L' = O'A' a O'L' O'A' X 7)
the angular
*
momentum
of the particle
as defined.
By
that
momentum
sum
of
any
about a
line is
meant the
line.
algebraic
of the angular
momentums
of the particles
axis, the
about
angular
momentum
easily.
12,
computed quite
r\,
Thus
etc.,
CO
and
Then
and
momentums
moments; hence the angular momentums are ntiViuri, nhrooiri, etc. And since these are of the same sign, the angular momentum of the body is Wi^i^co + = coSwr = co/, where / = the moment of inertia of the miV^cji
momentum
of a
body about a
line
can be
Art. 48
239
Let
arrived at as follows:
(Fig. 372)
compute the angular momentum, and PD = the Let OXYZ be a set of fixed coordinate axes; x, j, and z = the velocity of P. (varying) coordinates of P; m = mass of P; d = velocity of P; v^c, Vy, and v^ = the axial components of v (represented by PA PB, and PC respectively). Then to some scale, PD represents the momentum mv of the particle, and PA, PB, and PC represent the axial components of the momentum; these equal mv^, Hence the angular momentum of P about OZ mvy, and mv^ respectively. is mVyX mV:,y, and the angular momentum of the entire body is
OX
'J/)
{mVyX
mVxy).
We
line
will
now
ascertain
how
the angular
momentum
of a
depends on
OX
a fixed line
the angular
all
momentum
in
taken,
R =
the resultant of
its
velocity,
R>
and a = its acceleration. Further, let the coordinates of P at any particular instant under consideration be .v, y, and s referred to axes one of which is the line OX; R^, Ry, and R^ = the axial components of R; v^, Vy, and of v; a^, Oy, and Oz = the Vz = the axial components
components of a; and Tz = the torque of all the Then T^ = RyX  R^y forces acting on P about the z axis. = = (Art. may and Ry ma^ since Rx 34),
axial
^x
Fig. 373
(Art. 8);
and
Tg
niGyX
maxy.
down for each particle of the the sum of the righthand equals members body. The sum of the lefthand forces (exerted by the internal sum the members of course. To the first these internal forces because nothing particles upon each other) contribute and opposite, and ecj^ual, colinear, being each occur in pairs, the forces of first sum is also the Therefore, cancel. forces so the moments of such two Thus, we have axis. the 2 about forces the torque of the external
Now
SPj = 2 {mayX
where SP^
the 2 axis.
maxy),
(i)
the torque of
all
the
changing.
We
prove
this
by
momentum about
the 2 axis,
{mVyX
thus
at
J
{mVyX
mVxy)
=2 m
dx\
,
(dvx
dyW
240
Chap, xi
dvy/dt
Now
ay,
dx/dt
Vx,
dvx/dt
= d, and
dy/dt
Vy,
and substitution
7
2 {mVyX mvxy)= 2
Thus
finally
{mayX
maxj),
at
we have
the
changing, or
(2)
2r, =
dh/dt,
hz
where the
and
the angular
momentum
of the
will
torque of the water flowing through the water motor (Barker Mill) repre
AB, mounted on a
motor consists of a horizontal cylinder and an inlet D connected by a watertight On opposite sides of the cylinder and near its sleeve joint to a feed pipe E. ends there are orifices or nozzles through which the water escapes horizontally. = the weight of The water turns the motor in the opposite direction. Let
Essentially, the
vertical pivot C,
and
CO
The amount
of water
which
W M;
t>
rco
momentum
about the
axis of rotation
gives angular
{WM/g) momentum to
is
rw)
r.
Hence the
is
motor
the water
(W/g)
{v
rco)r,
and
torque
about
any
line
of the external
if
forces acting
on a body
momentum
This
is
of the
body
as the
about that
hence,
momentum
remains constant.
known
momentum.
by means
of a
of the
man
metal plate
and
that
with very
little friction
resistance;
B so B is
fixed.
Imagine that a
all
man
pole as shown,
CC
equals zero.
A and holds a balancing momentum of the manplateNow suppose that the man exerts himself
any way, to move the pole about for example, but touches nothing except A and the pole. The only external forces acting on the system are gravity, The first has no torque about reactions of the balls on A and the air pressure. C; the other two very little and are negligible here. Hence there is no external
,
Art. 48
241
momentum
if
of the
system about
equals zero
This
is
strikingly illustrated
the plate, trys to rotate the pole (over his head as shown) about C. In doing If / and /' = the so, he and A begin to rotate in the opposite direction.
moments
and
w'
and the pole respectively about C, and co any instant, then the principle requires that the angular momentums /w and Ico' shall be equal (and opposite). Or, imagine the manplatepole system is given an angular velocity by external means (the man holding the rod as shown, say), and then left to itself. If now the man should change the pole into a vertical position before him, he would reduce the moment of inertia of the system (about C) very materially; and
of inertia of
man
(and
.1)
momentum must
The grand
is
momentum
furnished
by the
forces;
solar system.
the influence of
no external
remains constant.
The angular
is
momentum of the system about any line momentum about a certain line through the
the system a plane perpendicular
line.
The Une
to
it
is
known
and
''is
known."
Center of Percussion.
Fig.
R=
OC
suspended
like
pendulum;
is
C is
Let
rO
Ry
=
!lD
C
I
B
r
J4
>i<
Fig. 376
Fig. 374
and P = the time average force of a blow applied as shown. In general, R would not be vertical during the blow; so let R^ and Ry = the horizontal and The value vertical components of the timeaverage of R during the blow. of R^ depends not only on the force of the blow P but also on the arm of the blow with respect to the axis of suspension. It will be shown presently that
242
if
Chap, xi
the arm has a certain value, then Rx equals zero. The point Q in OC (extended) and in the line of action of a blow applied as just explained so that there is no component axle reaction parallel to the blow, is called the center
of percussion of the
body
{Q
is
the
The
distance of the
k'^/c
c \k /c,
where k
c
the radius
of gyration
suspension.
To
the
develop the expression for q given above arm of P about the axis of suspension,
=
be
of
will
P
Rx
Mco:/At.
The only
force
is
P; hence
Pp = Mui/M.
These two equations solved simultaneously for R^ give R^ = P (1 cp/P); therefore, if ^ = k^/c, Rx = o which was to be shown. Every American boy has batted a baseball a few times in such a way that
the bat "stung " his hands; and he soon learned that such stinging
of
is
a result
impact near
his
of the bat;
in fact, quite
remote from the center of percussion of the bat (with reference to the particular
axis of rotation
Such a blow
about which the bat was being swung at the instant of impact). which
in certain
To
vibrations in the pendulum, they are always so arranged that the line of action
blow passes through the center of percussion of the pendulum. If the line of action of a force is fixed in posiAngular Impulse. tion then the angular impulse of that force for any interval about any line is the moment of the impulse of the force for the interval about that Hne. The
of the
2.
moment
angular
of
an impulse
is
computed
is,
just like
moment
of a force (Art. 8) or
momentum;
that
we
to the line.
If
the
line of action of the force changes then the angular impulse of the force about any line for any interval is the algebraic sum of the angular impulses for all
the elementary portions of time which comprise the interval. the force, i"
Thus
let
/'
the interval, 6
F = F
Art. 48
243
line,
and the
and p
two
lines.
Then
is
Xt" F dt?,md p=
Since
F sin d p dt.

sinO
may also be regarded as the timeintegral of the if T the torque of the force about the line at angular momentum for the interval equals
Hence,
h'
Tdt.
Now
let
us integrate equation
(2)
/'
say;
then
r
in
^T,dt, or
///'
hj
A/?
(3)
which
JiJ
and
lij'
t'
momentums
Equation
(3)
of the
and
lowing principle of angular impulse and momentum: The sum of the angular impulses of all the external forces acting on a body about any line equals the
momentum
of the
line.
49. Gyrostat
words gyroscope and gyrostat are is made, as follows: A gyrostat consists of a wheel and axle, both being symmetrical to the axis of the axle, and mounted so that they may be rotated about that axis; a gyro I.
General Description.
The
Fig.
377 represents a
common form
W and axle
/^^^^
.
A A')
is supported by a ring R which can be rotated about the axis BB'; the axle BB' is supported by the
forked pillar
which can be rotated about the axis CC. Thus the wheel can be rotated about its center into any desired position. The gyroscope seems to have
been designed for illustrating principles of composition In 1852 Foucault (French phyof rotations (Art. 54).
sicist)
l\^5^/\^^.
t^^^^&A^^
^
IWV>^/^)"^b'
^^^y^JJJ
x.^^^
made an
its
interesting application
of
the instru
p^^
i"^s^i=P"
ment; by
rotation of
means he practically made visible the More recently the gyroscope has the earth.
k:;_1_^
to
steer
by the
it
machines by means of a gyroscope. When its wheel is spinning, a gyroscope possesses properties which seem
244
peculiar to students as yet uninformed in the matter, inasmuch as
it
Chap, xi
does not
efforts
made
to change its
motion or position.
a gyroscope like that represented in Fig. 377, well made and practically frictionless at all bearings and pivots, be grasped by the pillar and
For example,
then
if
moved about
in
any attempt to alter it. The (gimbal) method of support makes it impossible to exert any resultant torque on the gyrostat (by way of the pillar) about any line through the center; and hence, as will be proved later,
in spite of
It is this
property of peris
manence
made
would turn the gyrostat when not spinning about the axis B. But when spinning, that force U would rotate the spinaxis about the axis C, the direction of rotation depending upon the
vertical force, say, applied at
direction of spin.
When
the gyrostat
is
by the arrow
co,
in the
by the arrow fx. Again, a horizontal force applied at A, But w^hen say, would turn the gyrostat when not spinning about the axis C. spinning, such force L would rotate the spinaxis about BB'; and in the direcThis behavior of a tion indicated by the arrow X if the spin is as indicated. spinning gyrostat under the action of torque is exhibited more strikingly by a gyroscope represented plainly in Fig. 378. The wheel may be spun on the axle A; the gyrostat and its
direction indicated
frame
may
be rotated about
and
all
rotated
may be CC.
is
Now
Fig. 378
imagine
gyrostat)
W
is
clamped so
and
unbalanced.
Then
if
the gyrostat
is
set spinning
will
in the position
The
and on the diis clamped If, for example, rection of the torque of gravity about BB'. quite near BB' so that the torque of gravity is clockwise as seen from B and
direction of this rotation depends
the spin
is
as indicated, then
is
rotates toward B.
in so far as it
interfered with
still
by
and
air resistance.
We
might
recite
other peculiar performances of a gyrostat but the foreProfessor Perry's book on "Spinning
Tops"
in this connection.
Art. 49
245
Any such rotation of the axis of a spinning gyrostat is called a precessional motion or precession of the axis or of the gyrostat; the axis and the gyrostat We will call precession normal or obiique according as are said to precess.
the axis precesses about a line perpendicular or inclined to the axis. It may not be clear from the foregoing examples of precession how to predict the
direction of precession that
stat with a given spin.
would
result
to a gyroit is
The
following
When based on the dynamics of the whole matter as will be upon a spinning body tending to cause rotation about any other axis than the spinning axis, the spinning axis sets itself in better agreement with the new
forces
act
perfect agreement
the direction of rotation being the same." what amounts to the same thing, the precession
vector* toward the couple or torquevector.
an incomplete proof of the foregoing rule. Further exFig. 379 represents planation is given in the next section and in Art. 56. a gyrostat pivoted at O so that it can be
The
following
is
rotated freely about that point; we suppose the center of gravity of the gyrostat Imagine that the gyrostat is to be at O.
at rest, not spinning, in the position shown,
TIX
y^i^
~^^^
^ and that a downward force is applied to and the axle on the lefthand side of downward. The torque makes the gyrostat rotate about the axis OB, that is the torque produces angular momentum about that axis. The amount of angular momentum produced is proportional to the torque and to the duration of This angular momentum may be represented by a its action (see Art. 48).
OB, the length of the vector representing the amount of the angular momentum and the arrowhead pointing so as to agree with the direction of
vector on
rotation, according to the usual convention, that
is
is,
Now
shown but the imagine that the axis of the gyrostat The anright. from the viewed when wheel spinning, say, counterclockwise represented be would its about axisf gyrostat gular momentum of the spinning
at rest in the position
by a vector on
*
OA
OA;
let
01 be
that vector.
spinvector
is
the arrowwhat amounts to the same thing which the spin appears counterclockwise; or screw righthand were it a if advance would axis the which along direction head points in the turning in a fixed nut.
The
immaterial
in the present
connection
some convenient
scale.
a vector perpendicular to the plane of the couple pointing to the place from which
the rotation,
what which the couple tends to produce, would appear counterclockwise; or the arrowhead points in the direction along which the vector amounts to the same thing would advance if it were a righthanded screw turned by the couple in a fixed nut. This angular momentum is greater than that for any other line, and hence may bf
momentum
246
Chap, xi
suppose that the torque already described comes into action, and let OJ represent the angular momentum which it would produce in a short interval This angular momentum added to the original angular momentum of time.
Now
gives
OR
momentum
end
of the
interval. It seems, therefore, that the spinaxis would coincide with OR at the end of the interval; indeed, that axis does approach OR, that is the spin
axis turns
in the rule
which
v/e
undertook
to prove.
The approach
mentioned
is
is
not a direct one; the gyrostat yields slightly is the wheel rises (in this
first
nutation
O
This
only the
as
it is
called
which
The (unavoid
rapidly
damps
The mentioned
it
the spinaxis
may
be
explained as follows:
rotates about
OR
the gyrostat
clockwise
momentum
rises so
OC
of the angular
momentum due
OC.
angular
momentum due
is
another item of gyrostat behavior worth noting here. Suppose that the gyrostat shown in Fig. 378 to be precessing as already explained.
There
If the precession be hurried, say by means of a horizontal push applied at .4', the center of gravity of the frame (with gyrostat and weight) rises; if the This behavior is in precession be retarded, the center of gravity descends.
In the
first
case
we have
CC;
is
in the direction
OC;
in the direction
is
that
CC
rule:
OA'; and in accordance with the rule OA' turns toward OC In the second case we have a torque about rises. but the torque vector is OC; and the spin vector OA' turns toward that
the center of gravity
is
vector, that
Thus we may
falls,
state as another
Hurry a
the precession;
is
linked to appro
the spin axis toward either side of the torpedo causes the engine to turn the
(vertical)
Prior to projection
of a torpedo, the gimbals are locked so as to hold the spinaxis of the gyrostat
parallel (or
the discharge of the torpedo, the gyrostat the gimbals are unlocked.
automatically set
During the
flight,
Art. 49
in its original direction
247
;
any deviation
of the torpedo
from
its
intended course
mean
direction,
and
is
then swung
flight so
back again by
the rudder.
And
2
this oscillation is
is
gyro
minute has been made to serve the purpose just described. For our purpose we may regard a gyrocompass as conGyrocompass. sisting essentially of a gyrostat (wheel and axle), the axle supported in a ring See A, Fig. 380. Such a comor case, and the ring suspended from above.
pass,
when
the gyrostat
is
equator with
counterclockwise
rotating
west.
The
earth
the spinaxis
if
would
in
position
the gyrostat
consider the gyrostat as
frictionless gimbals,
and would
Now
shown
at
B, supported not in gimbals but suspended from above as in the gyrocompass. The supporting force (above) and the force of gravity would have a torque counterclockwise as viewed from the north; thus the torque vector
The
hence
is
not precisely as outUned above, that is the spinaxis its original position for a time and then yield to
The
action
is
compass with the earth from the position A induces the gravity torque, and the spinaxis begins to turn toward the meridian as
described.
Though the
float in the
and mercury
very small, the gravity torque is so small that the turning of the spinaxis into the meridian is very slow. Like a magnetic compass the gyrocompass swings beyond the meridian from a In the Anschutz type the period deflected position and oscillates for a time.
Anschutz compass)
of a free oscillation is
about
Special
damping
ar
40
The
spin
is
maintained
electrically,
Monorail Car.
A car on a single
if
the
248
center of gravity of the car
is
Chap, xi
above the
rail
by means
of a suitable gyroscope
apparatus.
Fig.
A A'
is
the spinaxis,
BB' by means
of
man
Now suppose
is
as
by a wind
The
and
which
parallel
=c=
A'
Art. 49
249
was spun at 1600 revolutions per minute. In still water the ship would settle down from a heel of 20 degrees to one of  degree in about 20 single oscillations; the period was about 4I seconds. The stabilizer produced the same extinction
in less
(See
London
Engineering,
2. Rate or
In
we
will
now
Let /
CO
the
moment
then
If
momentum produced by
it
T dt, and
the angular
approach of the spinaxis toward the torqueaxis in that time is lOR (Fig. 379) = tani (r dt/Iw) = T dt/Iw. The rate at which this angle is described,
that
is
generally denoted by O
=
r//co.
is
is
n =
If the
{IOR)/dt
its
torque
is
applied so that
there
is
vector
of spin
OA, then
no torque about
is
OA
and hence
it
co
is
constant;
if
also
constant, then
is,
formula that
is
constant.
That
in the case
is
The case spin and precession are constant. moving particle subjected to a constant force whose line of action is always Such a force perpendicular to the direction of motion and in a given plane. changes the continually but velocity does not change the magnitude of the
quite analogous to that of a
direction of
(Art. 34).
it;
Let
(Fig. 383)
be the particle,
r
m=
its
mass,
its
velocity,
F=
the force,
PQ
circle.
The
Since r
linear
momentum =
is
mv;
angle.
POQ
/
i.ja^'^
>
^^I
turned
any time
is
,__7_t^v$r:r^R
mv^/F (see Art. 34), the angle = tF/mv. Hence the rate at which F turns the linear momentum vector is F/mv, a result strictly analogous with T/Ioj, the rate at which the torque T turns the angular momentum vector /o). The result can be arrived at, independently
^^^
of Art. 34, in a
way
still
more.
We may
regard
During that time it produces constant in direction for an element PO, equal to F dt. Let PJ direction own its an amount of momentum, in momentum mv. At the end of initial the represent this momentum and PI represented by PR. Hence the is momentum the interval the (resultant) = (mv), and the = {F dt) is I PR momentum the change in the direction of divided dt, that is F/mv. by the change is rate at which the change occurs Normally at Constant Speed. Precessing Gyrostat The Forces Acting on a which the forces in such conditions a case certain determine We will now
time
dt.
250
always
12
Chap, xi
fulfill.
Incidentally,
we
T/Iw.
is
^A^
spin
take the gyrostat represented by two projections in Fig. 384. is the axis of prethe axis of spin, the perpendicular to the paper at
of
We
cession,
and Q is the masscenter of the gyrostat. The assumed directions and precession are indicated by the curved arrows oj and 12 respectively.
Fig. 384
sets of coordinate axes, one fixed and and OZ, the latter not shown; OZ is taken coincident with the precessionaxis, and OX and OY in the plane in .which the spinaxis moves. The moving set consists of NA, NB, and NC;
shall use
is
two
,
one moving.
The
fixed set
OX,
OY
NA
Let
is
the
moment
the
(ON) between the axes of spin and precession, angle which the spinaxis makes with OX, P be any particle
distance
the (varying)
of the gyrostat,
m=
X, y,
its
mass,
BNP,
a, b,
and
its distance from the axis of spin, 6 = the (changing) angle and c = the co()rdinates of P with respect to the moving axes, and = its coordinates with respect to the fixed axes.
r
It follows
X y
and
= = =
(b { e) sin
(6 f
^.
e)
cos
</>
cos
cos
<^
sin
</>
\
e sin 0, e
cos 6
cos
<^,
f sin
r,
and
= w
and
dip/df
=
12
12
12),
we
values of the
and
Vx
components
{cw
(al2
b(j3.
of the velocity of
(6 f e) (6
P:
Vy
and
= = Vn =
cos 0,
sin 0,
e)
of
OZ
respectively
VyZ),
m(vxZ
Vzx),
and m(vyX
Vxy).
Art. 49
If
^5^
V:,,
we
Vy,
and
v^,
duced, then
sum up
we
momentums
sin
<^,
of the gyrostat
about the
and
z axes respectively
:*
hx
loi
cos 0,
hy
lu
and
hz
/'O.
h^,, hy, and h, with respect to time (and remembering that co and 9, are assumed to be constant), we find that the rates at which the angular momentums change are and dhjdt = o. dhy/dt = Iol cos 0, dhx/dt = /a;12 sin
(/>,
Now
is
when
the spinaxis
NA
Then
<t>
o,
and the
/wS],
and
o;
T^
that
of the exis
when
</>
o (Art. 48)
Tx
o,
Ty
Ioi%
and
Tz
o.
it is
By means
that
of these results
shown
in 3
T,
Tp
o,
and
all
T=
/cofi,
(i)
where
Ts, Tp,
and
common
we
will
now
motion
The masscenter describes a circle of the masscenter (Art. 34, page 159). of that point is always directed acceleration the hence speed; at constant and its value is rli^ where r circle, the of center the center to massfrom the
denotes radius of the
circle.
Now
let
M=
mass
and
R3
the sums
of the
axis,
components
the precession
then according
to the principle
named above
Rr
MrO^,
Rp
o,
and
i?3
o.
(2)
The
six
equations in
of
(i)
and
(2) are
page 249; they are applied in the following (i) Fig. 385 represents a side and end view of the armature Examples. The armature shaft is parallel to the of the motor of an electric locomotive. We will discuss the forces acting on the armature when the ties of the track. locomotive is rounding a curve. Inasmuch as we are not now concerned with
bottom
assume that the armature driven around the curve is spinning but under no load, the locomotive being by another locomotive. And for simplicity, we assume that there is no elevation of the outer rail, so that the precession of the armature is normal; that is,
the driving of the locomotive
by
this
motor we
will
c')
I,
^mia'
h")
I',
and
'^mc
o.
252
Chap, xi
axis of spin
and the
(vertical) precessionaxis
radius of
We take the weight of the armature = 8000 pounds, its gyration =15 inches, its speed =750 revolutions per minute,
Art. 49
If the
253
armature were not spinning (co = o), or the car were running on a straight = o) then /c<j12 would equal zero, and hence the reactions Pi and Qi would equal 4000 pounds. Thus the effect of the spin and precession is to
track (^
and decrease the other by 670 ^ 4 = 168 pounds. This and decrease are called the gyrostatic couple or gyrostatic effect. The force P2 does not depend on the spin of the armature, only on the radius It is often described as the centrifof the curve and the velocity of the car.
increase one reaction increase
ugal effect.
which we assume to be rounding We assume that the a curve. We will determine the forces acting on them. were slipping if there wheels are "coned" so that there is true rolling; even
(2)
because of the excess length of the outer over the inner rail
be practically correct.
precession as normal.
axle),
our
and
results
would
We
Let
neglect the
tilt
of the track
so regard the
r = their radius, = curve, and / = of the radius the velocity of the center of gravity, R T' = of the components vertical the and gage of the track. Further let P Q = the transverse comH wheels; on the pressure of the outer and inner rails
M=
their mass, k
ponent of the pressure of the outer rail. Besides these there are components along the rails with which we are not concerned. According to the last of
equations
(i),
hf)
WRHr = MkWyRv,
P f () = W.
and
two
of equations (2)
H = MVyR
_,
.
and
Q we
get
W MVh.MkWIRT
^~
The
first
_ MVh _ MkW^
Rf
Rrf
terms in these two expressions are due to gravity. The second terms are due to centrifugal action; they have the same values as if the wheels were skidding, that is, they do not depend on the spin of the wheels. The
third terras are due to gyrostatic action; the
components
of
and
which
they stand for constitute the socalled gyrostatic couple. In general, any system of forces can be 3. Gyrostatic Reaction. compounded into a single force acting through any desired point and a couple
(Art. 9).
Let us imagine
all
is
precess
ing normally, to be
of
compounded
F and C
respectively;
also let
and n respectively
per unit
time,
revolutions
= =
the
number
of precessional of
the weight
2^4
It follows
(Fig. 384)
Chap, xi
from equations
(2),
that
is
to
and
F=
When
MrS^2
(p^/g) r/^Trm\
(3)
F and C together, about the x, y, and s axes, and o respectively. But F has no torques about these axes; hence C has no torques about the x and 2 axes, and its torque about the pery axis equals /col]. Therefore the plane of the couple C is normal to the
0,
the torques of
must equal
o, /coO,
C = l0i^=
The
ofif
{W/g)
k^
4 TT^wiV.
(4)
be described as follows: Imagine a vector laid on the axis of spin to represent the direction of the spin; then the vector
sense of the couple
may
is
which the
spinvector will occupy at the end of a quarter of the precession period (time is See Fig. 384; required for one turn about the axis of precession).
NA
NB
is
the couplevector.
From
The
F and
C,
it
gyrostat exerts reactions on the bodies which exert forces upon it equal and opposite to those forces respectively. Hence those reactions are equivaand C denote a force and a couple respecand C, where lent to
tively equal
equation
i)
and opposite to F and C. Now F is independent of the spin (see but C depends on it. Hence C is called the gyrostatic (part of
the) reaction.
In the examples of the preceding section we determined the forces acting on Thus, certain gyrostats, and it is easy to pick out the gyrostatic reactions. and of forces 3832 4168 downward in example (i) the armature shaft exerts
and righthand bearings as seen from the rear. As already pointed out each of these pressures is the resultant of two components, thus
pounds on
its left
4000
+168
and 4000
168;
by
the second components are the gyrostat reaction, that is the couple denoted equal to C. In example (2) the car wheels exert downward pressures gyrostatic P and Q. The third components of these reactions constitute the
circumstances.
When
steam boat sustains gyrostatic reactions in certain such a boat is turning, the (pair of) paddle wheels and
the boat
is,
say,
on the boat which makes the boat heel. When travelHng forward and turning to starboard, the couple heels the
boat to port.
when
she
is
Likewise a screwpropelled ship sustains a gyrostatic couple turning; it is due to the precession of the screw and shaft (and
so equipped).
turbine too
if
The
bow
or stern depending
Art. 49
255
of turning of the ship
on the direction
and sense
It
frail)
may
J.
The
fact
and
flying
machine
is
shaft
turning or
when
When
turning,
the reaction tends to raise or depress the front of the machine, depending on the
Propellers being righthand screws (turning clockwise
left. When he makes a dive the couple tends to advance machine on the righthand side of the air man. The flight of a machine fitted with two screws which rotate in opposite directions is not thus Each propeller exerts a couple on interfered with by gyrostatic reactions. It has been suggested the machine but the two couples are always opposite. that gyrostatic reactions of propellers and motors may have been the cause
prevented by the
air
when man)
of
some flyingmachine
accidents.
However, a
wellbuilt
machine can
safely
and turning.
seconds,
it
Thus, for a dive or turn at the rate of one revolution in 20 speed Gnome motor
200 revolutions per minute
exerts a gyro
and the
The
flying
M. O'Gorman
For a
full
in
discussion of the subject of this article, consult Crabtree's Spinning Tops attd
Gyroscopic Motion.
CHAPTER
TWO DIMENSIONAL
50.
I.
XII
MOTION
(PLANE)
Kinematics
of
Plane Motion
Plane motion
is
moves in a plane; that is, its motion is uniplanar. By plane of the motion is meant the plane in which the masscenter of the body moves. The wheels of a locomotive running on a straight track have plane motion also a book which A translation (Art. 35) may or is slid about in any way on the top of a table.
;
may
is
always a
plane motion.
In a plane motion
points of the
motion move
moving body which lie on a perpendicalike, and the motion of the projection
on the plane of the motion correctly represents the motion of all So also the motion of the projection of the moving body upon the plane of the motion correctly represents the motion of the body itself. Thus we have a plane figure (the projection just mentioned) moving in a plane representing a plane motion of a body; and since the motion of the plane Hereafter, figure is uniplanar, the motion of the body is called uniplanar. we will sometimes refer to the projection of the body as the body itself. By angular displacement of a body whose motion is plane is meant (as in rotation) the angle described by any line of the body which is in the plane of Obviously all such fines describe equal angles in the same inthe motion.
the points.
terval
of
time.
As
in
Let
moving body on the plane of the motion, AB n. fixed and OX a fixed reference fine; also
let 6
XOA,
denote
it
cording as
clockwise.
and final values of 6 corresponding to any motion of the body, then the angular displacement = 62 Oi = AG. If a body has a plane motion, its angular velocity is the timerate at which its angular displacement occurs, and its angular acceleration is the timerate at which its angular velocity changes. These definitions are precisely similar to those of the angular velocity and acceleration of a rotation about a fixed axis
62
and
initial
256
Art. 50
257
article
hence the expressions, units, and rules of signs given in that hold also for any plane motion. The expressions are
(Art. 37);
0)
dd/dt
and
do)/dt
d~d/df,
of the
CO
moving body
re
spectively.
Any
body followed by a rotation, or vice versa. Thus let AiBiCi (Fig. 3S8) be one position of a body ABC, and A2B2C2 a subsequent By means of a translation the body can be displaced so that one position.
of a translation of the
of its points
is
put into
its final
position;
B,
...
Fig. 388
into into
position. position.
the
rotation
body about A2 puts the body we can put the body into
an intermediate position Aib"c" so that each Hne in it will be parallel to its final position (in A2B2C2); and then the body may be put into its final position by a translation. Obviously, the translation and rotation might be performed
simultaneously.
The
occur
to
is
ment from AiBiCi to A2B2C2, accompHshed with B as base point. A translation puts the body into the position B2a"'C", and a suitable rotation about B2 puts it into the final position B2A2C2. It is clear that the amount of the translation component depends on the base point; thus A1A2 is the translation for
is
as base point.
But
the
amount
component does not depend on the base the angle ^'.42^2 for A as base point, and it equals
the rotation for
The
A2B2C2 (Fig. 389) already mentioned (and which altogether approximate to a continuous motion of ABC in which all points of the body move along smooth curves), can each be made by a small simultaneous translation and And if we take some one point as base point for all these small disrotation. placements then we may regard the motion as a continuous combined or
etc., to
2S8
Chap, xii
simultaneous translation and rotation, the translation being like the motion and the rotation being about that point. In accordance
with this view, the velocity of any point of the moving body at any particular instant consists of two components, one corresponding to the translation and
be the chosen base point, v' = the for the position of the body shown, and co = the angular velocity
Thus
let
(Fig. 390)
.Bg
Ar'A'
Fig. 389
of the
body
Then the
v';
first
component
of
P
co
equals
is
v'
and
is
directed like
nent equals
rco
{r
= AP)
and
AP,
the sense
(clockwise or counterclockwise)
two components, one corresponding to the transmotion and one to the rotation. Thus let a' be the acceleration of the base point, and a = the angular acceleration of the body. Then the first component of the acceleration of any point Q equals a' and is
any point component
consists of
of the
> 2 ft/sec/sec ^
8 ft/sec
^"^^A
30.4
fiAec/sec
^""'"^A
Q w///m////////////////mMm^' ^
Fig. 391 Fig. 392
Fig. 393
directed like a'\ the second component we describe by means of two components, as in a rotation about a fixed axis (see Art. 37), one of which (the normal component) is directed along QA and the other (the tangential com
ponent)
is
at right angles to
QA.
<3
equals rur
{r
= AQ)
and
its
is
rotational
component;
m, and
obviously
let
us consider the motion of the bar AB (Fig. 391) OA and OB. Let the length of the bar =
of
^4
and
2 teet
Art. 50
259
per second per second respectively (both toward the right) when Required the velocity and acceleration of P, 4 feet from A. degrees.
plain from the figure that 6 cos^
=
It
30
is
x;
hence,
or
where
co
6 sin
dd/dt
dx/dt,
6 sin
d'c^
v,
(i)
velocity of
A
get
at
any
instant.
we
6 6
(oj
+ sin d'doi/dt)
a,
dv/dt, or
(2)
(a;2
aimd) =
where a
Sit
the acceleration of
any
instant.
Now when 6 =
co
= 2
a = 7.6 radians per second per second. The negative signs mean that CO and a are counterclockwise, clockwise having been taken as positive for = 6, and 4 X w = 8 feet per Finally, the velocity components of P are 6. second as shown in Fig. 392; the acceleration components of P are a = 2, 4X0;= 30.4, and 4 X co^ = 16 feet per second per second as shown in
(2) gives
t>
Fig. 393
uniplanar displacement of a body can be accomplished by means Thus consider the displacement of ABC from the position of a single rotation.
3.
Any
^T
vB
Fig. 394
Fig. 395
Fig. 396
AB about any point on the perpendicular bisector aO (of .4 1^2); and B can be brought from Bi to B2 by means of a single rotation oi AB about any point on the perpendicular bisector bO (of B1B2). If the intersection of the bisectors is taken for the center of rotation of both A and B, then the
of a rotation of
amounts
AB
(and body
ABC)
planar displacement) by means of a single rotation as stated. In case the two bisectors coincide (Fig. 395), then the angles Bi and B2 are
equal and hence the lines AiBi and .42^2 extended intersect on the bisector ab
is
which would
disi)lace
AB
26o
rotation
is
Chap. xi7
" at infinity,"
is
translation
may
from one position AiBi to another A2B2 (in which A and B describe smooth curves) can be closely duplicated by a succession of rotations of AB from AiBi (Fig. 389) into successive inter
The
actual
continuous motion of
AB
reached.
made about
etc. (not
shown).
intermediate positions are taken (and the more numerous and closer the centers
of rotation 0',
0"
etc.)
"In the
motion
is
repro
duced by
body
as consisting of a con
tinuous rotation about a center which, in general, is continuously moving. about which the moving body is rotating at any The position of the center
instant
is
motion
or position (of the body) under consideration, and the line through that center and perpendicular to the plane of the motion is called the instantaneous axis
of the
In general, the instantaneous center moves about in the body and in space. Its path in the body is called body centrode; its path in space the space cen
Thus, in the case of a wheel rolling on a plane, the instantaneous center at any instant is the point of contact between the wheel and plane; the successive instantaneous centers on the wheel trace or mark out the circumtrode.
body centrode; the successive instantaneous centers mark out the track and this line is the space centrode. It can be shown that any plane motion may be regarded as a rolling of the body
ference
and
in space trace or
Now
in a rotation
all
points of the
are proportional to the distances of the points from the axis of rotation,
body and
the velocities are respectively normal to the perpendiculars from the points to the axis (Art. 37); the velocity of any particular point is given by v = rw,
where
axis,
=
co
and
points of the
body
at
are proportional to the distances of the points from the instantaneous axis (corresponding to that instant); the velocities are respectively normal to the
perpendiculars from the points to the instantaneous axis; and the velocity v of any particular point is given by z^ = rw, where r = the distance from the
co
By means
center for
we can
moving body if the directions of the velocities of two of its points are given; and then if the value of one velocity is given we can compute the angular velocity of the body and the velocity of any other
any given position
of the
point.
For an example we
Art. 51
Fig. 397), in the position
261
shown, the speed being 100 revolutions per minute. B of the rod is along the tangent to the crank
connecting rod
at B, that
is
is
on
AB
or. its
extension;
and
is
since
of the rod
along
C'
pic
\
AC, the instantaneous center is on the normal Hence the instantaneous center is at the to AC. intersection O. Now velocity oi B 2 t Y. AB
(to scale)
X 100 = 2000 feet per minute; hence, the angular velocity of the = 2000 ^ OB (to scale) = 185 radians per minute. The velocity of C = OC (to scale) X 185 =1110 feet per minute.
rod
51.
I.
principle of the
motion of the
^F, = Ma,,
where SF^,
'ZFy,
HFy = May,
and
SF, =
o;
(i)
ternal forces
and HF^ = the algebraic sums of the components of the exacting on the body along three rectangular lines, the third one
the
= the mass X and y components of the acceleration of the masscenter, and of the body. In addition to the above, we have another simple relation
(established later),
f=
where
la
Mk'a
(2)
all
the
moment
the
line
just mentioned,
~k
the radius of
moving body. Systematic units (Art. and (2). But we may substitute W/g for = the weight of the (where body and g = the acceleration due to gravity) and then use any convenient units for force (and weight), length, and time. To derive equation (2), let Fig. 398 represent the moving body, C be the masscenter, a = the acceleration of C, 00 and a = the angular velocity and
etc.,
be particles of
etc.,
their masses;
etc.,
their distances
through
C and
We
regard the motion as consisting of a translation Uke the motion of C and a rotation about the " base axis " through C. Then the acceleration of Pi can
will
a, ria,
and
rico
as indicated;
com
262
ponents,
a, r^a, riw;
Chap,
xn
etc.
corresponding accelerations;
n^fl, nhT^a,
Ri consists of
three components
etc.
and
m^rior
all
Now
the torque of
of Ri,
the
on Pi
all
components
similarly,
the torque of
ponents of R2;
etc.
r.a
on
all
the
Fig. 3g8
Fig. 399
particles (external
and internal forces acting on the body) = the torque of and mm^) of all the resultants Ri, R2, etc. Since occur in pairs of equal, opposite, and colinear forces, they
first
It
is
plain
from the figure that the normal components mirioj, nhVoj^, etc., have no torque about the (base) axis. Since the resultant of the components WiO, fn^, etc., passes through the masscenter (Art. 35), they have no torque about the axis. The torque of the remaining set of components is
Wi^iari
(see Art. 36).
+ miTiari +
(i)
= al
(2).
T = /a, or equation When the velocity of amount and direction {a = o), the torque of
Hence, we have
the masscenter
is
con
any
line
line
angular velocity
iii) When the perpendicular to the plane of the motion equals la. is constant (a = o), the torque of the external forces about a
equals zero.
through the masscenter and perpendicular to the plane of the motion {Hi) When a and a = o, the torque of the external forces about
perpendicular to the plane of the motion equals zero. Required the value of P for starting a wheel (Fig. 399a) i.
any
line
Examples.
or stopping
right.
it
(Fig. 399b).
The
figures
rolling
toward the
In the two figures respectively, the angular accelerations are clockwise and counterclockwise; hence the friction F on the wheels act as shown, and F = \D = Mk~a. And since the accelerations a of the masscenter are
left respectively,
it
ra.
follows that
is
P  F = Ma iox each P = M (i +
i
figure.
a.
Also
k'^/r'^)
k'^/r'^
times
its inertia
Thus when
P Ma.
Art. 51
It is required to discuss the rolling of a
263
2.
homogeneous cylinder on an
inclined plane.
of its bases
3 feet,
and the
25 degrees.
Further,
we assume
is
that the cylinder and plane do not distort each other, so that there
only linecontact between them and no "rolling resistance" (Art. 52); also
that the surfaces in contact are sufficiently rough to prevent slipping so that
the roUing
is
perfect.
rolling
Fig. 400
Fig. 401
cylinder, its
is
repre
and F,
in Fig. 400.
a,
and
o;
hence equations
200 sin 25
F=
=
(200 ^ 32.2) a,
o,
200 cos 25
and
0.
The second equation shows that iV = 181 pounds. The first equation contains two unknowns (F and a) and does not furnish the value of either of them;
so
we
Since ^
 1.51.
tion (2)
becomes
FX
1.5
(200 ^ 32.2)
125
oc.
Now we
ditional
have two equations but three unknowns, and so we need an adthis is given by the (simple) relation between a and a. Since there is no slipping, the displacement s of the masscenter in any interval of time and the angular displacement 6 of the cyUnder for that interval are = 1.5 (6 in radians and s in feet); hence d^s/df^ = i5 d^O/df^, related thus:
equation;
.j
or a
1.5 a.
first
simultaneously
the fourth,
second (o
3.
=
is
9.07 feet
we
find that
F =
28. 2
pounds.
It
is
of gravity
not in the axis of the wheel, the speed of rolling being maintained
(Fig. 401).
Let
W=
A
weight of the
radius,
and
gravity C;
further let 6
center
to the center of
the wheel, P,
W, and
by two components
A^
and
F).
Equations
~a,
convenience
P F =
(Pf /g)
and
NW
{W/g)
ay.
264
Since the angular velocity
is
^^p ^^
constant,
o,
and equation
(2)
becomes
(r
+ c sin 6)
Nc
cos d
Pc
sin d
o.
These equations contain five unknowns {P, F, N, Ux, and ay), and so we need other equations. Obviously the relations between a^, ay, and d furnish
the additional equations.
sisting of a translation
To
determine these
as base point
let
with
since
A moves
and there being no angular acceleration, the acceleration of the rotational component of the motion of C is wholly radial (along CA) and equals cor. Hence a equals cw^ and is directed from C to .4 and
;
'
a^
ceo
cos
0,
and
ay
coi"^
sinQ.
first
solv
we
find that
For
CO
we may
write 2
ttw,
where n
the
number
of turns of the
wheel per
unit time.
from the foregoing results that P and F are always opposite; act as shown whenever the center of gravity C is on the left of that P and 90) the vertical through the center A id between 90 and F act opposite to the directions indicated in the figure when C is on the right
It follows
that
and
of the vertical
through
90)
that
sin 6 is
greater than g;
low
the
{d
=
and then
N=W
(i
N +
obtains
when C
is
vertically be
coi'^/g).
W in
the value of
is
called "
hammer blow
hammer blow
Referring to equations (i), Independence of Translation and Rotation. depending on the rotaterm page 261, it will be noted that they contain no show that the motion therefore, they tion of the body about the masscenter;
of the masscenter
is
And as already pointed out (Art. 34), the acceleration of the masscenter is the same as though the entire body were concentrated at the masscenter and
the external forces were applied at that point parallel to their actual lines Equation (2) contains no term depending on the motion of the of action. masscenter; therefore, the rotation of the body about the masscenter is
all
independent of any motion of the masscenter itself. And on comparing equations (2) with the equation of motion for rotations about fixed axes
(Art. 37), it
free (moving) axis through the masscenter as though that axis were fixed. Thus we have complete independence of translation (of masscenter) and
Art. 51
265
apply the principle of independence to explain center of Let percussion; Art. 48 includes an explanation based on other principles. center its and C surface, horizontal on a AB (Fig. 402) be a prismatic bar lying Now imagine the bar to be struck a blow in the line of gravity.
To
illustrate
we
will
other forces acting on the bar are gravity and the supporting force of the surface; these produce no appreciable The motion produced, effect on the motion during the blow.
F.
The only
ra
\
acted
k
through the masscenter, and a rotation about the masscenter Any point beyond C as though the masscenter were fixed.
gets a velocity toward the right due to the translation,
velocity toward the left due
ticular point these
__^
and a
Fig. 402
to the rotation.
two
hence
if
and opposite, and the pivot would feel no pressure from the
For such a point, G is the center of percussion. Let us = mass of the now find where this pivot point is. For that purpose let perpendicular to through C line = the about gyration its radius of bar, k masscenter, R the be F about = blow the of arm the the supporting surface,/
its
distance from C, a
the average angular acceleration of the body during the blow, masscenter, = the duration of the blow. The velocities of R due to the translation and and rotation respectively equal a At and raAt. Now
a =
= F/M
and
Ff/Mk^l
we have
(f/M)
That
is,
At
= r{Ff/Mt)
At,
or
fr
= t.
r2
yfe
//.
of gravity is/
/r,
result reached in
Kinetic Energy of a
body,
W=
its
= the mass of the Let Body with Plane Motion. weight, 7 = its moment of inertia about a line through the
masscenter perpendicular to the plane of the motion, k = its radius of gyration about the same Une, v = the velocity of the masscenter, and co = the
Then
body equals
(I)
{wig)k
i^\
per second per second), then the foot and second should be adhered to as units of length and time; co should be expressed in be expressed in pounds, tons, etc., then the result radians per unit time. If
If g is
taken as 32.2
will
be in footpounds, foottons,
etc.
266
Chap,
xn
if its
first term of (i) equals the kinetic energy which the body would have motion were one of translation with velocity equal to v; and the second term equals the kinetic energy which it would have if its motion were one of rotation about a fixed axis through the masscenter and perpendicular to the plane
The
Hence the kinetic energy of a of the motion. body with any plane motion may be regarded as consisting of two parts; they are called translational and rotational. The following is a derivation of the preceding
formula after the view that a plane motion
is
combined translation and a rotation (Art. 50, 2). its Let Fig. 403 represent the moving body, masscenter, and P any other point of the body. Fig. 403 Also let r = the distance of P from the fine perpendicular to the plane of the motion, and v = the velocity of P. through Then v is the resultant of v and rw as indicated. The angle QPS = 90 0), where /3 and 6 are the angles which v and OP respectively make with (iS
the X
axis.
Therefore
^)2
^2
__
^2^2
__
^/co
sin (^
6),
and the
I v'^^m
+ I wSwr + 2
(see
I'co
/SSwr cos
x and y coordinate of P. Hence page 158), x denoting the x coordinate of the Similarly, Swr sin 9 ^ o. o, '^mr cos 9 = o.
for the kinetic
energy reduces to
The
follo\Adng is a derivation
a succession of instantaneous rotations (Art. 50, 3). Let / ^ the moment of inertia of the body about that Hne which is the (instantaneous)
sists of
the masscenter, p
z^
of the
axis,
velocity
v
of
before),
and
co
angular velocity
the
body.
Then
pw,
and the
body
is
SI mv^ =
This
ally,
is
\ w2wp2
/aj2
(2)
(2)
a much simpler expression than (i) but not so convenient to use generbecause / refers to an axis not fixed in the body. It remains to reduce According to the parallel axis theorem (Art. 36, 2), / = / to (i).
Md\ hence
/a;2
/co2
+ i M{d
a))2
/co2
+ i .1/^'
Art. 51
267
will
For an example we
rolling
compute the
Let
on a plane
surface.
W=
weight of cylinder,
D=
its
diameter,
7=1
and
co =
im.
Then Hence
M=
W/g,
the kinetic
+i
(W/g)TrWhi\
is
Thus
is
it
translational
and onethird
rotational.
2.
= weight of Let Dynamics of a Simple Moving Vehicle. wheel (in= each of weight the if any; w load, its and vehicle of the body the cluding onehalf of the axle if the wheels are rigidly mounted on their axles)
k
r
and
=
(i
The
(w/gy
+ h (Wg)k' (v/ry =
i (w/g)
is
+ k^r^y.
Hence the
47"^
Comparing
this expression
VW
nw
g
^)}
motion of translation, we see that the motion of the entire vehicle may be regarded as one of translation provided that the weight of the vehicle is taken nw (i \ k^/r). For modern freight cars r = 16.5 inches and equal to
W+
= 0.35. Therefore the "effective in9.5 inches (about); hence k/r^ ertia " of the wheels when rolling is about onethird greater than when at rest
k
or skidding.
Fig. 404 represents a vehicle, as a railroad car, being Height of Draw Bar. dragged on a level track by a pull P. The other external forces acting on the
W
/
N
^tr
ra^
77777?7;77T^'777777777777777m777777777777/l^.
"5^5^
h
\
Fig. 404
Fig. 406
f
of the rails
represented represented
by
all
its
vertical components).
406 those
repre
The
sented
by
their
horizontal and
components; axle
friction is disregarded.
Let a
the acceleration of
the car;
268
wheels
Chap, xii
a/r.
(2),
page
Fr
= h?g
r
or
i,
F =
g
(.
a.
r^
We
page 261)
e. = ^a,
(W/g)a, or
or
e=
+ !>
P nQ =
la.
When
sures.
the rear vertical axle pressures and increasing the forward vertical axle pres
When
now
applied low,
certain line,
applied in
some
P produces the opposite effect. Obviously, when P has no such effect on the vertical axle pressures.
let h = its height above the plane of the axes and H = the height of the center of gravity of the car body and its load above that plane. When the car is at rest {P and Q = o), the (vertical) pressures of the axles on the car body take on certain values. If, when P (and nQ) act on the car body, their resultant acts through the center of gravity, then those forces do not tend to rotate the car body and do not affect vertical pressures of or on the axles already mentioned. Thus,
We
will
of the axles,
by
(drawbar
effect),
and nQ about the transverse horizontal line through the center of gravity of the car body (and load) should balance. That is, we should have P{H  h) = nQH,' or
the
moments
of
H
+
(nw/W)
(i
+ k^/r^)
52,
I.
Rolling Resistance
roller is
its
taken to
differ
from
its
load directly.
When
a roller
(or wheel) is
made
to
roll,
it
experiences
it rolls.
more or
less resistance
from the
resist
ance depends in large part on the nature of the surfaces in contact and on the
amount
of the pressure
between them.
a continual expenditure of
roller
is
track.
roadway
(B,
Fig. 407)
also,
there
and the
Art. 52
loss.*
269
In any case there
the
is
in portions of
roller
Let
R=
on the
roller.
plication of
on the surface
(or arc) of
it
be shown presently that this point is in front of the vertical diameter of the roller,
the roadway supposed to be horizontal.
The
is
we
will
denote
it
by
c,
in
Obviously the coefficient of rolling resistance depends on the nature of the wheel and roadway, and is greater for yielding surfaces than for It would seem that the coefficient depends on the load but in rigid ones.
inches.
is
not influenced
much by
way
in
it.
The
also
roller;
that
it
The
precise
which the
with the conditions named has not been established. Below we give some of the meager experimental data relating to the matter. Coulomb seems to have made the first experiments to determine coefficients The following are his results for of rolUng resistance.
coefficient varies
Lignum
Load.
Vit.e
270
Chap, xii
In these experiments, increasing the length of bearing from 0.97 to 2.94 (about triple) more than halved the coefficient. Thus it appears that the
coefficient
roller
and roadway.
But the
coefficient
coefficient
</)
V7,
Dupuit gives the
where
<f>
is
Wood on wood
Iron on moist Iron on iron
0.0069
.0063
wood
.0044
.19
Wheel on macadam
For the conditions
that
is c
i, 2, 3 and whose length was i inch. Plates and rollers were used as they came from the plane and lathe; were not polished or filed. Loads varied from 350 to 2500 pounds per linear inch in contact. The coefficient did not seem to vary much with load; with
r.
4 inches in diameter,
first
materials
it
varied as follows:
Cast iron
=
iron
0.0063
.0120
0073
Wrought
Steel
These values
by that amount.
Fig.
W=
weight of
roller,
Wi and W2 =
adjusting the
By
Wi and W2 the roller was made to roll quite uniformly. When rolling at constant speed, the reaction R of the track on the roller is vertical, and R = W \ Wi + W^between
Also there
is
roller;
hence the
moment
and
of
must be counterclockwise
is
diameter of the
W\)
W2),
can be computed
* Trans.
easily.
Soc. C.E., Vol. 32, p. 99 (1894).
Am.
Art. 52
Fig.
27
two
rollers
409 represents in principle the device used by Crandall. There were under load (and a third one to preserve stability only), and three
plates as shown.
testing machine;
The lower
to a force
plate
of a
load was applied on the upper plate; and then the middle
plate plate
P sufficient to
two main
rollers, inclined as
Plate
Plate
w
\^^
'
'
1^>
Plate
"'^'//////////////A'
'^'//?^/i(J/////W///////7//tp////////////m/^///////'
Fig. 409
Fig. 410
Let
R=
and
Then, evidently,
hence
P=
2 i? sin ^
W or R = W nearly;
as
P=
Let
6
r
Wc/r
and
Pr/W.
shown
in Fig. 410.
radius of rollers,
(assumed
same
for top
Then since
is
small,
{
^2
and
since sin d
c/r,
P=
(Ri
R2
\
c/r.
Hence
P=
2.
Wc/r.
Rolling Wheel.
is
The
roller. rolHng wheel of a vehicle experiences axle friction as well as rolling resistance,* and few experiments have been made to determine them separately. For castiron wheels 20 inches in
case of a wheel
diameter on castiron
rails
Weisbach and Rittinger, respectively, found for the = 0.0183 and 0.0193 inches.f For an iron
Pambour
gives c
0.0196 to 0.0216
(i) Wheel without Axle Friction. We assume the velocity to be constant. Of course a force must be applied to the wheel to maintain the velocity; we assume it to be applied to the axle of the wheel as shown in Fig. 411, and,
for simplicity,
is
frictionless.
Let
D =
diameter of wheel,
P=
driving force,
W = weight
roadway, and Rh and 7? = Fig. 411b and c). Rh is the "rolling resistance."
* See Baker's
and load upon it, R = reaction of the horizontal and vertical components of R (see
of wheel
for full information
friction).
on
and axle
272
Since there
is
Chap, xii
(resultant) torque
on the wheel
It
Fig. 411
and
tact of wheel
and roadway.
is
The
vertical diameter
by c
P,
(2)
zero,
and the
since
vertical
and
is
nearly,
 Z)
= Wc;
and
Rh
R^
P= W
c/D.
of the
The work
is
overcome the rolling resistance per turn equal to the work done by the driving force P per turn. But
required to
wheel
this latter is
plainly
PirD,
(ii)
or
2 TTC.
(3)
drawn vehicle
moving
at a constant speed
toward the
right.
In addition
diameter of axle,
W = weight
of wheel,
Q=
(see
shown but their inclinations to the verFig. 412b shows R resolved at A into its horitical are much exaggerated. zontal and vertical components, and Q resolved at its point of application Fig. 412c shows into its normal and frictional components N and F; F fQ. Q replaced by Qh and Qv at the center of the wheel, and a couple C; the
Art. 45).
components R and
of Q,
act
as
moment
oi
is
d.
is
constant,
Rh
Qh
and
Rh
D^
R,c
+ F\d.
Art. 53
273
53.
Relative Motion
We can specify position of a point I. Motion Relative to a Point. only by means of a set of reference axes or some other equivalent base described or implied in the specification.
io degrees west and 3 degrees north of Washington the cities regarded as points we are really specifying the position of the former city with reference to the meridian and the parallel through Washington. But we say
that Chicago
is
that a
moving ship A
is
certain instant,
we
A by means
and
we say
Being small
compared to the distances mentioned (40 and 50 miles), the ships were regarded as mere points. If, however, the ships were
at close quarters, then to describe the position of
relative to
would specify the position of at least two points in A (bow and stern for example) relative to axes fixed in B, as indicated in Fig. 415, say. Even if B were turning about, we would still use those axes to specify subsequent positions of A relative to B. For the present we will deal with position (and
point
B we
'
^^^
motion) of points (or bodies regarded as mere points) relative to another base not body and it should be understood that the coordinate axes,
though moving with the base point, remain fixed in direction. Let the points o, i, 2, 3, etc. (Fig. 416), on the lines aa and bb be the positions
Chap,
xn
on the
C at the hours mentioned, we have the following tabulation of the coordinates of the positions of A relative to C from which the path of A relative to C (Fig. 418) was constructed. Thus it is clear that in
to the lighthouse) of a third ship
of reference or base
Time
(hours)
East (degrees)
North (degrees)
Art. 53
23 of Fig. 420.
275
Apparently these vectors are equal and parallel (also opposite) and it seems that such displacement vectors would be equal, parallel, and If this be true, then opposite for any interval of time.
it
follows that the rates at which these displacements occur (the relative velocities) are equal and opposite at each
instant;
and
if
E
posite then
change (the relative accelerations) are also equal and opposite at each instant. To prove that displacements such as mentioned in the
their
preceding illustration are equal and opposite, we will use Suppose that the pencils A and the glassboard illustration.
at the middle
Fig. 420
are attached
and board respectively, and that at a certain instant glass and board are in the positions shown at (i) in Fig. 421, and at a later instant in positions shown at (2); the table is not shown. Ai and Bi and A2 and
A) B2 are the corresponding positions of the pencil points. During this displacement, A will have traced some such
line as
A'A2 and
A^A'
is
is
equal and
parallel to B1B2;
hence A1B1B2A'
a parallelogram,
and A'B2 and AiBi are equal and parallel. BiB' is equal and parallel to ^1^12; hence BiA^A^B' is a parallelogram, and B'A2 and BiAi are equal and parallel. It follows that A'B2B'A2 is a parallelogram, and so A'A2 and B'B2 are equal and parallel. That is, the
421
displacement of
relative to
(chord A'Ai)
is
equal
relative to
(chord B'Bi).
Obviously
the senses of the displacements are opposite. Motions of Two Points Relative to a Third Point.
For convenience we
re
gard the third point as fixed, and call velocities and accelerations relative to that point as absolute. To illustrate this case we will modify the glass
extended downward so
the glass and board are
of
and
relative to
shown directly under A, and B that its lower end b presses on the table. Then when moved about without turning, a and b draw the paths any (third) point as C on the table; and as already
arise:
(a)
stated,
A and B draw
(or acceleration) of
a point relative to a second point, and the absolute velocity (or acceleration)
point,
(b)
required the absolute velocity (or acceleration) of the first velocities (or accelerations) of two points;
two points
relative to
need to add (vectorially) or compound, the point relative to the second and the abso,
276
lute velocity (or acceleration) of the second;
Chap,
xii
the
sum
is
To
we
first
ment
show that the (vector) sum of the displaceto the second and the absolute displacement
first,
of the
all
dis
and absolute
Let
above stated.
B, and
at the beginning
(i) and (2), Fig. 421, be the positions of glass and board and end of any interval, as before. Then A'Ao is the dis
placement
of
of
relative to
is
as explained; ^162
is
B; and A1A2
first
relative to
According to
(a),
A =
to
(or
the vector
sum
of
//
A
B.
velocity
which when
(or
added
of
Vb
if
acceleration)
let Va
5 =
the absolute
For example
and
then
(Fig. 422)
be the
A and B;
OM
and
ON
be
drawn
to represent Va
and
respectively,
NM will
acceleration) of
relative to B.
if
we add
add to
and
Vb
(Fig. 423);
then
the
new
Vb
o and the
velocity of
new
to C, the
to B.
2.
new
= NM. A relative to C
Va
Since
is
now B
at rest relative
relative
As explained
relative to another
in i, we moving point by
means
body.
of reference axes of fixed directions through the second point, but its
positions relative to a
Then
a body
the body.
Thus, to
illustrate, consider
When
both the glass and board are rolled about in any way,
Art. 53
277
the pencil
traces a line
line is the
path of
relative
to the board.
By
moving body
is
meant the
rate at
which
path relative to the body at the instant in question. By acceleration of a point relative to a moving body is meant the rate at which the velocity of the point relative to the body is changing at the instant
in question.
When
of
a point
P is moving
sum
relative to
a moving body
of
and
point of
with which
For simplicity of
proof
point
we take the
pencil
moving
as the
moving body B.
Let Bdi
Since
and
have plane
not general.
(Fig. 424)
be the position of
at
Fig. 424
a particular time
/i,
of
5 at a
is
ti
later
time
^2;
also
Pi and P2
at those times.
Let
at
which
/2,
P
is
coincides at time
at M2.
ti.
At time
/i,
is
Mi
and at time
Then
t^
is
PiP2;
of
P
=
ment
is
M1M2.
Obviously P1P2
M'2P2
+ MiM^
(vectorially).
Since
any
P=
velocity
the velocity of
relative to
M.
a moving body
When
tion of tion of
a point
P is moving
vector
B then the
absolute accelera
P equals the
sum
of three accelerations,
namely
instant in question,
P, the absolute acceleration of that point of B with which P coincides at the and a socalled complimentary acceleration. The complimentary acceleration equals twice the product of the relative velocity of P and
the angular velocity of
is
the same
278
as that of the Hnear velocity of velocity of
Chap, xii
p where Pp
is
P
=
Let Pipi
P at the time h,
at the time h.
and If iWi
the absolute
velocity of
at
that instant.
The
vector simi of
P at the
time
h.
is P coincides at the time k; time k) equals the vector simi of the velocity of i/2 and the velocity of TV "about " M2. Now the velocity of A' about I/2 equals the product of M2.N
which
OC N be the point of the board with under P2 then. The velocity of N (at
we
get the diagonal
to represent
Let
and the angular velocity of the board (at time h), or Ar X C02, where Ar = MoN and C02 = the angular velocity. The direction of this velocity Ar C02 is perpen
dicular to
M2N
C02
is
counterclockwise).
OB
hence
to
Mim^ and
Ar'C02 respectively;
OB"
is
the velocity of
of P
at time h.
Now
let Po_pi
(= OA") be the
is
relative
velocity
at time h
Then
the diagonal
OC"
to.
of the parallelogram
on
OA"
and OB" is ment in the absolute velocity of P for the interval h from the geometry of the figure that
the absolute velocity of
at time
Therefore C'C"
the incre
h
It follows readily
C'C"
= A'A"
+ B'B",
and
in the following.
(i)
P\pi and the angle between these vectors equal the angular displacement Ad of the board during the interval /2 k Then the increment in the relative velocity of P for that interval equals the difference between the
let
Now
Mia =
vectors
Mia and
Pipi
Oa
is
hence
aA"
is
that
difference.
Therefore
A'A" = A'a+
where
to
Vr
Avr
2Vr sin i A9
Avr,
means
relative velocity of
P at time h.
B'b
is
Since
Ob
is
Mimi
(velocity of
M at time
h',
/o),
and
since
bB" = Ar'Ui,
B'B" = A%n
Ar
C02,
where Vm means velocity of M. Substituting the foregoing values and B'B" in equation (i), we get
of
A'A"
(2)
C'C" = Azv
j
Ar  on.
Now
let
At
= h
,.
h,
and ^ approach
,.
then we get
,
C'C" 7 = hm At
lim
At..

At
+ + hm At
,.
,
Av^n
,.
Vr
lim  At
Ad ...
+ lim At
Ar
(02.
The
righthand
member is the absolute acceleration of P; the first term of the member is the relative acceleration of P; the second term is the acceleration of M. Lim {A6/ At) = wi, the angular velocity of the board at
lefthand
Art. 53
279
ZJrCOi.
Lim
(Ar/A/)co2
lim (Ar/At)
limw2
their
directions they
Vr^i.
Hence the
third
are
vectors are
is
and
and
if
then their
smn =
2 VrWi.
The
A' a, perpendicular to
the limiting direction
OA' or of bB"
Vr
obviously.
The
approaches h) perpendicular to M2P2; or Nc. Now Nc is of P, the Umiting direction of displacement and since 1/2^2 is the relative of Nc is perpendicular to Vr. direction limiting Hence the M2P2 is Pipi (or Vr).
always
(as
/2
2 Vrcoi,
and
it
And
this
sum is
him who
first
From
and Rv
Qv ^
W,
it
follows that
Rh
= Qh={Q.
is
+ W')^ + F^
(4)
is
neghgible com
pared to Qv
therefore
we may
nished
The work required to overcome rolling resistance and by Qh. Per turn of the wheel, that work is
QtjvD
axle friction
is
fur
((?
+ W)
TC
+ Qhd =
TT
(2 c
+ /J)
(?.
(5)
CHAPTER
THREE DIMENSIONAL
54.
I.
XIII
(SOLID)
MOTION
Body with
Spherical Motion means motion of a rigid body with only one Each point of the body, excepting the fixed one, moves on the surface of a sphere, whence the name spherical motion. Any spherical displacement of a body can be accomplished by means of a rotation about some line of the body passing through the fixed point, and Evidently, we mav describe any position of the fixed in space. Proof: body by describing the positions of two of its points, not in line with the fixed Let A and B denote two such points, equally distant from the fLxed point. point 0; then during any motion of the body, A and B move on the surface Let OAiBi be one position of of the same sphere. Then we are to the body, and OA2B2 another. prove that the points A and B could be brought from AiBi to .42^2 by means of a single rotation about some fixed line through 0. Let the lines
point of the body fixed.
.4
of great circles
of the
sphere
A and B are points of a rigid body. The A1A2 and B1B2 are arcs of great circles; and NR are great and N bisect these arcs; _ Fig a2^ circles perpendicular to ^142 and B1B2 respectively. In general two such great circles do not coincide but intersect at two points, R and S. The diameter ROS is the axis, rotation about which would produce the given displacement, proven presently. Let AiR, A2R, BiR, and B2R be Since A1A2R and B1B2R are isosceles triangles, AiR = arcs of great circles. A2R and BiR = BoR; and, as already stated, AiBi = .42^2. Hence the triansince
fines
MR
gles
are equal,
A2RB2.
Finally,
A1RA2 = A1RB2
Hence a rotation
equal to the angle
an amoimt
from ^1 to ^2 and B from Bi to B2. Imagine any actual continuous spherical motion of a body, in which the two points A and B of the body are displaced from ^1 to yl2 and Bi to B2 reLet A', A", etc., be several intermediate positions of A, and let spectively. As already shown, B', B", etc., be corresponding intermediate positions of B. the displacements of AB from AiB^ to A'B', from A'B' to A"B", from A"B"
A1RA2 would
displace
280
Art. 54
281
positions
by single rotations about definite R'VS", R"'OS"', etc. If a large number of intermediate A'B', A"B", etc., be assumed, and if the successive rotations be
accomplished in times equal to the times required for the actual displacements in the continuous motion, then the succession of rotations would closely
The more numerous the intermeand the more numerous the succession of single rotations, the more closely would the succession resemble the actual motion. "In the limit," the succession would reproduce the actual motion; hence we may regard any spherical motion of a body as consisting of a continuous rotation
resemble the actual continuous motion.
diate positions,
about a
line
about in the
body and
is
in space.
the body
is
rotating at
any
instant
body
is
rotating about
We will, generally, denote magnitude of angular In a rotation about a fixed axis, the (linear) velocity of any point of the body equals the product of the angular velocity and the perpenvelocity
body by
at that instant.
co.
and the
direction of
perpendicular to the plane of the radius and the axis. So too in a spherical motion, the linear velocity of any point of
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