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TECHNICAL MECHANICS
STATICS

""
1

1,>

AND DYNAMICS

BY

EDWARD

R.

MAURER

Professor of Mechanics in the University of Wisconsin

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED


TOTAL ISSUE TWENTY-TWO THOUSAND

NEW YORK

JOHN WILEY &


London:

SONS,

Inc.

CHAPMAN & HALL,

Limited

,.

111?
Engineering Library

Copyright,

igo3, 1914, 193^

BV

Edward R. Maurer

Stanbope ipress
H.
,

COMP. GILSON COMPANY

BOSTON,

19-01

U.S.A.

PREFACE
is an adaptation from the preface of the first ten years ago; it applies to the present edition. published edition of this work, fairly as a theoretical mechanics for students described be This book might to books commonly called Theoretical comparable not It is of engineering.

The

following paragraph

Mechanics, generally intended for students of mathematics or physics; nor a treatto books commonly titled AppUed IMechanics which generally include

ment of strength of materials, hydraulics, etc., for students of engineering. The title Technical Mechanics seems fairly appropriate for this book; and inasmuch as it is not otherwise used in this country, it was so adopted. On
the theoretical side, practically each subject discussed herein has a direct bearing on some engineering problem. The applications were selected and

presented for the purpose of illustrating a principle of mechanics and for not to furnish information, training students in the use of such principles, except incidentally, about the structure, machine, or what not to which the

application

was made.

years use of the book as a text in the author's classes has suggested many changes; and in recent years the need of a new collection of problems has become urgent. Accordingly, a revision was undertaken, and the effort has

Ten

resulted in a practically rewritten book.


edition used again with little or

containing fewer pages than the old book, the


one-third) larger printed page

new one because of contains more material than the

no change

Indeed the only portion of the former Though is the present Appendix A.
its

(nearly

old.

Inasmuch as Mechanics deals mainly with subjects permanent in character, the revision consists principally of changes in arrangement and presentation. Both were determined upon to a large degree by a desire to furnish an adequate course of instruction for students in engineering in one semester, "five of times per week." To this end, it was necessary to sacrifice logical order first presented arrangement more or less. As in former editions, Statics is
because relatively simpler than Dynamics.
a place.

Kinematics, as such,

is

not given
Dis-

The chapter on Attraction and

Stress has not been retained.

cussion of Friction and Efficiency has been amplified, and Dynamics has been extended to provide a quantitative explanation of simple gyroscopic action. Many solved numerical examples have been added to elucidate principles. The collection of problems to be solved by students has been completely

changed.
lU

4942^^5

IV

and 27 may be mastered with no knowlCalculus methods are used trigonometry. beyond edge of mathematics only of that branch of elements the of knowledge good a but in Dynamics, mathematics is presupposed. Graphical methods are used freely, as much
All of Statics except Arts. 23, 25, 26,

as the algebraic in Statics.

The author
and
of

is

criticisms of the teaching staff in

pleased to acknowledge with thanks the helpful suggestions Mechanics at the University of Ilhnois;

of his colleague, Professor

M. O. Withey; and of Professor C. H. Burnside Columbia University. He thanks also American Machinist, Engineering Record, and Engineering News for permission to copy and for gifts of cuts; and individuals and other journals named in the text for similar favors.
Madison, Wisconsin.
December, 1913.

To

the edition above described there has been added a second collection of

problems, pages 354-377; and articles 38, 44, 49, 5^, 5^, 55, 5^, 58 have been
modified.
September, 191 7.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES
Article
1.

Page
i

Introduction
Force; Definitions

2.

4
7

3.
4.
5.

Parallelogram and Triangle of Forces

Composition

of

Concurrent Forces
Couples

11

Moment of a Force;

16

6.
7.

Graphical Composition of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces Algebraic Composition of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces

20
23

8.

Moment of a Force;

Couples

27

9.

Noncoplanar Nonconcurrent Forces

CHAPTER II FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM


10.

Principles of Equilibrium

11. 12.
13. 14.

Coplanar Concurrent Forces Coplanar Parallel Forces Coplanar Nonconcurrent Nonparallel Forces

34 4 44 46
5

Noncoplanar Forces

CHAPTER III SIMPLE STRUCTURES


15.
16.
17. 18.

Simple Frameworks (Truss Type)


Graphical Analysis of Trusses; Stress Diagrams

54

Simple Frameworks (Crane Type)

59 64

Cranes

69

CHAPTER IV
FRICTION
19. Definitions and General Principles 20. Friction in Some Mechanical Devices

74
78

CHAPTER V CENTER OF GRAVITY


21. 22.

Center of Gravity of Bodies

86

Centroids of Lines, Surfaces, and Solids 23. Centroids Determined by Integration 24. Centroids of Some Lines, Surfaces, and Solids

9
93 98

VI

CHAPTER VI SUSPENDED CABLES, WIRES, CHAINS, ETC.


Article
25.
26. 27.

Parabolic Cable

Page 102
107

Catenary Cable Cable with Concentrated Loads

113

CHAPTER
28.

VII

RECTILINEAR MOTION
Velocity and Acceleration

118
126
131

29.

30.

31.

Motion Graphs Simple Harmonic Motion Motion and Force

138

CHAPTER
32.
33. 34.

VIII

CURVILINEAR MOTION
Velocity and Acceleration

144
148
155

Components of Velocity and Acceleration Motion of the Center of Gravity of a Body

CHAPTER IX TRANSLATION AND ROTATION


35.
36.

Translation

163

Moment of Inertia and Radius of Gyration


Rotation
Axle Reactions

168
176

37. 38.

180
183

39.

Pendulums

CHAPTER X

WORK, ENERGY, POWER


40. 41.

Work
Energy Power
Principles of

189 193 196

42.
43. 44.

Work and Energy

203
211

Efficiency; Hoists

45.

Kinetic Friction

221

CHAPTER XI MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE


46.
47. 48.
49.

Linear

Momentum and Impulse


Collision

228
232

Impact or
Angular
Gyrostat

Momentum and Impulse

237

243

vu

CHAPTER

XII

TWO DIMENSIONAL
Article
50.

(PLANE)

MOTION
Page 256
261

Kinematics of Plane Motion


Kinetics of Plane Motion

51. 52. 53.

Rolling Resistance

268 273

Relative Motion

CHAPTER XIII THREE DIMENSIONAL (SOLID) MOTION


54.
55.

Body With a Fixed Point, Kinematics of Body With a Fixed Point, Kinetics of
Gyrostat

280 284
288
292

56. 57.
58.

Moments of Inertia, and Axes Any Solid Motion; Summary of Dynamics


Principal

296

APPENDIX

A.

THEORY OF DIMENSIONS OF UNITS

302

APPENDIX

B.

MOMENT OF

INERTIA OF PLANE AREAS

308

PROBLEMS

323

TECHNICAL MECHANICS
I.

Introduction

Mechanics had
vices
for
lifting

its origin

in the experience of ancient peoples with dethings.

and moving heavy and

The
the

devices

included

the

so-called simple machines or mechanical powers;


pulley,

namely, the lever, the

the wheel

axle, the inclined plane,

That experience probably


practical advantages

afforded fairly definite

of these various devices,

wedge and the screw. and full knowledge of the but the simple and precise

mechanical principles involved in them were long unrecognized. The first recognition of such a principle marked the real beginning of the science of

Mechanics.
History records that the principle of the lever is the mechanical principle first discovered, and that Archimedes (287-212 B.C.), famous Greek mathematician, was the discoverer.
ciple

He

perceived the application of this prin-

to

the

wheel and

axle

(continuous lever), to the pulley (movable

and cords, one of principle of buoyant effort the discovery of The name. which still bears his Apparently no him. is due to fluid in a immersed on or on a body floating the sixteen during were made Archimedes of achievements additions to these
lever),

and

to certain combinations or systems of pulleys

centuries following his time.

by Archimedes covered only the from a horizontal bar supsuspended weights heavy two special case For such case he stated that them. between (fulcrum) point ported at a fulcrum to the points of the from distances the inversely as are the weights
The
principle of the lever as understood
of

suspension.

plied obliquely,

The principle was extended to include the case of by Leonardo da Vinci (145 2-1 5 19), famous Italian

forces apartist

and

engineer.

perceived that the efficacy of such a force depends on the distance from the fulcrum, not to the point of application of the force, but

He

to its line of action.

The
gineer.

principle next discovered

was that

of the inclined plane, first defi-

nitely stated

by Simon

Stevin

(i

548-1620), Dutch mathematician and en-

(acting along the plane)

His statement of the principle was somewhat as follows: The force required to support a (frictionless) body resting
is

upon

it

to the weight of the

body

as the height of the plane

is

to its

This principle afforded the explanation of the wedge (double inclined plane) and the screw (continuous inclined Stevin deduced the parallelogram law for two forces at right plane).
length (measured along the
slope).

'

'

Art.

a'n^ies'

'from the principle

of
is

the inclined plane;

and from

his

study of

Thus he what parallelothe that of principles, important two caught the first glimpse of gram of forces, and that of virtual velocity or work. The first discoveries of laws of motion were made by Galileo (i 564-1 642), For 2000 years it had been believed that Italian astronomer and physicist. This Galileo disproved by light ones. than rapidly more heavy bodies fall was led to inquire about Next he Pisa. of tower leaning the actual trial at
pulleys he noted that

gained in power

is

lost in speed.

the

manner

in

which a body

falls,

or

how

the speed changes.

He made

several guesses at this law, and finally verified one of them by indirect experiment and deduction. Up to Galileo's time, it was believed that rest

was the natural condition for a body; and that motion was unnatural, requiring some outside cause (force) to maintain it, and ceasing only when Galileo perceived that motion is just as natural as rest; the force ceases. that motions cease not because they are unnatural, but because of some influence (force) from the outside operating to reduce the motion and
eventually to destroy
it.

motion, usually credited to Newton.

In short, he discovered the so-called He invented the telescope.


physicist,

first

law

of

Huygens (1629-1695), Dutch


tions to this science.

made some important

contribu-

developed the theory of the pendulum, determined the acceleration due to gravity from pendulum obser\^ations, and deduced He invented the clock pencertain theorems regarding centrifugal force.

He

dulimi and escapement.

Newton (1642-1727), English mathematician and physicist, is generally regarded as the founder of Mechanics. At an early age he began an attempt to explain the motions of the planets, whose orbits and speeds were
succeeded in thus explaining
then well known, in terms of experience with more familiar motions. He many features of the planetary motions, and
established that there are certain principles
bodies,
celestial

common

to the

motion of

all

and
of

terrestial.

These principles are

generally

known

as

Newton's laws

motions

(see index).

His study of planetary motion led


the discovery

to other great achievements,

among which may be mentioned

of the law of universal gravitation, and the invention of the calculus (also invented independently by Leibnitz, German mathematician).
[of Mechanics] has been has been a deductive, day stated. of Newton's laws."* basis the on formal, and mathematical development which we call Meknowledge of Such development consritutes the body to distinguish it Mechanics, Theoretical and chanics, or sometimes Rational motion, but it of science the as defined be may from Applied Mechanics. It

Since

Newton, "no

essentially

new

principle

All that has been accomplished since his

includes the science of rest as a relatively

minor

part.

* For a full and critical account of that development, see Mach's " Science of Mechanics," from which the quotation was taken, or Co.x's " Mechanics " for a good but less
critical

account.

Art.

Adaptations of rational mechanics have played an important part in the development of the science of engineering, particularly in the departments of structures and machines. Such adaptations, together with our

knowledge

of friction, strength of materials,

and certain properties

of fluids,
this
field

constitute Applied

Mechanics.

Among

the pioneer workers in

should be mentioned the following:

Coulomb (1736-1806), Navier (1785-

1836), Poncelet (1788-1867), Morin (1795-1880), Saint-Venant (1797-1886), Weisbach (1806-71), Rankine (1820-72), Grashof (1826-93) and Bauschinger

(1834-93).*

Under Technical
ciples

Mechanics,

the

present
are

author

includes
applicable

those
in

prin-

of

rational

mechanics which

especially

various
is

fields of engineering,

and some

of our

knowledge

of friction.

The book

divided into two parts called Statics and Dynamics.


certain of the circumstances of bodies at rest,

The

first

deals with

bodies in motion.

The

certain circumstances dealt with will

and the second with those of become ap-

parent to the student as he progresses in the subject.


* See

Keek's " Mechanik "

for

an account of their work and

fuller list.

STATICS

CHAPTER

COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES


2.

Force; Definitions
in various

Bodies act upon each other


of results.
alone,
if

ways, producing different kinds

Any

action

of

one body upon another which, when exerted

would result in motion of the body acted upon, or in change of motion body is already moving, is called force; the word is a general term for push and pull. Our earliest notions about forces are based on our experience with forces exerted by or upon ourselves. Through this experience we have learned that a force has magnitude, place of application, and direction,
the

sometimes called the

characteristics of a force.

we must of course compare it to some other force regarded as a unit. Many units of force are in use; the most convenient are the so-called gravitation units. They are the earthpulls on our standards for measuring quantity of material (as iron, coal,
express the magnitude of a force,

To

The earth-pull by the name of the standard; thus the earth-pull on the pound standard (also any equal force) is called a pound; the earth-pull on the kilogram standard (also any equal force) is called a kilogram, etc. Since the earth-pull on any given thing varies in amount
grain, sugar, etc.),

commonly
is

called standards of weight.*

on any

of these standards

called

as the thing

is

transported from place to place, gravitation units of force

are not constant with regard to place.

But

this variation

need not be

regarded in most engineering calculations because any error due to such


disregard
is

generally smaller than errors due to other approximations in

the calculations.

The extreme

variation in

any gravitation

unit

is

that

magnitudes at the highest elevation on the equator and at the poles; this difference is but 0.6 per cent. For points within the United States the extreme variation equals about 0.3 per cent. For any two
its
*

between

In

common

parlance the word weight


to a consumer

is

used in at least two senses.

Thus, suppose

and engages a teamster to deliver it by weight; to the consumer, the weight of each wagon load represents a certain amount of useful material, but to the teamster it represents a certain burden on his team due to the action of gravity on the coal. That is, weight suggests material to the one man and
that a dealer
sells coal

by

weight,

earth-pull to the other.

Art.

points on the surface of the earth, the variation equals that in the values of

g in the formula g

32.0894

(i

+ 0.0052375 sin^O (i ~ 0.0000000957


I

e)

computed

for the

two

places;

denotes latitude, and

e elevation

above sea
deal
is

level, in feet.

The

place of application of most forces with which

we

shall

portion of the surface of the

exception

is

which the force is applied. A notable earth-pull, or gravity, which is applied not to the surface of a

body

to

body but throughout the same. All such are called distributed forces. The places of application of some forces are very small compared to the surfaces of the bodies to which they are applied, and for many purposes these places may be regarded as points of application; any such force is called a
concentrated force.

The

line

of action

of a concentrated

force

is

line
its

indefinite in length, parallel to the direction of the force,

and containing
its line

point of application.

one of two ways,


of a force
is
is,

is

A concentrated
right,

force

may act
left,

along

of action in

to the right or left,

up or down,

etc.

We say that the sense


down

toward the

be.

That

as the case sense refers to " arrow-headedness " (see next paragraph).

toward the

up, or

may

Since a force

a vector quantity,*

it

can be represented in part by a

vector (a straight line of definite length and direction), the length of the

vector representing the magnitude of the force according to some scale,

and the
is

direction of the vector giving the direction of the force.

Thus,

if

the pressures of the driving wheels of the locomotive on the

rails (Fig.

i)

12 tons, then the vector Aa (0.4 inch long) represents the magnitude direction of the pressures, the scale being one inch " equals " 30 tons.

and
If

the force to be represented

is

a concentrated one, as in the illustration, then

the line of action also can be represented


sents the force
of the force.

by the same vector which

repre-

magnitude by drawing

it

through the point of application

Thus the vector Bb

represents magnitude, line of action, and

direction of the pressure of the first driving wheel.

We

might extend

this

scheme further so as to indicate


the point of application
*

also point of application of the force

by

the head, say, of the vector as Cc; but


is

we

will

not plan to do that because

not of importance in this subject,


as,

Statics.

vector quantity is

one having magnitude and direction,

for example, a definite

displacement of a moving point.


thing for example,
is

quantity having magnitude only, as the volume of a

a scalar quantity.

Chap,

This unimportance of the point of application

is

definitely expressed in

the principle of transmissibility of force, which for the present purpose

may
force

be stated as follows: The

effect of

any

applied to a rigid

body at
in
its

rest is

the same,

no matter where

own line of action The principle may be the force is applied. roughly verified by experiment, when the
force acts
is

1
B
Fig. 2

body on which the


sists

at rest, with
it

the apparatus represented in Fig. 2;


of

con-

rigid

body suspended from two

spring balances.

The

springs

are

elongated

on account
a
force, as F,

of the weight of the body,

and

if

be applied at A, the springs will suffer additional elongations which in a way are a measure of the effect of the applied force. If the point of application of F be changed to B or C, the spring readings will not change; hence the effect of F will not have changed.
Generally,
cussed,
first
it

when many

forces are to be represented graphically

and

dis-

would be

well to represent each force

by a

line

and a

vector, the

to represent the line of action of the force

and the second

to represent the

the direction of the force.

magnitude and Of course the line


of application

must be drawn through the point


of the force, but the vector

may

be drawn where
forces act(Fig. 3) of

convenient.

For example, consider the

ing on the upper end of the


derrick.

boom

There are three forces; namely, a downward force at pin i, one toward the left at pin 2, and one downward at pin 3. The lines marked ah, cd, and ef are the lines of action of the forces
respectively; the vectors AB, CD, and EF (drawn where convenient but of proper length and direction) represent the

magnitudes and directions of


of notation here used

the forces.

The scheme
letters

two lower-case

of action of a force,

on opposite sides of the line and the same capital letters


its

at the ends of the vector representing


is

value

Fig.

ferred to in written statement

marked is reby the two capitals used; thus the first force mentioned above would be called the force AB. The part of the drawing of the forces and the body (here, a derrick-boom)
in
use.

common

Any

force so

in

which the

lines of action
is

are represented

called a

space diagram; the part in which the vectors are

drawn

is

called a vector
of

diagram.

The

scales of these

diagrams are of course different; the lengths

lines in the first represent distances,

and those

in the second, force magnitudes.

Art. 3

7
of forces collectively considered
is

Any number
of forces.
in

called a system or a set


if

The

forces of a set are called coplanar

their lines of action are

the

same

plane,
if

and noncoplanar
so intersect;

if

not in the same plane;


they are called parallel

they are

called concurrent

their lines of action intersect in a point,

and nonconif

current

when they do not

their lines

of action are parallel,

and nonpar allel

if

the lines of action are not parallel.

Force-sets are also described in accordance with the foregoing definitions;


thus, a concurrent set, a noncoplanar parallel set,
forces
sets
etc.,

according as the
etc.

of

the set are concurrent, noncoplanar


classified in

can be

various ways, as below for example^


,

and

parallel,

Force-

concurrent

fcolinear
<

i
,,

Coplanar

\ nonparallel ....
'

nonconcurrent -! ^^^^ ^ W i " \nonparallel ....


'

4
5

concurrent

Noncoplanar

<!

L...

/parallel ._. .... nonconcurrent ...., , .... l^nonparallel L


.

6
7

Two sets of forces acting on a rigid body are said to balance, when their combined effect on the rest or on the motion of that body is nil, so that if the body is at rest, for example, then it would remain at rest even if all the forces ceased to act. Two sets of forces acting on a rigid body are said
to be equivalent

each force changed);

would balance the other set reversed (sense of what amounts to the same thing, if each set acting The resultant of a set of forces singly would balance some other third set. is the single force which is equivalent to the set; or, if no single force is
if

either set
or,

equivalent to the

set,

then the resultant

is

the simplest equivalent

set.

The

resultant of a set of forces acting


force or of

two

forces (proved later).

on a rigid body Having given a


is

consists always of a single


set of forces, the process

of finding a simpler equivalent set

called composition of the given set.


of a set

The

component of a given force


force.

is

any one

which

is

equivalent to that

Having given a
is

force, the process of finding a set equivalent to that

force

called resolution of the force.


anti-resultant of a set of forces is the reversed resultant of the set.
is

The

The

equilibrant of a set of forces

the single force, or pair of forces

if

necessary,

which could balance the


of a set are identical.
3.

set.

Obviously the anti-resultant and the equilibrant

Parallelogram and Triangle of Forces

The
for
(b)

parallelogram and the triangle of forces are


(a)

determining

the

resultant

of

names of certain methods two given concurrent forces, and

If

two concurrent components of a given force. Parallelogram Law. I. Composition of Two Concurrent Forces. two forces acting upon a rigid body be represented by lines OA and OB,

then their resultant

is

represented by the diagonal

OC

of the parallelogram

Chap,

OABC.

of Fig. 3 at points

For example, take the two forces applied to the cap of the boom i and 2, their value being 2 and 1.2 tons respectively, Extending the lines of action to their intersection O let us suppose. (Fig. 4), then making OA = 2 tons and OB =1.2 tons according to some

convenient scale, and completing the parallelogram,

we

get OC, and ac-

cording to the law, this line represents the resultant completely; that is, the magnitude of the resultant is OC =^2.2 tons, the line of action of
the resultant
is

colinear with

OC, and the sense

of the resultant

is

from
It

OtoC.
The law can be
spring
balance,
verified

by means

of the apparatus
in

shown

in Fig. 5.

consists of a drawing

board mounted

a vertical position, two pulleys, a

weights

Wi and W2

two weights, some cord, and a small ring. When the are suspended somewhat as shown, then the ring is

Fig. 4

Fig. s

Fig. 6

subjected

to

three

forces: pull
of

Pi
is

pull P3, the

magnitude

which

P3

is

the equilibrant of Pi

and

P2,

= W2, and an upward by the spring balance. Since the resultant of Pi and P2 is equal and
Wi,
pull P2

indicated

opposite to

and

colinear with P3.

It-

remains now to ascertain whether a

construction for the resultant of Pi and P2 according to the parallelogram

law

So on the board, just under the strings, equal to Pi and P2, and complete the parallelogram OABC; then measure OC and compare its direction with P3. We find that OC equals P3 (by scale), and is
will represent

a force equal and opposite to and colinear with Pg,

we

lay off

OA

and

OB

colinear with P3.

To

test

the law for forces having different points of application, the

apparatus shown in Fig. 6 might be used;

it consists of a tub of water, a floating drawing board, three smoothly running pulleys, three weights

Nails are driven into the drawing (Wi, W2, and W3), and three cords. board at any points Ni, N2, and N3; the weights are then suspended by cords passing over the pulleys, and tied to the nails as shown; then if each weight is less than the sum of the other two, the board, if not too
large, will

move about and assume a

position

of rest

without touching
its

the tub.

In such position, the forces acting on the board are


pressure of the water, and the three pulls

weight

(or gravity),

(Pi, P2,

and P)

Art. 3

practically equal to Wi, W2,


forces balance each other;

and W3
ec^ual

respectively.

Obviously the

first

therefore the three pulls also balance,


is

two and so

and opposite to and colinear with P3. Pi and P2 by the parallelogram law: extend the lines of action of the pulls Pi and P2 to their intersection 0; from there lay off OA and OB equal (by some convenient scale) to Pi and P2; complete the parallelogram OABC. Then OC represents R; on comparison it will be found, as before, that OC is equal and opposite to and colinear with P3, and hence OC does represent the magnitude and line of action of R. Since P3, and hence R, passes through (the intersection of Pi and
the resultant of Pi

and P2

We

next determine the resultant

of

P2), this

experiment emphasizes the fact that the line of action of the re-

sultant of

two concurrent

forces passes through their point of concurrence.

The point
its

of application of

extension; for, so taken,

The Triangle Law.


is

represented in magnitude and direction represented in

two concurrent forces acting on a rigid body be hy AB and BC, then their resultant magnitude and direction by the side ^C of the triangle
If

R R

might of course be taken anywhere


obviously would balance P3.*

in

OC

or

By

using accurate apparatus the foregoing tests for verifying the parallelogram law-

accurately. Such verifications are as satisfying to many students as " mathematical proof." What about such proof? Some writers assert that the law is

can be

made very

fundamental, and not susceptible of deduction from anything more simple and obvious than the law itself. But many deductions or proofs have been proposed. All necessarily

depend upon one or more axioms or statements whose truth


give a proof based upon a principle of

is

justified

by

experience.

We
of

moments

(Art.

5)

which most students readily


is

grant as axiomatic or justified by their experience.


the resultant of two concurrent forces about

The

principle

that the

moment

any point in their plane equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the two forces about the same point. Let P and Q denote the two concurrent forces and R their resultant. Suppose that P and Q act in OA and OB respectively (Fig. 7) the body upon which they act is not represented and let the lengths OA and OB represent the magnitudes of the forces P and Q to some scale, that is OA ^ OB = P ^ Q. OABC is a parallelogram, and CD, CE, BF, and BG respectively are perpendicular to OA,OB, OA, and OC. Now the moments of P and Q about equal zero; it follows from the principle of moments that the moment of R about equals zero also, and hence the line of action of R passes through

E/-,_

~"'~---,,

/
/^_
'^0

^_^
p
Pi^
_

0.

Now

the area of the parallelogram

is

=
of

CE^
P
and

CD; and

P
C

-^

Q = CE ^ CD,
It follows

or

OA X CD; also OB X CE. Hence, OA -^ OB P X CD = Q X CE; that is, the moments

But these two moments are opposite in sign, and so their from the principle of moments that the moment of R about C equals zero, and hence the line of action of R passes through C. The moments of P, Q, and R about B are respectively, P X BF, o, and R X BG; then, according to the principle of moments, R X BG = P X BF, or R ^ P = BF ^ BG. The area of the parallelogram is OC X BG; also OA X BF. Hence, OC ^ OA = BF ^ BG; and from the last proportions R ^ P = OC-i-OA; that is, OC represents/? according to the same scale that
about
are equal.
algebraic

sum

equals zero.

OA

represents P.

lO

Chap,

ABC.
(Fig.

For example,
8) as shown.

let

two

forces of 2

and

1.2

tons be applied at

and 2

li

AB
and

and

BC

be drawn anywhere in the directions

of these forces,

and

AB
then

BC

be made equal to the forces respectively,

AC
to

gives the magnitude

and the direction


is ac,

resultant; the line of action of the resultant


allel

par-

of the

^C

and concurrent with


scale

the given forces.

The
gram.

resultant of two concurrent forces can be deter-

mined without a

drawing of a triangle or parallelo-

We sketch

the triangle of forces roughly,

and then

solve the triangle for the length

and

direction of the side


let

representing the resultant.

For example,

the forces

and Q (Fig. 9) and the angle


forces,
Fig. 8

* equal
</>

100 and 150 pounds respectively,

between them be 60 degrees; required,


Rouglily,

their resultant R.

ABC

is

the triangle for the

AC

representing the magnitude and direction of

R, and the angle

ABC =
100^

180

60

120.

Then from
150 cos 120
(the angle

the trigonometry of the triangle, R^

+ 150^ 2 X
=

100

47,500, or

between

R = 218.3; 2.1so R and P) = 36 35'.

sin

CAB/sin

120

150/i?, or

CAB

Employing the

foregoing method, the following general formulas may be worked out magnitude and direction
for determining the of the resultant,
2

Ri
sin

= p2-\-Qi^
<^

PQ
/3

cos

<^;

sin

Q/R, and

sin

sin

</>

P/R,
in Fig. 9.

where P and

</>,

a,

and

are the angles

marked

When
,

the two forces

are at right angles to each other (0

90 degrees) then

^2
2.

p2_|_Q2^

and

tarn

a-=Q/P.
Thus,

Resolution of a Force into Concurrent Components can be

accomplished by applying the triangle or parallelogram law inversely.


let it

two components. We draw AB anywhere equal (by some scale) and parallel to F; join any point C with A and B, and draw lines through any point in ab parallel to ^C and BC; then AC and CB represent the magnitudes and directions, ac and cb the lines of action of two forces equivalent to F, that is, components of F. For the resultant of these two component forces is F, as shown by the tribe required to resolve the force

(Fig. 10) into

For convenience and clearness of


act. If

figure,

after represent a machine, or structure (derrick -boom, bridge, etc.),

a subdivided square (or rectangle) will hereinon which the forces

under discussion
is

he prefers, the student might regard the subdivided square as

representing a drawing board or

important that he should have

(bodies),

and that the

lines

of

some other definite object suggested by the square. It in mind the fact that forces act only on material things action of the forces represented in any given figure are
forces act.

definitely related to th

body on which the

Art. 4

II
Since

angle law applied directly.

C was

taken at random,

it is

plain that a

given force can be resolved into


If

many

different pairs of

components.
is

conditions be imposed on the components, the resolution

more

or

n), equal to 350 pounds, into two components, one of which must act along the left-hand edge of the board and the other through the lower right-hand corner. Since the
less definite.
let
it

Thus,

be required to resolve

(Fig.

must be concurrent, the second component must act through AB equal and parallel to F and draw from A and B lines parallel to the two components; then AC and CB represent the values (200 and 320 pounds respectively) and the directions of the components. An important case of resolution is that in which the components are at Each is called a rectangular component or reright angles to each other. Rectangular components can generally be comsolved part of the force. puted more easily than by geometrical construction. Let F (Fig. 12) be the given force to be resolved into horizontal and vertical components, the
three forces
i;

point

so

we make

12
the forces of the given set; then find the resultant
force

Chap,

R"

and R'; then the resultant


(Fig.
is

of another given force

of any other given and R"\ and so on

until the resultant of all is found.


F2, Fs,

Thus, suppose that the resultant of Fi,

Taking the given forces in the order and Fi 13) numbered, we first they are say, draw AB parallel to Fi and equal in which convenient scale, then BC in the direction of and equal to some by to Fi gives magnitude direction AC the and of R', the line of action of then F2; R' passing through O parallel to AC. Next we draw CD in the direction of
required:

Fig. 13

F3 and equal to F3; then


line of action of

AD

gives the magnitude

and

direction of R", the

R"

passing through

parallel to

AD.

Next we draw

DE
and

in

the direction of and equal to Fi;

then

AE

gives the magnitude

direction of R'", the line action of

Of course the
tion;

lines

AC, AD,

R',

parallel to AE. R'" passing through and R" are not really essential to the solu-

they were drawn here and referred to only for explanatory purposes.
force polygon for a set of forces

The

succession

and continuously
those forces.

lines

directions of

is the figure formed by drawing in which represent the magnitudes and force polygon is not necessarily a closed

Fig. 14

figure;
Fi.

thus

ABCDE,

not including

EA,

is

a force polygon for


there are

Fi, F2, F3,

and

Many
2

force polygons can be

drawn

for a given set of forces, as

many

as there are orders of taking the forces;


I

if

forces in the set, then

'11 different

force polygons can be drawn.


Fi, F2, F3,

In Fig. 14 adof Fig. 13; the

ditional polygons
lines

AE

shown for represent the magnitude and


are

ABCDE

and Fi
of

direction

R.

The bare

con-

struction for determining the resultant of a set of concurrent forces can

now

be stated thus:

Draw

a polygon for the forces; join the beginning and the


line

end of the polygon, and draw a

through the point of concurrence of


line,

the given forces parallel to the joining line; the joining

with arrow-

head pointing from

the beginning to

end

of

the force polygon, represents

Aet. 4

13

the magnitude
action.

and direction of the

resultant,

and the other

line its line of

Algebraic Method.
let

Choose a pair

of rectangular axes of resolution,

which

X and y axes, with origin at the point of concurrence of the forces to be compounded; then resolve each force into its x and y components
us
call

and imagine it replaced by them; the resulting system consists ihex and in the 3' axes; next find the resultant of the forces acting in the x axis, and the resultant of those acting in the y axis; finally, get the resultant of these two rectangular resultants; this is the resultant sought. For example, let it be required to determine the resultant of the six forces The acting upon the 4 foot board shown in Fig. 15.
at the origin,
of forces in

computations in outline are

scheduled below.

values of the angles which the several forces

The make

with the horizontal were computed from dimensions in


of the x components is + 3.40, 5 lbs. components is 7.22 pounds. The signs of the sums indicate respectively that the x component of the resultant R acts toward the right and the y component downward; hence the resultant acts to the right and downward. The angle which R makes with the horizontal

the figure;

the

sum

and that

of the

3'

is

tan~^

(7.22

-T-

3,40

2.123)

64 47'-

The value

of

the resultant

is

R=

\/34o^
F

7.22^

7.98 pounds.

14
and OB, and

Chap,

OD

represents the resultant of

OC

(hence, also) the resultant of the three given forces.

and the third force OC, and This law leads to a

simple algebraic

method

for finding the resultant

when
9$

the three forces are

rectangular (at right angles to each other).

Thus,
di, 62,

let Fi, F2,

and F3

(Fig. 17)

be the three forces,

their resultant,

and

and

the angles between

and the

forces respectively; then

R'
cos
01

Fi^
02

+ F2' + FzS
=
F2/R,
cos
^3

Fi/R,

cos

F3/R.

For the resultant of Fi and F2 (represented by OC, Fig. 17) equals F2'') also the triangles ODA, Fa^)!, and hence R^ = (Fi^ (Fi^ Fs''

ODB, and ODC


cos^i
(2)

are right-angled

Sit

A, B, and

respectively,

and hence

= OA/OD = A force can

Fi/R, cos ^2

= OB/OD =

F2/R,

etc.

applying the parallelepiped law inversely.


the

be resolved into three noncoplanar concurrent forces by Thus, let OD (Fig. 18) represent
first,

given force F;

construct any parallel opiped

of

which

OD

is

Fig. 17

Fig. 18

Fig. 19

diagonal; then the three edges intersecting at

represent forces equivalent


is,

to the given force because the resultant of these three forces


to the parallelepiped law, represented

according
paral-

by OD.

Inasmuch

as

many

lelopipeds can be constructed on

OD

as diagonal,

many

sets of three forces

equivalent to the given force can be found.

The
ponents
(Fig.

practical

case

is

resolution
is

into

components along three

definite

rectangular axes;

then there

only one set of components.

The comlet

may

be found quite simply by an algebraic method: thus,


13,

and 7 the angles between F and the axes, and Fx, Fy, and Fg the x, y, and z components respectively; then, since OX, OY, and OZ are projections of OD on the rectangular axes,
19) be the force to be resolved, a,

Fx

= F cos a,

Fy

= F cos

jS,

Fz

= F cos 7.

Sometimes the direction of the force F to be resolved is given by means of two angles, one being the angle between F and one of the desired components, and the other being the angle which the projection of F on the plane of the other two components makes with one of those two, as for instance a and 4> (Fig. 19). Then F may be resolved best in this way: first, resolve

Art. 4
it

15

two components F cos a (along the x axis) and F sin a (in the plane of and 2 axes), and then resolve F sin a into components along the y and F sin a cos c^. and 2 axes, that is, F sin a sin ^ny number of noncoplanar concurrent forces can be compounded graphically by means of their force polygon, but this method is not practiinto

the y

cable generally, because the polygon is not a plane one; however, it could be drawn in " plan and elevation " so as to furnish the resultant sought.

The

algebraic

method

is

preferable;

it

is

carried

out as follows:

First,

select three

rectangular axes of

resolution

origin at the point of

concurrence of
its x,

resolve each force into

y,

and

and 2), with the forces to be compounded; next components, and imagine it replaced
(here called x, y,

by them, thus

arriving at a set consisting of forces acting in the axes; then

find the resultants of the forces in the x, in the y,

and

in the 2 axis; finally,

compound

these three resultants, thus finding the resultant sought.


let
it

For example,
forces acting

be required to determine the resultant of the four


(Fig. 20).

on a 4 foot cube

The

forces are concurrent at 0;

the 10 and the 15 pound forces act through quarter points of certain edges as shown. The x, y, and 2 components of the 18 and 40 pound forces are obviously as scheduled adjoining.
force
is

Since the 15
its

pound

perpendicular to the x axis,

x component

equals zero; and since the angle which that force

makes with the 2 axis = tan~^ f = 36 52', its y and 2 components are 15 sin 36 52' = 9, and 15 cos 36 52' = 12 pounds respectively as scheduled. Fig. 20 The components of the 10 poimd force were determined as follows: Since Ya = 5 and YO = 4 feet, the angle which the ID pound force makes with the y axis is tan~^ | = 51 20'; the y component of the force equals 10 cos 51 20' = 6.25 as scheduled, and the other rectangular component (in the zx plane) equals 10 sin 51 20' = 7.81 pounds.
F

l6

Chap,
signs of the

The
ant
X, y,

sums

of the x, y,

acts toward the right,

and z components show that the resultdownwards and forward. Its angles with the
cos"' (13.31
-r-

and

z axes are respectively:

29.7)

63;

cos~^ (15-25

-j-

29.7)

59; cos-i (21.75 -^ 29.7)

43.

5.

Moment

of a Force;

Couples*

I. The Moment or Torque of a force with respect to a point is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance between its line of action and the point. The perpendicular distance is called the arm of the force with respect to that point, and the point is called an

origin

or center oj moments.

Experience

suggests
is

the

notion

that

the

moment

of a force with respect to a point

a measure of the tendency of

the force to rotate the

dicular to the plane of the force


verified

Fig. 21.

body about a line through the point and perpenand the point. Such a notion can be quite accurately by means of a simple apparatus represented in It consists of a board mounted on a horizontal shaft, a heavy body, and the pail which can be suspended horn the
board; the shaft rests in ball bearings so that
practically

no resistance to turning

is

exerted

body and the pail, is well balanced so that gravity would not cause it to turn from any position. Now, let the pail containing shot be hung from B, C, D, etc., in succession, the amount of shot being taken so that the heavy body will be supported, OA not being horizontal necessarily. Then in each case the turning effect of the pull at B, C, or

at the shaft; the board, without the

equals the turning effect of the pull at


etc.,

the pulls at B, C, D,

are equal.

A And if
;

hence the turning


the

effects of

moments

of these pulls

(several weights of pail

ments

will

and shot) about O be computed, then those mobe found equal too, and therefore moments are measures of turn-

ing effects.
It follows from the definition of moment that the unit moment is that of a unit force whose arm is a unit length. There are no one-word names for

any

of these units of moment; the units are called foot-pound, inch- ton, etc., according as the unit length and force are the foot and the pound, the inch and the ton, etc.

In a discussion involving the moments of several forces, it is generally convenient to give signs to the moments to indicate the directions (clockwise or anticlockwise) in which the several forces turn or tend to turn the body to which they are applied about the origin in question. In this
book, clockwise rotation
is

regarded as negative and anti as positive, and

rotations are supposed to be viewed

from the reader's

side of the printed page;

* See Art. 8 also.

Art. s

17

lOOlbs.

30

i8

Chap,

Art. s

19

AB

the resultant of Qi reversed and Pi, and the diagonal Since the resultants are resultant of Q2 reversed and P2. the BA represents the P couple and the so and balance, they colinear and opposite, equal,
represents

reversed

couple balance.

parallel, and the moments equivalent to some third

of the

etc. (2) When Pi, P2, Qi and Q2 are two couples are equal, then each couple is couple, the forces of which intersect Pi, P2, Qi,

Hence,

and

is

Qi, according to (i). 3.

A Force and a Couple. The resultant of a


is

Therefore they are equivalent to each other.


coplaner force and couple
direction as the force,

a single force; the resultant


its

equal

to

and has

the

same

and

moment about any point on

the given force equals the

moment

of the couple.

Proof follows:

Let F (Fig. 26) be the given force, and P1P2 the given couple. (If the forces of the given couple are parallel to F, then imagine the couple shifted

Fig. 25

Fig. 26

Now suppose that AB and BC represent parallel.) and directions of Pi and F respectively; then AC represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of those two forces. (The line of action of the resultant is R' parallel to ylC and through the inLet CD equal AB; then AD represents the magnitersection of Pi and F.) tude and direction of the resultant of R' and P2, and hence of the three But AD is equal and parallel to BC; hence this final forces Pi, F, and P2. resultant is equal and parallel to F. (The line of action of this final resultant Since R is is R, parallel to BC and through the intersection of R' and P2.) the sum point of equals any F about equivalent to F, Pi, and P2, its moment moment has no point; but that F of the moments of F, Pi, and P2 about about such point, and hence the moment of R equals the sum of the moments of Pi and P2 (the moment of the couple).
until

they are not so

the magnitudes

from the foregoing that a force R can he resolved into a force equal and parallel to R, and a couple whose moment equals that of R about any point on the component force. Thus the moment of the couple component depends on the line of action chosen for the force component. Independent proof
It follows

of this proposition follows

20
Let

Chap,

(Fig. 27)

be the force to be resolved, and

a point through which

the line of action of the force

component is to pass. First we resolve R into two concurrent components, one of which passes through 0; take any point on R (as a) for the point of concurrence and any direction
second comThese components we call Ci and C2 respectively. To determine Ci and C2, we draw
to represent R, to Ci
(as ab) for the line of action of the

ponent.

and AC and BC parallel and Co respectively; then AC = Ci, and CB = C2. Next we resolve Ci at O into two components parallel to C2 and R, which components we call C3 and C4 respectively. To determine Cs and d, we draw from A a line Fig. 27 parallel to C3 and from C a line parallel to d, and so locate D; then AD = C3, and DC = C4. Ob\'iously now C2, C3 and are equivalent to R, that is, they are components of R; and as required (equal, parallel, and opposite) constitute passes through 0, and C2 and a couple. Moreover, according to the principle of moments, the moment of equals that of R about any point on C2, C3, and about that point; but the '"'"''^^^f^^M^

AB

d d

d d moment of d equals zero, hence, etc.*


6.

Graphical Composition of Coplanar

Nonconcurrent Forces

I.

First Method.
so,

When the forces


of

to

be compounded are not parallel nor


then

nearly
the

we compoimd any two

forces,

next their resultant and the

third force, that resultant


force,

and the fourth


all

and

so

on

until

the resultant of

Fig. 28

the forces has been found.

For example,

consider the forces acting on the retaining wall


*

shown

in section in Fig. 28:

(i) Composition of a Force and a Couple and (2) Resolution of a Force into a Force and a Couple can be performed also as follows (student should supply figure): (i) Replace the couple by an equivalent couple whose forces equal the given force, and place the couple so
its forces is colinear with and opposite to the given force. These two forces balance; the other force of the new couple remains, and it is the resultant sought. (Study of the steps in the process shows that the resultant force is equal and parallel to the original force, and that the moment of the resultant about a point on the line of action of the original

that one of

force equals the

moment

of the couple.)

(2)

Apply two

forces at the given point equal

parallel to the given force

and opposite

to each other.

and These two forces along with the

given force can be grouped into a force and a couple, and they (the force and couple) are the components sought. (Study of the. steps of the process shows that the component force is equal and parallel to the given force, and the moment of the couple equals that of the given force about the given point.)

Art. 6

21
its

they consist of

own weight

(16,000 pounds per foot of length), the earth

pressure on the back (6000 pounds), that on the top of the base (9000 pounds),

and that on the bottom


will

of the base.

The

resultant of the

first

three forces

now be

determined.
forces,

We

draw

AB

the 16,000

pound

and then

join

tude and direction of the resultant of R' (parallel to AC and through point i)

and BC to represent the 6000 and A and C; AC represents the magnithe two forces, and the line marked
is

the line of action of that resultant.

We

next draw

CD

to represent the 9000

pound

force,

and join

A and D;
and 9000
(through

AD

represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of R'

(and hence also of the three given forces), and the line marked
point 2 and parallel to
It

AD)

is

the line of action of that resultant.

be noted that the magnitude and the direction of the resultant is For nonconcurrent forces it found just as for concurrent forces (Art. 4). is necessary to draw the lines of action of the intermediate resultants
(R',

may

R",

etc.), in

order to find the line of action of the final resultant, lines


forces.

which are unnecessary when compounding concurrent

When

the forces are parallel or nearly


is

so,

the foregoing

method

fails

because there

no accessible intersection of

the lines of action of

two

given forces through which to draw the

line of action of the first resultant.

This difiiculty can be met as follows:

Introduce into the given system

two

equal, opposite,

and

colinear forces,
of action

which

will

not change the resultant,

taking their
forces;

common
is

line
first

then use the

somewhat across those of the given method, compounding first any pair of forces

whose intersection

accessible, etc.

2.

solve each force into

Second Method, applicable to any coplanar forces. two concurrent components, resolving

We
in

first

re-

such a

way

Fig. 29

that these components, excepting one of the


force,
are,

also
(Fig.

force and one of the last two remaining components in general, concurrent, and so we readily find their resultant, which is For example, let Fi, F2, F3, and F4 the resultant of the given forces.
first

balance

or

destroy

each

other;

these

29) be the forces to be

compounded.

First

we draw a

force polygon

for the given forces,

taking them in any convenient order,


as the

as

ABCDE;
tri-

then

we take any convenient point O

common

vertex of the

angles of resolution.

nitude and

AO and OB represent two components of Fi in magdirection, BO and OC two components of F2, etc.; thus this

22
resolution gives several pairs of equal

Chap,

and opposite components,


of Fi are
2,

OB

and

BO,
first

OC and
point,
i,

CO,
i,

OD

and DO.

The components
2

taken to act
etc., ti

through point

those of F^ through

those of Fz through 3,

where oh intersects F2, point 3 where oc intersects 7^3; etc. Thus the components OB and BO are colinear and they balance; likewise OC and CO, and OD and DO. Only the first and last components AO and OE remain; their resultant is represented hy AE in magnitude and direction, and its line of action is ae (parallel to

being taken at pleasure on Fi, point

AE

through the intersection of ao and

oe).

The common

vertex of the triangles of resolution

(Fig. 29) is the pole

of the force polygon;

the lines from the pole to the vertexes of the force


etc.,

polygon, 0/1, OB, OC,


oa, ob,
OC,

are rays; the line of action of the several forces,


is

etc.,

are strings which, considered collectively,

the string or the given

funicular polygon (also called equilibrium polygon, especially


forces are balanced or in equilibrium).

when

The

rays are sometimes referred

to

by number, OA being the


In using
this

first,

05

the second, etc.; likewise the strings.

second method, the beginner had best reason out the variAfter some
(i)

ous steps of the construction somewhat as in the foregoing.


practice he might use the following aids:

The two

strings intersecting

on the

line of action of

any

force are parallel to the rays

drawn

to the ends

of that side of the force

polygon corresponding to that

force,

thus the strings

and oc. (2) The string which joins points in the any two forces is parallel to the ray which is drawn to the common point of the two sides of the force polygon corresponding to those forces, or, the string joining points on be and cd is parallel to OC. (3) The bare construction in the second method is simply this: Draw a force and a string polygon for the forces, then draw a line from the beginning to the end of the force polygon and a parallel line through the intersection of the first and last strings; the first line represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant (sense being from the beginning to the end of the force polygon), and the second line is the line of action of the resultant. This second method is not so simple in principle as the first, but in the second there is more opportunity for varying the construction to keep
intersecting

on

be are ob

lines of action of

the drawing within convenient limits; thus the pole


starting point of the string polygon

may

be shifted, and the

given forces.

Though many

be taken anywhere on any of the string polygons may be drawn for a given set

may

of forces, all determine the

intersections of the first

same line of action of the resultant; that is, the and last strings of all string polygons lie on one

straight line, the line of action of the resultant.

3.

When

the Force Polygon Closes.


is

It

may

seem, at

first

thought,

that the resultant vanishes, or

zero;

in general, this conclusion

would

be wrong, the system actually reducing to a couple.

Thus,

let

Fi, F2, F3,

and Fi
the
first

(Fig.

30) be a force-set
for

method

whose force polygon ABODE closes; using compounding, we find that the resultant R" of the

Art.
first
is

23
is

three forces

given by

^D
is

in

its
,

l^e

of action; hence* i?"

equal, opposite,

magnitude and and

in

direction,

parallel to F4,

and ad and so
is

t^

given force-set reduces to a couple (R", Fi).

The arm

of this couple

tne perpendicular distance between Ft and R", and so the moment of the couple is the product of Fi (or R") and the arm (according to the scale
of the space

diagram)

the sense of the couple, clockwise,

is

apparent from

the relative positions

and

directions of the forces of the couple as seen in

the space diagram.

In Fig. 31 the composition has been made by the

second method; the system reduces to the two components


ao)

AO

(acting in

and
is

OE
and

(acting in oe).

These components are equal, opposite, and

parallel,

so the given force-set reduces to a couple.


first

The arm
or

of the

couple

the perpendicular distance between the

and

last strings, ao

and

oe; the

moment

of the couple

is

the product of

OA

EO

(according

^=
Fig. 30

.^D

i"^^
Fig. 31

J^A^
to the scale of

to the scale of the force diagram)

and the arm (according


of

the space diagram)

the sense

is

apparent from the space diagram.


the forces of the couple
in the force polygon, in

The

length of the

arm and the magnitude

depend on the order in the first method; and upon the position chosen
method.
ations.
set

which the forces are taken


of the couple
is

for the pole 0, in the second


all

But the moment

independent of

these vari-

This fact may (whose force polygon closes) in several

be verified

by

actually

compounding a certain forceways, making all these different

and thus arriving at different couples. The couples are all equivalent to the same force-set and so equivalent to each other, and
variations

hence their moments are equal (Art.


7.
I.

5).

Algebraic Composition of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces

Parallel Forces. If the forces be given sign, those in either direction being called positive and those in the other negative, then the algebraic sum of the forces gives the magnitude and sense of the resultant, the
sign of

the

principle of

equals the

sum indicating the sense of the resultant. According to the moments (Art. 5), the moment of the resultant about any point algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about that point, and

24

Chap,

20 lbs.

Art. 7

25

and the moment equals the algebraic sum of the moments of given forces, For example, let us find the resultant of the five a definite quantity. Their algebraic sum is forces acting on a 10 foot board, as shown in Fig. 34.
zero,

and so

their resultant
force,

is,

presumably, a couple.

Compounding

all

but

the 40

pound

we

find that their

resultant equals 40 pounds, acts

down-

A60lb&.

401bvf

ward, 7.5 feet to the right of the left end of the board, and so the resultant
is

"20 lbs.

SOlbs.

SOlbs.

a couple whose

moment

is

(40

Fig. 34

2.5)

-|-ioo foot-pounds.

Instead of actually determining the forces of the resultant couple as explained, it is usually sufficient to determine the moment of the resultant couple; this moment equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the
given forces about any point.
taining that the resultant
is

Thus, in the preceding example, after ascera couple,

we compute
(40

the

moment-sum

for the

given forces, wdth

moment

origin at the middle of the board, say, or (20

5)

(60

3)

(30

i)

(50

i)

5)

= +100

foot-pounds;

and

then conclude that any couple whose

moment

equals -fioo foot-pounds

may

be regarded as the resultant of the system.

2.

NoNPARALLEL FORCES. As shown

in Art. 6, the resultant is in general

a single force, given in magnitude and direction by the line joining the beginning and end of the force polygon for the forces. It follows, therefore,
that the component of that resultant force along any line equals the algeFrom this braic sum of the components of the given forces along that line.

we can get the components of the resultant along any two rectangular axes; and from these components the magnitude and direction of Acthe resultant itself can be readily determined by obvious means.
principle

cording to the principle of

moments

(Art. 5), the

moment

of the resultant

about any point must equal the sum of the moments of the given forces about that point; and this requirement fixes the position or line of action of the
resultant.

^6lbs.

For example, let us find the resultant of the six forces acting on a board, 4 by 4 feet, as shown in Fig. 35. The angles which the forces make with the horizontal and
the arms of the forces with respect to the center of the board are recorded in columns 2 and 3 of the

schedule on page 26; they could be computed trigonometrically or could be scaled from a larger drawing.

The X and y components


VIbs.

of

the several forces are

51b5^
Fig. 35

recorded in columns 4 and 5 respectively, and the moments of the forces with respect to the center of the board in column 6. The algebraic sums of the x

and the y components are +3.40 and -7.22 pounds respectively; hence R = V'3.40^ -|- 7.22^ = 7.98 pounds The signs of the sums indicate that R the acts toward the right and downward; the angle which R makes with

26
horizontal
is

Chap.

tan~^ (7.22

-J-

3.40), or 64 47'.

14.14
and
its

foot-pounds; and, since the

on the right-hand side of the origin

The sum of the moments is moment of R also equals 14.14, R lies of moments (the moment being negative),
feet.

arm

is

14.14 -^ 7.98

1.77

Thus,

has been completely

determined.

Art. 8

27

about any point equals the sum of the moments of the couples; hence any couple whose moment equals the sum of the moments of the given couples

may

be regarded as the resultant.


8.

Moment
Line.

of a

Force

Couples

I.

Moment about a

Art.
it is

5 relates to

moments
and

of forces

and

to couples with special reference to coplanar forces discussions

couples.

In some

on noncoplanar forces

convenient to
this
is

make

use of the

moment

or torque of a force with


of the
line

respect to a line;

defined as the product

component being parallel to it and the distance from the line to the perpendicular

the other

component

of the force perpendicular to the

component, or to the force (the distances being

equal).

For example,

let

(Fig. 37), acting

on a
or

body not shown, be the force, and LL' the


axis of

line,

moments as

it is called.

MN

is

any plane

perpendicular to the axis, represented to


figure plain.

make

the

OACB

is

a parallelogram with

OC
Fig. 37

(representing F) as diagonal,
lar

and

sides perpendicu-

and OB represent the perpendicular and parallel components {Fi and F2) referred to; and the moment of F about LL' is the product of Fi and PL. The moment of a force with respect to a line is a measure of the tendency of the force to turn the body to which the force is applied about that line. Thus, when the force is parallel to the line the moment is zero, and obviously the force has no tendency to turn the body about the line. Again, and
parallel to

LL'; then

OA

when

the force

is

perpendicular to the line the

moment

of the force

about

the line equals the product of the force

and the perpendicular distance


in Art. 5 that this

from the

line to the force,

and

it is

shown

product measline.

ures the tendency of the force to turn the

body about the

Finally,

when the
(Fig. 37),

force

is

not parallel nor perpendicular to the axis of moments

then Fi and F2 together are equivalent to F, and their combined

turning effect equals that of F.


that of Fi
(the

and that
of Fi)

moment

But F^ has no turning effect; therefore But it was explained that Fi X LP measures the turning effect of Fi, and therefore that
of

are equal.

product also measures the turning

effect of F.

In a discussion involving moments of several forces about a line, it is generally convenient to give signs to the moments to indicate the directions
(clockwise

or
line

counter)
if

in

which the several forces would turn the body


line.

about the
rotation
is

it

were free to rotate about that

Whether a given
in

clockwise or counter depends on the point of view;

a par-

view should be assumed on the line or axis of moments and outside of the body, so that all rotations would be seen lookticular discussion a point of

ing in the

same

direction.

When
*

the axis of

moments

is

also

an axis of

See Art. 5 also.

28
coordinates, then
it is

Chap,

customary to view rotations about that axis from

the positive end

of the coordinate axis, looking in the negative direction.

Principle of Moments.

If

two

sets

of

forces

are equivalent

(Art.

2),

then the

moment-sum
for the

for

one set with respect to any

line equals the


line.

mobe

ment-sum
^1

other set with respect to the same

This

will

granted as self-evident by most students; others

may

consider this: Let

and 6*2 denote the two equivalent sets of forces, and ^3 a third set which would balance Si and hence also ^2. Since Sx and ^3 would balance, they would not turn the body on which they act about any line; hence the moment-sums for Si and ^'3 with respect to any line are equal in value but Likewise, the moment-sums for S2 and S3 with respect opposite in sign.
to that

sums
It

same line are equal in value and opposite in sign. The momentand S2 being equal to the same thing, are therefore equal. follows from the preceding that the moment-sum for any set of forces
for ^i

with respect to a given line equals the


forces with respect to the
line equals
line.

same

line.

Also, the

moment of the resultant of those moment of a force about any


to

the

moment-sum

of its

components with respect

the same

This last principle suggests a second method for computing the moment of a force with respect to a line, more simple than the first method
in

some
is

cases:

which

parallel to the axis of

Resolve the force into three rectangular components, one of moments; compute the moment of each of

the other two components

sum equals we compute the moment


braically; this

100 >b5

37.2

and add the moments algeFor an example, of a 100 pound force which acts upon a 4 foot cube as shown in Fig. 38, with respect to those edges marked X, F, and Z. The x, y, and z components of the force are 37.2, 74.2, and 55.7 pounds respectively (see Art. 4); these components must be concurrent with the given force. Taking A as the point of concurrence, the moments are comabout the
axis,

the

moment

of the given force.

puted as follows:

X 4 + 55-7 X 4 = "74; -260; and '37.2 X 4 + With point of con74.2 X 2 = 297 foot-pounds. currence taken at B or at any other point in AB, the same result would be obtained for the moment.
-74-2

-37.2

55.7

X^ =

2.

Couples

(see also Art. 5).

Two

couples whose planes are parallel


the

and whose moments,

or

torques,

and senses are

same are

equivalent.

Proof of this proposition for coplanar couples is given in Art. 5; proof for noncoplanar couples follows. Let Pi and P2 (Fig. 39) be the forces of one (not shown) the forces of the other, and p and q the arms couple, and
Qi Q2
of the couples respectively;

then by supposition

Pp =

Qq.

According to

Art.

5,

the

(2

couple can be replaced


sense of the

that the

moment and

by new couple equals

a couple in its

own plane provided

that of the

couple.

Let Si and ^2 be the forces of that replacing couple, Si

and ^2 being chosen

Art. 8
parallel

29

and P^; then the arm ab of the S couple equals />, and abed is a parallelogram. We now show that the P couple would balance the reversed S couple; it will follow that the P and 6* couples are equivalent, and hence also the P and Q couples. The resultant R' of P] and
to Pi

and equal

52 {Si reversed) equals the resultant R" of P2 and S\ (Si reversed), and R' and R" are parallel and opposite in sense. Moreover, R' lies midway between Pi and 52, and R" lies midway between P2 and Si; therefore each resultant acts through
the center of the parallelogram abed, and hence

they are colinear.


ance,

The

'

resultants therefore balforces Pi, P2,

and hence the four


Therefore, etc.
resultant of

Si, S2
is

Fig. 39

do

also.

The
the

any number of couples

a eouple.

Proofs of this prop-

osition for the case of coplanar couples are given

in Arts. 6

and

7.

For
re-

case of

noncoplanar parallel couples:


all

The given
in

couples

can be

placed by equivalent ones respectively,

some one plane; the

result-

is a couple, and hence the resultant of the given ones is also a For the case of nonparallel couples: Imagine each of the two couples to be replaced by an equivalent couple, and let the four forces of

ant of these
couple.

the replacing couples be equal; furthermore, imagine the two

new

couples

so placed (in their respective planes) that a force of one couple will balance

See Fig. 40 (perspecwhich shows the two replacing couples, there marked P1P2 and P3P4; ex is the angle between the planes of the couples. Since
tive),

a force of the other.

P2 and P4 balance, Pi and P3, constituting a


couple, are equivalent to Pi, P2, P3 and P4 and hence to the two original couples. The resultant of any coplanar or parallel

couples can be determined very simply; the


Fig. 40

resultant

is

any couple

parallel to the given

couples, its

braic

sum

of the

moments

of the given

moment being equal to the algecouples. The resultant of nonparallel


by means
of this proposi-

couples can be determined best from their vectors*


tion,

The

vector of the resultant of

of the vectors of those couples.

any number of couples equals the sum Proof: Consider first two couples, say the

41) be
*

two whose resultant was found in the preceding paragraph. Let ABC (Fig, an end view of Fig. 40, looking along the line AA'] that is, ABC of
The
vector of a given couple
is

perpendicular to the plane of the couple (exact posiis

tion of vector
to

immaterial);

its

length
its

equal

to the

moment

of

the couple according

some

scale understood;

and

sense agrees with

the sense (rotation) of the couple

according to some rule of agreement, as for example the following:


to be a right-handed screw turning with

Imagine the vector

the couple; then the arrowhead on the vector

must point

in the direction in

which the screw advances.

3
Fig. 41
is

Chap,

ABC

of Fig.

40 in true proportions.

Then

AM

(perpendicular to

AB),

AN

(perpendicular to AC),

and

AO

(perpendicular to

BC)

are respec-

tively the vectors of the

two given couples and

their resultant, provided that

the lengths of the vectors are proportional to the


Ffz

moments

of the couples Ffi,

and Ff;

let

the lengths be in that proportion.

Vector

AO

is

the

sum

and AN, provided that OMAN is a parallelogram; we now show that it is a parallelogram. Angle MAO = 13; since in the triangle MAO and ABC two sides are proportional each to each and the inof the vectors

AM

cluded angles are equal, the triangles are similar;


perpendicular to

it

follows that

OM
it

is

AC,

or parallel to

lows that
is

ON

is

perpendicular to

AN. From AB, or parallel

similar
to

reasoning,

fol-

AM.

Hence

OMAN
it

a parallelogram.

Obviously,

if

the proposition holds for two couples,

holds for any number.

Composition of three couples whose planes are mutually at right angles


is

an important special

case.

We

take

the

three

planes

as

coordinate

planes,

and

call

the couples whose planes are perpendicular to the x, y, and


Vx,

axes Cx, Cy, and Cg respectively, their vectors


sultant couple

Vy

and

Vz,

and the
hence

re-

C and

its

vector

v.

Then

{v^^

Vy"^

+ ^z^)^;
v,

Also,

if

01,

4>2,

and ^3 denote the direction angles

of

then cos </)i

v^/v^

cos 02

^vA, and cos 03


cos 01

Vz/v\

hence
cos 02

Cx/C,

Cy/C,

cos 03

Cz/C.

from the preceding that a couple may be equivalent to two or which are therefore components of that couple; also, to resolve a couple we have only to resolve its vector, the component vectors being the vectors of the component couples. The resolution of a couple into three components whose planes are mutually at right angles is an important special case. Let C be the couple to be resolved and v its vector,
It follows

more

couples,

and denote the

direction angles of the vector

by

a,

/3,

and

7, the coordi-

nate planes having been taken to coincide with the planes of the desired component couples. Let Cx, Cy, and Cz denote the component couples,

which are perpendicular to the


Vz

the corresponding vectors.

x, y and z axes respectively, and Vx, Then Vx= v cos a, Vy ^ v cos /3, and Vz =

Vy

and
7;

v cos

hence,

Cx

=C

cos a,

Cy

=C

cos

iS,

Cz

= C cos 7.

9.
I.

Noncoplanar Nonconcurrent Forces

Parallel Forces.
is

It

is

shown

in Art. 7 that the resultant of


its

parallel forces

parallel to those forces, and that

any two magnitude and sense


given by the number of parallel and that its magni-

are given

by

the algebraic

sum

of the forces, the sense being

sign of the sum.


forces,

It follows that the resultant of any


is

not coplanar necessarily,

parallel to the forces,

Art. 9

31

tude and sense are given by the algebraic

sum

of the forces (all forces of the

same sense having one


site sign).

sign,

and those

of the opposite sense

having the oppo-

The

line of action of the resultant

may

be fixed by means of the

arms

with respect to two rectangular axes, each perpendicuSuch arms can be computed readily from the principle that the moment of the resultant about any axis equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about the same axis. For an example, we find the resultant of four forces which referred to a
of the resultant
lar to the forces.

set of
z-axis;

rectangular axes are described as follows:


their

They

are parallel to the


of

magnitudes are recorded

in the first

column

the schedule

32
single couple (Art. 8).

Chap,

This force and couple respectively

will

be denoted

by

and C. We now show


only

in detail

how

to determine

and C.

Let

Fi, F2, F3, etc.

(Fig. 42,

T^i

shown), be the forces of the given system acting on a

body not shown; O the point through which R is to pass; and OX, OY and OZ any convenient axes of reference. Let Pi and Qi, acting at (Fig. 42), be equal and parallel to Fi; similarily, let P2 and Q2 (not shown) Then the force Pi and the act at O, and be equal and parallel to F^; etc. couple Pi^i (Fig. 43) are equivalent to Pi (Fig. 42); the force P2 and the couple F2Q2 are equivalent to P2; etc. Now the axial components of Pi,

Art. 9

33

In general,

and

C may

be compounded into two noncoplanar

forces.

For, as explained in Art. 8,


efifect
if

C may
its

be shifted about without change of

only the direction of

plane be unchanged;
there remain R'

assume such

shift

until

one of the forces of

intersects

R; then that force and

R may

be

compounded
of C,

into a single force R';

and obviously R' and that force

and the second force These two cannot are not coplanar.
If the

be compounded; they are the simplest set equivalent to the given system,

and

therefore constitute the resultant of the given system.

plane of

C happens to be parallel to R, then C and R can be compounded into a For single force, and the resultant of the given system is a single force. shifting C about until C and R become coplanar, then they may be compounded readily into a
There
torque
is is

single force (Art. 5).

In general, the system of forces has a torque about every line through O.

one

line

which

is

of

prime importance, the


of the forces

line

about which the


Since

greatest.

The torque

about that

line is called the or

resultant torque of the system (for the chosen point 0).

has no

moment about

a line through O, the torque of the system about any such line

equals the torque of

about that

line.

But the torque


is

of

C is greatest

about

a line perpendicular to the plane of C; this

the important line mentioned.


(4),

The
line

direction of this line

is

given by equations

and the resultant torque

of the

system by equations (3). The system of forces has no torque about a through parallel to the plane of C, (perpendicular to the line or axis of

resultant torque) since

and

have no torque about such

line.

CHAPTER
10.
I.

II

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM
Principles of Equilibrium

some meaning by external force one which is exerted on the body under discussion by some other body, and by internal force one which is exerted on a part of the body under discussion by another part. (The word body is used here in a broad sense to denote any definite portion of matter, as a locomotive, a bridge, the steam in a boiler, the water in a pond, etc.) For illustration, consider the
It is convenient in

General Conditions of Equilibrium.

discussions to distinguish forces as "external" or "internal,"

crude crane in Fig. 45.


Ceiling
////////W////////////////,

It consists of three

main members {AB, CD and DE), a pulley, a winding drum and a hoisting chain; it is supported at A (ceiling) and at B (floor). The
external forces acting on the crane consist of

the weight of
earth), the pull
/I

all

the parts (exerted

down on

the hook (exerted

by the by

Tx^/

the load), the supporting force at


the ceiling),

(exerted

'^.\y
y/Mw//////////////////,

Fig. 45

and the supporting force at B by The members exert the floor). by (exerted they come towhere other upon each forces with refforces internal are but these gether, erence to the whole crane. With reference to
the external forces are
its

the crane post

AB,

weight, the supporting force at

A, that at B, the pressures on it exerted on the post by something


forces.

at E, C,
else,

and the drum.

All these are

and

so are properly called external

adjacent portions of the post, as the upper and lower halves, exert forces on each other, and these forces are internal with refer-

Any two

ence to the post.


All

the external forces acting on a


is

body

at rest constitute

a balanced
re-

system, and such system

said to be in eguilibrium.

Obviously, the

and this fact is sometimes called the general sultant of kind of a force system. The general conany equilibrium for condition of thus, for any system whatever, conditions; subordinate dition implies
such a system
is nil,

(A) the algebraic

sum sum

of the (rectangular) components of all the forces along

any
zero.

line equals zero,

{B) the algebraic

of the

and moments

of all the forces about

any

line equals

34

Art. io

35
of (A)

By means

and (B) we can write many equations

for

any system

in

Thus, for a coplanar concurrent system, (A) gives ZFx = o, ZFy = o, ZFu = o, etc., where x, y, u, etc., are axes of resolution; and (B) gives 2ilfa = o, I,Mb = o, 2Mc = o, etc., where a, b, c, etc., are origins Not all of such equilibrium equaof moments in the plane of the forces.
equilibrium.
tions are independent, however; that
is,

certain ones follow

from the others.

Thus,

any coplanar concurrent system, then 2F does not necessarily equal zero, but if also ^Fy = o, then the resultant equals That is, 2^Fx = o and SF^ = o are two zero, and it follows that SFu = o. similar equation (as ZFu = o) is not third independent equations, but any
if

2Fx

o for

independent of them.
librium for any

The independent equations


a vanishing resultant.

or conditions of equi-

particular kind of force system are such as are necessary

and

sufficient to insure

We

will

now deduce

these

independent conditions of equilibrium for the various classes or kinds of


force systems.
(i)

Colinear Forces.

There
namely,
(i)

is

one condition of equilibrium.

It can

be

stated in several forms;

2/^

or (2) llMa

o.

Form
their

(i) states

that the algebraic


of the

sum

of the forces equals zero;

(2)

that

the algebraic

sum

moments

of all the forces

about any point (not on

common

line of action) equals zero.


is

On

the graphical basis, the condi-

tion of equilibrium

that the force polygon for the forces (degenerated into


is

a straight line in this case)

a closed one.
is

For

if

ZF =

o,

or

SM = o,

or

the force polygon closes, then there


(ii)

ditions of equilibrium.
(i)

Coplanar Concurrent Forces. They can be expressed in three forms; namely,

no resultant. There are two independent algebraic con-

2Fx

= 2F =

o,

(2)

2/?

= ZMa =

o,

or

(3)

SMa = 2^6 =

o.

Form

(i) states

that the algebraic sums of the components of the forces


(2) x),

along two lines x and y (in the plane of the forces) equal zero; algebraic sum of the components of the forces along any line (as
algebraic

that the

and the
a and

sum

of the

moments

of all the forces

about any

point, each equal


line joining

zero (the point a to be in the plane of the forces,

and the

0, their point of concurrence, to be inclined to the x axis); and (3) that the algebraic sums of the moments of all the forces about two points (not
colinear with the point of concurrence of the forces) equal zero.

For

in

any case the resultant is zero, as will be seen from this: (i) According to Art. 4, the resultant of the system, if there is one, is a single force R, given

hy R== V(2F,)2-f
equal zero.
(2)

(2F)2;

and hence
o,

if

2Fx

o and 2F
if

o,

If

^Fx

then the resultant,

there

is

one,

R must must be

perpendicular to the x axis; and

a equals

zero,

which requires that

if 2Ma = o, then the moment of R about R ^ o. (3) The resultant, if there is one,

must pass through the point

of concurrence

of the given forces;

if

2Mo= o

36
then

Chap,

must pass through a

also;

if

ZMa =
is

o,

then

must equal

zero, b

not being on Oa.

The
(iii)

graphical condition of equilibrium


For,
if it

that the force polygon for the


is

forces closes.

does close, then there

no resultant.
in

Co planar Nonconcur rent

Parallel Forces. There are two independent

algebraic conditions of equilibrium.

They can be expressed


or
(2)

two forms;

namely,
(i) S/?

= SM =

-^Ma

= ^Mb =

Form
of the

(i) states

that the algebraic


of the forces

sum

of the forces
(in the

and the algebraic sum


about two
the resultresultant,

moments
(2)

about any point

plane of the forces) equal


of the forces

zero;

that the algebraic

sums

of the

moments

points equal zero, the line joining the origins not to be parallel to the forces.

For either
if

set of conditions is

necessary and sufficient to


:

make

ant zero, as
there
is

may
is

be shown thus

In Art.

7 it is

shown that the


(i),
if

one,
is

a single force or a couple.


if

And
it is

2F =

o,

then the

resultant

not a force, and


(2)

2M = o,
=
o,
if

then

not a couple; and hence


is

there
force,

is

no resultant.

If Sil/a

the resultant

not a couple but a

which passes through a; resultant force about b must be


zero.

also

ZMb =

o,

then the

moment

of the

zero,

and that requires that the force equals

a string polygon for the forces

There are two graphical conditions of equilibrium, namely, a force and must close. For if a force polygon closes,
if

then the resultant,


the resultant
(iv)
is

there

is

one,

is

a couple;

if

a string polygon closes, then

not a couple.

Coplanar Nonconcurrent Nonparallel Forces.

There

are three inde-

pendent algebraic conditions of equilibrium.


forms; namely,
(i) (2)

They can be

stated in three

2/^x

and

(3)

= ^Fy = 2Ma = o; Zi^x = 2M = ^Mb = o; SMa = 2Mb = ^Mc = o.


all

Form

(i) states

that the algebraic sums of the components of

the forces

along two lines and the algebraic

sum

of the

moments

of the forces

about

and points to be in the plane of the forces; (2) that the algebraic sums of the components of the forces along any line x and the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about two points, a and b, equal zero, the line x and that joining a and b not to be at right angles; and (3) that the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about three points, a, b, and c, equal zero, the points not to be colinear. For any set of these conditions is necessary and just sufficient to make the resultant vanish any point equal
zero, the lines

as

may

be shown, thus: The resultant,

if

there
2Fj,

is

one,

is

a single force or a
is

single couple (Art. 7).


force,
(2)

And

(i) if

^Fx

o,

then the resultant


is

not

If

and 2Fx

if

2M =
o,

o, it is

not a couple; and hence there


is

no resultant.

the resultant

a force

perpendicular to the x axis or a

Art. io

37
if

couple;

l^Ma

o,

it

is

not a couple, but a force passing through a (and


if

perpendicular to the x axis);


force about b

also

SMt =
is

o,

then the

moment
zero.

of that
(3) If

must equal
liMb

zero,
if

and hence the


is

force

must equal
if

2ifa

o,

the resultant,
if

there

one,

not a couple but a force passing


also

through

a;

o,

that resultant passes through b;

ZMc =

o,

then the resultant force must equal zero.

There are two graphical conditions, just like those for parallel coplanar nonconcurrent forces; namely, a force and a string polygon must close.

For

if

a force polygon closes, then the resultant,


if

if

there

is

one,

is is

not a not a

force but a couple;

a string polygon closes, then the resultant

couple,
(v)

and

so there

is

no resultant

(see Art. 6).

Noncoplanar Concurrent Forces.

There

are three independent algeis

braic conditions of equilibrium.

The convenient form

2Fx
that
is,

= ^Fy = 2F, =

o;
all

the algebraic sums of the components of


x, y,

the forces along three


in Art. 4, the resultant,

rectangular axes,
if

and

z,

equal zero.

For as shown

there

is

one, equals

V(SF^)2

(SFJ^

{-^F.Y,

and

so

if

the conditions

stated are fulfilled then the resultant equals zero.


(vi)

Noncoplanar Parallel Forces.

conditions of equilibrium.
(i)

There are three independent algebraic There are two convenient forms; namely,

SF = SMi =

Si/a

o,

and

(2)

2Mi =

Silfa

= ^Ms =

o.

Form
of the

(i) states

that the algebraic


of the forces

sum

of the forces

and the algebraic sums


but

moment

about two

lines perpendicular to the forces

not parallel to each other equal zero; (2) that the algebraic

sums

of the

mo-

ments about three coplanar nonconcurrent nonparallel lines perpendicular to For (i) if SF = o, the resultant is not a force; if the forces equal zero. = o, the resultant is a couple whose plane is parallel to the first line or 2Afi moments axis of (and to the forces) and if '2M2 = o, then the plane of the couple must also be parallel to the second axis; but all these conditions of parallelism cannot be fulfilled unless the two forces of the couple are colinear, in which case the two forces balance, so that there is really no re;

sultant.

(2) If

2^/1
that

= 2M2 =
is,

o,

then the resultant must be a force passi

ing through the intersection of lines

and

2; if Sil/a

o,

then that force

must equal
(vii)

zero;

the three conditions

make

the resultant vanish.

Noncoplanar

Nonconcurrent

Nonparallel

Forces.

There
o;

are

six

independent algebraic conditions of equilibrium, namely,

ZF^
that
is,

-LFy

ZF,

ZM:c

= ZMy = ^M, =

lines

the algebraic sums of the components of all the forces along three and the algebraic sums of the moments of the forces about three noncoplanar axes equal zero. (It is generally most convenient to take the For the resultthree lines and the three axes at right angles to each other.)

28
ant of the system,
if

Chap, there
9)
;

ii

is

one,

is

always reducible to a single force and

a single couple (Art.


zero,
is

if

SF^

2Fj,

SF^

o,

the single force equals

and

if

21f ^

= 2My = SM^ = o,

then the couple vanishes, and so there

no
If

resultant.

every force in the given system (in equilibrium) be represented by a vector, and all these vectors be projected on three rectangular coordinate
planes, then the three sets of projections

represent three force systems, and each


is

in

equilibrium
cases
it

(proved

below).

In

some

may

be more convenient to In
three conditions

deal with

these

projected systems.

general, each

furnishes

or equations of equilibrium,
in all;

making nine

but there are duplicates among the

nine,

and only

six are

independent.

To
be

prove the foregoing,

let

(Fig. 46)

one of the forces of the system in equilibFig. 46

rium and

its

point of application (on a

body not shown). A, B, and C are projections of the vector F on the xy, yz, and zx planes respectively. Obviously, the X and y components of A equal Fx and Fy respectively; the y and z components of B equal Fy and F^ respectively, and the z and x components of C equal F^ and Fx respectively, as indicated. Since the given system is in
equilibrium,

and

Now 2Fx
the

is

also the

sum

of the

x components of the ^-system; ZFy

is

also

sum

of the y

components
of the

of the

^-system; and XiFyXFxy)

is

also the

sum
sons

of the

moments
and
(4)

forces

about 0.

Hence

(i), (2),

conditions which assert the equilibrium of the


(2), (3),

yl -system.

and (6) are For similar rea(i),


(3),

assert the equilibrium of the

^-system and

(5) assert 2.

the equilibrium of the C-system.

Special Conditions of Equilibrium, depending on number of forces

in

the system.

(i)

single force

cannot be in equilibrium.

(2) If

forces are in equilibrium, then obviously they

must be

colinear, equal,

two and

opposite. (3) If three forces are in equilibrium, then they must be coplanar, and concurrent or parallel. Proof: Let the three forces be called Fi, F2, and 7^3; since Fi and F2 balance F3, Fi and F2 have a single force resultant R colinear with F3; since Fi and F2 have a resultant colinear with F3, they lie in a plane with F3. If Fi and F2 are concurrent, then R is concurrent with them and hence F3 also; if Fi and F2 are parallel, then R and hence

F3

is

parallel to

them.

When

the three forces are concurrent, then each

is

Art. io

39
between the other two (Lami's

proportional to the sine of either angle

theorem)

that

is,

Fi
sin

^
sin

F2
sin
/3'

a"

^
sin /3" sin 7'

Fs

sin

7"

where
13'

and F3 are the forces, a and a" the angles between F2 and F3, ^" between Fi and /^s, and y' and 7" those between i^i and F2 those and For it follows from the triangle of forces, ABCA (in which (see Fig. 47). AB, BC, and CD represent Fi, F^, and F3 respectively), that ^5/sin5C^ = BC/dn CAB = CA/sin ABC. But BCA = a', CAB = /3', and ABC = y'; also a' and a", ^' and (S", 7" and 7"are supplementary. Hence sin ' = a sin ",
Fi, F2,
etc., etc.
allel,

When

the three forces are par-

then the two outer ones act in the

same direction and the middle one in the opposite direction, and the moments of any two of the forces about a point on the third are equal in magnitude and opposite in sense, or sign.
(4)

When

four
Fig. 47

coplanar forces are in equilibrium, then


the resultant

of

any two

of the forces
(a)
if

balances the other two.

Hence,

the

first

two are concurrent and the


parallel,

second two
Q}) if either

also,

then the

passes through the two points of concurrence;

two are concurrent and the other two


(c)
if

then the resultant


is is

of the first pair acts

through the point of concurrence and


all

parallel to
parallel

the second pair;

four forces are parallel, then

to

the forces.

Principles (a)

and

{b)

are useful in graphical analysis of four-

force systems,
3.

Summary.

The

algebraic conditions of equilibrium explained in detail

in the foregoing are

brought together here for convenience of reference.

Coplanar Forces.
Colinear,

= ^M^ = o; or llMa = ^Mb = Parallel, or 2Ma = Zilf^ = o. Nonconcurrent nonparallel, ^Fx = llFy = ZM = o; or 2Fx = ^Ma = ^Mb = o; or SM^ = ^Mb = ZMc = o.
Concurrent, 2F^

SF = = 2F =

o; or

Sif

=
or

o.

= o; 2/^i; 2M = o;

SFx

o.

Noncoplanar Forces.
Concurrent, ZF^
Parallel,

= ZFy = ZF^ = o. SF = SMi = 2M2 = o;


SF^

Nonconcurrent nonparallel,

or Sil/i = SATz = 2M3 = o. = ZFy = XF^ = XMx = 2Af = 2ilf, = o.

The

graphical conditions of equilibrium for coplanar systems: for concur-

rent forces, the force polygon closes; for nonconcurrent forces, the force

and

40
the string polygon close.

Chap, n

noncoplanar forces, but their usefulness


fore not given here.

There are graphical conditions of equilibrium for is very limited, and they are there-

II.

Coplanar Concurrent Forces in Equilibrium

1.
in Art.

The

general principles of equilibrium for such forces are explained


(ii).

lo under

We now

show how to apply the

principles in

two
is

particular problems.

Typical Problem

(i).

system of

coplanar concurrent

forces

in

equilibrium, and all the forces except two are wholly known; the lines of action of these are known, and their magnitudes and senses are to be de-

termined.

The
if

graphical

method

is

generally the simplest for solving this


if

problem; but
simple.

there are only three forces in the system, or


is

the angle

between the two unknown forces


is

90 degrees, then the algebraic


force polygon
for
all

method

To make

solve graphically,
it

we draw a
are in

the forces, and

close since
will

they

equilibrium; in doing so the desired unforces


Fig.

knowns
the pin

be determined.

For example, consider the


represented in

acting on

of the bridge truss partially

48.

(A pin

passes through holes in the members, OF, OG, OH, and OJ, thus fastening them together at 0.) There are four forces acting on this pin, one exerted

by each member named, and they constitute a system

in

equilibrium.

(Strictly, there is a fifth force in the system, the weight of the pin, but These four forces that is small compared to the others and is negligible.)

are coplanar

assume that they act in the directions (generally not far from the fact) as shown; of furthermore, we will suppose that the magnitudes and directions of two of Now to determine the other the forces have been detennined somehow. represent the 80 ton force accordtwo, P and Q, completely: We draw AB to tons; then from C, a represent 20 ing to some convenient scale; and BC to mark their intersecP, and to parallel line parallel to Q, and from A, a line magnitudes the represent Q and P respectively; tion D. Then CD and DA must be confluent Q polygon vector closed and, since the arrowheads in the are other possible There DA. direction the P in acts in the direction CD and

and concurrent. the members respectively

We

force polygons, each giving the

same

result as the

one explained.

Art. II

41

To

solve this problem algebraically

we may employ any one


;

of the three

sets of equations or conditions of equilibrium (Art. 10)

namely,
o.

2Fx

= ^Fy =
first set

o,

2F^

= ZMa =

o,

or

XMa = SM^ =
for

Taking the
49),

and assuming* senses

and

(Fig.

we

get

2Fx = Q
ZFy

P cos 40 + 80 cos 40 = o, and = 20 + (J sin 20 P sin 40 + 80 sin 40 = o;


cos 20 4-

20 tons
Fig. 49

solving these equations simultaneously for


(2

and Q, we get

P=

10.04 and

=-73-3

tons.

When
Fi/sin
(Fi,

the

system
13

is

a three-force system, then the special condition,

/^2/sin

Fa/sin

(Art. 10),

is,

in general, the simplest to apply.

F2 and F3 denote the forces, and a either angle between Fo and F3, /3 either angle between F3 and Fi, and 7 either angle between Fi and F2.)

To

illustrate,

we
in

discuss the forces acting

upon a

cylin-

a trough formed by two smooth f inThere are three forces acting on clined planes (Fig. 50). the cylinder; namely, its own weight (100 pounds), and
der which
lies

the two supporting forces Fi and F2.


are smooth Fi

Since the planes

and F2 act normally, and hence through


It follows

from the between Fi geometry of the figure that the acute angle = 80, and that = 40, that between F2 and and between Fi and F2 = 60; hence Fi/sin 80 = F2/sin 40 = loo/sin 60, or F, = 1 13.7 and F2 =74.2 pounds.
the center of the cylinder as shown.

* Whenever a force whose sense is unknown is to be entered in a resolution or moment equation, a sense should be assumed for that force and adhered to in the solution of the equation. The correct sense is indicated by the sign of the computed value of that force; a positive sign indicates that the sense assumed is correct and a negative sign that the

sense assumed

is

wrong.

Senses found to be wrong are corrected in the figures of the

book, by a short line across the assumed arrowhead (Fig. 49). contact, and they exert forces upon each other (equal and t When two bodies are in
the moment.
opposite), the forces are, in general, inclined to the surface of contact, The components of either of the forces men-

assumed plane

for

tioned along and perpendicular to the surface of contact are

W
'W/////I

and normal pressure respectively. Fig. 51 furnishes the simplest illustration; it represents a heavy body A supported by a rough surface B, and subjected to a push P. The surface B exerts a force R on A (inclined as shown), and
called friction

TrmrmrnTTTmnrrm V^/
Fig. 51

the horizontal and vertical components of

are the friction

and the normal pressure exerted by B on A. Obviously, this friction is the resistance which B offers to the tendency of A to slide over B. So long as there is only tendency to Experience has shown that the friction is a maxisliding, this friction equals the push P. mum just as sliding impends, and also that the smoother the surfaces of contact, the smaller is the force required to cause sliding, and hence the smaller this maximum resistance to sliding. We are thus led to the conception of a perfectly smooth surface as one

42
Typical Problem
equilibrium and
all
(ii).

Chap,

u
in

system of

coplanar

concurrent

forces

is

except one are wholly known; the magnitude and direc-

tion of this one are required.

To

solve this problem


this

we might determine
is

the resultant of the


desired force.
nWNWWNWvww.
i"

w^hoUy known forces;

resultant reversed

the

But the problem may


of equilibrium, that

also be solved
is,

by means

of principles

by applying the appropriate condi-

tions of equilibrium to the entire system of forces.


illustrate,

To

we determine the value and


cord*
(Fig.

direction of the ten-

sion in the
\

52)

which supports a ring from


forces acting

1fi\

which a body
a force

is

suspended, the ring being subjected to

Uc
W 100 lbs
Fig. 52

as shown.

The

on the ring are

W, P, and

the pull of the long cord (equal to the tension),

and these three forces are in equilibrium. To solve graphically, we draw AB to represent W, and BC to represent P;

then
call

CA

represents the desired pull or tension.

To

solve algebraically,
6.

we

the desired force

F and

its

inclination to the vertical

Then, using
^

the conditions

ZFx
-\-

o and ZFy

o,

we

get

20 cos 30

F sin

=
B

o and P^

100

cos 6

20 sin 30
give

o;

these
91.6
J''

solved

simultaneously

C
yig. 53

pounds, and 6

10 54'.

As another example, we determine the force which the inclined plane (Fig. 54) exerts on the body
jected to a pull

A when

it is

sub-

P =

20 pounds, the plane being so rough that motion does

not ensue.
action

The weight

of

(100 pounds), P,

and the

re-

of the plane are in equilibrium; hence, using 6 to

denote the inclination of


the plane and normal to

R
it,

to the plane,

and resolving along

we
0,

get

20

100 sin 30

+ i? cos 9

and

i^ sin ^

100 cos 30

o.

Solving these simultaneously,


Fig. 54

we get

R =

91.7 pounds,

and

70 53'.
resistance, only

which can

ofifer

no

frictional

normal reaction.
is

course ideal, but there are surfaces which are nearly perfectly smooth.
will call these will

Such a surface is of For brevity we

smooth, and those whose resistance to sliding

to be taken into account

be called rough.

If the surface of contact between two bodies is curved, then we speak of the friction and normal pressure at any elementary portion of the contact, meaning the tangential and normal components of the pressure at that element. If the contact between two bodies is small, practically a point, and they exert forces R upon each other there, then normal pressure means the component of R at right angles to the plane which is tangent to the surfaces at the contact, and friction means the component along that plane. If one or both the bodies is smooth, then any pressure exerted between the two at any point

of the contact

is

directed along the normal there.

(For fuller discussion of friction see

Chapter IV.)
* "

Tension in a cord " refers to the forces which two parts of a taut cord exert upon each

other.

Suppose

thai;

AB (Fig.

53) is a cord subjected to equal pulls at its ends,

and imagine a

Art. II
2.

43

Many

machines and other devices consist of parts (members) more

or less intimately connected, and, in general, these parts exert forces

upon
in-

each other when the machine

is

in

service.

To

determine these forces

seems a compUcated problem


typical

lo

most beginners.
be solved
in
it

And

yet in

many

stances the whole problem can be resolved into several simpler ones, often
like

problem

(i),

which

may

turn and thus furnish


will

values of the desired forces.


designate a
acts

In this connection
only two
rest.

be convenient to
if

member
it;

of

any device

as a one-force piece
if

only one force

upon

as a two-force piece

forces
If

act

upon

it;

etc.
is

Obviously, a one-force piece cannot be at


rest,

a two-force piece

at

must be equal, opposite, and colinear; each force acts in the line joining their points of application, and the reactions which the piece exerts (upon the members which act upon it) also act along the same line.* If a three-force piece is at rest, then the three forces are coplanar, and concurrent or parallel (Art. lo, 2). If a four-force piece is at rest, then the resultant of any pair of the four balances the other pair. We now illustrate how to resolve the apparently diflficult problem into
it

then the two forces acting upon

several simpler ones.

Example.

fastened together

The crab-tongs represented in Fig. 55 by pins B,B' C,C', and D\ angle


,

consist of

six

pieces

ABC =

100 degrees,

Fig. 55

AB =
stone

foot,

BC =

foot

inches,

CD =

foot,

and BB'
i

feet.

Required the forces which act on each piece when the tongs suspend a

whose weight

1000 pounds, and width

A A' =

foot 6 inches.

Apparently, the trigonometric relations between the parts are not simple;
so

we

will solve graphically,

and

first

we draw

(or lay out)

the tongs to

scale.

Obviously, the supporting force at

equals 1000 pounds (weight of


is

plane of separation at any place


equilibrium, there
force
is
is

a force acting upon

between the ends of the cord. Since the part AC it at its right end equal and opposite to P';
e.xerted

in

this

exerted

by the part BC.

Similarly, there
i.s

equal and opposite to P"; this force


opposite forces at
is

hold the parts

AC

is a force acting upon BC at its left end These two equal and by the part AC. and BC together. By magnitude of the tension

meant the magnitude of either of the forces. * Action and reaction are equal, opposite, and colinear if they are concentrated. This is a brief statement of Newton's Third Law of Motion, and it means that when one body exerts a force upon another body then the latter also exerts one on the former, and the two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. By action is meant either of these two forces and by reaction the other one.

44
tongs neglected).

Chap,

The pin
is

is

acted upon

by DE,

DC

and

DC,

and,

since each of these

a two-force piece, the forces upon the pin act along

DE, DC, and DC,

as shown at center. The first force equals looo pounds and acts upwards; determination of the other two presents typical probto represent the looo pound force, and from lem (i). So we draw and N lines parallel to the other two, thus fixing 0; then NO and OM repIt follows that DC resent the magnitudes of the two forces (620 pounds). are subjected to end pushes or compressions of 620 pounds. CBA and The first is a three-force piece, the forces being applied at C, B and A. acts parallel to CD as shown and equals 620 pounds; the second is exerted by the two-force piece BB', and hence acts along BB'', and the third must be concurrent with the first two and so acts along the straight line through A. Determination of the two unknown forces presents typical problem (i). So we draw PQ to represent the 620 pound force, and lines from P and Q

MN

DC

parallel to the other two, thus fixing

R; then

QR

represents the force at

(950 pounds), and

RP

that at

(1315 pounds).

It follows that the piece

BB'

is

subjected to end pulls of 13 15 pounds.


12.

Coplanar Parallel Forces in Equilibrium

I.

Principles of equilibrium for a system of forces of this kind are de(iii)


;

veloped in Art. 10 under


problem.
rium, and
of these

we now show how


i

to apply

them

to a

common

(For typical problems


(iii).

and

ii

see Art. 11.)

Typical Problem
all

system

of coplanar parallel forces is in equilib-

the forces except two are wholly known; the lines of action

two are known and their magnitudes and senses are required. method is the better one, by far, for solving the problem. There are two sets of conditions of equilibrium available; namely, (i) 27^ = 1,M = o, that is, the algebraic sum of the forces and the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces each equal zero; and (2) Sifo = 'LMb = c, that is, the moment-sums for two different origins equal zero, the line join-

The

algebraic

ing the origins not to be parallel to the forces.


solution of the problem.

Either set will furnish a

2000\b5. loooibs.

Soooibs.

i
:
/

A
R.

i 7'

The second set is recommended, and the origins of moments a and b should be taken on the lines of action of the two unknown B forces. For example, consider the beam
>

>i<?'M-3->i<-

^2

represented in Fig. 56 under the action of three loads (its own weight neglected),
^^'^ supported at

Fig. 56

reactions of the
forces just

A and B; required, the two supports. The five

moment

origins

mentioned constitute a system in equilibrium; therefore, taking on Ri and R2 respectively, and assuming that Ri and R2 act
2000

upwards, we get

and

SMi = 21/2 =

+ 2000 X16 +
X
6

1000 1000

X3+ X12 -f 3000 X 7


2

3000

-??2

X i?i X

10

10

= =

o,

o.

Art. 12

45
gives Ri =

The

first

$oo

pounds, and the second Ri

6500; the negative


as-

sign means that R2 acts downward on the beam and not upward, as sumed. As a check on the solution we try whether XF = o; thus,

2000
The

1000

3000

+ 6500

500
is

o.

graphical solution of the foregoing problem

based on the conditions

that the force and the string polygon for the forces close; the process of To constructing and closing the polygons determines the unknown forces.
illustrate

we take
First,

the

beam shown

in Figs.

56 and 57 and determine the

reactions.

the force polygon

should

be drawn as far as possible,

knowns represented first, thus AB, BC, and CD (Fig. 58) representing the 2000, the 1000, and 3000 pound forces respectively; then the lines of If R2, say, action should be lettered to correspond, ah, he, and cd (Fig. 57). since the force EA, is taken next, it would be lettered DE, and Ri would be
the
^000 lbs
^OOO'"*-

2000 Ibv. 1000 lbs.

2000lb5-1000lbs.

Fig. S7

Fig. 58

Fig. 59

polygon for

all

must

close.

It

remains

now

to locate
it

means of the string polygon.

(At this point

may

E; this can be done by be well for the reader


see Art. 6.)

to recall the significance of the strings of a string polygon;

The polygon may be


oh

started at

any point on any

of the lines of action of

the forces of the system;

if it be started at i (on ah), then strings oa and must be drawn through that point; oc must be drawn from 2 (where oh cuts he), od from 3 (where oe cuts cd), and oe from 4 (where od cuts de) and from 5 (where oa cuts ea) hence the closing string oe passes through 4 and Finally, the ray OE, parallel to oe, is drawn, thus determining E; DE 5. represents R2, and EA Ri. Fig. 59 shows another solution; Ri is taken as the fourth force DE\ and R2 as the fifth E'A.
;

2.

We

take this opportunity to mention a class of problems on forces


parallel

in

equilibrium, not
of

principles

statics alone,

problems.

A beam

resting
it

necessarily, which cannot be solved by the and are therefore called statieally indeterminate on more than two supports furnishes a simple

illustration; thus, let

be required to determine the reactions of the supin Fig. 60,

ports {A, B,

and C) on the beam represented

due to the two

46
loads.
If

Chap,

not already warned of the difficulty in this problem, some stu-

dents would probably write


(Pi, Pi, Ri, Ri,

and

Rz), with

moment equations for the moment origins at A,

forces in equilibrium

B, and C, and then

attempt to solve the equations simultaneously for the three unknowns. Such attempt would fail, even though each
jP.

|Pz

equation would be
X-

correct,

because

would not be independent there being only two conditions of equilibrium 'Rj IR, 'rj ^<^r ^ system of the kind under consideraFig. 60 tion (Art. 10 under iv) and so the three equations would not determine the three unknowns. Doubters are advised to try to determine Ri, Ro, and R3 in this way in the simple case where the spans and the loads are equal, and the loads are applied at the centers of
I
three

'^

the

the spans.

How may
equilibrium

one determine whether a given problem


with

(a

force system in

some unknowns required)

is

statically
is

determinate

or

indeterminate?
of this book;

complete answer to the question

beyond the scope

we may remark, however,

that statically indeterminate prob-

lems commonly arise in connection with structures which have redundant


or superfluous parts or supports,

by which
is

is

meant that some

of the parts

or supports are not strictly necessary for the equilibrium of the structure.

For example,

in Fig. 60
if

one support

superfluous, since the

beam on

tv/o

supports would,

strong enough, support the load.

No

statically inde-

terminate problems are given in this book without notice; but the student

may meet
he
is

a force system in equilibrium containing


that
it is futile

now reminded

to write out

many unknowns, and more equilibrium equations


if

than there are algebraic conditions of equilibrium for the system under
consideration (Art. 10), with the expectation that the equations

solved will
of con-

determine the unknowns.

And

so

it

is

well to

know

the

number

ditions of equilibrium for each class of force systems.

13.

Coplanar Nonconcurrent Nonparallel Forces

Principles of equilibrium for a force system of this kind are developed in


Art. 10 under (iv).

Their use

will

be explained

now by applying them

to

two particular common problems. A system of coplanar nonconcurrent non I. Typical Problem (iv). parallel forces is in equilibrium, and all except two are wholly known; only the line of action of one of these two and a point in that of the other are known, and it is required that these two be determined completely.

The

algebraic solution of this problem can be effected

by means

of

any one

of these sets of equilibrium equations:

SF, = ZFy =

XM = o;

2i?x

= 2M = l^Mb = o; 2Ma = ZMt = Slfc = o.

Art. 13

47

For an example, consider the roof truss represented in Fig. 61. It sustains two loads, 3 5, 000 (weight of roof and truss) and 50,000 pounds (wind pressure).

The
wall,

left

end

of the truss
is

merely

rests

on a
SO.OOOlbs

but the right end


vertical,

fastened to a wall;

therefore the reaction of the left-hand wall

must be

but that of the other


it

may

be inclined.

Let

be required to determine
the
left

these reactions.

We call
6.

reaction

the right one B,


to the horizontal

and the

inclination of

B
Fig. 61

Then

the

first

set of

XMb = +35,000 45 50,000 X (60 cos 30) 2F^ = Bco5d 46,400 pounds. 50,000 sin 30 = o, sin 6 50,000 cos 30 35,000 and 2/^y = 46,400 = o; these solved = 51 54'. simultaneously give B = 40,500 pounds and
equilibrium equations gives

A X go =

o,

or

A =

+B

For algebraic solutions,

it

is

generally advisable to imagine the second


is

unknown

known, to be replaced by two in the form of typical problem Thus, in the preceding example the unknowns would be A (v) (see next page). and, instead of B and 6, B^ and By. After finding Bj, and By, one could easily get B and 6.
force,

whose point

of application

(unknown) components.

Then

the problem

is

The

graphical solution of this problem

is

eftected

by drawing the
system
is

force

and

the string polygons,


35,000

making both

close since the force

in equilibrium.

To
lb5.

illustrate

we

use the preceding

example.

We

first

ABC
C
Fig. 62
is

(Fig. 62) for the


it

draw the polygon known forces,


line

and continue

with a

through

parallel to the left-hand reaction.

The end
to be

of that line, as yet unknown, marked D; that point once

determined, then
the right-hand reaction.

DA

will represent

To

find

we must

construct a string polygon; so

we next mark
OC.

the lines of action of the several forces to agree with the nota-

tion in the force polygon, choose a pole 0,

and draw the rays OA, OB, and


is

To make

use of the

known

point

of the fourth force (right-hand reac-

tion), the string polygon must be begun at that point. The string oa one to draw through that point (to ab), and then ob and oc as shown.

the

must pass through points i and 4, and so is determined. draw the ray OD (parallel to od), and thus determine D (the intersection of CD and OD).
string od

The Next we

The
force

following special graphical

method

is

simpler in principle than the pre-

ceding method: Let

R =

the resultant of the wholly

known

forces,

P=

the

whose line of action is known, and Q = the force whose point of application is known. Find R, and then imagine the wholly known forces replaced by R; R, P, and Q would be in equilibrium. Now a balanced three- force

48
system
is

Chap,

concurrent or parallel (Art. 10, 2); hence

if

intersects P, then

acts through that point of intersection,


If the three forces are concurrent,

and

if

is

parallel to P, then

is

also.

then determine
1 1
;

P
if

and

from the

force triangle for the three forces as explained in Art.

they are parallel,

determine

and

as explained in Art. 12.


First

To

illustrate,

we

use the data

and BC (Fig. 63), to represent the two loads; then AC represents the magnitude and direction of their The line of action of R is ac, parallel to AC and passing through resultant R. the intersection of ab and be. (When
of the foregoing example.

we draw

AB

the wholly
50.0001b5.A(

known
is

forces

are noncon-

current

it

necessary to construct a

string polygon to find a point in the line


of action of R, see Art. 6.)

extend the lines of action of

We next R and P,
is

and
Fig. 63

join their intersection with the point

of application of Q; this line of action of Q.

the line

Finally

we complete
Q.
(v).

the force triangle

AC DA

for R, P,

and

Q; then

CD = P
is

and

DA =

2. Typical Problem
parallel forces

system of coplanar nonconcurrent nonall

in equilibrium,

and

the forces except three are wholly

known; only the lines of action tudes and senses are required.*

of these three are

known, and

their

magni-

The

algebraic solution of this problem can be effected

by means

of

any one

of these three sets of equilibrium equations:

SFx = SF =

2M = o;

2/^^

= 2Ma = Mlb = o;

or l^Ma

= ^Ah = ZMc = o.

For example, consider the crane represented in Fig. 64. It consists of a post the post rests in a depression in the floor a. boom CD, and a brace EF; below, and against the side of a hole in the floor above. The external forces acting on

AB,

the crane consist of the load

(8 tons), the

weights of the parts

named

(0.8, 0.9,

and

i.i

tons respectively), and the reactions of the


floors.

The upper
two
forces

floor exerts a single hori-

zontal force on
exerts

the post;

the lower floor

on the post, one horizontal and one vertical. Let it be required to determine the magnitudes of these reactions.

'^^''mwi^

The
then
0.9

entire external
is

system of forces just


Calling the reactions A, B^,
of

Fig. 64

described
the
II

in equilibrium.

and By

respectively,

first

set

equilibrium

equations become:

I.I

A =

9.86;

XFy

X 7 + 5x X 18 = o, or B^ = 9.86; XFj, By 8.0 0.8 0.9 I.I = o, or By =


forces are concurrent or parallel, the

2Ma = 8 X 20 = 9.86 - A = o, or
10.8 tons.
is

* If the three

unknown

problem

indeterminate.

Art. 13

49
general graphical solution
is

The
two

carried out as follows:

stand for the three forces whose lines of action only are known.
of these, say
is

Let P, Q, and S Imagine any

P and Q, replaced by their resultant R'; one point in that known, the intersection of P and Q. Then S, R', and the known resultant be in equilibrium, would and the given problem has been transformed forces problem iv. first typical So we determine S and R', as explained in i, to into resolve R' two components parallel to P and Q; these compothen and nents are P and Q. To illustrate, we take the preceding example, and we call the two lower reactions P and Q, and the upper one 5 (Fig. 65). The re'sultant R' of P and Q passes through the lower end of the post. We draw the polygon etons 0.9tons ABCDE for the knowns, and continue
it

with a line parallel to S,

The
is

as

yet

unknown end

of that line

to

be
the

marked F; that point once determined,


then

FA

will
all

represent

R'

since

polygon for

the forces

must

close.

To

find

F we

must construct a

string

polygon; so

we mark

the lines of acFig. 65

tion of the several forces to agree with

the notation in the force polygon, choose

OA, OB, OC, OD, and OE. The string polygon must be begun at the lower end of the The strings to pass through post, the point of application of FA or R'. that point are of and oa (Art. 6), and so we draw oa to ab; then ob, oc, od, and Now point i is in of, and point 6 is also; therefore of is deteroe as shown. mined. The ray OF is drawn next (parallel to of), thus determining i^; then EF and FA represent 5 and R', as already stated. Finally we draw through
a pole 0, and draw rays

a vertical and through

a horizontal; then

FG and GA

represent the

vertical

and horizontal reactions (P and Q)


is

of the lower floor.

The following special


ing:

graphical

method

simpler in principle than the precedFirst

we determine the resultant R known forces; R and the three partly unknown forces (P, Q, and The special S) would be in equilibrium.
of the wholly

condition of equilibrium for four such


forces
is

that the resultant R' of

any

pair as

P and Q

balances the other pair;

hence R' and the other pair (R and S)

and so must be conNext we solve the system R\ R, and S (if concurrent by Art. 11, and if parallel by Art. 12). Finally we complete the force polygon for R, S, P, and Q. For an illusare in equilibrium,
FiG. 66

current or parallel.

50
tration

Chap,

we take

the preceding example.

Let the two lower reactions be

The resultant R of the called P and Q, and the upper one 5 (Fig. 66). The loads is I0.8 tons acting as shown (construction for R is indicated). resultant R' acts through point i; and, since R and .S are concurrent at point 2, R' acts through point 2 also. We now draw the force triangle AEFA Finally we draw for R, S, and R' AE representing R; then EF represents S. lines from A and F parallel to Q and P, thus fixing G\ and then FG represents
,

P, and

GA
The

represents Q.
14.

Noncoplanar Forces in Equilibrium


noncoplanar forces are set forth in

I.

pirinciples of equilibrium for

and (vii). The three following illustrations deal with concurrent, parallel, and nonconcurrent nonparallel forces respectively. (Fig. 67) weighing 1000 pounds is suspended from a (i) A heavy body ring over the center of a street 60 feet wide; the ring is supported by three ropes OA,OB, and OC; A and B are points on the face of a building as shown, and C is a point on the face of a building (not shown) on the opposite side of the street, OC being
Art. 10 under (v), (vi),

perpendicular

to

the face of

the buildings.

Values of the tensions in the ropes are required.

There are four forces acting on the


the pull of 1000 pounds,
three ropes which
tively;
this

ring,

we
is

call

and the pulls of the L, M, and N respec-

system

concurrent.
in
it,

To
we

deter-

mine the unknown

forces

use the

conditions that the algebraic

sums

of the

com-

ponents along three rectangular axes equal


as axes we choose a vertical line and two horizontal lines, one parallel and one transverse to the street To get the components of L, M, and N, we need values of certain angles: A'OC' = tan-^ A'C'/OC'= 28 4'; AOA'= tan-i
zero;
Fig. 67

AA'/OA'=

30 28';

B'OC^ tan-'
and
sin
il/

B'C'/0C'=s8

40';

BOB'=

tan"'

BB'/OB'

= 46

11'.

The

X, y,

sin 28

4'= 0.405 L, L

components, respectively, of L are L cos 30 28' 30 28'= 0.507 L, and L cos 30 28' cos 28 4' =
o, o,

0.760 L; of
0.721

M,

M they are cos 46 11' sin 38 40'= 0.4325 M, M sin 46 ii' = and and M cos 46 11' cos 38 40'= 0.5405 M; of N they are
looo-pound pull they are
o,

N\

of the

1000,

and
o

o.

The

algebraic

sums

of the X, y,

and

components are

0.405 L

-\-

0.4325

-\-

-\-

=0

Solving these

-{-0.507 L -f 0.721 M -1- o 1000 = o, 0.760 L 0.5405 M + iV -|- o = o. equations simultaneously, we find that L =

846,

M=

792,

and

N=

1072 pounds.

Art. 14

SI

(ii) A body weighing 1000 pounds is suspended from the ceiling of a room by means of three vertical ropes; the points of attachment at the ceiling lie at the vertices of an equilateral triangle ABC (Fig. is the projection 68) whose sides are 10 feet long; of the center of gravity of the body upon the ceiling. The tension in each rope is required. We call the tensions in the ropes fastened at A, B, and C, respectively, L, M, and N. The four forces acting on the body constitute a parallel system; the conditions of Fig. 68 equilibrium for such are that the sums of the moments of the forces about any three coplanar nonparallel axes perpendicular to the The lines AB, BC, and CA are good lines to choose as forces equal zero. axes of moments. With respect to these lines the moment equations are

respectively,

NX
1000

8.66

1000

2.10

o,

8.66

1000

4.15

o,

and

MX
(iii)

8.66

2.41

=0,

8.66 being the altitude of the triangle.

Solu-

tion of these equations


Fig. 69

single rail

= 278, and N = 243 pounds. shows that L = 479, shows a velocipede crane. The crane can be run along on a below, tipping being prevented by two overhead rails which guide
a horizontal wheel mounted on the top
of the crane post.
1.25 tons,

The crane weighs


balanced so that
its

and

it is

center of gravity
post.

is

in the axis of the

We will now show how to determine the supporting forces (exerted by


the
rails)

when
is

the crane supports a

load of 1.5 tons

and the jib swung out


the
rails

1^

at

right angles to
toleft

ward the
:

(Fig. 70).

There are
three support-

ing

forces

or

reactions,

one

on each wheel.
Since the lower
Fig. 70
rail is level,

the
rails in their

crane does not tend to


direction.

roll,

and there

is

no reaction of the
is

The

reaction of the upper

rail

directed horizontally

and

evi-

dently as shown;
as shown.

the reaction on each lower wheel has two components


these

We

call

component reactions Ax, Ay, 'Vi Bx, and 5, 'v> and the

upper reaction C.

The

external system of forces acting on the entire crane

52
consist of the reactions

Chap,

ii

named, the weight

of the crane,

and the

load.

For

noncoplanar nonconcurrent nonparallel systems there are, in general, six conditions of equilibrium, but this system has only five because there are no
" z forces " (see the figure).

The

five conditions of

equilibrium are
(i)

2F,
2i^

=A, + B,-C = o; =+^ + ^- 1.25-

1.5

0;

(2) (3)
(4)
(5)

2if^

= ByX4- AyX6 = 0; XMy = ^x X 4 - -^x X 6 = o; ZM, = C X 16 - 1.5 X 6 = o.


that

From
tons,
1. 10

(5) it follows

C =

5.625 tons; from (i) and (4), that


(2)

and Ax =
tons.

2.25 ^tons;

from

and

(3),

that By

1.65

Bx = 3.375 tons, and Ay =


if

We now
of a

give another solution,


in equilibrium

making use

of the principle that

the forces

system

be represented by vectors, then the projection of the vectors on any plane represents a
force

-rV

T-Y

system also
10

in

equilibrium
Fig.

(see

Art.

under

(vii)).

71
y-z,

shows

such projections on the x-y,


planes of Fig. 70.
jection
(side

and

z-x

From
or

the y-z pro2ilf a

elevation),

=ByX
tons;

10

2.75

o,

By

1.65

and 2ifB = or Ay = 1. 10
1.5

Ay Xio +
tons.

2.75

=
16

o,

From the

x-y projec-

tion (end elevation),

ZMa = C X
5.625 tons.

X
-\-

o,

or

C=

From

the z-x projection (plan),


^

10

5.625

Plan.
Fig. 71

and 27lfB or Ax = 2.25


2.

X 6 = o, = ^i X 10 +
tons.

'ZMa = or Bx = 2.375
5.625

BxX
tons;

o,

noncoplanar system can gen-

erally be solved

method

is

an equivalent coplanar system. This indirect regarded as simpler than the direct one when the forces of the nonof

by means

coplanar system are nonparallel.

The two

following examples will illustrate.


[--

For one example we use the data of example (i). Instead of ropes OA

y
V
0,/

-7H

rB

and

OB

(Fig. 67),

imagine a rope 00'

/ r^
/

5-A.-

in the plane of those ropes,


in the

and

also

p./

l\/
Ml

same

vertical plane with

COC.

Such a rope fastened to and to the C-e N 0' building at would help to support the ring in its place, 8.nd would leave
the tension in
forceSj

Il0001b5.

T
Fig. 72

'

1000,

OC
iV,

unchanged.

Thus the

ring

would be acted upon by three


(Fig. 72).

and the

pull

of the

new rope

force tri-

Art. 14
angle,

53

shows that the pull N = 1070 and P = 1460 OA, OB, and 00' in their true relations, pounds. We the imaginary rope into components in pull 1460 the resolve then we and off OQ equal to 1460, and then on lay we Thus ropes. real the along and ON, OMQN; and find parallelogram the complete OQ diagonal the

FGHF,

for these forces

next lay out the ropes

OM

representing the tensions in the real ropes, 860

elevaFor another illustration The requirement is to determine the forces acting at the top of each leg On account of this load, each leg of the tripod due to a load of 1000 pounds. of that leg, and so is under the action of two forces, one applied at each end
tion.

and 790 pounds. we take a tripod (Fig. 73), shown in plan and

those two forces act along the axis of the leg. We imagine a single leg in the plane of any two, and in the same vertical plane with

the third, to replace the two; thus

OD

to replace

OA
and

and OB.

Then

there

would be three

forces applied

to the pin at 0, namely, the load 1000 pounds,

the supporting forces exerted

by

OC

and OD.

So we

draw a force triangle for these three forces FGHF; shows that the push of OC is GH = 565, and that of OD is HF =650 pounds. Next we lay out
it

the other pair of legs and the imaginary one in their


true
relation

0"A", 0"B", and 0"D", and make

650 pounds; then resolve 0"P into two components along the pair 0"A" and 0"B" by means of a parallelogram 0"MPN. Thus we find that 0"M and 0"N represent the pushes of AO and BO,
or 340 pounds.

0"P = HF =

CHAPTER
15.
I.

III

SIMPLE STRUCTURES
Simple Frameworks (Truss Type)

The frames herein considered consist of straight members, and the axes of all the members lie in one plane; such are called plane frames, and the plane of the axes is called the plane of the frame. In order to make the
axes of
to

members that plane, some


all

lie in

of the

one plane, and the truss symmetrical with respect members must be made in parts or with forked For example see Fig. 74, which shows plan ends.

and elevation of a joint of a frame at which four members are pinned together, one vertical (double), one diagonal D (single), and two horizontals Hi and

Hi (each double). Wooden members are generally bolted together with more or less mortising; steel members are riveted together or joined by pins through holes in the members, the axes of pins and holes being perpendicular to the plane of the frame.
All frames here

considered are assumed to be of the pin-connected


type;

and, furthermore,
is,

it

is

assumed that each

member

connects only two joints, that

extends from one joint to another

but not also to a third one. In such pin-connected frames, the


exerted

lines of action of the pin pressures (forces

by

pins on the members) are in or parallel to the plane of the frame.

Thus, the resultant pressure of the pin on the diagonal


clearly in the plane;

the pin exerts on the vertical

member D (Fig. 74) is member two forces which,


parallel,

on account of the symmetrical arrangement, are equal,


distant from the plane,

and equally
forces lies in

and therefore the resultant


the plane.

of these

two

the plane; and obviously the resultant of the forces exerted


horizontal

member

lies in

regarded as lying in the same plane,


deal with in the present connection.
frictionless;

by a pin on each Thus all resultant pin pressures will be and we will have only coplanar forces to

We

assume that the pins are practically


each pressure cuts the axis of

in that case

each pin pressure acts practically normally to the


line of action of

surface of the pin,

and so the

the corresponding pin.

In this and the following articles


the frame at
its

joints only,

load cuts the axis of

we assume that the loads are applied to and in such manner that the line of action of each the pin at the joint. Then each member, if its own weight
54

Art.
is

is

55

is subjected to forces (pin pressures and loads) at its two pin somewhat as shown in Fig. 75 or Fig. 76, where P' and P" denote pin pressures and L' and L" loads. Let R' denote the resultant of P' and L\ and R" the resultant of P" and L". Since R' and R" balance, each acts along

neglected,

holes only,

R'

Tension

?'/

NP"

Compression
'^
"

^nn^ A

^,^|___

R'

R"

Fig. 75

Fig. 76

member, and hence each member is under simple tension or parts of the member, as m and n, exert equal and opposite forces upon each other; A (Figs. 75 and 76) denotes the force exerted on m by n, and B that exerted on n by m. Since A balances R' and B balances R" A and B also act along the axis of the member. And obviously, if R' and R" are pushes (the member in compression), then A and B are pushes; and if R' and R" are pulls (member is in tension), then A and B are pulls. And conversely, if A and B are pushes, then the member is in compression; and if pulls, then in tension. By stress in a member is meant either of the two forces which two portions, as m and n, exert upon each other.* We are now ready to explain a method for determining the stresses in the members of a simple truss due to given loads we begin with an
the axis of the

compression.

Any two

Example.

Fig.

77 represents a truss supported at each end; the angles


'1"'^-

equal 60 degrees; it sustains two loads of 2000 pounds each and one of 1000 pounds. First,
it

^^^^I'"*1
\

is

necessary to ascertam the values of the

A
/'"

reactions

A and

B.

Since

all

the

external

forces acting

on the truss (loads and reactions)

V
\
'

are in

equilibrium,

30

1000

^Ma ^ B X 40 2000 X A/ T X 10 2000 X 20 = o, or5 = 2750 A pounds; and Svlfs = -^ X 40+ 1000 X 30 + 2000 X 10 + 2000 X
20

/"'\ \ \,-. / \, \ / V/ / \b \
' 1 i
I
'

,^|"^^-

^^'

'^'^

^^'

"^

o,

or

1000

= o,

A = 2250. IIF = 2250 2750 2000 2000 which result checks the computed values of A and B.

We now
truss near

direct our attention to the joint A, the small part of A (or " pass a section " about A and consider that

part of the truss within the section), that part (see Fig. 78).
*

and then note all the forces acting on There are three such forces, the reaction 2250

it to designate the forces which any two parts of the same body exert upon each other; that is they use it as a general term for an "action and reaction" (Art. 11). Most engineers, however, use the term in a more restricted sense to designate the force which one part of a body exerts upon an adjacent part at the surface of division. is

The term

stress

defined variously.

Some

writers use

any two

different bodies or

56

Chap,

pounds, and the two forces exerted upon the part under consideration by the

remainder of the truss; they are marked Fi and F2, and both are assumed to
be pulls.*
This part of the truss, as well as every other part,
is

at rest,

and

so the three forces are in equilibrium.

Determination of the unknown forces


(Art, 11).

Fi and Fi presents typical problem (i) method for solving: 'LFy = F2 sin 60

We
o,

choose the algebraic


F2

2250

or
is,

2600;
is

the

negative sign indicates that F2


pressive.

is

really a push, that

the stress

com-

SFi

Fi

2600 cos 60
is tensile.

o,

or Fi

= +1300;

the positive sign

indicates that the stress

Passing a section around B, and consider-

ing the forces acting on the part of the truss within the section (or " considering forces at joint 5"),

we

get Fig. 79.

The

forces are the reaction 2750

pounds and the two forces exerted on the part under consideration by the remainder of the truss; they are marked F3 and F4 and are assumed to b'e
pulls.

Solution of this three-force system shows that F3

= +1588

(tension),

and F4 = 3177 (compression). Next we might discuss joint C, D, or E and determine two more stresses. Fig. 80 represents joint C and the forces acting upon it so far as known. Stress
_
^
^

\
27501bil gyjOibsT

I3p01 b5.

\/ Ny
ZOOollba.

1588^^5.

K
1

1000 lbs

lOOOlbs.l

'

\
1444 lbs-

^'=7\ / \
666 lbs.
Fig. 82
31771bs.

2600 lbs.

Fig. 79

Fig. 80

Fig. 81

CA was determined to be a tension of 1300 pounds; therefore the part of CA not shown in the figure exerts a pull of 1300 on the part shown as indicated. Similarly, the part of CB not shown in the figure exerts a pull of 1588
in

on the part shown as indicated; F5 and F^ are assumed to be


of this five-force system shows that F5
(tension).

pulls.

Solution

= +1444

(tension),

and Fg

= +866

Taking

joint

next,

we

get Fig. 81, four forces acting on the

joint (the load,

and the three

forces exerted

the truss), the part of

DA was found to be DA not shown in the


to be

on the joint by the remainder of under a compression of 2600 pounds, hence figure acts on the part shown as indicated;

CD was found
shown
a
pull.

in the figure acts

under a tension of 1444 pounds, hence the part of DC not on the part shown as indicated; F7 is assumed to be

ZFx

o shows that F^
it

= 2021
is

(compression);

and writing out


as already deter-

2Fj,

we

find that

equals zero, which

a fair check on the computation.


it,

Fig. 82 represents joint

and

all

the forces acting upon

mined.

If 2Fa;

o and SFj,
is

o for those forces, then the check on the pre-

ceding computations
*

satisfactory.

In simple trusses the kind of stress (tension or compression) in any member is apparent. When the kind is not apparent, we might follow the suggestion in the footnote, page 41.

But

for uniformity

we
is

will

always assume the force to be a


is

pull.
is

Then, according to the

footnote, the force

actually a pull or a push (and the stress


positive or negative.

tensile or compressive), ac-

cording as

its

computed value

AxT. IS
Directions.

57

method for "analyzing a truss" (determinmembers) can be formulated into brief directions as follows: (i) Determine the reactions (supporting forces) on the truss if possible. (2) Consider a joint at which there are only two unknown forces, and then determine those two. (3) Repeat (2) again and again until all stresses have been determined. (These directions do not pro\ide for a certain contingency which may arise; see 2 for a case and directions for
foregoing
ing the stresses in its

The

meeting

it.)

We now
Fig. 83 will

give illustration of truss analysis

computations; they should be supplied by the student.

be used;

it is

supported at
the

method but omitting the The truss shown in each end, and supports three loads of
by
this
5000
5000 1 lbs.
I

5000 pounds as shown.


reaction

Obviously each
total

equals

one-half

load.

lbs.

On

joint

there are three forces (the restresses in

action,

and the

AD

and AE)\

solving that force system


first

we

find that the

stress

15,000 pounds compression,

and the second

13,000 tension.
forces
\n

On
load

joint

there

are

four

(the
=^

5000
in

^^'

pounds, the stress

AD

15,000 pounds, and the stresses in

unknown); solving that system, we find that the stress compression, and that in DC = 12,500 compression.
four forces (the stress in

DE =
joint

and DC 4335 pounds

DE
E

On

there are

AE =

13,000 pounds, the stress in


;

DE =
EG =

4335

pounds, and the stresses in


find that the stress in

EC and EG unknown) EC = 4335 pounds tension,


meet

solving the system,

we

and that

in

8667

tension.
2.

We now

explain the contingency or diflSculty mentioned in the fore-

going directions and


SOOllbb.

how

to

it;

the truss

shown

in Fig.

84 furnishes an

illustration.
aooiibs.

Following the directions,


the reactions Ri and R2,

we determine
joint

800, lbs

2800 pounds and 2400.


600
1

Then we take

lbs

A, and find stresses in

AB
GF
joint

and

-43" to

be 3960 (compression) and 2800 (tension) respectively; next we take

joint G,

and

find stresses in

and
re-

GI
->i<-

to be

3400 (compression) and 2400


respectively.

/e'--->l<-

(tension)

No

Fig. 84

mains at which there are only two

unknown stresses, and the difiiculty is already met. Now if in some way we could ascertain the stress in almost any other member, then we could continue to apply the rule. For example, if we knew the stress in HB, HJ, or HI, then consideration of joint would determine the two unknown stresses there; consideration of joint B would give stresses in BJ and BC; consideration of joint C would give stresses in CJ and CD, etc. Now there is a way to

-o
ascertain the stresses in

Chap, in

those members,
the truss.
Fig,

CD, JD, and HI, hy passing a section through and solving the force system acting upon either portion of 85 represents the left-hand portion and all the forces acting
^

^'"'

^7
/ss

upon it; namely, the three loads, the left reaction, and the forces which the right-hand part exerts (^i, ^2, and 53, assumed to be pulls). Solution of this force system presents typical problem (v) (Art. 13). To
determine
Si,

for example,

we take moments about


(or joint D),

the intersection of
^
z&oolibs.

^2 and S3
tension.

and

find

Si=
s^

1600 pounds

Then having determined

1200 jibs.

we proceed

as in the foregoing examples.

In order to determine the stress in any particular member of a truss the following direction may be tried: Imagine the truss separated into two distinct parts (" pass a section " through the truss); pass is one of the members it in such a way that the member under consideration
Fig. 85

cut by the section, and so that the system of forces acting on one of the two parts is solvable for the desired stress; then solve the system for the desired

(The system of forces acting on one part of the truss consists of the loads and reactions on that part, and the forces, or stresses, which the other part exerts upon it. In plane trusses this system is always coplanar; it can be solved if it is concurrent with not more than two unknowns, or if it is nonstress.

concurrent with not more than three unknowns, provided that the three
.

unknowns are not parallel nor concurrent.) Foregoing direction may be applied not only to bridge over the difiiculty
sometimes met in connection with directions in i, but also when it is desired to determine the stress in a particular member quite directly without first computing stresses in several other members. For example, let it be required to determine the stress in BC (Fig. 86), the truss being supported at its ends, span ^ = 32 feet, rise CG" = 8 feet, and five loads as shown. Obviously

1000

lbs.

Fig. 86

Fig. 87

each reaction equals 4000 pounds.


force

section cutting

a left-hand part of the truss with its external forces as

system can be solved

for the desired stress;

BC, BG, and OF gives shown in Fig. 87. The taking moments about the
cos 26 34'

intersection of ^2

and ^3
o, or 5i

(joint G),

we

get

5i

X8X

4000

X
is

16 -f 3000

= 5600,

the negative sign indicating that Si


in the

compressive and not

tensile, as

assumed

moment

equation.

Art.

59

3.

Warning

is

here given that not

all

trusses can be analyzed

by the

principles of statics alone, as in the preceding;

that

is

to

say,

there are

trusses that are statically indeterminate.


fect trusses are

Only the

so-called complete or per-

always statically determinate; beside these there are incomtrusses with

plete trusses,

and

redundant members.
is

pin-connected triangle (Fig. 88)

the simplest complete truss;

it

is

indeformable and has no superfluous or redundant members.

Adding two

more members makes a complete truss of two triangles; and each addition of two members as shown extends the truss and
leaves
it

complete.

If

m=
m =
2

number
j

of

members, and j for a complete

= number
truss,

of joints, then

t,.

A
is

Fig. 88

Fig. 89

Fig. 90

pin-connected quadrilateral

(Fig.
it is

89)

the simplest incomplete truss;

deformable and requires the addition of


complete.

one or more members to make

it

For an incomplete

truss,

w<
is

27

3.

pin-connected quadrilateral with two diagonal members

(Fig. 90)

is

the simplest truss with a superfluous or redundant

member;

it

indeformable and would be so with any

member removed.
Figs. 91,
92,

For a truss

with a redundant

member

m >

t,-

and 93 are other

examples

of the three classes of trusses described.

Fig. qi

Fig. 92

Fig. 93

In the foregoing

it is

assumed that the

trusses are pin-connected,

each

member can

sustain tension or compression as called

and that upon by the loading.

For a

classification not so restricted as this one, readers are referred to stand-

ard works on Structures.*

16.
I.

Graphical Analysis of Trusses; Stress Diagrams

Graphical methods are especially well adapted for analyzing trusses.

As

in the algebraic

methods

of the preceding article,

we imagine the

truss

separated into two parts, and direct our attention to the external forces acting

upon either

part.

Graphical instead of algebraical conditions of equilibrium

are then applied to these forces to determine the unknowns.


for graphical

The

notation

work described in Art. 2 can be advantageously systemized as follows: Each triangular space in the truss diagram is marked by a lowercase letter, also the space between consecutive lines of action of the loads and reactions (Fig. 94) then the two letters on opposite sides of any line serve to
;

Johnson, Bryan, and Turncaure's Modern Framed Structures.

6o
designate that line, and the

Chap, hi

same

capital letters are used to designate the

magnitude

of the corresponding force.


lOOOMbs.
1000
lbs.

This scheme of notation

is

a great

help in graphical analyses of trusses.

As an
stress in

illustration

each

we determine the member of the truss of


each
reaction

Fig.

94.

Evidently

one-half the load, or 2000 pounds. We " pass section " a, and

equals

consider the forces acting on the

left-

hand part of the pounds, and the


polygon

truss (Fig. 95)


stresses cd

they are the load 500 pounds, the reaction 2000


da.

and

Since those forces are in equilibrium, their

closes; in constructing
yl.B is

it,

the

unknowns

will

be determined.

Beginning

with the knowns,


;

drawn

to represent 2000 pounds,

BC

to represent

500 pounds and then a line from A (or C) parallel to the line of action of one unknown, and a line from C (or A) parallel to the other, are drawn. The last two lines determine D (or D'), and the closed polygon is A BCD A (or A BCD' A) hence the forces in the members cd and ad are represented by CD and DA (3000 and 2600 pounds) respectively. It is seen from the force polygon that CD is a push, and DA is a pull; hence the members cd and ad are in compression and tension respectively.
;

B
500 lbs

b|a

D-Fig. 95

->--'A

EOOOlbs

3000

lbs.

Fig. 96

We may next pass section (3, and consider the forces acting on the smaller (and simpler) part of the truss (Fig. 96); they are the load 1000 pounds, the
stress 3000 pounds (compressive), and the stresses fe and de. Their force polygon may be drawn thus: DC to represent 3000 pounds (compression),

CF

to represent 1000 pounds, a line

from

parallel to
last

and one from

parallel to the other.


is

The

two

lines

one of the unknowns, determine E, and

the force polygon


are represented

DCFED;

hence the forces in the members fe and ed


866
lbs.

by FE and ED (2500 and 866 pounds) respectively. Both members are in compression. We next pass section 7, and consider the forces acting on the smaller part of the truss (Fig. 97) they consist
;

^/a
26001b5.d

^
D

^L a

.2
a

of the stress 2600

pounds (tension), the stress 866 pounds (compression), and the stresses eg and ga. Their force

polygon

may

be drawn thus:

AD to represent 2600 pounds

\? E

pounds (compression), Fig. 97 a line from E parallel to one of the unknowns, and a line from A parallel to the other. The last two lines determine G, and the force polygon is A DEC A;

(tension),

DE

to represent 866

AsT. id

6l

in the members eg and ag are represented by EG and GA and 1732 pounds) respectively. Each member is in tension. On account of the symmetry of the truss and loading, the forces in the remaining members are now known. In drawing the force polygon for all the external forces on the part of a

hence the forces


(866

truss included within a section

about a

joint, it will

be advantageous to repre-

sent the forces in the order in which they occur about the joint.

force
if

polygon so drawn
the order taken
is

will

be called a polygon for the joint; and for brevity,


it will

clockwise the polygon will be called a clockwise polygon,

and

if

counterclockwise

be called a counterclockwise polygon.

ABC DA

a clockwise polygon for joint b of Fig. 94; A BCD' A is a force polygon for the "forces at joint i," but it is not a polygon for the joint, because the forces are not represented in the polygon in the order in which the
(Fig. 95) is

forces occur

about the
joint,

joint.

The student should draw

the counterclockwise

polygon for the


If the

and compare with


all

ABCDA.
drawn separately as
will

polygons for
It

the joints of a truss are

in the

preceding illustration, then the stress in each


sented twice.
it

member

have been repre-

is

possible to

combine the polygons so that

will

not be necessary to represent the stress in any

mem-

ber more than once, thus reducing the

number

of lines to

be drawn.
a
stress

diagram.

Such a combination of force polygons is called Fig. 98 is a stress diagram for the truss
shown.

of Fig. 94 loaded as there

Comparing the part

of

the stress diagram consisting of solid lines with Figs. 95, 96, and 97, it is seen to be a combination of the latter three
figures.

It will also

be observed that the polygons are

all

clockwise polygons; counterclockwise polygons also could be combined into

a stress diagram.
Directions for constructing a stress diagram for a truss under given loads:
(i)

Letter the truss diagram as already explained.

Determine the reactions. (In some exceptional cases this stage must be omitted; also stage (3). See 2 for two illustrations.)
(2)
(3)

may

or

Construct a force polygon for

all

the external forces applied to the truss


in the order in

(loads

and

reactions), representing

them
is

which

their points of

application occur about the truss, clockwise or counterclockwise.


of that
(4)

(The part
the joints.

polygon representing the loads

called a load line.)


all

On

the sides of that polygon construct the polygons for

They must be clockwise or counterclockwise ones, according as the polygon The for the loads and reactions was drawn clockwise or counterclockwise. first polygon drawn must be for a joint at which but two members are fastened; the joints at the supports are usually such. Next the polygon is drawn for a point at which not more than two stresses are unknown; that is, of all the members fastened at that joint the forces in not more than two are unknown. Then the next joint at which not more than two stresses are unknown is con-

62
sidered, etc., etc.

Chap,

iii

(These directions do not provide for a certain diflSculty


a case and directions for handling
it.)

which

may
it

arise; see 2 for

To

illustrate the foregoing directions

we analyze

the truss represented in


is

Fig. 99;

sustains four loads (600, 1000, 1200,


1800

and 1800 pounds), and

(000

:s

supported at

its

ends.

draw the
is

force polygon for the loads

Supposing the reactions to have been determined, we and reactions ABCDBF A, at the left; it

a clockwise polygon.
I

We may
it is

begin by drawing the clockwise polygon for

joint

or 2; for the former

pression

and gf

in tension.

hg is therefore in comNext we may draw the clockwise polygon for


it is

FABGF* Member
CDEHC.
is

joint 2, 3, or 4;

for the joint 2

Member

ch

is

in

compression
gh
is

and eh

in tension.
If the

For joint

3,

the polygon
correctly

HEFGH, and member

in
is

tension.

work has been

and accurately done, the

line

GH

parallel to gh.
2.

There are exceptional cases not covered by the foregoing

directions.

In case the reactions cannot be determined in advance, the stress diagram can still be drawn if the truss is statically determinate. Fig.
ii

100 represents such a case, the truss being pinned to


supports.

its

The diagram can be constructed by drawing


(all
i, 2, 3,

in

succession the proper polygons


|r
Fig. 100

clockwise or counter-

clockwise) for joints

reactions can be determined


joints 5

and 4. Then, if desired, the by drawing the polygons for

Fig. loi represents a case

and 6. where the reactions can be


the analysis, but determina-

determined at stage
tion of the reactions of the stress diagram.

(2) of
is

not essential for the construction

The
stress

truss

is

supported by a shelf

Fig. ioi diagram can be constructed by drawing in succession proper polygons for joints i, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The reaction at B is determined by the polygon for joint 5; that at A by the polygon for joint 6.

A and

tie

B.

The

is urged to make sketches of the bodies (parts of truss) upon which the whose polygons are being drawn, act. A force acting upon the "cut" end of a member and toward the joint is a pu'ih, and the stress in the member is compressive; if the force acts away from the joint, it is a pull, and the stress is tensile.

The student

forces,

Art. i6
Fig.
1

^3

02 shows a truss the analysis of which is not fully provided for in the Thus, suppose that the reactions have been determined; the directions. then that for joint i may be drawn first, next that for joint 2, and polygon for
joint 3.

Similarly the polygons for joints


joint remains at

then no

i', 2', and 3' can be drawn; but which there are but two unknown stresses, and so

no more polygons can be drawn, as yet. If in any way the number of unknown stresses at a remaining joint could be reduced to two, then the polygon diagram could be completed. for that joint could be drawn, and the stress then the polygon for determined, be could or ij, jm, in stress mf the if Thus,
joint 4 could be

drawn, and then those for


1000
I

5, 6, 7,

and

8.

lbs.

1000
I-

Ibi.

1000 lbs

1000 lbs.

VA\^

ig

1000 lbs.

Fig. 102

The

difficulty here
I

pointed out

is

just like that


It

mentioned under the

direc-

be met by means of the direction in 2 of that article, which explains how to determine the stress in a particular member quite directly and independently of any stress diagram or polygons for joints. Thus to determine the stress in w/we pass a section as a,
tions in

of the preceding article.

may

and solve the external system of forces (including stresses in the cut) which acts upon either part of the truss for the desired stress. proceed with the stress diagram as already pointed out. There ways of meeting the difficulty presented in this form of truss, but
explained
is

members Then we
are other

that here

quite general and can be applied readily to other forms.

We

will

now

explain this matter in detail, using the

same

truss.

Evidently

each reaction equals one-half the total load.


wise polygon for
that for joint
joints
i',

ABCDEE'D'C'B'A 'FA is a clockthe loads and reactions. The polygon for joint i is FABGF; The polygons for is GBCHG; that for joint 3 is FGHIF.
3'

2',

and

are B'A'FG'B', C'B'G'H'C,

and H'G'FI'H'

respectively.

The

on the part of the truss to the left of section and 6, the left reaction, and the forces exerted on the left part This system may be solved of the truss by the right (stresses el, Im, and mf). graphically or algebraically; the algebraic method is much the simpler, arms
forces acting
i, 2, 5,

are the loads

at joints

of forces being scaled

from the truss drawing. Thus to ascertain the stress mf, we take moments about the intersection of el and Im, and get 1000 X

64
7.5

Chap, rn

+ 1000 X
mf = 3425

15

+ 1000 X

22.5

+ 500 X 30 4000 X
difl&culties.

30

{mf)

17.5

o,

or

in the stress

Next we represent the stress mf in its proper place diagram at MF, and then draw the polygon for joint 4; it is
(tension).

MFIJM.

Completion presents no

17.

Simple Frameworks (Crane Type)

The frames here considered, like the trusses of the preceding articles, are plane and symmetrical with respect to the plane of the frame. For example, the crane represented in Fig. 103 consists of a post MN, a boom PQ, and a
brace
brace

KQ;
lie,

the

boom

consists of
is

and the brace

and

straddles the post.

two pieces between which the post and the its lower end by means of side pieces Like the trusses, these frames are assumed to be pin
forked at

connected, the pins being practically frictionless.


lies in

Thus each pin pressure


is

the plane of the frame,

and the

line of action cuts the axis of the pin.

Unlike the trusses, these frames


others at

may

include a

member which

pinned to

more than two

points;

the loads also on these frames are applied

anywhere, not at the joints necessarily.


that the stress in any

The result of these conditions is member of the frame is generally not a simple tension or compression, the member being bent as well as stretched or shortened. We will not attempt to determine the stresses in the members of these frames
but limit the discussions to a determination of the forces which act upon each member, the pin pressures, reactions of supports, etc.

In general

the pressure of

a pin on a member does not act along the axis


(Fig, 103);
it is

of that member.

Take, for example, the brace (diagonal)

N
Fig. 103

acted upon by three forces,


concurrent, then neither

its

own weight

W and the pin pressures K and Q.


If

These three forces must be concurrent or

parallel (Art. 10, 2).

they are

K nor Q is

axial or else
,

both are; but obviously both


If

K and Q cannot be axial and then balance W and so neither acts axiaUy. they are parallel, then neither K nor Q acts axially.
In some consideration of frameworks, the weights of some or
all

members upon the frame, and so we may have to do with a. member acted upon by only two forces, pin pressures. On such a member, the pin pressures do act along the
are negligible in comparison with other forces (loads) which act

Art. 17
axis of that

65

member,

since the pressures balance each other

and

so

must be

colinear (Fig. 103).

" Analysis of a crane "

means the determination


general

of every force

(magnitude

and

direction) acting
it

on each part or member due to weight

of the crane or

loads on

or both.
(i)

The

method

of

procedure

may be briefly summa-

rized as follows:

a sketch of the entire crane, and represent as far acting upon it; apply the appropriate conforces external the all possible as system, and then determine as many of force the to equilibrium of ditions

Make

the

unknowns

as possible.

(2)

Make

a sketch of a

member

or of a combina-

tion as they are on the crane, and represent as far as possible all the external forces acting on it; then apply the appropriate conditions of eqmUbrium to

the force system,


(3) If
(2),

and then determine

as

many

of the

unknowns

as possible.

other forces remain to be determined, then continue as directed in bearing in mind the law of " action and reaction " (Art. 11). We will
give two examples of analysis employing both algebraic

now

and graphic

methods.

Example (i). We analyze the crane represented in Fig. 103; the crane =18, and N by sockets in the ceihng and floor. is supported at = NK = 3 feet; it bears a load of 8 tons on the boom at PQ = 14,

MN

MP

16 feet from the axis of the post; weights of

members

neglected.

Fig. 104

rA
to

66
under Art.
tons; since
13.

Chap, hi

Since
o,

'LMp=

o,

Q=

14.05 tons; since 2F;,

o,

P^ =

10.67

XFy =

Py=

-1.14

tons, the negative sign indicating that


1.14^)

Py

acts

downward.

Finally,

P = V{io.6f+
is

10.73 tons,

clination of
all

with the horizontal

tan^^ (i-i4 "^ 10.67)

and the in7'; and now

the forces

on each member are determined, those on the post being

represented in the figure.


Generally, several sketches

may

be

made and

considered in several differ-

ent orders, each furnishing a complete analysis.

taken the entire


the entire crane.
analysis.

For example, we might have post; or the brace, the boom, and the crane, the boom, and

The student

is

advised to try these orders and

make

the

The graphic method of solving the various force systems may be carried out as follows: The system acting on the entire crane consists of four forces, and so the resultant of any pair of the four forces, as Nx and Ny, balances the other pair; therefore that resultant is concurrent with the second pair and acts in the line 1-2 (Fig. 105). So we draw the force triangle ABC A for those three

forces

(making

AB

represent 8 tons), and find that


first pair.

the resultant of the


Ceiling

BC represents and CA Next we resolve CA into components parallel to Nx and Ny, and find that CD and DA represent Ny and Nx respectively. The forces on the boom being three in number (the load, Q, and P), they must be parallel or concurrent, and because two (the load and Q) are concurrent, all must be; thus the line of action of
P
is

determined.

So we

may draw

the

force triangle
Floor
W^^p^///////yy////////^^^^^

EFGE for the three forces,

making

find that
Fig. 106

EF represent 8 tons; thus we EG = P and GF = Q.


(ii).

Example
tration,

For

another

illus-

we analyze

the hydraulic crane represented in Figure 106.

It consists

of a hollow post

MN

(up into which the piston can be projected) a

boom PQ,

\rt. 17

67

and a pin-connected frame KPQ. A single roller is mounted on the pin K, and two on the pin P, so that as the piston moves the frame moves with it, Thus there are twelve parts: a post, a boom, all rollers rolling on the post. two struts KP (one on each side of the post), two ties KQ (one on each side), a pin at P, one at Q, one at K, two rollers at P and one at K. We take the
load as 10 tons and

x=

15 feet,

and neglect the weights

of the parts.

Fig. 107 represents the entire crane, not

including the piston, with aU the external 2Fx = o shows that forces acting upon it.

M = Nx,

= and SMat = o shows that and L = post. of (10X15)-^^ where h height iV cannot be found from this force system; so The we try the frame with rollers (Fig. 108) the load, the it are external forces acting on
.

piston pressure L, the post pressure Ri against the single roller,

and the

result-

68

Chap, hi

The

graphical solutions of the various force systems might be carried out

as follows:

Four

forces act

on the portion

of the crane

shown

in Fig. oi

in,

the
CA

load lo tons, the pressures L, Ri, and R^.

The

resultant

L and

R2 acts

line 1-2.

through their intersection and through that of Ri and the load, hence in the The load, Ri, and R are in equilibrium; so we draw a closed force

polygon for them as

ABCA

(Fig. 112);

AB =

10 tons,

BC =

21.4,

and

lOYtons
Fig. Ill

Fig. 112

represents R.

Finally

we

resolve

represent

L and

R2 respectively.

namely, the load


(Fig. 113).

10 tons,

L =

R into its two components; CD and DA There are four forces acting on the boom, 10 tons, the pin pressure P, and that at Q
Q
is

Obviously the pressure


constitute a couple;
couple, the second pair

acts along the tie rod.

The

first

pair of

forces

named

and

since a couple can be balanced only

by another
through

a couple and

is

parallel to Q,

resultant of each pair therefore acts in the line 1-2.

We now

and the draw a line

and one through A parallel to 1-2; then BE L and P. Finally, there are three forces acting on the pin at P, namely, R2 (or CB), P (or BE), and the pressure of the braces KP (Fig. in). These three forces being on equilibrium, the last one is represented by EC. Example (iii). We now make an analysis of a crane taking into account the weights of the members. For this purpose we take the crane described in example (i) and assume that the weights of members are as follows: = 0.8 ton, PQ = 0.9 ton, and KQ =1.1 tons. The load is taken, as in example (i),
(Fig. 112) parallel to Q,

represents

Q and AE

represents the resultant of

MN

to be 8 tons at 16 feet out


Fig. 114

so far

from the axis of the post, and the boom 22 feet long. shows the entire crane and all the external forces acting upon it as known. Determination of the unknown reactions M, N^, and Ny
0.9 tons

tons

presents typical problem (v) (Art.


8.09ton5
J3)_

iVx

8.09;

8.09;
'0.8 tons

YTom ^AIm = o we get = from 2F^ = 0, and from 2Fy = 0, Ny =

10.8.

Fig.
all

115

represents

the

post and

the external forces


it

K
8.09^

acting

upon

so far as known.

The
N
lO.O&tons

pressures on

the post are


are

tons
Fig. 114

exerted

by members which
force

not
Fig. 115

two

members,

and

therefore those pressures do not brace.

act in the directions of the

boom and

The
its

directions of those pres-

sures being

unknown, we represent each by

(unknown) horizontal and

Art.

69

vertical

component. The force system acting on the post contains four unknowns, namely, Px, Py, K^, and Ky. Not all of these unknowns can be determined from a study of this system alone; but two of them, Px and Kx,
can be so determined.
12.13 tons.
Fig. 116

'LMk = o

gives

Px =

12.13,

^^^ ^^x
it

o gives

Kx =

shows the boom and the forces acting upon

so far as

known.

The
is

direction of the pressure at

is

unknown

as yet; therefore that pressure

represented

by means

of its

(unknown) components.

Determination of the
l2.l3ton5<

0.9

tons
6 tons
1

10.95

tons

pi
12.13

Gl

tons Fig. 116

->l2.13ton&

Fig. 117

unknowns in the force system presents typical problem (v). 2Fx = o gives Qx = 12.13 tons; SA/q = o gives Py = 0.95; and 2F = o gives Qy = 9.85. Ha\ing found the value of Py, we find from ZFy = o for Fig. 115 that Ky =
10.95 tons.

To
is,

check the analysis, we might supply values of the forces


is

acting on the brace (Fig. 117), and then test whether the force system

balanced, that

whether S/^i

o,

XFy =

o,

and

2M =

o.

18.

Cranes.

Continued
is

In

this article

we show how

to analyze three cranes, paying


rig.

to the forces due to the hoisting


of such rig.

Generally, a pulley

some attention an important part


in the rope

We assume here that the tensions Ti and T2 (Fig. 118) on opposite sides of the pulley on which it bears are equal. This assumption impHes perfect flexibility of rope or chain and a frictionless pin supporting the pulley.
or chain

The

pressure

against the pin equals the resultant of

those tensions, or 2

T cos ^ a,
2

and

it

bisects

the angle

between their
parallel

lines of action.
o),

If the

Hnes of action are


Fig

(a

P=

T;

if

they are at right angles

{a

90),

P=
(i).

Example
at the floor
sists of

1.414 T,
Fig. 119 represents a crane

supported in a footstep bearing

and a collar bearing on the wall bracket H. The hoisting rig cona simple hand winch mounted on the wall at W, a chain, and pulleys
Pulley at

as shown.

is

12 inches in diameter;

the load
rig,

is

one-half ton.

The

reactions at the supports

depend on the hoisting

as will be seen from

the following:

On

the entire crane, including the top pulley (Fig. 120), there

are acting four forces, namely, the upper reaction

U, the lower reactions P,

70

Chap,
of the chain against the pulley equivalent to

iir

and Py, and the pressure

two

components, one-half ton each, as shown. Taking moments about the lower to be 0.0S7 ton; from SF^ = o and SFj, = o, we find that end, we find

5i

K6=I2' KJ = 5' PKJ =6KJ

Fig. 119

Fig. 120

Px = 0.413 and Py =

0.5 ton.

All

members except the

vertical

HP
1

are simple

tension or compression members.

Force polygons for joints


0.35 ton (tension);

that the stresses are as follows:


pression);

GK =

G GJ =

and / show
ton (com-

JK =

0.57 ton (compression);

JP =

ton (compression).

Mem-

ber

HP is

subjected to the reactions of the supports as already computed, and

KG; a push of 0.57 ton along KJ; and a push of i ton along PJ. Example (ii). Fig. 121 represents a common type of derrick. It is supported by a footstep at the bottom of post and at the top by two stiff legs
the following forces: a pull of 0.35 ton along

^2T
>-

""'^W////////////////////'-

A
Fig. 121

which extend backward to the ground or other base; the spread (angle between their horizontal projections) being 90 degrees so that the derrick can swing about its vertical axis through 270 degrees. Sometimes the derrick is

Art. i8

yi
off

supported at the top by a collar bearing held in place by cables extending


to quite remote points

on the ground. Obviously the pull on a stiff leg is greatest when the boom is in the same plane with that leg; the pull on a cable is greatest when that cable and the boom are in the same plane and on opposite sides of the post. Let P denote this pull, and a the inclination of the cable to the horizontal or the inclination of the line joining the pivot on the post with the lower end of a stiff leg. Then taking moments of all external forces on the derrick about the footstep bearing, we get Ph cos a = Ws, or P = Ws/h cos a (only the weight of the load being taken into account). Calling the horizontal and the vertical reactions -{at the footstep H and V respectively, we find that H = Ws/h and V = P sin a = W(i + tan a s/h). There are seven forces acting on the part shown in Fig. 122, which consists of the crane post, the winch W, the two sheaves S, and a part of the hoisting and topping ropes as shown. The forces are: H, V, and P (already explained) Q, the pressure of the boom on the post acting in a direction as yet unknown; ^ W, approximate value of the tension in the hoisting rope; T, which denotes the tension in the topping rope; and 2 T, exerted by the top pulley shackle. Of these seven forces, all except Q and T are already known. To find these we may proceed as follows Take moments of all the forces about the pin at Q, and thus find T; then take horizontal and vertical components, and thus find the horizontal and vertical components of Q, and finally Q itself. The First find the line of action force system can be solved graphically as follows of the resultant R of the two forces T and 2 T; then this R and the other five forces constitute a system in equilibrium, which solve for R and Q by methods explained in Art. 13; finally resolve R into its components T and 2 T. Fig. 123 represents a sheer leg crane. Example (iii). It consists of two front legs AC and BC and a back leg CD, all connected by a horizontal pin

at C;

the front legs are pin-supported on

the ground at
is

A and

B, and the back leg

,,^^jf

restrained at the ground


rail

by a

holding-

.^^^/^ h

down
works

in a

and a long horizontal screw which nut on the lower end D. The
is

^^^
.^^-'^
'=^=-~

^.f^^y //
^'^'^-^^-.^.^

I I
^--^

purpose of the screw


the load in

to

move D,

thus

^^^^=s=^..

turning the front legs about

AB

and

out.

We

will

and moving now show how

to determine the pressures

on the ends

of the legs

due to their own weights,

taking the following data: lengths of front legs 160 feet, distance between
their lower

ends 50

feet,

distance between their upper ends 10 feet, length

of

weight of each front leg 44 tons, of the back leg 53 tons; we take the crane in its position of greatest overhang, 64 feet.

back stay 210

feet,

The

external forces acting on the crane are the following (see Fig. 124):

the three weights, the holding-down force Dy, the push of the screw Dx, the

inward pushes At and Bz of the supports at

A and

B, and the pressures of the

_. 72
pins at

Chap, ui

A and B;

each of these pressures

is

represented

by two components

in the figure, A^, Ay,

equilibrium for

along the
equal zero.

x, y,

There are six conditions of this system, namely, the sums of the components of the forces and z axes, and the sums of the moments about those axes

and B^, By,

respectively.

Thus,

(i)

ZFy= Ay+By- Dy- SS-44- 44=0


XF,

(2) (3)

ZM^=

= - A,-\-B^ = -Ay X 25 +

o
J5^

25

+ 44 X

15

44

15

(4) (5) (6)

2M=^xX 25-5xX 25 S7lf.= I>X87.6 + 53X 11.8-44X32X 2 =


Equation
results
(6)

shows that

Dj,

25 tons; (4) shows that

Ay =

By-,

from these

and

(2) it follows

that

Ay and By equal
(3)

83 tons.

No

other

unknowns

can be determined from the equations; but

shows that Az

B^, (5) that

A, =

Bx,

and

(i)

that

A^-\-B^^D^.

V^
44- tons
1

75.8:.^

75.8'--^

ze^-^^l^^,
tons

l>^r;%7"^'

Fig. 125

Fig. 126

To
leg;

get values of these

unknowns we consider the

forces acting

on the back

there are four forces, namely, the weight of the leg (53 tons), the holdingdown force Dy (25 tons), the screw pressure Dz, and the pressure of the upper

pin at C, represented for convenience

by two components which we

call

Cx and

Cy

(Fig. 125).

This system

is in

equilibrium and so Slfc

25

151. 6

75-8 = o, or D^ = 53.8 tons; SF^ = C^ - 53.8 = o, or and I^Fy = Cj, 25 53 = o, or Cy = 78. Returning now to equations (i) and (5), we find that Ax and Bx = 26.9. To get Az and B^ it is necessary to discuss the forces on one of the front legs. There are three forces, the weight 44 tons, and the pressures at the ends; each of the pressures is represented (Fig. 126) by three components, 26.9, 83, and B^ below, and Qx, Qy and Qz above. The system being in equilibrium, we take moments

D^

145-2

+ 53 X

^'

53-8;

about the vertical


8.41 tons.

line

through Q; thus 5^

64

26.9
39,

Inspection shows that Qx

26.9,

Qy

= o, or and Qz = 8.41

20

B^

tons.

Art.

73
in Fig.

The forces acting on the upper pin (at C) are represented means of their components. We now give another solution of the foregoing example,
making use
|<-

127,

by

of the principle that


->)

if

the forces of a system


i

lb. 2 tons

n
e

equilibrium

75.8'-

K-J2'>H-32'-i

represented
vectors, then

by

the projection of
those vectors on
Fig. 127

any plane represents a


(vii)).

force system

also in equilibrium (Art. 10

under

Projecting the force system

represented in Fig. 124 on the three


Side Elevation
[<-?5''>{<25'>l

coordinate planes,

we

get the three

systems represented in Fig. 128,


side elevation,

End
53.8ton5
*

end elevation, and


the
side

Elevation

plan.

From
o

elevation,

^Ma =
2i//>

gives

Dy=

2%

tons;

shows that Ay

By]

and ^Fy shows that Ay-\- By


166, or ^1,

=
we

and By

83 tons.

No

further numerical result can be obtained

from these projected systems.

Considering the back leg alone as before,


tons;

would find that and Ax+Bx=


gotten as before.*
*

Z)^

53-8

then from the plan


-Sx

53.8,

or

A^ and

26.9 tons.

Bx obviously, Az and Bz would be

A^=

For

full

information on cranes, see Bottcher's book on that subject, English translation

by Tolhausen.

CHAPTER
FRICTION
19.
I.

IV

Definitions

and General Principles


slides or

Definitions, Etc.
Thus,, if

When one body

tends to slide over anis

other, then the sliding of the first or its tendency to slide

resisted

by the
force

second.

(Fig. 129) is

a body which slides or tends to slide toward

the right over B, then


as
of
i?

is

exerting

some such

on ^, and the component of R along the surface contact is the resistance which B offers to the sliding Of course
to R;

or tendency.
'W/////^//M^///M/////'//////'

exerts

on

a force equal
is

and opposite

either of

these equal forces

Fig. 129

called the total reaction

between the two bodies.

The
is

component
pressure;

of either total reaction along the (plane)

surface of contact
is

called friction,

and the component


is

of either along the

normal

called normal

they will be denoted by

F and

respectively.

If the surface of

contact of the two bodies


part of the surface
is

not plane, the force exerted at each elementary


its components in and the normal pressure at the ele-

the total reaction at that element, and


are the friction

and normal
ment.
take place.

to the element
is

Friction

called kinetic or static according as sliding does or does not


static friction is considered here.

Only

4 lbs.
W////////////. '///.^////////A '5
'''//////////////y,

'^6' V///.ii'///////A

YW

YW
Fig. 130

YW

The amount
of the

of static friction
slip.

tendency to

between two bodies depends upon the degree Thus suppose that A (Fig. 130) is a block weighing
is

10 pounds, upon a horizontal surface B\ that the block


zontal pull P,

subjected to a hori-

and that the pull must exceed 6 pounds to start the block. Obviously when P = 2 pounds say, then F = 2; when P = 4 pounds, then F = 4; etc., until motion begins. So long as P does not exceed 6 pounds, F equals P; that is, F is passive and changes just as P changes. The inclination of the reaction R also depends on the degree of the tendency to slip. When

P=

pounds, then the angle

NOR = tan-^ f^ =
74

11 19';

when

P=4

pounds,

Art. 19

75 t%

NOR = tan-'
the friction

=21

48'; etc., until

F and
it

the angle

NOR
it

obtain

motion begins. The greatest values of when motion impends.


is

The

friction corresponding to

impending motion
is

called limiting friction.

We wnll

denote

by Fm,

since

maximum
is

value (see Fig. 130).

The

coefficient of static friction for

two surfaces

the ratio of the limiting friction

corresponding to any normal pressure between the surfaces and that normal pressure. We will denote it by /i; then

= FJN,

or F,

ixN; also,

> nN.
is

The

angle of friction for

two surfaces

is

the angle between the directions of the

normal pressure and the total reaction when motion (see Fig. 130); then denote it by
tan<^
If

impending.

We

will

= Fm/N;

hence

tan</>

n.

a block were placed upon an inclined plane, the inclination at which slipping would impend is called the angle of repose for the two rubbing surfaces; it will

be denoted by

p.

The

angles of friction

and repose

for

two two

surfaces are equal; proof follows:

Suppose that

\^

(Fig. 131) is

forces

on act on
is

the point of sliding

down

the incline;

its

own weight
is

W and the reaction

R of
that

the plane.
is,

Since

at rest,

R and W are colinear,

^^
\ffff^

and since motion impends, the <0--^ ^^^- ^^^ angle between R and the normal is the angle of fricand p are equal. It follows, from the geometry of the figure, that tion B may be found in bodies A and for two friction The coefficient of static determine the pull P which and in Fig. 5 on as 130, several ways: (i) Place ^

vertical;

(/).

will just start

divided by the weight of ^. Or (ii) tilt B, and which gravity will start A down; then ju equals the tangent of that angle of inclination. In either method several determinaMany experiments have been tions must be made to obtain a fair average. that coefficients of static ascertained been it has and ways, in these made materials, character of rubbing surfaces the of nature the on friction depend reported (Coulomb experimenters Early used. if any be lubricant, kind and of is independent coefficient that the others) and Morin Rennie 1828, 1834, 1871,

A; then

fx

= P

determine the inclination at

of the intensity of

normal pressure;

and although

this

announcement was

clearly subject to the limitation of the range of the experiments performed,

yet

it

was generalized and long accepted

the universality of the law has been questioned;


that length of time of contact of

But Morin himself pointed out the two bodies influences the coefficient; and
as a universal law of friction.

obviously the coefficient changes

when
is

the intensities of pressure get so low

that a considerable part of the friction

the character of the surfaces in contact.


* Eng.

due to adhesion, or so high as to affect Messiter and Hanson report* prac-

News, 1895, Vol. 33, page 322.

Chap, iv

76

They give the spruce. constancy of coefficient for yellow pine and spruce. and pine (i) yellow (2) following for planed or sandpapered
tical

(i) (2)

n M

= =

0.25 to 0.32; average M

0.18 to 0.53; average M

= =

0.29 for 100 to 1000 lbs. per sq. in.


0.42 for 100 to i6oolbs.per sq. in.

The

variation depends on relation of grain of

wood

to direction of slide.

Coefficients of Static Friction

(Compiled by Rankine from experiments by Morin and others.)

Dry masonry and brickwork


Masonry and brickwork with damp mortar Timber on stone
Iron on stone

o-6

to 0.7

0.74

about
^-3
o-2

0.4

to 0.7
to 0.5 to 0.6

Timber on timber Timber on metals Metals on metals Masonry on dry clay Masonry on moist clay
Earth on earth

o-2

o-i5 to 0.25
o-S^

^-33

0-25 to i.o
clay,

Earth on earth, dry sand,

and mixed earth

0.38 to 0.75
i-o

Earth on earth, damp clay Earth on earth, wet clay Earth on earth, shingle and gravel
2.

0.31
0.81 to i.ii
of a

Tractive Force.

Let W = the weight


and

body A upon a horizontal

surface
<f)

(Fig. 132),

the coefficient of friction for the surfaces in contact,

their angle of friction,

the inclination of

to the horizontal.

P a force applied to the body as shown, 6 being Then the force P required to start the
fxW

body

to

move

is

given by

P=
cos d

Wsm(f>
cos
{d

-\-

lisind

<f>)

-.6

4
V
Fig. 133

w
e

Fig. 132

Fig. 134

Fig. 13s

The

components are

on A are P, W, and the reaction of the plane whose two and (when motion impends) Fm (Fig. 133). Now P cos Q = F, iV = PF Psin0, and Fm = m^V; these three equations solved simultaneously furnish the first stated value of P. The second value can be obtained from the first, or by solving the three-force system acting on A as repreforces acting
A''

sented in Fig. 134.


(90 -f

According to Lami's theorem (Art.

10),

P/PF

sin 0/sin

0);

hence

P=

M^ sin 0/cos

(6

(p).

Art. 19
If the pull

77

is

horizontal

(d

o),

then

P=

/iW.

If the pull is inclined,

but not too much, then the pull P required to start the body may be less than "the best angle of nW. In fact the least value of P obtains when 6 = (f),
traction equals the angle of friction,"
is

and the minimum value


W
sincf)
-r-

of the pull

Wsincj).

Proofs follow:

(i)

Evidently

cos

(0

<f),

0), the general

value of P, changes as 9 changes, and, for a given


cos
(6

(j))

is

greatest; but this greatest value


</>

is i,

P is least when and and obtains when 5 = o,


W, BC be
If

or

when

as stated, etc.

(ii)

Or, let

AB
CA

(Fig. 135) represent

parallel to P,

then

BC

and (and P)

AC he parallel to
will

R; then

represents R.
will

be changed,

change; and evidently

be least
(or

when

BC
it

is

per-

pendicular to
3.

CA, that is, when d Test for Rest or Motion.

A body

(j).

And

then
is

BC

P)

sin 0.

supported so that

can

slip

and

is

subjected to given forces;

it is

required to ascertain whether those forces

do cause slipping, and the value of the friction is desired. We assume that the body is at rest, and determine the friction F and the normal pressure

from conditions or equations of equilibrium;


If
if

then we compare

F is less than /jlN, there is no motion and the computed value of F is greater than fiN, then there is motion and the friction is
jjlN.

F with fxN. F is correct;


kinetic, its

value being less than

For example, consider a block of material weighing


coeflEicient of friction

100 pounds supported on a horizontal surface, the


^,

being

and imagine a down push

of 200

pounds applied
100

to the block at

30 degrees with the vertical. F = 200 sin 30 = 100; ijlN = I


tional resistance

N=
X

200 cos 30

273.2,

an angle of and for rest,

273.2

136.6,

and

this is the greatest fric-

which the support can

offer so long as

N=
is

273.2.

Only

100 pounds are required to prevent motion, and so the


the action of friction of that required value. Or, to test for rest or motion,
tion for the

body

at rest under

we may make
which

use of the so-called cone

of jric-

two bodies

in contact,

may

be described thus: Let

(Fig.

136 or 137) denote the resultant of all the forces applied to or acting on the body A (whose
state
is

to be investigated) but not including

the total reaction of the supporting


the point where
tact

body B;

cuts the surface of con-

between

A and
about

B, and

DOC

equal the

angle of friction; revolving


If

then the cone generated by

OC

OD

is

the cone of friction.

the line of action of the resultant


fall

does

not
is

outside the cone (Fig. 136), then there


if it

no slipping;
is

does

fall

outside (Fig. 137),

then there

slipping.

Proof follows:

As
i?

already pointed out, the direction of the total reaction

on a body, which
init

tends to slide over another, depends on the degree of the tendency; the greater
the tendency, the greater the inclination of

from the normal; but the

clination has a limit, that limit being equal to the angle of friction,

and

^o
obtains

Chap, iv

when

slipping impends.
it,

Therefore

when

acts within the cone or

along an element of

then

can incline and completely oppose

no matter how large P may only to an element, and the

be.

When P

falls

outside the cone,

P (Fig. 136), R can incline

cannot successfully oppose the component In the preceding example P of P which tends to move the body (Fig. 137). and the applied push pounds, 100 is the resultant of the weight of the block 10 t,2>' '^^'ith or the normal. of angle 200 pounds. That resultant makes an the cone and, inside 26 P falls hence or 34'; The angle of friction is tan"^
friction

according to the principle of the cone, motion does not ensue. As another application of the cone principle consider Fig. 138, which repreIt consists of a fixed sents (in plan and elevation) a type of simple hanger.
vertical rod

and a horizontal piece which


is

is

forked; there

a hole in each part of the

fork so that the piece can be slipped over the

rod as shown in the elevation.


if

properly made, will not


its

slip

The hanger, down along the


or that of a

rod on account of

own weight

"SP
Fig. 138

be hung quite close to the fork. The mechanics of the device may be explained as follows: Obviously the rod reacts on the
load unless
it

hanger at Oi and O2.

When

slipping

impends

at these points, the reactions act along OiCi

and O2C2 inclined to the normals an amount as shown. equal to the angle of friction
at
rest

The hanger being

(the load, weight of hanger neglected)

(by supposition), the third force acting upon it must be concurrent with these two
of slipping, the load

reactions; hence to just

put the hanger on the point

must be hung from a point in the vertical through C. If the load is hung out beyond C, as at A, the hanger will not slip. For suppose slipping to would concur impend at Oi, then R at Ox would act along OiCi, and R and at a. To preserve equilibrium, R at O2 must also act through a, which Or suppose slipping to impend at is possible, since O^a is within the cone. would concur at m. To O2, then R at O2 would act along O2C2, and R and which is possible. In m preserve equilibrium, R at Oi must also act through the rod and C, as at between hung similar manner, it can be shown that a load

B, would cause slipping.


20.
I.

Friction in

Inclined Plane.

Some Mechanical Devices Let a = the inclination of the plane to the horizontal
body upon
(i)

(Fig. 139), p
</)

angle of repose for the plane and a particular

it,

their angle of friction,

coefficient of friction,

W=

weight of the

body, and 6

angle between the push or pull

P and
{6-

the incline,

The

pull

required to start the

body up the plane


Pi

is

given by

W sin (a + 0)/cos

4>)

Art. 20

79
10) applied to the three

as can be
forces

shown by means of Lami's theorem (Art. acting on the body {P, W, and the reaction
sin (a
</>)

R
is

of the plane).

Thus
given
obis
4>

Pi/W =
W,
(ii)

+ 0)/sin (90 + 0)
</>

hence, etc.
is

Pi

minimum
</>).

(for
it

a,

and

when
is

<f>;

then

its

value

W sin (a +

For,
is,

vious that Pi

least

when

sin (90

+
is

6) is

greatest, that

when

d.

When

the inclination of the plane


</)),

greater than the angle of repose

(a

>

then the body would


force.

vented by a suitable
slipping

slip down unless preThe pull P required to prevent the

down

is

given by

P2
P2
is

W sin {a 6

</))/cos (0

<^).

minimum when
4>).
(iii)

cf);

then

its

value

is

WX
is

sin (a

When
own

Fig. 139

the inclination of the plane

less slip

than the angle of repose (a

<

<^),

then the body would not

on account of
is

its

weight.

The push

required to start the body

down down

given by

P3
Ps
is

W sin (0 - a)/cos +
{(j>

d).

minimum when
the force

= 0;

then

its
(d

value

is

W sin

(</>

a).

When

P acts

along the plane

o),

then the values of Pi, P2, and

P3 are respectively,
(a W sin COS0
-\- (/))

(a W sin COS0

<f))

W sin

((f)

a)

COS(f)

In order that the force P (Fig. 140) may start the wedge in 2. Wedge. ward to overcome the load W, the friction at the three rubbing surfaces must be overcome also. If the three rubbing contacts are equally rough and =
</>

their

common
is

angle of friction, then the force

required to start the wedge

inward

given by

Pi

W tan

(2

-f a).

wm/m/m^wm///////?/////
Fig. 140

Fig. 141

Fig. 142

Fig. 141 represents the three forces

W,

Ri,

and R2 acting on the block

M;

also

(= R2), R3, and P acting on the wedge. The angles which Ri, R2, and R3 make with their normal components equal (p, since motion impends, by supposition. In Fig. 142, ABCA is a triangle for the forces acting
the three forces R2"

8o

Chap, rv

on M,

AB

representing

W; and CBDC

is

a triangle for the forces acting

The given formula for Pi may be derived from these triangles by solving for BD, which represents Pi. From the first triangle (R2 = R2") cos 0/cos (2 + a) /W = cos 0/sin (90 - - a - 0), or R2 = R2" =
on the wedge.

a)/cos 0. Therefore from the second triangle Pi/{R2 = R%") = sin (2 = IF tan (2 a). a)/cos Pj = [R^' = R^") sin (2 If the wedge angle a is less than 2 0, the wedge will not slip out under any

+ +

load

W even when there W tan


(2

is

force required to pull the

no push P; that wedge out, that is

is,

the wedge

is

self-locking.

to lower the load

The W, must equal


M),

a),

when
-T-

a a

>
<

(guide at right of

or

W sm

(2

a)

cos a,

when

(guide at left of

M).

In order that the force

(Fig. 143)

may overcome

the resistances
also.

W,

the

frictional resistances at the four contacts

must be overcome

If the con-

FiG. 143

Fig. 144

Fig. 14s

tacts are equally

rough and

their

common

angle of friction, then the force

necessary to start the wedge

down

is

given by

^1

cot (0

2W +
a:)

tan
,

Fig. 144 represents the forces Q, R\ and R2 acting on the wedge, and the forces acting on and Each of the

reactions

equal to

normal component an angle (motion impending). In Fig. 145, ABCA is


its

makes with

a triangle for the forces acting on i/,

AB

representing

ACDA

is

triangle

for the forces

acting

on the

wedge.
these

The given formula for Qi can be derived from triangles by solving them for DA, which represents

Qu
If the wedge angle 2 a is less than 2 0, then the wedge would not slip out under any pressures even when there is no push Q; that is, the wedge is self-locking. The force

required to pull the wedge out

{M and

N guided

above)

is

given by

'^^
Fig. 146

^^

cot (0

a)

+ tan

Art.

20

ol

Fig. 146 represents a simple jackscrew much used for raising 3. Screw. and lowering heavy loads through short distances. In the simpler forms, the screw is turned by means of a lever stuck through a hole in the head H There is frictional resistance between the screw and the nut, of the screw. also between the cap C and the head of the screw, unless the load can turn

with the screw.

= = the cap; load on the arm of P with respect to the axis of the screw; W r = mean radius of the screw, | (ri + ra); a = pitch angle = tan-^ (h ^ 2 7rr), = tan-^, where m = coefiEicient of friction. Diswhere h = pitch; and
Let

P=

the (horizontal) force applied to the lever; a

</>

regarding the friction between the cap and head of the screw, the
required to raise the load (or

moment

move

the screw against


(</)

W)

is

given by

Pia
If

TFr tan

+ ).
would not turn the
required to lower the

the pitch angle


is,

is less

than the angle


is

of friction, the load

screw; that

the screw

self-locking.

load (or

move

the screw with

W)

is

The moment given by


(<^

Pia
Jackscrews are always
6 degrees generally.

= Wr ta,n

a).

made

self -locking,

the pitch angle

a being between 4 and

With a
PiC

4 degrees and

=
=

6 degrees (m

o.i),

0.18

Wr

and P20

o-035 Wr.

Derivation of formulas for Pi and P2: At each point of contact between the screw and nut, the latter exerts a pressure dR whose normal and tangential

component we
(i)

call

dN

and dF

respectively.
rise,

(j)

motion impends, the angle between dR and the vertical is at -\- a. Taking the sum of the vertical components of all the forces acting on the screw, and the sum of the moments of all the forces about the axis
;

When A and when

the screw tends to

dF

acts

downward on

the screw as shown

of the screw,

we

get
(<!>

-W + ^ dR cos
and
Pia

-\-

a)

=
=

o,

or cos

((t>-\-

a)'E

dR = W,
(ii?

"EdR sin

(</>

+ a) r

o,

or r sin

((^

-f a) (0

Pia.

These two equations combined give Pia


(2)

= Wr tan
acts

0;).

upward as shown at B; and a. when motion impends, the angle between dR and the vertical is Taking the sum of the vertical components, and the sum of the moments

When

the screw tends to descend,

dF

<t>

as above,

we get equations which yield the required result. = allow for the friction between the cap and the head of the screw, let n with the coefhcient of friction, and R = the effective arm of the friction there (If the surface of contact between the cap respect to the axis of the screw.

To

82

Chap, iv

and the head were


of the circle.

flat

and a

full circle,
is

But the contact

generally a hollow circle, as in Fig. 146,

would equal two-thirds the radius and

then

R
is

is

practically equal to the

mean

radius.)

The

friction

moment

at the

cap

ixWR;
(i) (2)

for raising the load,

for lowering the load.

Pa = Wr tan (0 Pa = Wr tan

(</>

+ a) + fiWR, - a) + fiWR.

Fig. 147 represents, in section, a. journal in Worn Bearing. 4. Journal the contact between the two is in a worn bearing, wear much exaggerated; clockwise and slip, along a Hne practically. When the journal is about to turn angle of fricthen the bearing exerts a reaction R', making an angle <^ (the journal is the tion for the surfaces in contact) with the normal ON; when

about to turn counterclockwise and slip, then the bearing exerts a reaction R" inclined at an angle with ON, but on the other side. If the radius of the journal is r, then the perpendicular from the center to R' and R" equals r sin <^,
(}>

and the

circle of radius r sin


is

</>

with center at the center of the cross section of

tangent to R' and R". This circle is called the friction circle for For smooth contacts sin nearly equals tan (j> or /z, and journal and bearing. hence the radius of the circle practically equals iir.
the journal
(j)

Fig. 147

Fig. 148

action between journal

fix upon the line of action of the reand bearing when motion impends; the line is tangent For example, consider the bell crank shown in Fig. 148, the to the circle. journal being i| inches in diameter and the coefl&cient of friction 0.3; the requirement is to determine the least force P, acting as shown, which will overcome Q (that is, start the bell crank to turn clockwise), and the pressure on the

We

use the friction circle as an aid to

bearing then.

The radius of the friction circle is f sin tan~^ 0.3 = 0.18 inch. Since there are but three forces acting on the bell crank {P, Q, and R), they
is,

are concurrent, that


as shown,

acts through 0; but

is

also tangent to the circle

and so its line of action is known. To determine the values of P and R, we draw AB to represent Q by some scale, and lines through A and B parallel to P and R to their intersection C; then BC and CA represent the magnitudes and directions of R and P respectively, (Which one of the two tangent lines to take can be determined by trial. Thus, trying ON, the contact between journal and bearing would be at N, and the tangential or frictional component of the pressure on the journal would

Art. 20

83

be as shown, not consistent with the assumed tendency to slipping. Obviously the other tangent is the correct one, and on investigating for the friction we find that such component is consistent component of R when acting at

with the assumed tendency to

slip.)

The

force

P which would just permit Q to start the bell crank to turn counterP

Then R would act along the would be represented by C'A. When P has any value between C'A and CA, then slipping does not impend, and the line of action
clockwise could be determined in a similar way.

tangent

ON, and

of

cuts the friction circle.

or members,

L (Fig. 149) of a machine or structure is pinned to other parts and there is slipping or tendency to slipping at the pins, then the pressure exerted by each pin on the link does not necessarily act through the
When
a link
center of the pinhole there.
If slipping

impends, then the

line of action of
is

the pressure

is

tangent to the friction

circle;

and
it),

if

the link

a two-force

member
colinear

(only the two pin pressures acting on and must act along a line which is tangent

then the two pressures are


to both friction circles.

Which one of the four tangents to take in a given case depends upon the direction of the tendency to slipping at each pin, and whether the link is under tenTo ascertain the correct tangent, try any one as the line sion or compression.
of action of the
frictional

two pin pressures R, and then investigate the i?'s for their components to ascertain whether the directions of those components

are consistent with the directions of slip; only one tangent will satisfy all

Fig. 149

For example, suppose that the tendency is for a to increase and /3 to decrease; if the pressures put the link under tension, then the two pressures act along tangent number i at points Ai and A2, and if the pins put the link under compression then the two pressures act along
the conditions for a given case.

tangent number

2 at

points Bi

and

B^.

The

deviations of the various tangents (lines of action of the pin pressures)


of the link
link.

from the axis


length of the

depend on the diameter


is

of the friction circle

Generally the diameter

so small

and the compared to the length


safely take the axis of
is

of the link that the deviation is small,

and one may

the link as the line of action of the pin pressures so long as the link

at rest

and
of

for all states of

tendency to

slip.

5.

Belt or Coil Friction.


is

Fig. 150 represents a


If

cyUnder about a part

which a belt or rope

wrapped.

the cylinder

is

not very smooth, then

Chap, iv

and P2 may be quite unequal without causing slipping over the When slipping impends, then the cylinder, as may be easily verified by trial. of friction and on the angle of coefficient the on ratio of these pulls depends of friction, a = the angle = coefficient = the pull, the larger wrap. If P2 m system of logarithms = Napierian the of base e and of lap expressed in radians,
the pulls Pi
(2.718), then as

proved below.

For a given value of Pi, P2 increases very rapidly with a as shown by Fig. 151, which is the polar graph of the foregoing equation, P2 and a being the variThe following table gives values ables, e= 2.718, M taken as \, and Pi = OA.
of the ratio P2/P1 for three values of the coefficient of friction

and

for twelve

values of the angle of lap.

Maximum Ratios P2/P1

(Slipping Impending)

Art. 20

85
[ioge
loge

Integration gives

Pj^'

fx

|^0j";

hence,
Pie*^.

P2

log.

Pi

^Jux,

or P2

For an example consider the band-brake shown in Fig. 154. It consists of a rope or other band wrapped part way around a brake wheel W, the two ends of the band being fastened to the brake lever L;
the lever

Obviously any force as and if the wheel tends to turn (on account of some turning force, not shown), then P induces friction between wheel and band. We will now show how great a frictional moment
is

pivoted at Q.

tightens the band,

(origin in the axis of the wheel) the force

can
Fig. 154

induce.

Let

tension in

moment, P2 = the larger the brake band (on the side as marked
the
to rotate as indicated), Pi

M=

when the wheel tends


radius of the wheel, ai

the smaller tension, r

= arm

of P.

= arm of Pi with respect to Q, (h= arm of P2, and Consideration of the forces acting on the brake-strap shows
consideration of forces acting on the lever shows that
is greatest when slipping impends, and These three equations solved simultaneously show that

that

M ={Pi Pi)r;
Pifli
-V-

Pa =

+ P2a2.
Pi

For a given P,

then P2

e*^.

M = Pa
For example,
radians), r
let

(e'*

i)r

-=-

(a^e'"'

+ ai).
=
I,

P = 75 pounds, a = feet, ai = 2 feet, and a2 = 9


-T-

10 feet, n
inches.

=
2

320
tt

(=

5.5
9,

Then a

-5-

about

and

e*"*

= 4.1 15 (see table on preceding page); and M" = 75 X 10 (4.1 1 i) 3 (I X 4-11 + 2) =

765 foot-pounds.

CHAPTER V
CENTER OF GRAVITY
21.
I.

Center of Gravity of Bodies

It

is

shown

in Art. 7 that the resultant of

two
fixes

parallel forces Fi

and Fj

acting at two points

A and B of any body


is

cuts the line

A Bin

a,

point

P so that

AP/PB =

F2/F1 (Fig. 155).

This proportion

the position of P, and

since the proportion

independent of the angle between AB and the forces, P Therefore ii AB were a rod and Fi and F2 the weights is also, so independent. of two bodies suspended from A and B, then the resultant R of Fi and F2 would always pass through the same point even if the tilt of the rod were changed
slowly so as to leave the suspending strings parallel. parallel forces be applied at definite points A, B, and

Furthermore,

if

three

of a

body

(Fig. 155),

and if R denotes the resultant of Fi and F2 as before and R' the resultant of R and F3 (and so also the resultant of Fi, Fo, and F3), then CP'/PP' = R/F3.

This proportion

fixes

P'

(in

CP), and

it is

independent of the angle between


ii

the forces and the plane of

ABC.

Therefore

fastened at P, and Fi, F2, and F3 the weights of bodies suspended from

AB and CP be two rods rigidly A


And
so
if

B, and C, then the resultant of the three forces would always pass through

P'

if

the rods were slowly turned about leaving the strings parallel.
of parallel forces

any number

have definite points of application on a rigid body, the resultant of the forces always passes through some one definite point
of the body, or of its extension,

when

the

body

is

turned about so as not to


is

disturb the parallelism of the forces.

This unique point

called the center

or centroid of the parallel forces.

The
forces

forces of gravity

parallel force

on all the constituent particles of a body constitute a system having definite points of application; therefore all those

have a centroid.

That
(its

is,

the resultant of the forces of gravity on

all

the particles of a

body

weight) always passes through some one definite

point of the body, or of

its

extension,

no matter how the body


86

is

turned about;

Art. 21
this point is called the center of gravity of the body.
ters of gravity of

87

The

positions of the cen-

many

regular bodies are given in Art. 24,

and methods

for

determining those centers of gravity are explained in Art. 23.

We now show how to locate the center of gravity of a body


of bodies)

(or of a collection

which consists
Let
yl,

of simple parts

whose weights and centers

of gravity

are known.

B, C, etc. (Fig. 156),

be the centers of gravity of certain parts


of a

body (not shown) Wi, W2, Ws,


;

etc.,

the weights of those parts;


coordinates of

xi, ji, Zi,

the

X2,

}%
let

Z2,

the coordi-

nates of B, etc.

Also

W denote the
Q
its

weight of the whole body,


of gravity,

center

and

x, y, z,
is

the coordinates

of Q.

Since
etc.,

the resultant of Wi,

W2, W3,

the

moment

of

W about

Fig. 156

any Hne equals the algebraic sum of the moments of Wi, W2, W3, etc., about the same moments about the y-axis, we get

line (Art. 8).

Thus, taking

Wx =

Wixi

+ W2X2 + W3X3 +

>

from which equation x can be determined. Similarly, by taking moments about the x-axis we can get y. To get z, we imagine the body turned until the and the coordinate axes are assumed fixed to the body, y-axis is vertical,

then take moments about the x-axis;


agine the forces of gravity
points of application until they

or,

what comes

to the

same

thing,

we im-

(TFi, TF2, TF3, etc.) all

turned about their respective

become parallel to the y-axis, and then take moments with respect to the x-axis. A name for the product of the weight of the body and the ordinate of its center of gravity with respect to a plane will prove convenient; we will call such product the moment of the body with respect to the plane.* Then the
equations mentioned can be rendered in the form of a proposition as follows:

the

The moment of a body with respect to any plane equals the algebraic sum of moments of its parts with respect to that same plane. (i) As an example we determine the coordinates of the center of gravity of a slender wire 43 inches long bent as represented by the heavy line in Fig. 157.
If the

weight of the wire per unit length

is

w, say, then the weights of the

several straight portions beginning at the left are as listed in the schedule

under W.
X, y,

The
2;

coordinates of the respective centers of gravity are listed under

and

planes in
*

and the moments of the parts with respect to the yz, zx, and xy the last three columns respectively. The coordinates of the center
not of course have anything to do with turning effect like the ordiline or point). To distinguish these moments, the moment, not very appropriately, however. See also

This

moment does

nary moment of a force (with respect to a


first
is

sometimes called a

statical

Art. 22 for other statical

moments.

Chap, v

88
of gravity of the

whole wire are:

x=
'

177.5

ly -^

43

'

4.13 in.; y

148

-^

43

z)

=
F

3.44

in.; z

192

2;

-^

43

4-47 in-

Art. 21

89
of the

mainder of a body with respect to any plane equals the moment minus the moments of the parts taken away.
(iii)

whole
of cast
in

As an example, we determine the center of gravity of a cylinder iron (specific weight 450 pounds per cubic foot) with a conical recess end and a cylindrical hole in the other, shown in section y
in Fig.
1

one

59.

The weights of

the complete solid cylinder,

|/"]<- 4.'.'.>|< -

5 "->\

of

the cone, and

of the small cylinder, all as of cast iron,

are given under

W.

The

coordinates of the center of

gravity of the solid cylinder

and

of the parts are given

under x and y
the

(see Art. 24 for information

moments with

respect to the yz

given in the last two columns.


actual piece of cast iron
is

on cone), and and zx planes are The weight of the


(41

327.5

26.2)

260.3

pounds; the moments of the piece equal 78,6) = 1353.9 and 2620 - (61.5 (205.0

1637.5
314.4)

~
=

2244.1 inch pounds respectively.


iron,

For the piece of cast

therefore,
-r-

1353.9 -^ 260.3

5-2,

and y

2244.1

260.3
Part.

Fig. 159

8.6 inches.

90

Chap, v

of gravity to the knife-edge is then the horizontal distance from the center of the center of gravity distances horizontal the W'a/W. In this manner center of gravity located. the and got be can supports from several knife-edge through three plane the from body of a gravity of center The distance of the

points of the

body can be determined if the body can be supported at the points and if certain weighings can be performed as described. Let A, B, and C = dis(behind B and not shown) be three such points of the body (Fig. 161) a
;

tance of

from the line joining

weight recorded by the scale

and C; when A, B, and

W=

weight of the body; W'

are at the

same

level as

shown

Fig. 161

Fig. 162

and W" = weight recorded by the scale when A is higher than B and C by any amount h (Fig. 162). Then the distance y of the center of gravity from the plane ABC is given by
in Fig. 161,

Va2
'

h^

w'

- W"

a.

Proof:
it

From
get y

follows that

ously
etc.

we

the first position it is plain that W'a = Wx; from the second W"a cos 6 = W{xcosd - ysinO). Solvin g these simultane= {W - W") (a cote)/W; but cot^ = Va- - h^ -^ h, hence,

22.

Centroids of Lines, Surfaces, and Solids

1. Lines, surfaces, and (geometric) solids have no weight, and therefore they have no center of gravity in the strict sense of the term as defined in the preceding article. However, we do speak of the center of gravity of those geometric conceptions; and
surface, or

we mean by

the term, the center of gravity of the


is,

line,

volume materialized, that


sometimes spoken

conceived as a homogeneous slender


center of gravity of a
line, surface,

wire, thin plate, or body, respectively.

The
(of

or solid
line),

is

of as the center of gravity of the length (of the

area (of the surface),

and volume

the solid).

been proposed as a substitute for center of gravity


faces,

and

solids as being

more appropriate; the


or soHd
is

The term centroid has when applied to lines, surnew term is given preference

in this book.
If

a given

line, surface,

apply the principle of moments (Art. 21) to it. Thus, \i the whole materialized line, surface, or solid, Wi, Wi, W2,
of all the parts into

imagined as materialized, then we can = the weight of

etc.,

the weights

which we imagine

it

divided, x

the coordinate of the

Art. 23 center of gravity of the whole with reference to


plane,

91

some convenient reference


all

and

Xi, xi, Xi, etc.

the coordinates of the centers of gravity of

the

parts respectively, then

W-x

PTiXi

+ Wtx^ + Wzxz +
etc.,

But the weights


as the case

W
be

W\, W2, W3,

are proportional to the respective lengths

(L, Li, L2, Lz, etc.) or areas {A, Ai, A2, A3, etc.) or

may

and therefore

it

follows

volumes (F, Vi, V2, V3, etc.), from the preceding equations that

for lines,

Lx =

for surfaces,

Ax=
Vx

and

for solids,

+ L2X2 + L3X3 + + 712X2 + ^3X3+ = FiXi + F2X2 + F3X3 +


LiXi

^1X1

of

foregoing formulas can be rendered conveniently in a single statement words or proposition by means of a new term which we now define. The moment of a line, surface, or solid with respect to a plane is the product of the
length of the
line,

The

area of the surface, or volume of the solid and the coordinate

of the centroid of the line, surface, or solid

with respect to that plane.

(The

moment

of a plane line or surface


is

with respect to a plane perpendicular to

the plane of the line or surface


line of intersection of the

also called its

moment with

respect to the

moThe moment of a line, surface, or solid with respect to any plane equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the parts of that line, surface, or solid into which we imagine the whole divided, with respect to that same plane.* The principle of moments can be used to determine the centroids of
planes.)

two

The

proposition or principle of

ments, then,

is

this:

geometrical bodies which can be divided up into parts whose magnitudes and centroids are known. Three examples follow: (i) Let it be required to locate the centroid of the line
all

represented (heavily) in Fig. 163, the curved portion being

a circular arc; given that each coordinate of the centroid


of the arc
is

6.366 inches (Art. 24).

Let x denote the x

coordinate of the centroid of the line; then taking

moments

about
10

OY
o

(the length of the line

35.7 inches), 35.7 x

lO'-'-M
^^^' ^^^

10

15.71

6.366,

or X

4.20

inches.

Obviously, the y coordinate also equals 4.20 inches.

(ii) Let it be required to locate the centroid of the shaded area in Fig. 164, which represents the cross section of a "channel" (a form of steel beam much

used in construction).
0.40

We

consider the section as divided into a rectangle,

by

5 inches,
its

and two trapezoids.


longer base
is

The

distance of the centroid of either

trapezoid from
1. 3 1

inches (Art. 24).

The

given by 3 (0.90 0.80) -^ 3 (0.90 0.40) = second column of the adjoining schedule gives the

areas of the parts; the third, the centroidal coordinates with respect to the base
*

Of course these moments have nothing

to

force with respect to a line or a point.

To

distinguish these

do with turning effects like the moment of a moments, the former are some-

times called statical moments, not very appropriately, however.

92
of the section;

Chap, v

and the

last,

the

moments with

respect to that base.


is

The

dis-

tance of the centroid of the entire section from the base


inch.
Part.

7.70 -^ 9.8

0.79

Art. 23

93

quadrant have been taken away; given that the centroid of the triangle is 2 inches from OY and 4 inches from YC, and that the centroid of the quadrant
is

2.54 inches

nates,

from OX and CX (see Art. 24). The appear in the adjoining schedule. moments and
is

areas, centroidal coordi-

The

area of the shaded

portion 144 79-73 square inches, and the moments of the the to with respect part shaded y and x axes are 864 (72+266.9) = 525.1 = cubic inches respectively. Therefore x = 71.8) 864 494.2 (288+ and
28.27)
525.1 -^ 79.73

(36 +

6.59,

and y

494-2 -^ 79-73

6.20 inches.

Part

^^^^-

''

94
(i)

Circular arc; radius

and

central angle

= 2a
= o.
r cos

(Fig. 167).

The

radius
is

which bisects the central angle is a line of on that line; if that line is taken as x axis, then y
2

symmetry, therefore the centroid

The length
(p;

of the arc

ra (a expressed in radians),

dL =

rdcj),

andx =

therefore formula (i)

becomes
2

rax
a
(ii)

r d<f)'r

COS

(I)

=r^

j
fJ a

cos

4>d(t)

r"^

sin a;

or x

(r sin

a)

-i-

a.

nates.

The preceding problem will now be solved without using polar coordiSince x^ + / = r\ xdx + ydy = o, or dy =- (x dx)/y. Hence

dL = Vdx^
and
2

+ ^y2 =
I

gxVi-^ xV/ =
wV Cl'Jv

dx r/y

dx rj^/r^

x\

rax

xdL =

2 r

*^ r cos a

r^

=
x'^

r^sina; etc.

(iii)

The

parabolic segment

AOBA
is

(Fig. 168);

altitude

a and base

b. it

Evidently the axis of the parabola


contains the centroid.
If that line

a line of symmetry, and therefore


axis,
;

be taken as the x

x and y be the coordinates of any point P elementary portion shaded is 2 y dx. Since the area of the segment and the equation of the parabola is 4 ay^ = b'^x, formula (2) becomes

then y = o. Let on the parabola then the area of the


is

f ab,

-abx

Jo

2y dx' X
^ 2
-r-

=
=

p.
'I

xi

dx

- ba?;
5

-Va^o
-a.

and

2 ^

-ba^
5

-ab

3
ordinate
is {xi -\-

of

them

(infinite);

then the

mean

X2

~\-

x^

-{

-i-

n; also, let

Q =

the

length, area, or volimie of the line, surface, or solid,

and dQ

the length, area, or volume of

the equal elementary portions; then the

mean

ordinate equals

fa

+ 3:2+
ndQ

)dQ

JdQ-x
=
X.

Art. 23

95

The 2 a. radius = r and central angle (iv) Circular sector (Fig. 169); radius which bisects the central angle is evidently a line of symmetry, and so the centroid is on that line. If that line is taken as x axis, then y = o. The
p

area of the sector equals r^cc, a. expressed in radians; dA = pd(f)'dp, where = OP and P is any point in the sector. Therefore formula (2) becomes
r^ax
pd(j)dp- X

I J

= =

Jo

j J

pd(j)dp'

cos <^;

and
(v) Conical or

2 r sin

- /^ sin

aj

-^

r^a j

pyramidal

solid; altitude

a (Fig. 170).

We take the origin

of coordinates at the apex,

and the x

axis perpendicular to the base;

represents the projection of the cone or

pyramid on the

OMNO XY plane. We imagine


if

base

the sohd divided into plates or laminas parallel to the base; is called ^, say, then the area of the lamina represented

the area of the


Ax'^/a',

is

and the
is

volume
formula

of the lamina
(3)

is

dx Ax^/a^.

And

since the

volume

of the solid

^ ^a,

becomes

-Aax =
3

r"
I

{dx' Ax^/a^) x

A/a^

f*"
/

x^dx

= Aa^
4

Jo

Jo

Fig. 169

Fig. 171

hence, x

= j a, that is, the perpendicular distance from the centroid to the base equals one-fourth the altitude. Evidently, the centroid of every lamina lies on the line joining the apex and the centroid of the base; therefore the
centroid of
(vi)
all

the laminas (that

is,

the solid)

lies

on that

line.

Octant of a sphere; radius

r (Fig. 171).

Obviously x

z;

is

given by
I

{dx dy dz)x.

Jo
Evaluating the integral and substituting for

its

value, \

irr^,

we

find that

x=
(2)

^r.

2.

For surfaces, we use formula Surfaces and Solids of Revolution. and select as element the surface described by an elementary part of the

96
generating curve

Chap, v

MN

(Fig, 172).

Let the x axis be taken coincident with the


of length ds
is 2 iry ds.

axis of revolution;

then the area described by a part of the generating curve

The
and

centroid of
its

this area is in the

axis,

x coorif

dinate

is

the X in the figure; hence

stands for the area of


revolution,

the surface of

TT

yds-

X,

or

:*;

r- j xy ds.

The limits of integration must be


cluded in the integration.

assigned

so that each product xy ds will be in-

For
Fig. 172

solids,

we

use formula

(3),

and

Fig. 173

take as element that volume generated

by an elementary part
plane

of the generating

MPN

(Fig. 173)

which
Thus,

is
if

included between two lines perpendicular to


the x axis
is

the axis of revolution.


revolution, then
y-^)

taken coincident with the axis of

PQqp

generates the elementary volume, or


is

dV =
x
axis,

ir

{y^}

its

dx.

Now

the centroid of this elementary volume the x in the figure; hence


if

in the

and

X coordinate

is

denotes the volume of the solid

of revolution, then

Vx =
The
will
*

ir

I (yi^

yi^)

dx'X, or

x=yj

{yi^

yi^)x dx.

limits of integration are to

be assigned so that each product

(yi^

yi^)x dx

be included in the integration.*


Theorems of Pappus and Guldinus.

These

relate primarily to

the determination of

the area and volume of a solid of revolution; they involve the centroid of the generating curve (i) The first theorem states that the or plane, and are therefore mentioned in this place,

area of a surface of revolution generated by a plane curve revolved about a line in its plane equals the product of the length of the curve and the circumference of the circle described by
the centroid of the curve.
of the curve, y

Proof: Let

MN

(Fig. 172)

the ordinate of the centroid of

be the generating curve, L = length from the axis of revolution, and A = area

of the surface generated.

Then

A =

2-KydL and yL

y dL.

Combining these equations we get yl = L 2 ivy, which is the proposition in mathematical form. (2) The second theorem states that the volume of a solid of revolution generated by a plane figure revolved about an axis in the plane equals the product of the area of the figure and (Fig. 173) be the Proof: Let the circumference of the circle described by its centroid. generating plane, a = area of the plane, y = the ordinate of the centroid of a from the axis

MPN

of revolution,

and

V = volume

of the solid generated.

Then

V = ( Tr{y2^ y) dx, and


Combining these equations we get

from eq.
o
2 Try,

(2), a'y

= j iji yO dx h

(^2

+ yi).

F=

which

is

the proposition in mathematical form.

To

illustrate,

ABC

(Fig. 175)

we determine the area of the surface generated by revolving the circular arc about AC, and the volume of the solid generated by revolving the figure

Art. 23

97
(Fig. 174) rotated about positions of the centroids of the surface
(i)
d(t>;

For an illustration imagine the quadrant


so as to generate a hemisphere.

XY

OX

The
r cos

and

solid generated could


is 2 irr^,

be computed as follows:
y

The area

of the

hemi-

sphere

=
(2

rsixKl),

</>,

and ds
IT

hence for the area

-^ 2

TT/-^)

xyds

sin
J

^ cos (f>d<l)

^r.

Fig. 174
(ii)

Fig. 175

Fig. 176
is

The volume
(t>d(f);

of the

hemisphere

f xr', j2

cos

<{),

r sin

</>,

and dx

r cos

hence for the volume


(tt -4-

X
3.

f^rr^ )

(js^

o)

(/x

(3 r/2)

cos^

(f)

s\n<f) d(f)

The

centroid of an irregular plane surface or figure can be determined

graphically or experimentally.

The

graphical

method

requires the use of a


(Fig. 176)

planimeter or other device for measuring an area.


the figure whose centroid
sides of the figure at
is

Let aaa'a'

be

to be located,

(i)
I

Take

OX and
(ii)

YX' on

opposite

any convenient distance


;

apart,

Project

any width

of the figure as aa

on YX'

connect projections hh with any point on


cc.
(iii)

OX

as

Q,

and note the


all

intersections

Repeat

(ii)

for other

widths as

a'a' ^

and

then connect
included

by a smooth curve, (iv) Measure the area A and the area A of the given figure. Then A' I is the (statical) moment of A with respect to OX (proof follows), and hence the distance from OX to the centroid is y = A'l ^ A. Proof: Let w = any width of the figure as aa, and w' the corresponding width cc of the derived curve; then
points like c

by

this curve,

the

moment

of

with respect to

OX is
Iw'

y'wdy=

dy

w'dy

lA'.

To determine

the centroid experimentally cut a piece of

stiff

cardboard into

the shape of the irregular figure,


as explained in Art. 2 1
;

and

find its center of gravity

by balancing

this point locates the centroid sought.

ABCA about AC. The length of the arc = 10.47 inches; the distance of its centroid from AC = 0.89 inch (Art. 24); hence A = 10.47 X 2 X 0.89 = 58.5 square inches. The area of ABCA = 9.06 square inches; the distance of its centroid from AC = 0.54 inch; hence V = 0.06 X 2 X 0.54 = 30.7 cubic inches. The theorems A = L 2i^y and F = a 2 ttj can be used also for computing y if A and Z,,
tt IT

or

V and

a (as the case

may

be), are

known.

98
24.

Chap, v

Centroids of
(Fig. 177).

Some
is

Lines, Surfaces, and Solids


its

Circular
{r

Arc
.^JA

the centroid;

distance from the center


(i

is

sin a) /a, the divisor a to be expressed in radians

degree

0.0175 radian);
nearly

the distance

is

also rc/s,
its

where

arc.

If the arc is flat


is

then the distance of

centroid from the chord

f h; the discrepancy is less


arcs

than one-half per cent for


is less

whose central angle


the arc
is

than 60 degrees.

When
arc
2 r
is

a semicircle, then the distance from


is 2

the centroid to the center

r/x

0.6366

r.

When

the

a quadrant, then the distance to the center is V'2/x = 0.9003 r, and the distance to the radii OA and
is 2 r/ir is

Fig. 177

Triangle.

The

OB

0.6366

r.

centroid

at the intersection of the medians;

its

per-

pendicular distance from any side equals one-third the altitude of the triangle measured from that side. If rci, x^, and x^ are the coordinates of the vertexes

with respect to any plane and x the coordinate of the centroid, then x
\ {Xx-\- X2

-T3).

Trapezoid.

The centroid
1

is

on the median

(line joining

the middle points

of the parallel sides) (Fig. 178);

= (B6(5

h)a = + 6)' m

{2B

+ h)a

= (5+
siB

2h)a
'

+ b)

Two
(i)

geometrical constructions for locating position on the median follow:

Extend

AE
^C;

(Fig. 179) so that

BE =

CD, and

in the opposite direction

extend

CD

so that

DF = AB;
(2)

the intersection of

FE

and the median

GH

is

the centroid sought.


diagonal as

Divide the trapezoid (Fig. 180) into triangles by a

find the centroids


;

and G2

of the triangles (construction

indicated in the figure)


troid sought.
Quadrilateral.
(Fig. 181)

the intersection G1G2 with the median

EF

is

the cen-

(i)

Divide the quadrilateral into triangles by a diagonal

AC

and

find their centroids

other diagonal and find their

and G2; divide it into triangles by the centroids Gz and d; the intersections of the lines
(2)

G1G2 and G3G4


182),

is

the centroid sought.

Divide the sides into thirds (Fig.

and draw lines through the third points as shown; these lines form a parallelogram whose diagonals intersect at the centroid of the quadrilateral.

Art. 24
Sector of a Circle (Fig. 183).
is

99

is

the centroid;

its

distance from the center


(i

I {r sin a) /a, the divisor a to be expressed in radians radian) the distance also equals f rc/s, where s = arc.
;

degree

0.0175

Fig. 181

When
center
is

the sector

is

a quadrant, then the distance of the centroid from the

V2 r/3 r =
r.

4
is

;-/3 TT

0.4242

0.6002 r; and the distance to the radii OA and OB is For a semicircle the distance from diameter to centroid

4^/3x =

0.4242

r.

Fig. 183

Fig. 185

Sector of a Circular

Ring

(Fig. 184).

The distance from the centroid to the


r'^

center

is

R^
i?2

sm a
a

y2

the divisor

to be expressed in radians (i degree


(Fig.

Segment of a Circle
center
is

185).

The

0.0175 radian).

distance from the centroid to the

(?

2 f ' sin^

a
a

12

3^
^=
| r^ (2

where

denotes the area of the segment.

sin 2 a), the first

to be expressed in radians (i degree

0.0175 radian).

Ok I a
Fig. 187

lA

lOO The Area Shaded in


at
is

Chap, v

its

extremities.
r,

between a quadrant and the tangents The distance of the centroid from the bounding tangents
Fig. i86, included

0.223

and the distance

to their intersection

Parabolic Segments (Fig. 187).


parts.

Ci and d
XaaX

is

0.315

r.

are the centroids of the shaded

Their distances from the sides of the inclosing rectangle (a


in the figure.

b)

are

marked

Elliptic

Segment

(Fig. 188).

The centroid

of the

segment

XAAX coincides
the cenof the

with the centroid of the segment


troid of the

of the. circumscribed circle;

segment

YBBY

coincides with the centroid of the

YbbY

inscribed circle.

Fig.

li

Fig. 189

C is the centroid; its distance from Right Circular Cylinder (Fig. 189). and its distance from the base is a)/h, the axis of the cylinder is \ {r- tan
1 ^
_|-

(^2

^^^2

Q,)//^

When

the oblique top cuts the base in a diameter of

the base (lower part of Fig. 189), then the distance from the centroid to the
axis

x\ irr, and to the base 30 ^^ The centroid of the surface (not including base) is on Cone and Pyramid. a line joining the apex with the centroid of the perimeter of the base at a distance of two-thirds the length of that line from the apex. The centroid of the solid cone or pyramid is on the lines joining the apex with centroid of the base at a distance of three-fourths the length of that line from the apex.
is

Frustum
a

of a Circular Cone.

Let R = radius

larger base, r

= radius smaller,

altitude.

The

distance of the centroid of the curved surface from larger

base

r); r)/iR from smaller base I a{2 R 2 r)/(R -\- r); is I aiR The distance from r). from a plane midway between bases i a{R - r)/{R the centroid of the solid frustum to the larger base is

I a(R' -\-2Rr-\-s r^)/{R^

+ Rr + r^).
let

Frustum

of a

Pyramid.

If

the frustum has regular bases,

and

be

the lengths of sides of the larger

and smaller

bases,

and h the

altitude;

then

base

the distance of the centroid of the surface (not including bases) from the larger Whether the bases are regular or not, let A is \h{R-\- 2 r)/(R -\- r).

and a

the areas of the large

and small bases and h the


is

altitude;

then the

distance of the centroid of the solid from the larger base

lh{A-\-2

VJa +

3 a)/(A -f

Vl^-f a).

Art. 24

loi

Obelisk

and Wedge

(Fig.

190).
is

The
AB
-\-

distance from

ilie

centroid to the base

AB

^h(AB-hAb-\-aB-}-3
li b

ab)/(2

Ab

+ aB

-\-

2 ab).

o the solid

is

a wedge, and the distance from the


is

centroid to the base

^h(A-\-a)/(2A-ha).
Sphere.

The centroid

(Fig. 191) is

any zone (surface) of a sphere midway between the bases. The distance of the centroid
of

Fig. 190

of a

segment

(solid) (Fig. 192)

from the base


is

is

(hemisphere) then the distance


(solid) (Fig. 193)

r.

The

h)/(;^ r h)\ when h = r I h{^ r distance of the centroid of a sector


is

from the center of the sphere

f (i

+ cos a) r =

f (2r

h).

Fig. 192

Fig. 193

Ellipsoid.
a, b,

Let the three axes be taken as

x, y,

and

z coordinate axes,

and

and

c to

denote the semi-lengths of the corresponding axes of the ellipsoid;

the centroid of one octant of the solid

is given by x = f ^> 3' ~ f ^> 3-^^ 2 = f c. Paraboloid of Revolution, formed by revolving a parabola about its axis. Let h = height of the paraboloid, the distance from its apex to the base, then is

the distance from the centroid of the solid to the base

/f.

CHAPTER
25.
1.

VI
ETC.)

SUSPENDED CABLES (WIRE, CHAIN,


Parabolic Cable
is

Symmetrical Case.

When a cable

suspended from two points and

the horizontal and spaced so closely it sustains loads uniformly spaced along curve assumed by the that the loading is practically continuous, then the
cable
is

a parabolic arc as will

now be shown.
be considered

The symmetrical
first.

case (points

of suspension at

same

level) will

Let

AOB

(Fig. 194)

be

Art. 25

^3
of suspension,

At the points

a/ 2, and the value of

at that point

is

16

^;V

wa (i

+ -^J-

(4)

The

adjoining table gives values of

T/wa

for various values of f/a, the sag

ratio (denoted

by n
I.O

in the table).

T/wa =

n=

I04
point,

Chap, vi

AB.

and H' respectively = the two components of T along AY and There are three forces acting on the part AQ, - its load wx, the

tension T, and the tension at Q.

The moment-sum
origin

for these three forces for

any

origin equals zero;

with

wx x/2
is

V'x

H' (QP)

Q as = o,

or V'x

wx^/2

= H'

(y cos ^

x sin

6).

(i)

This
axis.

the equation of a parabola with the axis parallel to the y coordinate


a, b,

To

express the equation of the curve in terms of the dimensions

The forces chord AB: /i under the middle point of the acting on the entire cable consist of the load wa, the tension at A, and that at B. Their moment-sum with origin at B is
the vertical sag

and

wa-a/2

V'a

o;

hence

V^

=
is

wa/2.

(2)

The

forces

on the upper

half

AC

consist of the load wa/2, the tension at

A,

and that at C.

Their moment-sum with origin at

'^'_rf + H'/,cos9 = o;
Substituting these values of
{a x) ^^ a^

hence

ff'

g^

72 wa''

-,-

(3)

V and H' in (i) gives


,-2

re

tan

d,

or

>

(4/1

+ ^)-

-4/1-2

(4)

The

vertical distance of
if

hence

we

let y'

below the chord AB \s y Xxtand; denote that distance, the foregoing equation can be put into

any point as

the more convenient form

4/1^
a'

(a

x).

(5)

Art. 25

105
of the slope at

The value
tion 4)

any point

of the curve is (differentiating equa-

__ =4-dy
Let a and

/i
-^

JC 8/1 ^-.

ax
/3

a
.4

a a

the slope angles at

and B respectively (where x


and
tan 6

o,

and
(6)

a);

then
tan a

{b-\- 4/i)/a,

(b

4/i)/a.

Let Xo and jo = the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola (where dy/dx = o); then
Xo

a{b-\- 4/i)/8/i,

and

yo

(b

+ 4/i)-/i6/i.
vertical

(7)

Let

and

respectively

the horizontal

and

components

of T.

Then

(see Fig. 196)

H=
V=
and
since T^

H'cosO = wa'^/Sfi, and -\- H' sine = ^ wa {i -\- a tan 0/4/1);

H"^

-\-

V^,

we

find that
sin

11

^-wi'-'h'^'ilh'A^n
where
larger;
i

wr

2 wi

J expression
is

sag

ratio fi-iWi,

AB = /i
and

-^

asec0.

The

last

shows

that for given w, a, and

the tension
6,

increases as the angle d

made

also that for given w, a,

increases as Wi

Let ai = the length of the Length of the Parabolic Arc AB (Fig. 196). chord AB, Wi = sag ratio /i -r- ci, and h = length of the arc AB. Also let
ds

is

made

smaller.*

length of an elementary portion of the arc; then


(/s

[i

{dy/dx)^f dx.
get

From

the equation of the curve

(4),

we can

This

last

value of dy/dx substituted in the foregoing expression for ds gives

ds-

+ 8wi(i 2-J2 i/
1

2 -

+ sin
x/a)

>

sec 6 dx.

Now
*

this

equation

is

in
til

the

form ds
2

{i-\-

X)^secd
2

dx,
sin

where
6].

X=
Let

(1

x/a)

[2 i (i

MN
NO

(Fig. 197) represent the load

MO
It
is

and

be parallel

on the cable ^B,and to the tangents at A and B (Fig. 196)


is

let

re-

spectively; then

OMNO

a force triangle for the three forces act-

ing on the cable

AB, and
/S)

OM

represents

T and NO

represents S.

plain from the figure that

OR

tan a

OR
cos

tan

= MN,
cos
/3,

or

OR

(tan

a - tan

= MN.
tan 0)

But

OR = T

a = S a

and

MN

= wa; hence T cos a (tan a

= wa = S cos /3
a.

(tan

tan

18).

Substituting the values of tan


find that

and tan/3 given by equation

(6),

we
FiG. 197

r cos a =

wa^l&Ji.

= 5 cos 0.

io6
Unless the sag
is

Chap, vi
relatively large ds

and

sec d dx are nearly equal at all points

X) along the curve (see Fig. 196); hence (i to compared small is that means which

is
i.

nearly equal to
Therefore,

at

all

points,

we may expand
first

(i _j_

X) by

the binomial theorem, and drop

all

terms except the

few
{i -\-

without serious error.

Thus we have

as a close approximation ds

iX-^X^)secddx,
and
Substituting for

'

(i

+ |Z-

lX^)secddx.
finally get

X and X^ their values, and integrating we = fli(i + cos2 0.i2- V-i').


/i

(10)
is

If the

approximation made

in the derivation of

formula (10)

not per-

missible in a given case, then one might determine the exact length of the cable AB somewhat as follows when a, b, and/i are given: We first locate the

vertex

of the parabola of

vertex will

be found either

which the cable is a part from equation (7). The between A and B, on the cable (Fig. 198), or

A'v

B'">

Tfi^^
Fig. 199

Fig. 198

beyond B (Fig. BOB' by means


Zi

199).

Then we determine

the length of the arcs

of equation (5), 1, and finally the length h of the

AOA' and arcAB from

= i AOA' + h BOB' for Fig. 198, or h = ^ AOA' - \ BOB' for Fig. 199. For example take a = 800 feet, h = 300 feet, and /i = 200 feet. Let Xq and From equation (7) jQ = the coordinates of the vertex.
Xf,

(soo
-^^^

+4X

200) 800

8X200

tji^o, ^^

and

Vo

(300 + 4X200)2 = 7-7^

16X200

i1-S-

Hence the cable hangs as shown in Fig. 200. The length AA' = 1348.6 feet according to (5), (a = iioo and n = 378.5 -4- iioo); the length BB' = 530.9

^...250'->k-

5S0'

-f-

-><

Fig. 200

feet

according
1348.6

to

(5),

(a

500

and

78.5

500).

Hence

AB =

+iX

530.9

939.8

feet.

Art. 26

107
26.

Catenary Cable.

Symmetrical Case. A chain or flexible cable suspended from two and hanging freely under its own weight or a load uniformly distributed along its length assumes a curve called (common) Let A and B (Fig. 201) be the points of catenary. suspension of such a cable, C its lowest point, Q any other point of the cable, 5 = the length CQ, H = ten1.

points

sion at C,
a.t

T =

tension at

(),

slope of the curve

Q,
a.

w =

weight of load per unit length of cable, and

= H or c = H/w. The forces CQ are H, T, and ws. Since they are in H, and T sin = ws; hence equilibrium, T cos ws/H = s/c. But tan <^ = dy/dx, therefore tan
c

length so that cw

acting on

cj)

(f)

Fig. 201 (i)

dy/dx

s/c.

Now

since

ds^

dx"^

+ dy^,

{ds/dyY

(dx/dyY

and {ds/dxY

+
(2)

{dy/dxY; also

ds^ _
dyl
Integrating the

c^
S'

_c^

-\- s"^

and
s'^

ds

c^-\-s^

dx

first

is

a constant of integration.

one of these equations we get y But y = c where


>-

= (c^ -\- 5^)2 -{- A where = o, therefore A = o,


^2,

and hence

c^

+
s

S-,

or

s-

y2 y

(3)

Integrating the second differential equation


/

we
1

get

cloge

+
=
^1'^)

sinh~^

(4)

the constant of integration being zero (x

when

=
X

o).

From

(3)

= Ic {e'l'^

c sinh

(5)

To
or (3)
(3)

obtain the cartesian equation of the catenary

we combine
(5)

and

(5) so as to

eliminate

5.

Thus squaring

(3) and (4) and comparing with

we

get easily

= \c

ie^''^ -\- e

^^'^)

X ccosh-.

(6)

or

= clog,[^\/(^)'-i] = .cosh-f.
at

(7)

The

slope angle

4>

any point

in

terms of the coordinates of the point

{x,y,s) is

given by
^an<^

s/c

\ if'"

e-""^')

sinh {x/c).

(8)

xo8
See equations
(i)

Chap, vi

and

(5).

And from

equations

(2)

and

(3),

we

get
(9)

sin0
It follows

s/y

and

cos0

=
<^

c/y.

from the equilibrium equation

sin

= ws and

(9)

that
(10)

T
that
is,

wy,

the tension at any point

equals the weight of a length of cable reach-

ing from

to the directrix

OX.

Hence

increases

from

to A.

According

to the definition of c

H = wc.
In passing,
it

(11)

may

be noted that since

T cos ^ = H,

the horizontal com-

ponent

of the tension at

any point

Q = =

wc, constant

for a given

suspended cable.

As
202),

in the preceding article, let a

span

AB

(Fig.

/ =

sag,

and

length of cable
I,

ACB.

Any

two

of the three dimensions a,

and / determine the


For the point

catenary, as will be

A, X
get
Fig. 202

I a,

tuting in

shown presently. and s = ^ I. c, equations (3), (4), and (6)


y

= f -{-

Hence

substi-

respectively

we

(/

+ ,)2
f-\-c

,2

+ i;2^

or or or
i

clj=\{lljy-\.
1 ^Ic

(3')
(4')
(6')

\a =
and

c sinh-i (1 //^)^

cosh (^ a/c),

(//c)

sinh-i {\ l/c).

cosh

(| a/c).

When
(6').

and / are given (3') gives c, and then a may be gotten from (4') or a and / are given (6') determines c but the equation cannot be only by trial or by some sunilar method; having thus solved directly, determined c, I may be gotten from (3') or (4'). When a and / are given, (4') determines c (solution by trial), and then / may be gotten from (3') or
I

When

(6').

Inasmuch

as these trial

methods are generally

long, computations

on some

In Fig. 203 be facilitated by means of diagrams. for values of the curves marked A give the relation between J/ a and l/a about 1.50. f/a from o to 0.5 and (corresponding) values of l/a from i to For example, let a = 800 feet and / = 160 feet. Then f/a = 0.20, and the corresponding ordinate (over f/a = 0.20) to curve A reads i.io; hence
catenary problems
l/a

may

I.IO,

and

800

i.io

8S0 feet (length of cable).

Most

practical catenary problems involve the strength of the wire or cable


of wire.

and the load per unit length dition to (3'), (4') and (6'),

For such problems we have,

in ad-

T = w(f+c),
where

or

T/w=f+c,

(11')

T =

the greatest tension (at the points of support), which should of

Art. 26

109

course not exceed the strength of the wire.

Most

of these

solved

by

trial only,

unless a diagram

is

available.

problems can be For example, given the


a;

strength

of a wire, the load per unit length w,


/.

and the span

required

the proper length of wire

Here

T/wa = f/a-\-

c/a.

(11")

This equation and (6') contain only two unknown quantities / and c, and the two equations determine / and c. But they can be solved only by trial.

After/ and

The curves marked B

have been ascertained, then I may be computed from (3') directly. in Fig. 203 show the relation between f/a and T/wa.
I.-30

MS

1.20

O
1-

no
2.

Chap, vi

Unsymmetrical Case

(points of suspension not


its

on same

level).

The
The
as

cable uniformly loaded along

length hangs in an arc of a catenary.

vertex

C may

be on the cable (between the points of suspension

A and B)

in Fig. 204, or

beyond the lower point

of suspension as in Fig. 205.

In either

r
\ \

'^'

o
-(l-k)a

.-..rHik-Oa

ka
Fig. 204
Fig. 205

figure,

the horizontal distance between

and B,b

the vertical distance,

AC, Most problems in this case as in the symmetrical case can be solved only by a trial method; hence diagrams are practically necesangle between
I

AB

and the horizontal, /

sag or vertical distance

and

arc

AB.

sary in this case also.


3.00

j;;

-t^

Tr " "IJIT

rZ"

2"

"2.50

2.00

1.50

:2

1.00

50

Art. 26
of

III

graphs showing the relation between //a and


the same ten slopes (r

Tjwa

(values at left-hand

margin) for

tension at higher point of support and

w =

weight of cable per unit length).

To

illustrate, let

200

feet, 6

40

pounds per foot. On the curve for b/a = 0.20 feet, / 240 feet, find the point whose ordinate l/a = 1.20 and note in the lower group, we Hence / = 200 X 0.385 = 77 point is f/a = 0.385. of that that the abscissa = upper group, we find the point 0.20 of the (or b/a curve On the feet. Hence T/wa = 0.90. that its ordinate and note whose abscissa is 0.385
2
T"

and w =

200

0.90

360 pounds.*

* Fig. 206 was made from certain of the (more extensive) figures in Mr. Robertson's paper The following is an explanation of mentioned in the footnote at the end of this chapter. a method for the construction of such a figure. Let h = arc AC and h = arc BC (Figs 204. and 205); also let yi and y-i = ordinates of A and B respectively, and ka and (t k)a the

abscissas of

A and

B.

Then

for .4, x
in

ka, y

=
(3)

yi

and

h.

Hence, substituting

equations

and s = and (6) of

h; for B, x
r,

(k

i)a,

^2,

we

get
(3')

(^M?r
2!i

and

cosh k c

'

and

=
c

cosh (k
yi',

i)

(6')

At the higher point

of support

(10) 1, the tension at that point

A (Fig. 204 = wyi, and


tca

or 205), y

hence according to equation

\c

\c j

We first assume a value and different values of a/c (say 0.02, 0.04, etc.); then (i) compute values of yjc and y2/c from (6') corresponding to those values of a/c (and k = 0.6); (ii) compute the values of h/c and h/c from (4') to correspond; (iii) compute values of l/c from Finally compute- b/a l/c = (/i/c) + (k/c); (iv) compute values of f/c iromf/c = {yjc) - i. from b/a = [(yi/c) - (^2^)] -^ {a/c) (see Figs. 204 and 205); l/a from l/a = {l/c) ^{a/c)\ (See schedule) f/a ;from f/a = {f/c) -^ {a/c); and T/wa from T/wa = {yi/c) ^ {a/c).
This equation,
of k, say 0.6,
(3')

and

(6'),

constitute the basis of the method.

u
yi/c

Ul

IV

V
h/c

VI
l/c

vn
f/c

VUl

IX

XI

a/c

yi/c

h/c

b/a

l/a

f/a

T/wa

0.6

+ -D 0.4

%
S
0.3

^^1
0.

112
3.

Chap, vi

Approximate Solutions of Catenary Problems.


is

is

If the cable is

suspended from two points at the same level and the sag
to the span so that the slope of the catenary

small compared

small at every point, then the

load (weight) per unit length of span

is

nearly constant and equal to the


coincides very

weight of the cable per unit length.


sults of the preceding article 1

Hence the catenary

nearly with a parabola of the given span and sag, and the formulas and re-

(symmetrical case)

may

be applied to the

case here under consideration without serious error.

as follows:

That the catenary agrees closely with a parabola can be shown otherwise Expanding the exponentials in the equation of the catenary, we get (6) 1,
pX/c

+
20^
3

and

X ^
C

x^

oc^

c^

2C^

c"*

hence the equation of the catenary


3'

may

be written

2+^ +
we have
as
close

X Neglecting the higher powers of the small quantity -,


approximations

-\-

x'^/2 c,

or

x"^

2 c (y

c).

These are equations of a parabola whose axis coincides with the y coordinate axis and vertex c distant above the origin of coordinates. If the supports A and B are not at the same level (Fig. ig6) and the sag / of the cable is small compared to the distance between the points of support, then the slope of the catenary is nearly constant and the load per unit length of horizontal distance is nearly constant {w sec 6, where iv = weight of cable
per unit length, and
k

angle

BAX).

Hence the catenary coincides very

and make computations i, ii, iii, etc., as described; then plot three more curves and 209). Then we repeat for still other values of k. From the three sets of curves (Figs. 207, 208, and 209) we pick out sets of corresponding Thus for b/a = 0.2, we find the values of l/a, f/a and T/wa for the several values of b/a.
0.7 say,
(Figs. 207, 208

adjoining tabulated values from the curves.

Art. 27

113

nearly with a parabolic arc of the given (oblique) chord

AB

and sag

/i,

and

the formulas of the preceding article 2 (unsymmetrical case)


plied to the cable

may

be ap-

under consideration without serious

error, it being under-

stood that

of 2

=
27.

(weight of cable per unit length)

sec

6.

Cables with Concentrated Loads

1.

Weight of Cable Negligible.


is

Let
B,

Fig. 210 represent a cable

ACB

suspended from two given pomts


a load
sions

A and

being a given point from which

suspended.

ylC and

BC

the cable can be " laid out" in a drawing, the tencan be determined easily by constructing the force triIf

angle

according to and the two tensions. PQ = respectively) BC and ^C to (parallel QR some convenient scale; PR and graphical avoid wishes to one if Or, BC. and represent the tensions in ^C the trisolving by computed be may T2) and methods the two tensions {Ti give would solution angle algebraically. Such

PQRF

for the load

Ti

W cos
/3

i3/sin (a

|3)

and

T2

W cos a/sin (a +

/3),

where a and
(Fig. 210).

are the angles which

AC

and

BC make

with the horizontal

Fig. 210

Fig. 211

When

several bodies are suspended

from given points on the

cable, the

cable takes up a definite position, but it is not easy to determine the slopes of the segments of the cable and the tensions. The difficulty lies in the algebraic computation.

For example, consider the case represented

in Fig. 211.

The given data

are

shown

in the figure;

the lengths are

drawn

to scale, but

the inclinations of the segments of the cable

may

not be correct, being un-

known as yet. Let the inclinations be called a, 13, and 7 as shown; and Ti, T2, and 7^3 = the tensions in OA, AB, and BN respectively. At each point of suspension of a load {A or B) there are three forces acting; at A, the load Con1000 pounds, Ti, and T^, and at B, the load 2000 pounds, T2, and ^3.
sideration of forces at

A and
To cos
i3

of those at

gives respectively

Ti cos

a^
=

Ti cos /3

Ti cos 7

and and

Ti sin

a
/3

Tz sin

/3

T2 sin

-h 73 sin

= =

1000
2000.

114
It is plain

Chap, vi

from the geometry


lo cos
/3

of the figure that

8 cos

+
six

cos 7

20,

and

8 sin

10 sin

j8

12 sin
six

4.

These

equations
jS,

may

be solved simultaneously for the

unknowns

and 7); the actual solution is not simple. For similar cases with more than two loads, the work of solving the equations increases rapidly
(Ti, T2, Ts, a,

with increasing number of loads.

etc.)

Suspended loads can be chosen so as to hold points of suspension {A, B, in certain definite positions. For instance let it be required to deetc., to

termine Wi, W2,

hold a cable in the position shown in Fig. 212.

We

Fig. 212

may assume any


of the others.

value for one of the weights and then compute the values

tension in
is

= 1000 pounds say, then we compute the from a force triangle for the three forces acting at A. PQXP such a triangle, where PQ = 1000 pounds (according to any convenient
Thus taking Wi

AB

scale)

and

PX

and

QX

are parallel to

OA and AB

respectively;

then

XQ

represents the tension in

AB.

corresponds to such tension in


forces acting at
triangle
is

The next step is to AB; so we draw a


is

find the value of

W2 which
This force

force triangle for the three

one of which
so

the determined tension in

AB.

QXRQ, and

RQ

represents

W2 and

BC.

Finally,

we draw

the force triangle

XR represents the tension in RXSR for the three forces acting


which
is

at C, one of

the determined

BC, and thus find that W3 is represented by SR. Obviously any three weights Wi, W2, and TVs in the proportion of PQ, QR, and RS would
tension in

hold the cable in the specified position.


2.

Weight of C.A3le Not Neg-

ligible.

It

is

assumed

in the fol-

lowing discussion that the cable segments are quite


practically parabolic arcs (see preceding article 3).

flat

so that they are

Then

the weight of any

segment

of the cable is practically the

same as the weight


its

of a length equal to

the chord of the segment.

Let

ABC

(Fig. 213)

be a cable supported at
middle point B.

C, a load being suspended from the cable at

A and Given the

span

AC =

2 a,

the length of the cable

=2!,

the weight of the cable per unit

Art. 27

115

length

w,

and the load

= W;

required the sag (depth of

below AC) and


are

the tension at A. This (apparently) simple


tically

problem

is

determinate but prac-

unsolvable on account of algebraic

difficulties.

The equations

easily set up.

Thus

let

ai= the (unknown) length

of

chord AB,fi

the sag

of the cable

below the chord as in Fig. 196, S

the tension and ^


to equations (10)

the slope
(6) re-

of the cable at

(Fig. 196).

Then according

and

spectively of Art. 25, 2

According to the footnote, on page 105.


5cosi3

(7'ai/a)aV8/i-

(3)

From

the three forces acting at

(IF, S,

and

S),

it is

plain that
(4)

2Ssin^ = W.

These four equations determine the unknowns appearing in them, d, /i, S, and Thus by division, the last two give tan jS = 4 Wfi/waia; equating the two /3.
values of tan
/S

and transforming, we get

iZ/.=v/;rM'_,/..
ai

wa

(5)

ai

\ai/

ai

contain only two unknowns, the ratios (a/ai) and (/"i/ai), and the equations determine the ratios. Supposing the ratios determined we may find ai since a is given, and then /i. Exact simultaneous solution of

This equation and

(i)

equations

but each equation may be graphed and then the coordinates of their intersection would be the desired values of c/ci
(i)

and

(5) is impossible,

and/i/ai.

The converse

of the preceding

problem

is

much

simpler.

It

is this:

Given

ax, the sag/i, and the weight of the cable 2 a, the chord the span give in per unit length w; required the load W. Equations (2), (3), and (4) /.* length the Equation (i) gives succession (3, S, and W.
*

AC =

AB =

For other information on the subjects of


lines, see

this chapter, particularly as related to elec-

University of Illinois Bulletin, No. 11 (191 2) by tric transmission papers by A. Gruell; Transactions American Institute of Electric Engineers, Vol. 30 (191 1),
the following:

Thompson. L. Robertson, Percy H. Thomas, and Harold Pender and H. F. changes. papers contain extensive tables and diagrams, and discuss effects of temperature

Wm.

These

DYNAMICS

DYNAMICS

CHAPTER
28.

I.

VII

RECTILINEAR MOTION
Velocity
a point

and Acceleration
moves
so that
it

Velocity.
call

When
all
is

traverses or describes

equal distances in

equal intervals of time then

it is

said to
call

move

uniformly,

and we

the motion uniform.

All other motions


at

we

nonuniform.
is

By
of

velocity of

moving point

meant the time-rate

which the point

moving,

or describing distance.

To

express the magnitude of

any velocity we must

course compare that velocity to some particular velocity as a standard or unit.

Any
it is

velocity

that of

light, for

example

might be taken as standard;

but

moving uniformly and describing a unit of length in a unit of time for a standard. Thus, we use the foot per second, mile per hour, etc. The word per in these names of velocityunits is quite commonly replaced by the soHdus sign /; thus, foot per second,
to take the velocity of a point
etc.,

more convenient

mile per hour,

are abbreviated to ft/sec, mi/hr, etc.*

In any uniform motion the velocity may be computed by dividing the distance traversed in any interval of time by the interval. Thus, if = the velocity, A5 = the distance traversed, and A/ = the interval of time, then
i;

= As /At.
of
all,

(i)
is

In any nonuniform motion the rate


continuously, as

moving

not constant but changes

we

all realize.

Not

however, have a clear notion of the

value of the rate, or velocity, at a particular instant of the motion.


this

matter up

definitely, let us consider the following

example:

In a certain

To

bring

launching, the ship

moved through
4
9.3

the distances given after 5 in the adjoint.

ing schedule in the times given after


/

= =

6
17.3

8
27.4

10
39.6

12
53.4

14
69.4

16 seconds;

3.4

88.0 feet.

Any

displacement divided by the time required for that displacement we


is

regard as the average velocity for that time; thus, in the last 8 seconds the dis-

placement
that time.

60.6 feet,

and 60.6

-i-

7.57 ft/sec

is

the average velocity for

(Obviously a constant velocity of this value would produce a disfeet in 8 seconds.)

placement of 60.6
*

In the adjoining table

we have

listed

For dimensions of a unit velocity, see Appendix A.


118

Art. 28

119

At

(sees.)

20

Chap,

vii

in a straight line

by

the guides G.

We will now find


when

a general formula for the

velocity of the crosshead (and piston)


r

the crank rotates uniformly.

Let

the length of crank,

length of connecting rod, c

= =

r/l,

n
co

of revolutions of the crank per unit time

(assumed constant),
(co

= number = angle in
QOP, and

radians described by crank per unit time


of the crosshead
t

2ivn), s

varying distance

from
is

its

highest position, 6
to

=
5

the "crank angle"


the

time required for the crank


in order to get ds/dl or

describe

angle 6
d (or
/),

Obviously, there

a definite relation between


v.
/

and

{= and

wt

2 irnt).

this relation

we need

When

the crosshead

is

in its highest posi-

s = {I -\- r) CQ T OQ, T OQ according as the crank OP is above or below OX. Now CQ = (/2 - r2 sin2 6)'^ = {i - c^ sin^ 6)^, and 0Q= zLr cos 6; hence 5 = (l -{- r) (i sin^ d)^ r cos 6.

tion, its distance

from

equals

+ r;

hence for any position,

c"^

Differentiating the expression for s with respect to

t,

we

get ds/dt, or

v;

and

remembering that dd/dt

w,

we can
/

easily reduce the result to


c sin 2
\

2(1

c2sin2

0)V
v for

From
Thus,

this general
let r

formula we
/

can get the value of

any particular

case.

per minute

OPq

say, d

= 30 inches (then c = \), and n = 100 revolutions = = 100 628 radians per minute). When the crank is at 2 (w = 90 and the formula gives v = 6280 inches per minute = 523
10 inches,
tt

feet per minute.

The

expression ds/dt in equation (3)

may

be positive or negative; therefore

must be regarded as having the same sign that ds/dt has. Now ds/dt is positive when s increases algebraically, and ds/dt is negative when s decreases
algebraically; hence the sign of the velocity of a
is

moving point
is

at

any instant
is

positive or negative according as s

is

increasing or decreasing then, that

the

moving then. sign is When the mathematical relation between 5 and t is unknown, then equation But if (3) cannot be used to determine the velocity at a particular instant. the displacements of the moving point are known for a number of known intervals beginning or terminating at
the

same as that

of the direction in

which the point

the instant in question, then a fair approximation to the


4

S
"?
.

^ ^
I I !
i

desired velocity can be obtained from the values of the

?
1

average

velocity

for

those

intervals

as

explained

in

the launching illustration preceding. the


limit
of

One may determine


approximately

the

average velocities

by

iG-

219

graphical methods.

Thus,

in Fig.

the average velocities of the launching example in a

we have plotted manner which is ob219

vious and then joined the plotted points

was extended, as seemed


8

best, to the vertical

by a smooth curve; this curve through point 8. The ordinate


is

represents approximately the limit sought, that

the velocity at the 8th

second.

Another graphical method

is

explained in 2 of the following article.

Art. 28
2.

121

Acceleration.
is
is

A nonuniform motion
have acceleration.
if

is

said to be accelerated,

and

the moving point


formly, that
is

said to

If

the velocity changes uni-

by equal amounts

in all equal intervals of time, the

motion

uniformly accelerated;
is

the velocity does not change uniformly, then the

motion

nonuniformly accelerated.

meant the rate at which its velocity is changing. To express the magnitude of any acceleration we must compare that acceleration to some particular acceleration as a standard or unit. Any

By

acceleration of a

moving point

is

rate of velocity-change

that

of a freely falling

body, for example

might

be taken as a unit of acceleration but it is more convenient to take the acceleration of a point whose velocity changes uniformly by one unit (of velocity) Thus, we have the foot-per-second per second, the milein one unit of time. per-hour per second, etc. And, abbreviating the word per as before, these

would be written ft/sec/sec

(also written ft/sec

2),

mi/hr/sec, etc.*

In a unijormly accelerated motion (u.a.m.), the acceleration

may be computed

by dividing the velocity-change which takes place in any interval of time by the length of the interval. Thus, if a = acceleration, ^v = the velocitychange and A^ = the interval, then
a

^v/^t.

(4)

In a nonuniformly accelerated motion the rate of change of the velocity is not constant but it varies continuously from instant to instant. To arrive at a
definite notion of the value of the rate or acceleration at a particular instant,
let

us consider an example.

The

adjoining schedule gives values of velocity

and time taken from a "starting test " of an electric street railway car.
t

= =

o o

3 5-3
7-7

4
9.9

5
II. 9

6
13.7

8
16.4

9
17.3

10 seconds;
18.0 miles per hour.

2.8

15.2

Any

velocity-change divided by the time required for the change

we regard

as

the average acceleration for that time;

thus, during the first six seconds the

velocity-change

is

13.7 miles per hour,

and

13.7 -^ 6
first

2.28 miles per hour per

second

is

the average acceleration for the

six seconds. six

(Obviously a

uniform acceleration of this value would produce in

seconds a velocity-

change of 13.7 miles per hour.)


At
(sees.)

J 22

Chap,
listed

vn

In the adjoining table we have


for the intervals

the velocity-changes
etc.;

(under Av)

to 6,

to 6, 2

to 6,

and

also the average accel-

eration (under da) for the

same

intervals.

Obviously the average acceleracontinues to decrease, approaching

tion for the intervals 5I to 6, 5!

to 6, etc.,

definite limit as

the interval approaches zero.

The column

of average

accelerations suggests that the definite limit might be about 1.7

miles per

hour per second. The exact value of the limit is velocity, or the acceleration, when t was 6 seconds. Let Ay = the velocity-change Summarizing now:

the rate of change of


>

At,

linear

and a = average acceleration motion

for that interval,

any interval of time then in any kind of rectiin


(5)

Qa

= Av/M.

The true value of the acceleration at a particular instant of the interval is the limiting value of the average acceleration as the time interval is taken smaller
and smaller but always including the particular
notation
instant; or in the calculus

dv/dt

dh/dt\
in

(6)

rectilinear

Formulas (6), respectively, can be used for finding the value of a motion if the relation between v and t or 5 and / are known.
is

any Thus

suppose that a point


(in miles

known

to

move
2;

in a straight line so that the velocity

per hour) always equals one-tenth of the square of the time (in
is

seconds) from the start, that

o.i
;

/-;

then a

dv/dt

0.2

t.

This

is

the general formula for a in this motion


ing a

for instance, at 3 seconds after start-

= 0.6 miles per hour per second. For another example of the use of equation (6), we consider the motion of the crosshead of the crank and connecting-rod mechanism described in i.
There we found that
/ V

/,

c sin 2 ^

Differentiating this with respect to

2(i-c2sin2 0)V and remembering that w


c cos

is

constant,

we

get dv/dt or

2d

-\- c^

sin^ d\
0)^

rw^ ( cos 6

-f-

(i-c2sin2

From

this general formula,


I, let r

we can
/

get the value of a for any special case.

Thus

as in

10 inches,

30 inches (then c

I),

and n

100 revolu-

minute (c<)=27rioo=628 radians per minute). When the crank is at OPo (Fig. 218), then 6 = go and the formula gives a = 410 inches per second per second. For meaning of negative sign, see next paragraph. The expression dv/dt, equation (6), may be positive or negative; therefore a
tions per

must be regarded as having the same sign as has dv/dt. when the velocity increases algebraically, and dv/dt
velocity decreases algebraically;

Now dv/dt
is

is

positive

negative

when

the

therefore the sign of the acceleration of a

Art. 28

123
at

moving point
is

any instant

is

positive or negative according as the velocity

increasing or decreasing (algebraically) then.

Thus

acceleration

is

posi-

tive or negative according as positive or negative velocity


is

being taken on in the motion.


is

By

direction of acceleration

meant the

direc-

tion of the velocity

which

is

being taken on.

When
/

the mathematical relation between v and

(and

and

/)

are

unknown, then equation

(6) 2 3
4-

cannot be used to determine the acceleration at


a particular instant.

6Seci.

velocity are known at stants near the instant in question, then a fair approximation to the acceleration desired can be obtained from the values of the average acceleration
for intervals beginning or terminating at the instant in question, as explained

But if the values of the a number of known in-

Fig. 220

Fig. 220 shows a construction for in the example referred acceleration average determining the limit of the Another graphic approximately. limit represents the The ordinate 6 A to.
in

the car-starting example preceding.

method

is

explained in the next article under

2.

(velocity

The foregoing explanations of two particular rates Note on Rate of a Scalar Quantity. and acceleration) will now be generalized so that hereafter we will not need to dewhich
will

rive the expressions or formulas for other rates

come up

for discussion.

meant one which has magnitude only, not direction also. An amount of money, the volume of a thing, the population of a city, etc., are scalar quantities. Let X and y denote two scalar quantities which are related to each other so that any change

By

a scalar quantity

is

in

one produces a change in the other. If all equal changes in x produce equal changes in y, then y is said to vary uniformly with respect to x and y is called a uniform variable. If all equal changes in x produce unequal changes in y, then y is said to vary nonuniformly and y
is

called a
If

nonuniform variable.

a uniform scalar, then the graph which represents the relation between x and y is a straight line obviously, as for example in Fig. 221 where ji and y2 respectively denote values " The meaning of "rate of y with respect to a; of y corresponding to xi and X2 (values of x).

is

or "a;-rate of y "

is

quite generally understood;

it is

the change in y per unit change in

x.

The

value of the rate

Thus,

if

computed by dividing any change in y by the corresponding change in x. Ax and Ay = corresponding changes in x and y {x2 - Xi and y2 - yi), and r = x-mte
is

of y, then

Ay/Ax.
is,

Evidently r

is

the same for

all

values of

x,

that

the rate of a uniform scalar

is

constant.

Fig. 221

is

a nonuniform scalar then the graph which represents the relation between x and y which correline, as for example in Fig. 221 where vi and y. represent values of y spond to xi and x^ respectively. Any change in y divided by the corresponding change in x
If

is

a curved

124
is

Chap,
called the average rate of y with respect to x for the range xi average x-rate of y for the range Ax (= x^ x\) in x, then
Ta

vii

commonly

X\.

Thus,

if

fa

^yl^x.
the chord

The average The value of


ing value
if

rate

is

represented by the

slope of

AB,

for tan

BAC =

^y/^x.
limit-

the average x-rate of y depends on the

amount

of the range A;r.

It approaches

a definite value as Ax
is

is taken smaller and smaller, x-i approaching .vi for instance. taken as the true or instantaneous rate of y at the value y = yi{oix = x-rate of y at any value of y, then

This
X\).

Thus,

lim (Ay /Ax)

dy/dx.

The

x-rate of y at y yi is proaches A, that is, by the slope of the tangent at A. By means of the foregoing formula, we can determine the

represented

by the

limit of the slope of the chord

^5

as

ap-

.x-rate of

y provided that we know

In case we do not know the precise relation between x and y, that is, the equation y = / (x). this equation but do know values of y corresponding to several values of x, then we can de-

termine the x-rate of y at one of the values of x approximately. This approximate value can be obtained from the average rates for ranges of x which begin or terminate at the value of X for which the rate is desired as already explained in some of the preceding examples.

In the Features of a Motion Determined by Integration. disvelocity from the preceding article we showed how to determine the velocity-time {v-t) law. the tance-time {s-t) law, and the acceleration from The process, in each case, is one of differentiation. By means of the reverse process, integration, one may determine the s-l from the v-t law, and the v-t from the a-t law. We explain further by means of examples. Suppose that a point moves in a straight line according to the law v = dot
3.

+ 4.

In

all

cases of rectilinear motion v

ds/dt, or ds

=
s

v dt;

hence
-\-

in the

present instance, ds

(60

+ 4)

dl.

Integration gives

^ot'^

^t

+ C,

where C is a constant to be determined from "initial conditions." Let us suppose that s is reckoned from the place where the moving point is when t = o,
or that 5
5

when
is 5

=
f^

o;

then substituting these (simultaneous) values of

and

in the equation containing C, we get o

-|-

C, or

C =

o.

Hence
limits,"

the

s-t

law

30

+4
I

/.

We
/

might have integrated "between


or
5

thus

Jds =

(60

+ 4) dt,

=
s

30 /2 -f 4

/,

t/O

the lower limits being the simultaneous values of


conditions.

and

from the given

initial

For another example, we


so that a

will

suppose that a point moves in a straight

line

cos

t,

initial

conditions being v

=
t;

when
sin

In

all

cases of rectilinear motion a

dv/dt, or

= o. dv = adt;
/ /

hence, in this

instance,
(initial)

dv

=
z)

cos tdt.

Integration
v

gives
/

+ C.
we

Substituting the
find 4

simultaneous values of

and

in this equation

+ C,

or

C =

4; hence

sin

-f 4

is

the law sought.

Or, integrating between limits

we get

rdv=
t/4

r COS
t/0

tdt,

or

sin

t.

Art. 28
If

125

the

as law

for a

motion

is

given, then the v-s law can be found

by

integrating v dv
(dv/ds)
V.

=
^;

a ds, which follows from a

dv/dt

{dv/ds)

(ds/dt)

Thus, suppose that in a rectilinear motion a

= 25

+ 3,

initial

conditions being

10

when
I
(2 s

4;

then
or

vdv

-{-

7,)ds,

^v^ =

s"^-^

^s
22,

+ C.
and hence ^
v^

Initial values substituted in the last

equation give

C =

s^

+ 35+

22.

And

in

any

rectilinear

motion
vdv

ads
where
Vi

^ {v^

v^),

when s = Si and 5 = ^2 respectively. = = ds/dt can be used to get "time." These dv/dt and v The formulas a = = {i/a) dv and dt (i/v) ds; hence by integration can be written dt
and
V2

are values of the velocity

- dv,
V,

and

^1

-ds.
V
vi

Js^
for v to

These respectively give the time required s to change from Si to ^2. Let a Uniformly Accelerated Motion.

change from

to

V2,

and

for

the value of the (constant) accel-

is reckoned, and moving point from the origin at that instant. (Sometimes Vo and So are called initial velocity and initial distance, respectively.) Since a is constant, integration of a = dv/dt gives at once v = at-\- Ci, and from the initial conditions (v = Vo when / = o), Ci = Vo, hence

eration,
So

and

Vo

the velocity at the instant from which time

the distance of the

at

-{- Vq.

(i)

From

ds/dt

at

-{-

Vo

we

find
So

and the

initial

conditions

{s

=
5

by when
I a/2

integration that s
t

at"^ -\- Vot

+ C2,
(2)

=
Vot

o)

make C2 =
So.

So',

hence

=
(2)

+
=

Eliminating

between

(i)

and

we

find that
v^
vo"^.

2a(s
If the initial velocity
v

So)

(3)

and distance

o,

then

at,

at^,

and

as

v^.

(4)

student

Although uniformly accelerated motions are important practically, the is advised not to make a special effort to memorize the foregoing
(i, 2, 3,

formulas

and

their special forms, 4).

But,

if

he

will

memorize them,

then he should also remember that they are for a special motion, constant
acceleration.

All students ought to be able to discuss a uniformly accelerated

motion nonmathematically
in the following

example:

by means The velocity

of elementary notions of a certain train can

somewhat

as

braking from 40 to 20 miles per hour in

be reduced by a distance of 1600 feet. In what dis-

126

Chap, vii

tance would braking stop the train from 40 miles per hour, supposing the
retardation to be the

same at

all

velocities?

Since the velocity changes uni-

formly, the average velocity during the reduction from 40 to 20 miles per hour

equals one-half of 4c

20 or 30 miles per hour; and the time required for the

reduction of velocity or travel of 1600 feet

(=

0.303 miles)

is

0.303 -^ 30

= 0.0101

hours, or 36.4 seconds.

The time

required to stop the train from 40

miles per hour would be twice 36.4 or 72.8 seconds;

and, inasmuch as the

average velocity during the stoppage would be one-half of (40 -f o) = 20 miles per hour or 29.3 feet per second, the distance travelled in the 72.8 seconds

would be

29.3

72.8

2133

feet.

29.

Motion Graphs

The

features of rectilinear motion, discussed in the preceding article, can be

represented nicely

by

certain curves described in the following:

distance-time

(s-t)

graph for any motion

is

a curve drawn

"upon"

pair of rectangular reference axes so that the coordinates of

any point on the


t

curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of


s

and

t,

where

the time

elapsed from some instant of reckoning (usually taken at the instant of starting),

=
16 Sees.

the distance of the

and 5 moving point from


Fig. 222
is

some
Fig. 222

fixed point chosen as origin (usually

taken at the place of starting).


the
s-t

graph for the launching mentioned


s-t

in

of the preceding article.

Since the slope of the

graph

is

proportional

to ds/dt

and

ds/dt, the slope at

any point

of the

graph represents the


scale.

velocity at the corresponding instant, according to


scale

some

The

slope

depends on the scales used


i

for plotting the s-t graph.

Thus, in Fig. 222

the scales are

inch of ordinate

100 feet and

inch of abscissa

10 seconds,

hence, a slope of unity

Thus, the velocity at


5.4 feet

= =

100

(feet)

^10

(seconds)

10 (feet per second).


-^

8 seconds,

where the slope

h BC

AC =

0.54, is
is

per second.

Instead of interpreting the slope in this way, that


in question,

by

a slope scale,

we might determine

the velocity as follows: draw the tangent

line at the point

drop a pertangent

pendicular from any point

in the

to the horizontal through A,

measure

CA

and CB according to the proper scales and compute the ratio BC h- AC (as measured);
this ratio equals the desired velocity.
in Fig. 222,

Thus,
Fig. 223

and
*

27

AC = 5 seconds, CB = 27 feet, ^ 5 = 5.4 feet per second.*


is

Several instruments have been devised recently for drawing a tangent to a plane curve.

A very

simple one

represented in Fig. 223.

It consists of

a metal straight-edge

with a por-

tion of one side polished to a mirror.

OB

represents a curve on a piece of paper across which

Art. 29

127
velocity-time (v-t)

The

graph for any rectilinear motion

is

a curve drawn

upon a pair
V

of rectangular reference axes so that the coordinates of

any point
test

of the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of the velocity

and time

/.

The curve

in Fig. 224 is a v-t

graph for the car-starting

I05ec&,

Fig. 224

mentioned

in 2 of the preceding article.

The

slope of the

v-t

graph at any

point represents the acceleration at the corresponding instant. To actually determine the acceleration from the graph, the slope must be interpreted by

proper scale or be computed in a manner analogous to that explained in the Thus, at the fifth second, the acceleraforegoing under distance-time graph.
tion
is

represented by the slope of the tangent at A; since


4.8 miles per hour, the acceleration

AC =
=

2.5

seconds

and

CB =

4.8 -^ 2.5

1.92 miles per

hour per second.

The "area under

the curve " (between the curve, the time axis, and any two

ordinates) represents the displacement for the interval of time represented

by

the distance between the ordinates.

Proof: Let

m=

velocity scale-number

and n

time scale-number, that


unit ordinate (inch) unit abscissa (inch)

is

= m units of velocity (feet per = n units of time (seconds).

second)

Thus,

v-t

X and y be the lengths (inches) of the coordinates of any point P of curve (Fig. 225) then the corresponding values of v and / are my and nx.
let
;

the straight-edge
mirror.

random but so that a portion of the curve is reflected from the and the curve CO are not smoothly continuous; there is a cusp at C. But if the instrument be turned about C until the cusp disappears, the curve merging smoothly Having located the into its image, then the straight-edge A is normal to the curve OB at C.
is

laid at

The image

CD

normal at C,

it is

easy to draw the tangent.

The

principle of this instrument

is

the basis of

Wagener's derivator (see Gramberg's Tcchnische Messungcn) by means of which the slope of a curve at any point can be read directly, without drawing the tangent or normal. An autographic form of (mirror) derivator has been devised by A. Elmendorf (see Sci. Am. Suppl.
for Feb. 12, 1916).

Guillery's

"aphegraphe"
full

is

metal strip or batten must

first

another instrument for drawing a tanf^ent to a plane curve. be fitted to the cuive before the instrument proper can be

applied.
.\pril,

For

description of the aphegraphe, see

Mem.

Soc. Ing. Civ. de France, Bull, for

1911, where

M.

Guillery also explains

how he
and

applied his instrument to determine the


in particular the a-t

acceleration-time curves for several mechanisms,


of

curve for the "tup"

an impact testing machine during a blow.

128
Further
let

Chap, vn

h and k
;

the times corresponding to Xi and

3C2

and to

Si

and

52,

the

values of s (space)

and

A =

area.
/^j
1
,

Then

A=

ydx =

rkv
I

dt

r'2
/

vdt

S2

S1
mn
Hence

(see preceding article)

and

{mn)

s^

Si.

{mn)

is

the scale-number for interpretating the area.


224,

Thus,

in Fig.

one-inch ordinate

20 miles per

hour
Fig. 225

29.3 feet per second,

and one-inch abscissa

seconds;

hence one square inch

29.3

(feet

per

second)
directly

(seconds)

146.5 feet.

The

area

may

be interpreted more
scale

by multiplying the average ordinate measured by the


Thus,
160
in Fig.

of

ordinates (hence equal to the average velocity for the time interval)

by the

length of the interval.


miles per hour

224 the average ordinate represents 10.9

=16

feet per second,


is

and the time interval

is

10 seconds,

hence the displacement

feet.

The

acceleration-time

{a-t)

graph for any rectilinear motion

is

curve

drawn upon a pair


celeration a

of rectangular reference axes so that the coordinates of

any

point of the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of the ac-

and the time

/.

The "area under


is

velocity-change for the time interval represented


ordinates.

For the area under the curve


a
h
dt,

the curve" represents the by the distance between the given by


I

and

Vi

V\=

adt

Jh

(see

preceding

article).

To

determine the numerical value of the velocityscale or

change, the area must be interpreted by

be computed

in

a manner

analogous to that explained in the foregoing under velocity-time graph.

The
upon

velocity-distance {v-s)

graph for a rectilinear motion


simultaneous,
s.

is

a curve drawn
of the

a pair of rectangular axes so that the coordinates of


Fig. 226

any point

curve represent corresponding, or

values of the velocity v and distance


is

the v-s graph for an air-brake test on a pas-

senger train.* The subnormal at any point of the graph represents the acceleration at the corresponding instant. For, any subnormal as BC is

given by

^C

tan

BAC =
a

vdv/ds, and from the

preceding

article

=
a.

dv/dt

{dv/ds) {ds/dt)

=
200 400

vdv/ds; hence

BC =

To

actually

determine

60O

800

1000

the value of a from a subnormal

we must use the

Fig. 226

proper

scale,

depending on the scales used

for plotting the v-s graph.

For

Fig.

226 one-inch ordinate

50 miles per hour, and one-inch abscissa


is

1000 feet

0.19 mile; hence the subnormal scale

one inch

50'

-r-

0.19

13,150 miles

per hour per hour

3.65 miles per hour per second.

The subnormal
297.

BC

* "Air-brake Tests

Westinghouse."

Page

Art. 29

129

0.72 inch; hence the (negative) acceleration at


feet

600

A (when the train had made from the place where braking began) was 0.72 X 3.65 = 2.63 miles
(as) graph for a rectilinear motion
is

per hour per second.

The

acceleration-distance

a curve

any point on or simultaneous, corresponding, values of a and s. "Area the graph represent under the curve " (between the curve, the 5 axis, and ordinates ai and a2)
drawn upon a pair
of rectangular axes so that the coordinates of

represents one-half the change in the velocity-square corresponding to the

change

o^

ai

or

^2

^i.

For, the area

is

given by

ads

vdv

^ {v^

v^).

The. reciprocal acceleration-velocity {- -v\ graph for a rectilinear

motion

is

a curve drawn upon rectangular axes so that the coordinates of any point

on the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of i/a and v. "Area under the curve" (between the curve, the v axis, and ordinates i/ai and 1/C2) represents the time required for the acceleration to change from
ai to 02, or velocity

from

Vi

to

V2-

For, the area

is

given by
k.

^dv=
I),

dt=

Jh

kfor

The

reciprocal velocity-distance {--s\ graph

a rectilinear motion

IS

curve drawn upon rectangular axes so that the coordinates of any point on
the curve represent corresponding, or simultaneous, values of i/v

and

5.

"Area under
represents
I

the curve" (between the curve, the s axis,

and
from

ordinates

i/i'i

and

i/v^)

sec.

the time required for the velocity to change


V\

to

V2.

For, the area


dt

is

given by
tu

t^

Example.

mechanism

is

to be de-

sec.

signed for producing a rectiUnear motion

in

whose acceleration-time graph is shown There are three distinct Fig. 227. In the first and laws of acceleration.
last

quarter seconds

the
16

acceleration
feet

is

constant and equals

per second
I'A

F
^/8

"z

per second;

in the

second quarter the ac-

% %

sec.

celeration decreases uniformly

from 16 to from

Figs. 227, 228, 229

48;

and

in the third it increases uniformly


it is

48

to 16.

Preliminary

to the design

necessary to find the distance-time law; this

we proceed

i^o
to do, but
first

Chap,

vii

we

get the velocity-time

and distance-time graphs approxi-

mately.

During the first quarter of a second the velocity changes uniformly, and the change is i6 X j = 4 feet per second; and if the initial velocity is zero, then OA (Fig. 228) is the velocity- time graph for the first quarter second.
Since the velocity changes uniformly in the
velocity equals | (o -f 4)
first

quarter second, the average

feet per second,


If the initial

the quarter

=2X5

^ foot.

and the displacement during and A distance is zero then


In a similar

(Fig. 229) are points on the distance-time graph.

way

interme-

diate points could be computed.

In the second quarter the acceleration varies uniformly. The average acceleration for the interval from | to t^ second is 8 feet per second per second;

hence the velocity-change for that interval is 8 X yV = 2 foot per second, and the velocity at / = /^ is 4 -|- ^ = 4.5 feet per second, and B (Fig. 228) is a point

on the velocity-time graph.


could be determined.
for

The

portion

In a similar way, C, D, and intermediate points AD is curved, and the average velocity

any interval cannot be ascertained so simply. But estimating the average ordinate for the third eighth of a second to be 4.4, then the displacement for that interval is 4.4 X | = 0.55 feet, and C (Fig. 229) is another point on the
distance- time graph.

approximately.

seconds by this

In a similar way we might determine other points Determination of the graphs for the third and fourth quarter method presents no difficulties, so we pass on to a second

(mathematical) determination of the graphs. In the


in
first

quarter, dv/dt
initial
is

16, or

dv

16 dt; hence v
v

-^

accordance with
o,

conditions assumed,

=
v

o when

i6t+ C. But = o; hence


/

C=
V

and

z;

= =

16

the equation of the velocity-time graph for the

first

quarter.

From

that equation

we
s
/

find for

ds/dt, ds

vdt

16 tdt,

and

= Sf +
o;

4 as before. I, In accordance with C.


o,

Since
initial

conditions assumed, s

o when

=
/

hence

C =

and

is

the equa-

tion of the distance-time graph for the first quarter.


find for
/

From

that equation

we

I, 5

I as before; at

= i

5
/,

| foot; etc.

In the second quarter, c


dv
t

80
/

We found that v = 4 when = i;therefore4 = 80 X i - 128 X tV + C, orC = - 8, andz; =&ot- 128^-8


=
(80

256

/) (//

or

t'

80

- 256 - 128

equation of
-f C.

AD

(Fig. 227);

hence

/2

is

ing,

Continuthe equation of the velocity-time graph for the second quarter. ds/dt = 80 / - 128 /2 - 8, or 5 = 40 /^ - 42I /^ - S / -h C; but S 2
/

when

I,

hence
of

C =

of the distance-time

The equations
in a similar

= 40 /^ - 42! /^ - 8 / f is the equation f and 5 graph for the second quarter. the graphs for the remaining quarters could be obtained
,

way.

Care must be taken


/

in

determining the constants of inte-

gration;
fall

(and corresponding value of v or s) which does not within the period to which the equation under consideration pertains.
use no value of
are

The remaining equations

rtRT.

30

131

For
a

the third quarter


1

For
c
z;

the fourth quarter 16,


/

+ 256 176 + 128 + 56 5= -88/2 + 421^+56/176


2,

= =

/2

10

16 16, 5=8/2-16/+

= =

8.

Graphs for Uniformly Accelerated Motion.

Fig. 230 shows the acceleration||

time graph for a rectilinear motion; in the first six seconds a = 4 feet per o second per second, in the next ten seconds a

and
4ft.persec.persec.

in the last 8

seconds a

3 feet per second

1
6 sees.

16 sees.

24

per second (the negative sign meaning retardation).


Fig.

231
it

graph,
O
6 sees.
I6secs.

shows the corresponding velocity-time being assumed that there is no initial


Fig. 232

velocity.
24

shows
dis-

the

corresponding

tance-time graph,

initial
|D IE
\(

distance being taken as


zero.
15sec5.

Fig.

233
v-s

shows
graphs;
72

IF
1

the

as and

M-

240'
Fig. 233

->k-96'->l

Figs. 230, 231, 232

AB-CD-EF is the former,


and

OGHJ

is

the latter.

30.
I.

Simple Harmonic Motion and a Similar

One

If a point moves uniformly Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.). along the circumference of a circle then the motion of the projection of that point on any diameter is called a simple harmonic motion. Obviously the

projection {Q)

moves

to

and

fro in its path,

and

travels the length of the

diameter twice while the point (P) in the circumference, goes once around. By amplitude of the s.h.m. is meant one-half the length of the path of Q, equal
to the radius of the circle,
'^y frequency oi the s.h.m.

complete (to and


the

fro) oscillations of the

is meant the number moving point Q per unit time, equal

of

to

number

of excursions of
is

around the circumference per unit time.

By

period of the s.h.m.

meant the time required for one complete to and fro oscillation of the moving point Q, equal to the time required for one excursion By displacement of the moving point Q is meant its of P around the circle.
distance from the center of the path;
it is

regarded as positive or negative

according as

on the positive or negative side of the center. Let us now consider a simple harmonic motion to ascertain approximately Suppose that the circle (Fig. 235) to be the path of P, and the its nature. The y-t (space-time) and the y-d vertical diameter, say, the path of Q. graphs for the motion of Q can be constructed very easily. We mark any
is

number, say
tively

sixteen, equidistant positions of P,

and

also the positions of

to correspond (Fig. 234).

and number them consecuThen on an exten-

sion of the horizontal diameter

360 or the period, and divide


of division as

shown.

we lay off any convenient length oT to represent oT into sixteen equal parts numbering the points Finally we project points o, i, 2, etc., of the circle upon

132
the verticals through the corresponding points
projections are on the y-t or y-d graph.
o,
i,

Chap, vu
etc.,

2,

of oT.

These

The

slope of the graph at

any

point represents the velocity of

at the corresponding instant;

hence the

_2/'

Art. 30

133

Since cos 9
gests

sin (d

-\-

^ir), v

m sin

(5

tt).

This formula for

v sug-

an easy method for drawing a v-d graph, showing how the velocity varies with d, and hence with /. First we draw an auxiliary circle with radius equal to 2 Trn according to any convenient scale; divide the circumference into any convenient number of equal parts, as sixteen; and number the points of
division as in Fig. 236, that
is

90 ahead of the numbers in Fig. 234.

On an

Fig. 236

extension of the horizontal diameter


divide this into the same

we lay

off

oT

to represent 360,

number

of equal parts (sixteen),

and subnumbering as shown;

then 01, 02,

etc.,

represent 6

22^, 6

45, etc.

Finally

we

project points

o, I, 2, etc., of

the circle toward the right to meet corresponding vertical lines


o,
i,

through points

2,

etc., of

oT.

These points of meeting are on the


(^

v-9

graph, for the coordinates of any point on the curve are corresponding, or
simultaneous, values of d and rw sin

tt)

or

v.

Inspection of the v-d graph verifies what was said about the acceleration.
It

shows clearly that the velocity of the moving point

rapidly

when V
is

is

near the ends of

the acceleration of
v-d

is

V (Fig. 235) changes more path than when near the center; hence greater near the ends than near the center. Since the
its

graph

also a

v-t

graph, the slopes of the graph represent, to proper

scale, values of the (varying) acceleration.

The curve

is

steepest

when 6 =

90

and 270 (when V is at the ends of its path), and horizontal when = o and 180 (when V is at the center of its path); hence again the acceleration is greatest at the ends of the path, and zero at the center. When the moving point V is approaching the center of its path from either side then V is getting up speed, and hence the acceleration of V is directed toward the center; when V is receding from the center, then V is slowing down, and hence the acceleration is directed toward the center. Therefore the acceleration is always directed toward the center.

A general
time
/.

formula for acceleration in a s.h.m.

will
let

now be

derived.

We

take

the motion of

(Fig. 235) for that purpose,

and

cct.

the acceleration at

any

Now

dv/dt, v

rco

cos0,

and dd/dl

co;

hence
(2)

a=
These are (general) formulas
Since sin
gests

rorsind

ror sin

for a in
tt),

terms of d and
rw" sin (d
-\- ir).

respectively.

sin {6 for

This

last

formula sug-

an easy method

drawing the a-9 graph, showing how a varies with

134
6,

Chap,
also with First

vii

and hence

t.

we draw an auxiUary

circle (Fig. 237)

with

any convenient scale; divide the circumference into any convenient number of equal parts, say sixteen; and number
radius equal to rw- according to

Fig. 237

them

as in the figure, that

is

180 ahead of the

numbers

in Fig. 234.

extension of the horizontal diameter


divide

we

lay off

OT

to represent 360,

On an and subetc.,

OT

into sixteen equal parts

numbering as shown;

then 01, 02,


o,
i,

represent d

22^, 6

45, etc.

Finally,

we

project points

2, etc.,

of

the circle horizontally to meet the corresponding vertical lines through points
o,
I,

2, etc.,

of the

Hne OT.

for the coordinates of

These points of meeting are on the a-d graph, any point on the curve are corresponding, or simulta(6 -\-ir),

neous, values of 9 and rw^ sin

or

a.

In Fig. 238 the foregoing described distance, velocity, and acceleration graphs are superimposed; the solid curve is the y-d graph, the dashed curve the
v-d

graph, and dot-dash curve

is

the a-d graph.

Fig. 238

Fig. 239

Time dated from the instant when Q was at the positive end of its path. We might continue to regard the s.h.m. as taking place in the vertical diameter It will be more of Fig. 235, reckoning time from the instant when P was at Y.
convenient to consider the motion of the projection of
diameter; then

on the horizontal

we measure

and

as before.

It is easy to

show that

x=rcosd = rcoso:t;
Time dated from
let 6

v= r(j}sm6=
the instant

rcosinw/; a= rw^ cos = rco^ cos w/.


Q
was
at

when

some intermediate

point.

Let

be reckoned from the instant when

(Fig. 239)

was at some point


is

as Pq,

and

= PoOP

and

= XOPois

This latter angle

called angle of lead; but

angle of lag
s.h.m.

when Po executed by V,
J

below OX.

Now,
(0 -f- e);

XOP =
a

+
r(j?

co/

e.

In the

r sin (^

e)

rco

cos

sin (0

+
+

e).

In the s.h.m. executed by

ZT,
z;

r cos (0 -F e)

rw sin

(5

e)

a=

to? cos (0

e).

Art. 30

135

These Formulas jor Velocity and A cceleration in Terms oj Displacement. do not depend on the way in which time is reckoned. Referring to the foregoing formulas we see that
V

0}

Vr^
co'^s.

s"^

=
y.

ior

Vi

{s/rY,

where
s.h.m.;

stands for displa cement x or


oi v

The graph
it is

0:

Vr^

s~

is

the velocity-displacement graph for any

an

ellipse.

Fig. 241

jection of

on the horizontal diameter of the

shows that graph for the motion of the procircle. When P is where indi-

cated say, the velocity of

H
is

is

represented

by the ordinate HV.


;

co-5 is

the acceleration-displacement graph

it is

a straight

diagonal line in the figure


ation of

the a-s graph for the motion of the ordinate

The graph of line. The H. The acceler-

is

represented

by

HA.

if

Hi

136

Chap,

vii

The
As n

following approximate formulas

(i, 2,

and

3) are simpler

and quite accu-

rate, as will

be shown.

in Art. 28, let r

length of crank,

length of connecting rod, c

r/l,
co

= number

of revolutions of crank per unit time

(assumed constant),

angle in radians described

by crank per
its
t

unit time

(co

2 ttw), s

the varying
d

distance of the crosshead from

position

most remote from the crank,

=
as

the crank angle PdOP, and

time required for the crank to describe the

angle 6

{Q

oit

2 -wnt).

It follows

from the geometry of the

figure,

explained in Art. 28, that

s=
Now
And
(i

{l-\.r)
I

c^ sin^ 0)2
is

-l{i I c^ sin^ 6
\,

c"^

sin2 6)^

r cos 6.

\d^ sin^ 6

etc.

(binomial expansion).

since c

generally less than

the third and succeeding terms in the series

are very small and negligible; hence

we have

as a
/

good approximation
c^

Ui and

c2 sin2 0)^ 5

=
=

(i

r (i

- i c2 sin^ 0) = (i - 1 c^ + 1 COS0) + 4 cr (i cos 2 0).


t,

cos 2

d),

(i)
v (velocity of

Now

if

we

differentiate this with respect to

crosshead),

and remembering that dd/dt


V

co,

we get ds/dt or we finally get

the

r(ji

(sin

+ ^ c sin 26).
is

(2)

Differentiating again

and remembering that w


a

constant
6).

we

get dv/dt or
(3)

ru)^

(cos 6
s,

-{-

cos 2

Because of our way of measuring

the positive direction

is

from the cylinder


is

toward the crank.

Positive velocity v means that the crosshead

moving

toward the crank, and positive acceleration a means that velocity toward the crank is being added to the velocity. In order to furnish a comparison between the foregoing approximate formulas

and the exact ones

of Art. 28,

we

give in the adjoining table the values of a


d (Fig. 243).

for the case c

32 for a

few values of the crank angle

Art. 30

137

To

find the acceleration at the

"crank-end dead-center" we put

180,

and

find from either the exact or approximate formula that

rw- (i

c).

To show monic we show that


tions of

that the motion of the crosshead


its

simple harmonic one.

C is approximately simple harmotion resembles the motion of Q (Fig. 243) which is a In Fig. 244 we have marked nine corresponding posiLength of Rod Length of Crank

Q and
are
0,

C.

8 are the positions of


angles

Thus points o to Q when the crank 225, 45, etc., and

points O,

I, II,

III, etc., are the corre-

sponding positions of C. In the lower part of Fig. 244 the paths of Q and C
(with the points i, 2, 3 and I, II, III, marked upon them) have been brought

m
t>

w
?

V
~
-o

yi

together for comparison.

It

is

seen

Rod o- equals -o- J Cranho o -0-4 i> -o


-o
-o

VUVlll

0-0

that the actual distances described

by
00-

-0-5 "
-o- Q

-0-0

;;

-0-0

Q and C
of

in

any

interval of time are

- J. //.//. -5
Fig. 244

7 8

nearly the same, and so the motion

is

nearly the same as that of Q.

The

three intermediate lines in the figure are paths of


I, 2, 3, etc.,

with points corre-

sponding to

for three other lengths of connecting rod.

And we

see that the longer the rod the

more nearly

is

the motion of the crosshead

simply harmonic.

To

arrive at a

more complete comparison


(i),
z,

of the

motions of

derive the formulas for the position, velocity, and acceleration of

ing to equations
243)

(2),

and
s

(3).

The
r (i

variable distance

C and Q, we will Q correspondof Q from Po (Fig.


(4)

we

will call

then

cos

6).

Differentiating with respect to

/,

we

get for velocity of


V

Q
(5)

rcc sin 6,

and

differentiating again

we
9.

get for accel-

eration of

Q
a

ro}"^

cos

(6)

Now

compare (i) and (4), (2) and (5), and and (6) and note that the formulas for (3) the motion of C contain an "extra " term. Each of these terms depends on c (= r/l),
or on the "obliquity " of the connecting

rod
Fig. 245

(maximum
of

inclination of the rod to the

line

stroke

OC).
in

The

smaller c

(the

longer
crank), the smaller are the extra terms,

the

rod

comparison with

the

nearly

is

the motion of

and so the longer the rod the more the crosshead a simple harmonic one.

138
Fig. 245 presents a

Chap,

vii

comparison of the motion of the crosshead

C and

the

motion of Q.
the second.

The
Vc
is

solid lines refer to the first

motion and the dashed


is is

lines to

the velocity-distance

{v-s)

graph and Ac

the acceleration-

distance (as) graph for the motion of C.

Vq

the velocity-distance graph

and Aq
for

is

the acceleration-distance graph for the motion of Q.


(c

The graphs
i

were drawn for a connecting rod three cranks long

-^ 3).

For

longer rods the graphs for

C would come much

nearer the graphs for Q.

31.

Motion and Force


most
all

The preceding

discussion of motion deals, for the


it

part, with displaceto the forces acting

ment, velocity, and acceleration;


tilinear

does not refer at

upon the moving bodies. In this article we explain in what manner any recmotion of a rigid body depends upon the forces acting upon it. In Art. I. First View and Form of the Fundamental Principle. 2 it is explained that the units of force most used by engineers are the so-called gravitation iinits, equal to the earth-pulls on certain things called standards of These units have slightly different values at different places; thus weight. we have the London pound-force, the New York pound-force, etc. Some writers define the pound-force as any force equal to the earth's attraction on the standard pound weight at London or at sea level in latitude 45, thus making the unit force invariable or an "absolute " one. Besides these units

there are others; see 2 of this article.

word weight is used in at least two But we will continue to 4). use it in a single sense, to connote the earth-pull on a body, and we employ a separate word (mass, see 2 of this article) to connote the amount of substance Our two weighing devices, beam-scale and spring-scale, or stuff in a body. A beam-scale measures differ in a certain feature which is worth noting here. the weight (earth-pull) of a body in terms of the local unit of force, say the pound force for the place where the weighing is done; a spring-scale measures the weight of a body in terms of an invariable unit, say the particular pound A beam-scale will not detect the force for which the scale was graduated. change in the weight of a body with change of place because the magnitude of the unit (pull on the poise) changes just as the weight of the body changes.
In Art.
2,

we explained

also that the

senses in

common

parlance (see footnote, page

spring-scale

if

sufficiently accurate will detect

change in weight with change

of place.

First-hand knowledge of the relation between motion and the forces acting on the moving body must rest on observation or experiment. Let us consider The motion takes place under a simple case of motion, that of a falling body. the action of the weight of the body and the resistance of the surrounding air. But if the falling body is quite dense, the air resistance is negligible compared to the weight until the velocity becomes quite large. Observations have shown
that such a

body

falls

with a constant acceleration of about 32 feet per second

per second at moderate velocities, and

we

infer that

any

force equal to the

Art. 31

139
if

weight of the body would,


of the value stated.

acting alone on that body, produce an acceleration

We are now led

to inquire

what

is

the effect on a

body

of

an applied force of

some other magnitude, say a force equal to double its weight or one-half its weight? If we could intensify or dilute the earth-pull upon a body by a
(gravity) lens or screen, then

we

could

make a body

fall

under a force differing

from

its

own weight and

ascertain the answer to our question

by observing the

Unfortunately for our purpose, we cannot so concentrate or dilute the fall. gravity but we can dilute it indirectly by means of an "Atwood maof force The essential parts of that machine are a chine," designed for that purpose.
light pulley P mounted on a smooth horizontal axle (Fig. 246), some blocks of metal which can be suspended as shown by a light flexible

cord,

and a timing device

for getting

the acceleration of

and

B when
the

the system

is

allowed to move.

Neglecting the

small influence of the pulley, axle, and cord,

we regard A and
in

as

body moved and the

difference

their

weights

Wa) as the driving force. Experiments with this machine show that A and B move with constant acceleration, all and when runs are made with various driving forces
(Wb

metal pieces being used each time


differeni

then

the acceleraUons in the

^^^

.,

runs are directly proportional


force can be

to the

driving forces.

In
it

this

machine the driving

made very

small but

cannot be

made
force-

larger than the weight of all the metal pieces.

It

would seem that the

acceleration relation stated holds even for driving forces larger than the weight

body moved; and we assume that when any forces are applied successively so as to make it move in g, straight line, then the accelerations are Or, if F and F' = the magnitudes of two proportional to the forces respectively. forces applied to any body in succession, and a and a' = the accelerations
of the
to the

same body

respectively, then

F/F'
If

a/a'.

IF

the weight of the body, g

the acceleration due to gravity (IF),

and a as above, then the foregoing principle gives also

F/W =

a/g, or as

it is

more commonly

written,

F = (W/g)
is

a.

Generally, a moving body

under the influence of more than one

force.

When
it is

the body moves

in a straight line, the resultant of all the forces acting

upon

a single force acting in the direction of the acceleration (proved in Art. 35).
to the line

Therefore the resultant has no component at right angles


or, the algebraic

of motion;

sum

of the

components of

all the forces acting

on

the
is

body along

any

line at right angles to the path equals zero.

Thus,

if

the path

taken as an
z

X axis

and two

lines at right angles to

each other and to the path as y and


0,

axes, then

SF=o, 2F, =
where SPx, "^Fy, and llF^ stand

and

^F, = R,
sums
of the x, y,

for the algebraic

and

com-

140
ponents of
all

Chap,

vii

the forces acting on the body, and


in Art. 35,

denotes their resultant.

Furthermore, as proved

K=
J?

W ^^ a.

(i)

Any
g

unit of force

may be

used for

and

W in equation
is

and

a.

When

a gravitational unit of force

ient in engineering calculations

then, strictly, the numerical value of g used should correspond to the "locality " of the unit-force used. That is, when one

used

such are most conven(i),

(i),

and any unit

for

is

about to make a calculation by means of equation

implying the

New
As

York pound-force

say, then he should use for g its value for

New

York.

already stated, the variation in g is negligible in most engineering calculations, and we generally use 32.2 feet per second per second or even 32 for simplicity.

Non-gravitational units, the dyne for example,

may

be used in equation
is

(i).

But when such


of equation (i).

units are preferred, then equation (2)

to be preferred in place

Examples.
ing on
it

When a body moves

in a straight line

and

if all

the forces act-

known so that R can be computed, then the acceleration can be determined easily by means of equation (i). If the acceleration is known then we can determine R easily, and from R we can find out something
are

about the forces acting on the body.


I.

(Fig. 247) represents a

surface

5 by pounds, P =

a pull

acting as shown.

body being dragged along a rough horizontal Suppose that the body weighs 100

find the acceleration of

40 pounds, and the friction resistance = 10 pounds. We will A and the normal component of the force exerted
B.

between

A and

The

forces acting

on

are represented in Fig. 248,

N de20

noting the normal component of the reaction oi

B on A,

friction being the other

component.

Resolving at right angles to the path, we get

N + 40 sin
i?

100, or iV

86.3 pounds.

Resolving along the path, we get

40 cos 20

10

27.6.

Equation

(i) gives 27.6

(100

-r-

32.2) a, or a

8.9 feet per

second per second.


too
I

/b3.

_/o

1^

40,
lbs.

Fig. 247
2.

Fig. 248

Fig. 249

Fig. 250

(Fig. 249) represents a

by a

pull

equal to 50 pounds;

body being dragged up the rough inclined plane A weighs 60 pounds and the coefficient of

A and B is I. We determine the acceleration. Three forces act on A, namely the weight, the pull, and the reaction of B. The last force is represented by two components (TV and F) in Fig. 250. Resolving at right
friction for

angles to the path,

we

get

N=
we

60 cos 30
get
7?

52
13

hence

F=

^2 -^

4=

1^ pounds.

Resolving along the path,


7

50

60 sin 30

pounds; hence

(60 -^ 32.2) a, or a

3.75 feet per second per second.

Art. 31

141
passenger elevator gets up speed at the rate of 4 feet per second

3.

A certain

per second, and can be stopped at the rate of 8 feet per second per second. We discuss the pressure on the shoes of a standing passenger weighing 160

pounds, during an ascent.

The
is

forces acting

on the
is

man

are his

own weight

and the pressure

P of the floor on his

shoes (upward).

resultant of these forces

upward, hence

During acceleration the larger than 160 pounds and


-f-

R = P 160. Equation (i) becomes P 160 = (160 P 180 pounds. During the next period, constant speed,
During retardation the acceleration
fore
4.
is

32)

X4 o and
gilso.

20, or

160.

downward and hence


40, or

There-

R=

160

P=

(160 -h 32)

P=

120 pounds.

determine the reaction of the car (Fig. 251) on A during the period of getting up speed at the rate of 2 feet per second per second; A weighs 1000 pounds. We suppose the floor of the car so rough that A does not slip. There

We

are

two

forces acting

on

(Fig. 252), its

own weight and

the pressure

of

the floor.

This latter force must be inclined as shown to furnish a component


Resolving at right angles to the
get

on

in the direction of the acceleration.

path,

we

P
^

cos 6
2.

1000; resolving along the path,

(1000

-^ 32.2)

X
=

Solving these

we two simultaneously we

R = P sind = find that P = 1002


get

pounds and

3 Zi' prevent slipping the floor

(The horizontal component of P is friction. To must be rough enough to furnish such a resistance.)
150
Ibi,

^3-1
Fig. 251

lOOOIbi

^6'>i.

Fig. 252

Fig. 253

142
pressure;

Chap,

vii

get iV

we

and F = friction. Then resolving forces normally to the = M^ cos a; therefore F = ijlN = /AV cos a. Resolving along cos a) = {W -^ g) a, or get R = W sina F = W (sin a cos a) a = g (sin a
/jl
(J.

path we
the path

If the
2.

plane

is

perfectly

smooth n

o,

and a

g sin a.

Second View and Form of the Fundamental Principle.

Physi-

cists avoid the (common) double meaning of the word weight by employing the word mass to connote amount of material, substance, or stuff, in a body,

and weight
this book.

on the body. Such usage is followed in measured in different ways; for example, Hquids generally by gallon, earthwork by cubic yard, cloth by square yard, brick by thouBut mass means amount of substance as measured sand, iron by ton, etc. by a beam-scale. Our standards of mass (commonly and legally called " standards of weight ") are the pound and the kilogram. These are certain pieces The mass of a body, of metal preserved in London and Paris respectively. measured as just explained, does not change with change of locality, and this
to connote the earth-pull

Material

is

is

in

The

accordance with our conception of material, substance, or stuff. force-acceleration relation, F = (W/g) a, can be put into an alternative

form which is preferable from some points of view. Thus suppose that two bodies whose weights at the same place are Wi and W2 are subjected to equal forces F; let g = the acceleration due to gravity at the place and ai and a^ = the accelerations produced by the two forces F. Then F = (Wi/g) Ci

Wi/g)

02,

or
ai/a2

= W2/W1.
two bodies are proportional
to the

That same

is,

the accelerations of the two bodies are inversely as their weights at the

place;

and

since the masses of

weights (at the same place), the accelerations of the two bodies are inversely proportional to their masses. This relation and that between the accelerations

produced

one statement as follows: Whenever a force

in a

body by two

different forces acting singly can

be expressed in
to

acts upon a body so as


is

make

it

move in a
directly

straight line,
to the

then the acceleration produced


the

proportional

to the

force

and

mass of

body inversely, or a

^F -^

m.

This proportion-

ality can be put into the form of an equation,

F = Kma,
where
i^T

is

a proportionality factor whose value depends on the units used

for expressing

magnitudes of F, m, and
the value of

a.

This

is

the alternative form

mentioned.

We may
at pleasure,

fix

any two

of

(i) choose units of F, m, and a and deduce the value of X; or (2) choose a value of K and units for the quantities F, m, and a, and then deduce the proper unit for the

in

two ways:

third quantity.

On

plan

(i)

we

choose, for example, the pound-force, the


a,

pound-mass, and the foot per second per second as units for F, m, and

and

Art. 31

143

then determine

The motion
feet
32.2.

K by reference to any motion in which F, m, and a are known. "


body
is

of a falling
falls,

such a one.

Thus when a body "weighing


10 pounds, and a

say 10 pounds

then

F=

10 pounds,

m=

about 32.2

per second per second, and we have 10

X"

10

32-2, or

K=
(i)

-i-

On

plan

(2)

we take

equal to unity for simplicity,

and then

choose

and a at pleasure, and deduce the proper unit of F; or (ii) choose (i) Physicists units of F and a at pleasure, and deduce the proper unit of m. second per second as unit per centimeter and the take the gram as unit mass,
units of
of acceleration; then the corresponding unit of force

{K =

i) is

such a force as

would give to the


second.

gram an

acceleration of one centimeter per second per

(ii) If we take the pound as unit of call this force the dyne, unit of acceleration, then the corresecond as per second per force, the foot

They

= i) is such a mass which will sustain an acceleration second under the action of a force of one pound. per second of one foot per This unit of mass has no generally accepted name, but it is sometimes called
sponding unit of mass (K
"engineers' unit of mass," also "slug "

and "gee-pound."
called a systematic set of units,
also a

A
or

set of

units for which A'

is

kinetic set.

We will

always use systematic units and thus always have

F=

ma,

when

several forces

make a body move

in a straight line,
(2)

R=
where
a

ma.

denotes the resultant of those forces.

For a

falling

body

R=

W and
(3)

g;

thus

when systematic

units are used

W = mg,
Therefore

or

m=

W/g.

R=

(W/g) a as in

i.

To
and

arrive at a notion of the

magnitude of the unfamiliar units dyne

(force)

slug (mass), let us consider the well-known force-mass-acceleration rela-

A body whose mass is one gram, falling at under the action of a force (earth-pull) of one Paris gram, and has an acceleration of 981 centimeters per second per second. Hence a force of 0.001019 (= I -H 981) Paris grams would give to a body whose mass is one
tion in the case of a falling body.
Paris, falls

gram an
that force

acceleration of one centimeter per second per second.


is

Therefore

the dyne, that


I

is

dyne
is

0.001019 Paris grams (force).


falling at

London, falls under the action of a force (earth-pull) of one London pound, and has an acceleration of 32.2 feet per second per second. Hence a force of one London pound would give to a

body whose mass

one pound,

body whose mass


second.

pounds an acceleration Therefore, that mass is the slug, that is


is

32.2

of one foot per second per

slug

32.2

pounds (mass).

CHAPTER
32.

I.

VIII

CURVILINEAR MOTION
Velocity

and Acceleration
moving point
at a

Velocity.

In

common
rate at

parlance, velocity of a

certain instant

means the

which the point

is

describing distance then.

So understood, velocity has magnitude and sign only, and is therefore a scalar quantity. In the preceding chapter (on rectilinear motion) we used the word
in this sense; in the present chapter

we

use the
is

word

in a

broader sense

so

that

it is is

a vector quantity whose magnitude

the rate at which the

moving
is

point

describing distance at the instant in question and whose direction

the same as that of the motion then.


If 5

the (varying) distance of the

in the path, the distance being

moving point from some fixed origin measured along the path, then the magnitude
of ds/dt for that instant.

of the velocity at
V

any instant equals the value


V

Or

if

magnitude

of velocity,

ds/dt.

(i)

If the
is

point

constant,

interval At.

is moving uniformly, then the rate at which distance is described and is given by As/^t, where As is the distance described in any The direction of the motion at any instant (and the direction of is

the velocity then)

along the tangent to the path at the position of the

moving point at that instant. To illustrate, imagine a lo-foot wheel mounted on a horizontal axis which points north and south, and suppose that the wheel
is

rotating at 180 revolutions per minute clockwise

when viewed from the

south.

When

a certain point on the rim

is
tt

in its highest position then the


5

velocity of the point has a magnitude of 2

180

5655 feet per minute,

and

the direction of the velocity

is

horizontal from west to east.

this usage.

The magnitude part of a velocity is called speed by some writers; we follow Thus in the preceding illustration the speed is 5655 feet per minute;
is

while the wheel turns, the speed of the point

constant but the velocity

changes in direction.
2.
is

Acceleration.

the rate at which

its

The acceleration of a moving point at any instant changing then. velocity not speed V deis

If

notes the (varying) velocity of a moving point and v the (varying) speed, then
the definition states that the acceleration
as
is

dV/dt and not

dv/dt.

the rate most readers are unfamiliar with the rate of a vector quantity chapters in most books on differential calculus deal with rates of scalar quantities only we explain in considerable detail just what is meant by the rate ot

Inasmuch

144

Art. 32

H5
first

change of a velocity, but


called

we

explain for subsequent use a motion graph

Hodo graph.
point varies.

This

is

a curve which shows

how

the velocity of a

moving

It is constructed

by laying

off

vectors from a point to represent

and then the free ends of the vectors are joined by a Thus, suppose is the hodograph for the motion. that A BCD (Fig. 256 ) is the path of a moving point P, and that the vectors at A, B,C, and D represent the velocities of P when at A, B, C, and D respecIf 0'A\ O'B', O'C, and O'D' (Fig. 257) are drawn (from any point O') tively.
successive velocities,

smooth curve.

The curve

bed
Fig. 258

Fig.

256

to represent the velocities respectively, then the curve

graph for the motion of


velocity while
(in

from

to D.

The increment

A'B'C'D' is the hodoor change in the

P moves from /I to D say is represented by the vector A'D' magnitude and direction). The change in the speed = length O'D' (The hodograph should not be confused with the speed- time length O'A'. The latter is represented in Fig. 25S where ab, he, and cd represent the curve. times required for P to move from A to B, B to C, and C to D respectively, and the ordinates over a, b, c, and d represent the speeds 2XA,B, C, and D.)

1.8

2,0

2.2

2.4Secs.

Fig. 259

Fig. 260

Fig. 261

We are now ready to explain the meaning of rate of change of velocity; we base our explanation on a simple case of curvilinear motion. Suppose that a point P starts at Q (Fig. 259) and describes the circle shown in such a way that
the distance traversed (in feet) equals double the cube of the time after startRequired the acceleration say, when t = 2.4 ing (in seconds), or 5 = 2 t^.
seconds, or
of the
5

2.4^

27.65 feet.

The curve

in Fig. 260
2.6,

is

the hodograph

motion

for the interval

from

1.6 to

containing the instant

146
in question.
s

Chap,

viii

It

2t^,d

s/20 (radians)

was constructed from the adjoining schedule, computed from = 2.865 ^ (degrees), and v = ds/dt = 6 P.

(sec.)

Art. 32

147

on the original drawing already mentioned.


is

The

direction of this acceleration

the limit of the directions of the average acceleration, and obviously this On the original drawing the angle limit is the tangent to the hodograph at '.

between this tangent and the horizontal is 24 degrees. For emphasis by contrast we will determine the way in which the speed changes during the motion under consideration. Speed-increments are listed under H-o in the schedule; average rates of change of speed for the respective
time-intervals are listed under A17 A/.

The

luniting value of these averages,

as A^

taken smaller and smaller but always termmating at / = 2.4, is about 28 feet per second per second, and this is the rate at which the speed changes
is

(dv/dt) at

2.4 seconds.

We now generalize the foregoing.


point P, and
tively.
let

Let

AB

(Fig. 262)

be the path of a moving


at
.4

O'A' and

O'B' be the velocities of


is

P when

and

respec-

Then

vector A'B'

the velocity-in-

crement for the interval A/ while P moves from A to B; (chord A'B') -^ A/ is the magnitude of the average acceleration for the interval,

and the direction A'B'

is

the direction
^^^- ^^^

of the average acceleration.

of the (instantaneous)

The magnitude acceleration of P when

passing

is the limit of (chord .1 'B') 4- A/, as

A] and the
as

direction of the acceleration

is

taken closer and closer to the limit of the direction of A'B'


is

approaches A,or B' approaches A'.

Now hm

(chord A'B')

-^

A^

lim

(arc A'B') -i- A/ graph at A', and s' is the distance of P' (the point in the hodograph corresponding to P) from any fixed origin on the hodograph; and the limiting Finally, direction of the chord A'B' is the tangent at A'.
ds' is

ds' /dt where

the elementary portion of the hodo-

the acceleration of
to the

is

a vector quantity equal


at the point

to ds' /dt

and

parallel
to

tangent

to the

hodograph

P' corresponding

P.

It should be noted that the acceleration of

is

not directed along the tan-

gent to the path but always toward the concave side of the path. It may be noted also that since the velocity of P' equals ds'/dt and is directed along the

tangent to the hodograph at P',


the acceleration of
it

is the
s'

same as

the velocity of its rorresponding point P',

being understood that

(distance

on the hodograph) must be measured

by the scale of the hodograph diagram. As an example of the use of our final result, that the acceleration of P is given by the velocity of its corresponding point in the hodograph, we determine the
acceleration of a point which describes a circle at a constant speed.
(Fig. 263)

Let

be the point,

radius of the circle,

and

the speed of P.

The

hodograph

is a circle whose radius equals v\ A' corresponds to A and P' to P; and hence A 'O'P' equals 6. We measure the distance 5 (traversed by P) from A, and s' (traversed by P') from A'. Then s'/v = s/r, or s' = sv/r. Now

148
the velocity of P' equals ds' /dt
is

Chap, vin

(ds/dt) (v/r)

v'^/r,

directed along the tangent at P' (parallel to the radius


acceleration of
its

is

and the velocity of P' OP); hence the directed from P to O and

magnitude

is v^/r.

The method

for determining acceleration


is diflScult

used in the preceding example

to

apply in most motions.

Why

then was the

Fig. 263

method developed at length? To make plain the meaning of acceleration in curvilinear motion and particularly to show students,
in

an elementary way, that acceleration

in

curvilinear motion does not equal dv/dt

and
is

is

not directed along the tan-

gent to the path in general.


constant; also

Thus

in the preceding
v^/r,

example

it

was found
o since v

that the magnitude of the acceleration


is it

whereas dv/dt

was found that the acceleration is directed along the normal to the path. In the motion discussed at length (where 5 = 2 /^), it was found that the magnitude of the acceleration when / = 2.4 seconds is about 66.5 feet per second per second; but, smce v = ds/dt = 6 f, dv/dt =
12
t

28.8 for

2.4.*

33.
I.

Components

of Velocity

and Acceleration
like

Components of Velocity.
and
s)

Velocity,

any other vector quantity,

can be resolved into components.


of coordinates (as x, y,
*

For our purpose components parallel to axes are most useful; such components are called

vector quantities other than velocity.

Note on Rate of Change of a Vector Quantity. We shall have to deal with the rates of Therefore we now generalize our notions on the rate

of this vector quantity (velocit}') just arrived at so as to prepare for the rates of these other

vector quantities for future use.

values of any vector


ing p at time
ti,
ti

p, in

Let OA, OB, OC, etc. (Fig. 264), represent successive magnitude and direction, vector OB representto,

OB
to

at time
to

OC at time /s,
to
t^,

etc.

the intervals

t^, ti

tz, /i

etc.,

are represented

The changes in p during by the vectors

AB, AC, AD,


any and
tz,

etc.

The average

rate of change in the vector p during

be found by dividing the change by the time; thus for the interval /i to tt the average rate = AB -r- (^2 /i),
of these

intervals

may

this rate

is

a vector whose direction

the average rate

= AC

-i-

{tz

/i)

For the interval t\ to is AB. and the direction of the rate is AC.
which the average
Fig. 264
{t2

In general, both the magnitude and the direction of the average rate
of a vector

depend on the length

of the interval for

rate

is

taken or computed.
ti,

By
is

true or instantaneous rate of change of


limit of the average rate

the vector at the time


closer of arc

say,

meant the

AB

-^

/i)
(t-i

as

^2 is

taken
limit

and

closer to
-r- {t2

ti.

AB
is

/i)

The magnitude of this limit = limit of chord AB -h = dS/dt where dS = elementary portion of the arc
to

ti)

the direction of

the hmit

the direction of the tangent to the arc at A.

Imagine a point
p at each instant.
velocity of

move

in the

curve

AD

so that the vector


its

OP

represents the vector


is

The

velocity of

P=

dS/dt and

direction at

any instant
is

tangent to

the curve at the point where

is

at the instant; hence the time-rate of p

the same as the

(the

moving end

of p).

Art. ss

149

Axial Components.
parallel to the x, y,
i'l

Let
v^, Vy,

x,

y,

and
v^

the (changing) coordinates of a

moving point P, and

and

the components of the velocity of

P
(i)

and

coordinate axes respectively; then


Vy

dx/dt,

dy/dt,

v^

dz/dt.

These formulas state that each axial component of the any instant equals the rate at which the corresponding coordinate In the following derivation of the forof the moving point is changing then. mulas we assume for simplicity that the path of the moving point is a plane
(Proof follows.)
velocity at

curve

in the

a tortuous, or twisted, path.

xy plane; proof can be extended readily to include the case of Let P (Fig. 265) be the moving point, v = the

magnitude

of the velocity of P,

and a

the angle which the tangent at

makes with the x axis. Then v^ = v cos cos a. = dx/ds, and sin a = dy/ds; hence

a,

and

Vy

v sin a.

But

ds/dt,

ds dx

dx

"'"dlTs ~Tt'

^"^"^

'"'~

_dsdv _dy dtds ~ dl'

Fig. 265

Fig. 266

For an example, we determine the x and y components of the velocity of a point P which moves in the circle of Fig. 266 according to the law 5=2 t'^, s (This is the motion discussed at length in the being in feet and / in seconds. = 20 cos preceding article.) It is plain from the figure that x = 20 cos
(5/20)

20 cos

(o.i^^);
i)x

hence
20 sin
zj^

(o.i/^) 0.3 1-

= 6f sin

{p.if).

4 sin (0.8 radians) = 24 sin 45.8 = The negative sign means that the component of the 17.2 feet per second. In a similar way it can be shown that velocity is directed toward the left.

When

seconds, say,

= 6 X

Vy=

6/^ cos {o.if).

Other Components.

The velocity of a moving point P


P
is

is

directed along the

tangent to

its

path at the point where

at the instant under consideration;

hence, the tangential component of the velocity equals the velocity itself, and the velocity has no normal component (along the normal to the path). For

formulas for components of velocity along and perpendicular to the radiusvector of the moving point see Hoskins' "Theoretical Mechanics," Ziwet's,
or any other standard work on that subject. Acceleration 2. Components of Acceleration.

is

a vector quantity, and


useful

can be resolved into components therefore.

The most

components

for

I50
our purposes are:
axial

Chap,

vtri

(i)

Those

parallel to axes of coordinates {x, y,

and z),

called

components;

(2)

those parallel to the tangent and normal to the path of


is

the

moving point

at the place where the point

at the instant in question.*

Axial Components.
acceleration of a
axial

Let
dVx/dt,

a^,

ay,

and

az

the axial components of the

moving point P, and as in components of the velocity of P, then


flx

i let Vx, Vy,

and

Vz

the (varying)

Oy

dvy/dl,

a^

dvjdt.

(2)

(Two proofs
axial
Vy

follow.)

acceleration of

at

These formulas state that each axial component of the any instant equals the rate at which the corresponding
is

component of the velocity of P dy/dt, and v^ = dz/dt, we have also


ax

changing then.

Since

Vx

dx/dt,

d^x/df,
it is
^

ay

d'-y/df^,

a,

dh/df^.

(3)

In the following proof

assumed
in the

for simplicity, that the

path

of the

moving point

is

a plane curve

xy plane.

The proof can be extended

readily to include the case of a tortuous or twisted path.

LetP

(Fig. 267)

be
v\

the moving point, and O'P^ (Fig. 268) be parallel and equal to the velocity

Fig. 267

Fig. 268

then P'
tion of

is

the point "corresponding " to P, and the direction of the accelerais

tangent to the hodograph at P' as indicated.

Let a

the

magds'

nitude of the acceleration, and a'


the X axis.

the angle between the acceleration and

Then

ax

=
Vx

a cos a and ay

a sin

a'.

But a
sin a'

ds'/dt,

where

denotes elementary length on the hodograph (see Art. 32); and since the
coordinates of P' are

and

Vy,

cos a'

=
,

dvx/ds',

and
dt

=
dt

dvy/ds'.
4.

Hence

_ ds' dvx _ dvx ^'~l[tdl'~dt'


y
1

^"""^

''''

_ ~

^^_ ~^
ds'
of

For discussion

dicular to the radius-vector


origin to the
t

components along and perpendrawn from any fixed

'^

^^^'

^9

moving point see texts referred to in i Let AB is an alternative proof: (Fig. 269) be a portion of the path of the moving point P, and let O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities of P when at A and B. Then A'B' represents the change jj^ ^Yic velocity while P moves from A to B, and A'M

The

following

and A'N represent the x and y components of this velocity-change. Let A'Q, tangent hodograph at ^', represent the acceleration of P when at A. Then

to the

Art.

,-i$

151

in the

For an example we determine the x and y components of the acceleration motion of the preceding example (see Fig. 266). In that example it was shown that the general value of the x component of the velocity (true for any
is Vx

instant)

/-

sin (o.i

t^)

hence
t

dvx/dt (or Qx)

12

sin (o.i

i^)

1.8

/^

cos (o.i

l^).

And when / = 2.4 seconds, say, Gx 29.4 feet per second per second. similar way the value of Cy can be found from the general expresssion for
Tangential and Normal Componenls.
respectively; other notation as before,

In a
Vy.

They
and
r

will

be denoted by

at

and a

radius of curvature of the path

at the point occupied


at

by the moving point


dv/dt

at the instant in question.

Then
(4)

d'^s/dt",

and

v'^/r.

(Two

proofs follow.)

at which the speed (magnitude of the velocity) changes,

These formulas respectively state that at and that a


is

the rate

is

propor-

tional to the square of the speed directly and to the radius of curvature inversely.

Where

the speed

is

increasing, dv/dt
is

positive

and

at

has the same direction


is

as the velocity;

where the speed

decreasing, dv/dt

negative and at

is

The normal acceleration a is mo\ang point toward the center of curvature. (The words tangential and normal refer to the tangent and normal to the path at the point where the moving point is at the instant in question.)
opposite to the velocity in direction.
directed from the

always

Fig. 270

Fig. 271

= velocity of P at ^, and Ad = the angle between the normals (and the tangents) to the path at A and B. Also let O'A' and O'B' be equal to and parallel to V and v + Av respectively; then A' and B' are on the hodograph and angle A'O'B' = Ad. The acceleration of P when at A is parallel to the tangent A'Q. Let A'Q represent c; then A'AI and A'N respectively represent the tangential and normal components of a. Hence
Let
(Fig. 270)

AB

be the path of a moving point P,v

-\-

^v =

its

velocity at B,

at

acos(f)

-77 cos dt

<^,

and

a sin

4>

To

continue the proof,


(Fig. 271)

we need

to recall certain formulas from calculus.

Let

CC
OC

be any curve,

vectors of

C and C, and the tangent

A7

Ap the radius a convenient "pole," p and p the angle COC, Al the arc CC, yp the angle between

at C.
siiwp

From

calculus,

p dy/dl

and

cos

1/'

dp/dl.

152

Chap, vin
(Fig. 270)

These formulas when applied to the hodograph


sm4>

become

V dd/ds'

and
ds'

cos

4>

dv/ds'.

Hence
ds' dv
dt

dv
dt

dd
ds

dB
dt

dd ds
ds dt

v^ ^

ds

dt

For an example we determine the tangential and normal components of the Since 5=2^^, acceleration in the motion of the two preceding examples.
V

t"

and dv/dt

12/

a;

at

2.4 seconds, say, at

second per second.


feet per

Also a

v'^/r

36 ^^,20

1.8

/^;

at

= 28.8 feet = 2.4, a =

per
59.7

second per second.


its

The {resultant) acceleration can be obtained from normal components. Thus


a

axial or tangential

and

= V a/ +

Cy^

flz'-

Vat^
z

+ an\
by

The
The
{at^

angles which a

makes with the

x, y,

and and

axes are given respectively


cos~^ {az/a).

cos~^ (a^c/a),

cos~^ {ay/ a),

angle which a makes with the normal equals tan"^ {at/ an).

From

a^)5

it

appears that a does not equal


"v^/r)

at

{=

dv/dt) in general; onJ^


r

an

o.

And an{=

o only when

o or

oc,

that

is,

when where the


is

moving point
*

reverses direction of motion or where the radius of curvature

infinitely great.

The

following

is

an alternative proof:

Let AB

(Fig. 272)

be a portion of the path

of

the moving point P, and O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities of
tively.

P when

at

and

respec-

is the hodograph for .IB; the chord A'B' represents the change moves from A to B; and the tangent A' a represents the acceleraLet v = the magnitude of the velocity a,t A, v -\- Av = that at B, tion a of P when at A. the angle beAd the angle between the normals (and the tangents) at A and B, and tween the acceleration and the velocity at A. Then at = a cos(^ =

Then

the curve A'B'

in the velocity while

,.

hm
,.

hm

^,, = lim EAB) AvcosA6 v(i cosA9)


, ,.

A'B',. lim
A^

A'B' coiEA'B'
Ai

(cos,

= nm
,.

,.

A'E
At

=
At

,.

(ii -}-

Ai.)

cos

lim dv
-j.

Ai*

-=
dt

At
i
ti

At

-r
it will

lim -- cos A0 2V At
,.

Av

hm
=

sin-|A9

=
ds

dv ^^ = -y hm A9
,.

Ad
At

dt

Referring to the figure


,.

be seen that a

a sin

A'B'.. .. ^.,^,. hm- lim (smEA'B') At

= hm,.

A'B'^mEA'B'
At
,.

=
dO
dt

EB' - hm At
..

= hm =
r
-fi

(j^Av)^nA9
At

hm
,.

sinAff

At

Av ,. , h lim - sin Ad At
,

= v hm

Ad
-

At

+o=
,

v-j-=

"- -7; r dt

Some

students find

it diflficult

or impossible to realize that acceleration of a point in


to the path at the place

curvilinear motion has a

component along the normal

where the

moving point is at the instant in question, notwithstanding detailed calculations (as on pages 145 and 146) for a specific case and mathematical derivation of the general formulas for the normal component of acceleration.
" If the

Let us consider the matter from the perplexed student's own standpoint. He may ask, moving point has an acceleration along the normal, why does it not acquire velocity along the normal ? " If he will grant that velocity cannot be acquired instantaneously but
it is

only with lapse of time, then

easy to show that velocity

is

acquired along the normal.


in the curve (Fig. 272); con-

Thus

to take a concrete case, suppose that a point

is

moving

ART. 33

153
(see Art. 30).

of the velocity

and acceleration equal the velocity and acceleration

components moving point P of the projection of the point on that same line, enables one to get the formulas for velocity and acceleration in a simple harmonic motion very easily. Thus let P, Fig. 273, be a point describing the circle uniformly, and Q its projection on the horizontal diameter;
Simple Harmonic Motion

along

The
any

fact that the

line

of a

then the motion of

() is

a simple harmonic one (Art. 30).

Let the amplitude

of

the s.h.m. (radius of the circle) = 2 feet, and the frequency of the s.h.m. Then the (revolutions of P per unit time) = 100 vibrations per minute. =21 second, = feet per minute per i26o feet velocity ofP=27rX2Xioo -^ 2 21= of P the acceleration and shown; as directed along the tangent at P = 220 feet per second per second, directed along the radius PO. Now when PO makes an angle d = 30 say, then the velocity of Q is 21 sin 30 = 10.5 feet per second; the acceleration oiQ = 220 cos 30 = iSo feet per second per second, directed toward O whether P is travelling clockwise or counter clockwise.

Evidently the greatest velocity of

obtains

when

() is

at 0; that value

equals 21 feet per second.


either

The

greatest acceleration of
is

obtains

when Q

is

at

end

of its path;

that value

220 feet per second per second.

Fig. 273

Fig. 274

General formulas for velocity and

acceleration in simple harmonic motion

can be as easily derived.


velocity of
velocity

Let
its

amplitude, n

frequency.

P =

2 irrn

and
of

acceleration

ir-r-n^ H- r

=
6.

Trhi^r.

Then the Hence

and acceleration

are respectively (see Fig. 273)

3.

2 irrn sin d

and

ir'^n-r

cos

Projectile Without Air Resistance.


(initial velocity),

Let

the velocity of

projection

and a

the angle of projection (angle between

direction of projection
projectile

(Fig. 274) at

and the horizontal), x and y = the coordinates of the any time t after projection, v = the velocity of P, and

sider the interval while

at

moves from A to B. Let O'A' and O'B' represent the velocities A'B' represents the velocity acquired by P in the interval, and this acquired velocity has a component not only along the normals at A and B, but along any other normal to AB. Or, the student may say, "Since the velocity is always there cannot be an acceland hence has no normal component directed along the tangent But here is a case which may convince him: a ball thrown eration along the normal."

A and B

respectively; then

obliquely into the

air.

down, and

this acceleration has for

at that position.

is at all times vertically every position of the ball a component along the normal (Strictly the acceleration is not quite vertical by reason of air resistance,

The

acceleration of the ball, due to gravity,

but neglecting

this fact is of

no consequence

here.)

154
a

Chap, vni

the acceleration of

at the time

/.

The only

force acting on the proof the projectile is 34), ox a^

jectile

during flight

is

gravity.
all

vertically
dy

downwards at
Since there
flight,
is

Hence the acceleration times and equal to g (Art.


from the
initial

o and

g.

no x acceleration, the x velocity remains constant


conditions (m, a) to be
(i)

during the

and we

find that value


Vx

ucosa.

The y

velocity
/,

is

decreased at
is gt,

all

times

by

the y acceleration
is

g.

In the

interval

that decrease

and

since the initial y velocity

sin a, the v

velocity at

any time

is

given

by
Vy

sin

gt.

(2)
/

Since the x velocity remains constant, the x displacement in the interval

is

given

by
X

= u cos a

'

t.

(3)

The y

velocity varies uniformly with the time;

hence the average y velocity

for the interval

/ is | [(w sin a {u sin a gt)] = w sin a | gt. The y displacement for the interval equals the product of the average y velocity and the time or y = usina t ^ gf^. (4)

Foregoing results determine the velocity and position at any time

/.

They

may be

arrived at

more

directly
dvx

by integrating the given equations


,

dvu

Thus

integrating the

first

equation

we

find that Vx

C\,

where Ci

is

a constant

of integration

whose value

for reasons already stated is


Vy

cos a.
is

Integrating

the second equation


of integration.

/ = o, and on and t in the last equation we find that C2 = M sin a; thus Vy = gt -\- u sin a as before. Now integrating Vx = dx/dt = u cos a, we get x = u cos a / -f C3. From initial conditions x = o when / = o; therefore v = o -\- Cz, or C3 = o, and x = u cos a ^ as before. Integrating Vy = dy/dt gt -]r usm. a, we get y = \ gf^ -{- usina- 1 -\- d.

we find that From the initial

gt

-{-

C2 where C2

another constant

conditions Vy

= m sin a when

substituting these values of Vy

From
Ci

initial
o,

conditions y

and y

\ gt^

-\-

= o when u sina t as
'

o;

therefore

-{-

-|-

C4 or

before.

The

trajectory (path of the projectile) is a portion of

a parabola as can be

shown from the equation of the trajectory. To arrive at the equation we may combine equations (3) and (4) so as to eliminate /. Thus we find that
y
2u'^ cos^

=
^

xu^ sin

gx^.

(5)

Range
time of

aftd Greatest Height.

At the end X

gt^

of the range,

o;

hence the

flight is

given by u sin at

o,

or
/

(2

sin a)/g.

The range

equals the value of x in equation

(3)

when
-7-

=
g.

the value just found; thus

R=

(u^ sin 2 a)

Art. 34

155

also equals the value of x in equation (5)


is

shows that the range

greatest

for a given velocity of projection when


/

when y

o.

The formula

for

a =

45. That greatest value is u'^/g. At the highest point of the trajectory Vy that point is given by m sin a g/ = o, or

= o; hence = {u sin a)

the time of flight to


-^ g.
t

The

height

of the trajectory equals the value of y in equation (4)

when

the value just

found

thus

H=

^ {usin a)2 -^

g.

H also

equals the value of y in equation (5)

when x =

^ R.

34.

Motion

of the

Center of Gravity

of

a Body

simple

In Art. 3 1 we found that any rectilinear motion of a body depends in a very way upon the forces acting on the body. The relation between the
of a

motion of the center of gravity


sort of

body (whether
is

rigid or not)

which has any

motion however complicated

also quite simply related to the forces

exerted on the
I.

body

as
is

we

shall see presently.


its

Particle

a body so small that


its

dimensions are negligible in


dis-

comparison with the range of


tinction need be

motion.

In any motion of a particle no

made between

the displacements (velocities or accelerations)

of different points of the particle, for they are equal, or practically so;

and
dis-

by displacement

(velocity or acceleration) of the particle

is

meant the

placement (velocity or acceleration) of any point of the

"Laws
remains

of Motion.'"

particle.
particle then
2.
it

i.

When no

force

is

exerted

upon a

at rest or continues to

move uniformly in a
it

straight line.

When

upon a acceleration is the same as the tional to the force directly and
single force is exerted
particle exerts

particle^ then

is accelerated;

the direction of the


is

direction of the force,


to the

and

its

magnitude
3.

propor-

mass

of the particle inversely.


latter exerts

When

one

a force upon another, then the

one on the former; and

the two forces are equal, colinear,

and

opposite.

The form of statement here of Motion. however from that in which he announced them (1687). They are based on observation and experience. Newton was led to them through his study of the motions of heavenly bodies. No other moving bodies have been so accurately and extensively observed, and the agreement of the laws
These are
differs

essentially Newton'' s

Laws

used

and those motions constitutes the best evidence

of the correctness of the laws.

has already been referred to (page 43, footnote). This law is doubted by some beginners in this subject. The doubt is sometimes expressed in this

Law 3

way: "When a horse pulls on a cart, then, if the cart pulls back on the horse an equal amount (as the law states), why is it that they generally move forward? " Close attention to the forces which act on the horse and on the cart should clear up this doubt. There are three forces exerted on the horse, his weight (exerted by the earth), the pull of the cart, and the reaction exerted by the roadway on his hoofs. When the horizontal (forward) component of

iS6
the reaction on his hoofs exceeds the pull back

Chap,

viii

by the

cart then the horse starts

There are three forces acting on by the earth), the pull of the horse, and the reaction
forward.
wheels.

the cart,

its

weight (exerted

of the

roadway on the

When
may

the pull exceeds the horizontal (backward) reaction of the


cart starts forward.

roadway then the


together
pair,

Or, the motion of horse and cart

of the cart, the reaction of the roadway on and that on the cart; the horse and cart start to move when the horizontal component of the reaction of the roadway on the horse exceeds that on the cart.

the weight of the horse, that

be explained like this: There are four forces acting upon the

the horse,

Law
is

2 is

not referred to there as a "law."

discussed at length in Art. 3 1 for the case of rectilinear motion, but It covers curvilinear motion, as well as

rectilinear,

We

inasmuch as no reference to kind of motion is made in the law. cannot give a real illustration of a particle moving under the action of a But miagine a particle projected in some way, and then subsingle force.
the particle
in a curved path.

jected to a single force inclined to the direction of projection;

would move
earth-pull
ligible in

(A

ball in flight

through the
is

air is

a near apforces,

proach to our imagined

illustration.

This ball

acted upon

by two

and

air resistance; at

moderate

velocities the latter

may

be neg-

comparison with the former.)

The law

states that the direction of

the acceleration of the particle agrees at each instant with the direction of the force, and that the magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to

the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the particle (a

<x

F^

m,

where a
acting

the acceleration,
it).

the mass of the particle, and

F =
a
cc

the force

upon

It

is

shown

in Art. 31, 2, that the proportion


iC is

F/ni can
such

be written as an equation F = Kma where

a constant whose value depends

on the units used

for F,

m, and

a.

Units

may

be chosen so that
(force),

K=

1;

units are "systematic units"; for example,

dyne

gram

(mass),

and

centimeter per second per second (acceleration).


iiC

We

will continue to take

= I (as in Art. 31), thus implying the use of systematic units. Law I is really included in law 2. For if there is no force acting on a particle
2)
;

during any particular interval of time, then the particle has no acceleration

during the interval (according to law

and hence the velocity


Thus,
if

of the particle,
is is

whatever
rests;

it

may

be, remains unchanged.

the velocity

zero at the

beginning of the interval, then the velocity remains zero, that


if

the particle

the velocity

is

not zero

initially,
is

then the velocity remains constant

in

magnitude and

direction, that
is

the particle

moves uniformly and


its

in a

straight line.

This fact

important enough to warrant

statement in a

separate law.

The word

inertia

is

used in Mechanics to refer to the property of the matter


laws
i

involved more or
state of a particle
tant, as
it

less in
is

and

2.

It refers to the fact that the natural


is

rest or

uniform rectilinear motion, that a particle

reluc-

were, to change that state, and responds only to an outside influence


call force.

which we

We

also express this fact

by saying that matter

is inert.

Art. 34

157

"Force of inertia " is a term which students sometimes use to express a notion, but generally in a vague way. For example, concerning the motion of a hockey puck projected without spin along the surface of smooth ice, it is stated
sometimes that the puck is urged on by the (or statement is at variance with the laws of motion.
force urging the
its)

force of inertia.

This

The only

forces acting
ice.

the puck, after projection, are gravity and the reaction of the

was

(forcibly) projected,

puck onward; and in


it

it

moves onward

for a time

because

There

is

on no
it

spite of the retarding influence of the reaction


(friction),

of the ice.

Were

not for this influence

the

across the entire field of ice at constant velocity, not because of

puck would move any force urg-

ing

it

onward but because


illustration,

of

no force to change

its

natural state (of uniform

rectilinear motion).

For another

imagine a yard stick mounted on a vertical


also imagine a coin laid
axis,

axis,

the wide sides of the stick being horizontal;

on the

upper side and near the end of the stick remote from the
pins are stuck about the coin to hold
If
it

and that several


is

in place

when

the yard stick

rotated.

the pins are not too strong and firm, then the stick

may be

rotated so rapidly

that the pins will give way, and the coin will "fly off."
say, the coin will be
is

Or, as some would

"thrown

off

by the

force of inertia."

Such statement
is

at variance with the laws of motion.

The

following

is

a description of the
rotated, there
re-

phenomenon
are

in accordance with those laws.

two

forces acting

action of the stick


tated, the coin
is

its own weight (or gravity) and the on the coin, (upward and equal to the weight). When the stick is

Before the stick

ro-

by some from our experience and observation that the coin presses against the outer pins (remote from the axis) and that those pins press against the coin. Thus there is no force acting on the coin tending to throw
forced into an unnatural state (curvilinear motion)
of the pins.

We know

it off

the stick; on the contrary, the pins exert forces to hold


flies off

eventually

as the speed

is

increased

because the pressure

it

on.

The

coin

of the

coin against the pins gets large enough to

make them

give way; then the pins

can no longer restrain the coin, and


This motion
is

it

takes on a natural state of motion.

along the tangent to the (circular) path previously described

is supposed to have and with velocity equal to that of the coin at failure. Of course this natural motion is short-lived, because after the coin

by the coin
broken

at the point where the coin

loose,

has

left

the stick,

it is

subjected to a single unbalanced force

as it were (gravity) which interferes with the inclination mentioned (tangent). along the straight line the coin move of to

When

several forces act

on a particle then the particle has a

definite acceleration at each instant,

which might of course equal


Let
F',

zero under certain circumstances.

F",

etc. (Fig. 275),

be forces acting

on the particle P, and a

the acceleration,

and

m=

the mass of P.

Obviously
accelera-

some
tion.

single force

acting alone would give the particle that

same

According to the second law

R would

have to act

in the direction of the

iS8
acceleration

Chap, vrn

and equal ma. This force is the resultant of the forces F' F", etc., which actually produce the acceleration.* Let a the angle between the direction of the acceleration and any line, say the x axes of a coordinate frame. Then R cos a = ma cos a, or Rx = max where Rx and Ox denote the x com,

ponents of

and a

respectively.

components
2.

of F', F", etc. (Art. 4),

But Rx equals the algebraic sum and hence SFj = mOx.

of the

Two
is,

OR

More

Particles considered

collectively are called a system

of particles.
cles,

We

conceive a body (whether rigid or not) as consisting of parti-

that

as a system or collection of particles.

Among

the forces exerted

upon any

particle of a

body some may be exerted by the


10).

particles of another

body; such a force has been called an external force with reference to the body under consideration (Art.

force exerted on a particle of a


is

body by

an internal force with reference to the body. According to the third law of motion, if one particle of a body exerts a force upon another, then the second exerts a force upon the first; and Hence, a system of internal these two forces are equal, colinear, and opposite. forces consists of pairs of equal, colinear, and opposite forces.
called

another particle of the same body

Let Fig. 276 represent a body, not


constituent particles of the body;

rigid necessarily, points i, 2, 3, etc., being

let Fi, F2, F3, etc.,

be the external forces


equation of
of

acting on the body, the other vectors (not lettered)

being internal forces.

Imagine the
line

last

(which states that the algebraic

ponents
particle

along

any

sum

the com-

of all the forces acting

on a particle equals the product of the mass of the

and the component

of its acceleration along

the line) wTitten

down

for

every particle of the body,

and then imagine the left-hand members to be added and also the right-hand members; these sums are
Fig. 276

equal of course.

To

the

first

sum

the internal forces

contribute nothing, since those forces occur in certain pairs as already explained; hence the

note the algebraic

by SFx
m",

as

sum depends only on the external forces. We will desum of their components along some line, say an axis of x, customarily. The second sum is m'a X + m"ax" + where m',
/

etc.,

denote the masses of the particles and

Ox',

ax", etc., the

x components

of their accelerations respectively.

simple expression for this

found as follows:

Let

sum can be

x',

x", etc., be the ^-coordinates of the particles at

any instant

of the motion,

and x

x-coordinate of their mass-center f at that

instant; then

m'x'

+ m"x" +

xZjm.

This foice R is called resultant in accordance with the definition of the term in Art. 3, where first used. For if R were reversed, then acting alone it would give the particle an acceler*

would be zero. R between concurrent forces and their resultant developed in Statics hold here also for F', F", etc., and R. t Mass-center is another name for center of gravity. The former term seems more approation
a;

and acting together with the


" equivalent " to F', F", etc.

forces F', F", etc., the acceleration All the relations

therefore

is

Art. 34

159

Differentiating with respect to time,

we

get

v/here vj vj' etc., are the x


,
,

components

of the velocity of the respective par-

ticles,

and

Vx is

the x component of the velocity of the mass-center.


get

Differen-

tiating again

we

m'aj

+ m"ax" -}-=

axSm,
If

where Ux is the x component of the acceleration of the mass-center. equate these simplified expressions for the sums mentioned we get

now we

2F, = Max,
where
that
is

(i)

is

written in place of

21 w,

the mass of the whole body, for simplicity.

Since 2 Fi does not include internal forces, Cx does not depend on those forces;
to say, the acceleration of the mass-center of a system of particles does
all
is

not depend at

upon

internal forces.

Equation
follows:

a mathematical form of an important principle which

we

will

call the principle oj the

motion of the mass-center. It may be put into words as In any motion of a body {ivhether rigid or not) the algebraic sum of the
line) of all the external forces equals the

components (along any

product of the

mass of
that line.

the

body and the component of the acceleration of the mass-center along It is worth noting that equation (i) is just like the last equation of

which

relates to the

motion

of a particle.

Hence, the motion

of the

mass-

center of a

body

is

the same as though the entire mass of the


all

centrated at the mass-center with

the external forces

body were conacting on the body

applied to such dense point parallel to their actual lines of action.


of systematic units (Art. 31) is of

The

use

presupposed; but
is

if

W/g

be written in place

M (see Art. 31,


Any number

2),

where

the weight of the body, then


(2)

ZFx = {W/g)ax
and any unit may be used
for

F and W, and any

unit for g

and

ax.

of equations like (i) or (2)

can be written in a given case of

motion, one equation for each possible direction of


three of these equations
fluous.

Only x, y, z, u, etc. would be independent; the others would be superThus we would have

SFx = Max,

^Fy = May,

2F, = Ma,.
it is

When

the mass-center describes a curve then

resolve along the tangent to the curve, the (principal) normal,

angles to the plane of the

first

two

directions.

ation in this last direction equals zero; calling


priate in the present discussion.
(at the

more convenient to and at right The component of the accelerthe components in the first two
usually

Since masses of bodies are proportional to their weights

same

place),

we may

substitute mass for weight in the formulas for the coordinates

of the center of gravity (or mass-center) in Art. 21.

(Mass-center

is

generally defined withis

out reference to center of gravity, and then the identity of the two points

demonstrated.)

i6o

Chap, vin

Art. 34
correct.

i6i

Because the rate of rotation

is

constant there are no pressures on the

cylinder in the direction of motion (perpendicular to paper).


of the mass-center

The

velocity

=27r2X6o=754 feet per minute =

12.5 feet per second;

hence

fl

Now
Pi

11F

78 feet per second per second, directed toward the axis of rotation. P2 cos 30 = (30 -^- 32.2) 78, and 'LF3 = Pi cos 30 Pi sin 30

+ P2 sin 30
=
62.3

and

30 = o. Solving them simultaneously for Pi and P2 we get P2 = 48.0 pounds. The negative sign means that we made
it

a wrong assumption as to P2;

acts

downward and
"bob

is

exerted

by the upper

end
3.

of the box.

simple conical pendulum consists of a

" suspended from a fixed

point by a cord, arranged so the bob and cord can be rotated about a vertical

through the fixed point.


side

See Fig. 279 which represents such a pendulum by and end views; /1 5 is a forked vertical shaft; GG are guides fastened to the shaft, between which the bob may swing. When the shaft is rotated, the cord will deflect from the vertical. We now determine this deflection for any
constant speed of rotation.
to the center of the bob; 6

Let

length of cord, from point of suspension

angle of deflection; n

= number

of revolutions

per unit time;

W
sin e
is

weight of bob;
T,

tension in the cord.

The bob

is

under the action of


hence

W,

and the pressure

of

one of the guides possibly;

2P = T

AF^n-,

SF3

=Tcosd-W=
= =

o;

^Ft =
is

P=

Mat.

When

the speed

constant as here assumed, the deflection


/

constant, and the

center of the bob describes a horizontal circle of radius


of the center

sin 6.

The

velocity

tt /

sin

hence a

ir'^nH sin 6,

and

P sin

(^V/g)

ir'^nH sin 6.

Solving this and

T cos 6

simultaneously for d

we
o.

get

cos^

g -^ {4Tr^nH).

Also

T=

W 4-ir^nH

-^ g;

and

since at

o,

P=

Fig. 280

Elevation of Outer Rail on Curves.

Fig. 280 represents a car "

on a curve "

in

a railway track.

We

discuss certain features of the pressures of the car

upon

the track as the car runs around the curve.

wheel resolved into three components,


Unless the curve

one

Imagine the
parallel

rail

pressure on each

to the ties (so-called


parallel to the rails.

flange pressure), one perpendicular to the track,


is

and one

quite sharp, the forces of each of these three sets of com-

ponents are

parallel.

We

will

suppose them parallel, and

call

the resultants

l62
of the three sets Ri, R2,

Chap, vin

there are acting


pull

P2 of

and R3 respectively. Besides these three resultants on the car the weight W, the pull Pi of the car ahead, and the the car behind. Unless the curve is quite sharp Pi and P2 are practiunder the middle of the car; we
will
so.

cally parallel to the tangent to the curve

assume them to be
curve), the vertical,

Then

resolving along the normal (or radius of the


to the curve,

and the tangent


<^

we
(PF

get
-4-

Ri cos

i?2 sin

where

velocity of the car


<p -\-

= (W ^ g) a and r = radius of

g) v^/r,

the curve;

- Ri sin
Solving the
72,

R2 cos

(f)

W
d)

o;

and

Pi
for

- Po -

i?3

(TT

-J-

g) at.

first

and second sunultaneously

Ri and R2 we get

T^ f

cos
<i

\gr

sin

and

P2

W \gr sin + cos ^ I


(
'

It

obvious from the expression for Ri that the resultant flange pressure may be equal to zero for certain values of v, r, and 0. It will be zero if {v- cos 4>)
is

-^ gr

sin

<i>,

or

tan
*

v^/gr*

outer

This formula, or some modification of it, is used to determine the proper elevation of the The following is a practical rule deduced rail on railroad curves, except as noted below. from the formula: "The correct superelevation for any curve is equal to the middle ordinate

of a chord [of the curve]

whose length

in feet

is

1.6
is

hour."

On

the Pennsylvania Railroad the rule

times the speed of the train in miles per modified as follows: " No speed greater

than 50 miles per hour should be assumed in determining the superelevation by the above method even though higher speed may be made. No superelevation exceeding 7 inches is permissible and none exceeding 6 inches should be used except at special locations on passenger
tracks."

The formula was deduced on the basis that


is

resultant flange pressure should

zero.

The same formula

arrived at

pressure between the floor of

by making ties of the track perpendicular to the resultant the car and any object resting upon it, or perpendicular to a

plumb Une suspended

in the car.

- P

CHAPTER IX
TRANSLATION AND ROTATION
35.

Translation

A translation is such a motion of a rigid body that each straight Hne of the body remains fixed in direction; there is no turning about of any line of the body. The coupling or side rods of a locomotive (connecting the driving wheels on either side) have a translatory motion when the locomotive is
running on a straight
track.
It

should be noticed that our definition

does not require rectilinear motion of each point of the moving body. But rectilinear translations are most common, and such translations have been
quite fully discussed in Art. 31.

body in translation are alike. For, let A and B be any two points of the body, and A' and B' be the positions of those points in space at a certain instant and A" and B" their positions at a later instant. By definition of translation the Hnes A'B' and A"B" are parallel; and since the lines are equal in length the figure A'B' B"A" is a parallelogram, and A' A" and B'B" (the displacements of A and B respectively) are equal and Since the displacements of all points of the moving body for any parallel. interval, long or short, are equal and parallel, the velocities of all points at any

The motions

of all points of a

instant are alike,

and hence also the accelerations. By displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a body having a motion of translation is meant the displacement, velocity, and acceleration respectively of any one of its points. The general principle of Art. 34, relating to the motion of the mass-center of a

body moving

any way, when applied to a translation, takes this form: the of the external forces along any line algebraic sum of the components the body and the comof the mass of acting on the body equals the product gives three inThis line. that along body ponent of the acceleration of the
in

dependent "equations of motion," namely,


2/^x

Ma.,

^Fy=

May,

2F. = Ma

where The

x, y,

and

denote three noncoplanar

lines of resolution.

resultant of all the external forces acting on a body having a motion of translation is a single force; its line of action passes through the mass-center, the force
is directed like the acceleration of the body,

of the

mass of the body and single force, most students


*

the acceleration.*
will

and its magnitude equals the product Assuming that the resultant is a

accede to the second statement in the foregoing


of a

The student

is

reminded that the resultant


I).

system of forces

is

a force, a couple, or a

pair of noncoplanar forces (see Chapter

163

164
proposition, on the basis of their experience; for, they will say,
if

Chap, ix

the resultant

did not pass through the mass-center, the


translatory notion.

body would turn and not have a

But it can be demonstrated as follows: Let Fig. 281 body and points i, 2, 3, etc., its constituent particles; the external forces acting on the body are not shown. Suppose that the acceleration is directed, say, toward the right, and let a = the magnitude of that acceleration, and m\, W2, m^, etc. = the masses of the particles respectively.
represent the

Then

the resultants of

all

the forces acting on the several particles equal


all

re-

spectively mia, in^a, m^a, etc.,


in the figure.

directed like the acceleration, as represented

Now

this

system

of

imaginary forces (resultants)


internal, acting

is

equivalent

to all

the real forces, external

and

on the system

of particles;

and

the resultant of the imaginary system

identical in magnitude, line


in pairs of equal, colinear,

and that of the real system are of action, and sense. But the internal forces occur and opposite forces (Art. 34), and so constitute a

balanced system and contribute nothing to the resultant of the real system.

Hence, the resultant of the external system and that of the imaginary system
are identical.

We

proceed

now

to ascertain the resultant

from the

latter

system.

Fig. 23i

Fig. 282

The imaginary system


particles respectively.
sists of parallel forces

(I) consists of parallel forces proportional to the

masses of the particles, and the

lines of action of the forces pass

through the

The system

of earth-pulls (gravity,

G) likewise con-

proportional to the masses of the particles, and the lines

of action of these pulls pass

through the particles respectively.


if

Hence systems
so that the line

and

are very similar;

and
is

we imagine the body turned


magnitudes

AB

(parallel to a) in Fig. 281 is vertical (Fig. 282)


alike.

then systems / and

G are still
the

more

The

difference

in the

of corresponding forces;

forces of / are respectively proportional to the forces of G.


line of action of the resultants of

It follows that the

systems / and

G coincide

(in

the body)

but the

resultant of system

passes through the mass-center of the body; and hence

the resultant of system / (and the resultant of the external system) also passes

through the mass-center.


external system
is

From
m2(i

Fig. 281

it is

obvious that the resultant of the

a single force directed like the acceleration, and equals


Wifl
-\-

= o^m =

Ala.
external forces about

The algebraic sum of

the

moments, or torque, of

all the

any

line through the mass-center equals zero, for the resultant of those forces

has no

Art. 35

165
line.

moment about such


equations:

This principle gives three independent m.oment

r.

o,

r,

o,

r.

o,

(i)

and Tz denote the moment-sums for three noncoplanar lines Or we may take moments about any three lines and equate the torques of the external forces about the lines to the moments of the resultant {Ma) about the same lines respectively.
where
T^, Ty,

through the mass-center.

Examples.

i.

(Fig. 283) is a rectangular

prism weighing 2000 pounds.

The

car

is

being started at 4 feet per second per second.

Required the pressure


ZOOOIbs.

on the bottom of the prism. There its are only two forces acting on the prism, own weight and the required pressure P. See the figure where P is shown resolved into two components (Pi and P2) at the base of the prism. The (unknown) distance from the point of apof the car

plication of

P to

the center of the base

is

de-

noted by
Pi

X.

-|- 248^) = = 2000; 2015 pounds, and the inclination of P to the vertical = tan~^ (248/2000) = 8 25'. To determine x we take the torque, of the forces acting on the prism,

HFy = Pi 2000 = May o, or HF^ = P2 = (2000/32.2) 4 = 248. Hence P = V(2ooo2

about the horizontal


direction of

line

motion and equate

through the mass-center and perpendicular to the Thus 248 X 2.5 2000 x = o, or to zero.
(P2

0.31 feet

3.72 inches.

24S pounds

is friction,

and the

floor

and

prism must be rough enough to develop such a value, to prevent the slipping, here assumed not to occur. Thus the coefficient of friction must be not less
than 248 -^ 2000 = 0.124 or about one-eighth. If the coefiicient were less than one-eighth, the friction developed under the prism, say 200 pounds, could not give the prism an acceleration of 4 feet per second per second, only 3.22. Hence the prism would eventually be left behind. The prism is not "thrown " in such a case, as some would describe the pheoff by the force of inertia

nomenon, but the car slips out from under the prism.) 2. C and C (Fig. 284) are two parallel cranks, their

shafts being connected

mechanically so that they rotate together with equal speeds and in the same direction. P is a bar pinned to the cranks. We

-/^

^
/^

^^^

is

on B when the mechanism There are three such forces the weight We will of B and the pressures of the pins on B. neglect the weight, or assume that the plane of the
discuss the forces acting
in

motion.

cranks
Fig. 284

is

horizontal so that the bar

lies

upon the

cranks and the supporting forces balance the weight.


If the

bar

is

uniform then
if

it

seems reasonable to
since

assume that the pin pressures


the algebraic

sum

of their

must be equal moments about the mass-center of B equals

are parallel;

so they

zero.

66

Chap, ix

Moreover, the resultant of the pin pressures


of the rod

and a

its

acceleration,
is

The
If

acceleration of the bar

= <3 + Q = Ma, where = mass and the pressures act in the direction of a. the same as that of the center of either pin P.
is

the cranks be

made

to turn uniformly, then the acceleration

in the direc-

and it equals V"/r (Art. 32), where v = velocity of P and r PO; hence 2 Q = Mv^/r = (W/g) {fir), or(^ = \ Wv^gr. 3. Imagine a locomotive raised up off its track, and that steam is "turned
tion

PO

on"
side

so that the drivers are

made

to rotate at constant speed.

ing rod on one side be detached

then

the

If the

connect-

drivers being driven

from the other


of pin

the side rod on the

first side

would be under the action

pressures just like those discussed in the preceding example.

Each pressure

equals | Mv^/r, directed along

its

crank radius and toward the crank shaft.

(The weight of the rod induces pressures equal to | PF upwards.) When the locomotive is running on its track, then there is superimposed upon the motion of the side rod just discussed the forward (or backward)

motion of the locomotive as a whole.


vector

The

velocity of the side rod equals the


;

sum

of v

and the velocity

of the locomotive

rod equals the vector

sum

of the acceleration V'/r


is

and the acceleration of the and that of the locomotive.


its

Now when

the velocity of the locomotive


is still

constant

acceleration

is

zero,

and the acceleration of the side rod

V"/r

and

parallel to the cranks

and
is

directed as explained in example 2,

Hence, even when the locomotive

running on a track, the pin pressures on the (lone) side rod are as when the
locomotive
is

"jacked up " and running.


then v

Let

V =
let

speed of locomotive,

R =
r
i

radius of driving wheels;

Vr/R, and the pin pressures


For example,

^ (W/g)
r

V^/R^ (weight of rod neglected).


foot,

W =275
=

pounds,

R =

2.75 feet,

and

F =

60 miles per hour

88 feet per second;

then

the pin pressures

^ (275/32.2)

Locomotive Side Rod.

We give here another solution


zontal

X X
i

(88 -^ 2.75)^

4425 pounds.
of the side

rod prob-

lem

(see preceding examples).

In Fig. 285 each pin pressure on the rod is represented by two components, hori-

and

vertical.

The

vertical

com-

ponents are equal since the sum of the

moments
of
Fig. 285

of all the forces acting

(pressures

on the rod and weight) about the center


(at

gravity

mid-length of

the

rod)

equals zero;

hence both vertical comletter

ponents are denoted by the same


Y.

The

horizontal components are A^i and A2.

Let a
ay

the total, or abso-

lute, acceleration of

any and every point

of the rod
cz^

when the cranks make any

angle 6 with the


cal

downward vertical, and components of a. Then


X":

and

the horizontal and verti-

X2 =

Max,

and

2Y-W = May,
and
ay for

or

Y=

^W + May).
Then

Presently

we show how to

find ax

any position

of the cranks.

Art. 35

167

from the above we can determine A'l - X2 and F. The values of Xx and Xg depend upon the load or pull on the locomotivCj and how it is distributed among the driving wheels. But Y does not depend on the pull, only on and Qy.

We now discuss
acceleration,
r

ing formulas for a^ and

the motion of one of the crank pins with the view of obtainOy. Let V = the velocity of the locomotive, A = its
It will

R=

radius of the driving wheels, and

length of the cranks {CP, Fig. 286).


refer the

be convenient to

motion of the crank-pin to the coordinate axes shown; OY is the position

occupied by the crank when


position.

was

in its lowest

Let

be the distance of

from OY, and

X and y the coordinates of P.


s

Then
Fig. 286

and

y
a^

= Rd, = s r sind, = R r cos 6


Qy

Now
dd/dt

=
dx

d'^x/dl'^

and

d-y/dt"^,

and

for use

below

V=

ds/dt

= R dd/dt,

or

V/R.

Thus
^
,,

dd V - = ds --rcose^-=V-rcose.-^V^i - ^ cos dj

dVf

r.r

dd

'^^^V-r'''V-^^R''''^'dt

^cosdj-\-rsme; -<^--u R^

dV
Thus

dd

V^

locomotive.

seen that a^ and Oy depend on the velocity and acceleration of the The largest values of c^ and a obtain at high speed, and then the terms (in the expressions for a^ and ay) are small and negligible compared to
it is

the

terms.

the locomotive

is

So when we neglect these terms or when the acceleration of zero, then

a^

= (V/Py r sin 6,

and

ay

= (V/Py r

cos

6.

When the rod is in its lowest position, 6^0,0^ = 0, a-y = {V/RYr, Xi = X2, and F = I W -^ ^ (W/g) (F/7?)V; the forces F- act upward on the rod. When 6 = 90, a^ = (V/R)h, a^ = o; the resultant of the two forces X acts toward the right and equals (W/g) (V/R)h, and F = | W. When the rod is in its highest position d = 180, a^ = o, ay = - {V/R)h; Xi = X2, and F = | W -^ (W/g) {V/R)h; for high speeds F acts down on the rod. When 6 = 270, flj = (V/R)h, Qy = o; the resultant of Xi and Xi acts toward the left and equals {W/g) {V/R)h, and F = | W.

68
36.

Chap, ix

Moment

of Inertia

and Radius

of

Gyration

1. General Principles, Etc.


that the effort required to start a

Perhaps

every student has observed

depend not only on the mass of material of the body from the axis

body to rotating about a fixed axis seems to the body but also on the remoteness of the

-^
s

Fig. 287 represents a simple of rotation. " apparatus by means of which one can roughly "sense It consists of a vertical shaft 5 to which a this fact.

grooved pulley
arm.

r
Fig. 287

P and cross arm A are fastened rigidly, and a heavy body B which can be clamped on the cross
The
pull or turning effort

may

be applied by
It is

means
.^

of a cord

wrapped about the

pulley.

shown
"

^^^ following article that this "rotational inertia

of a

body axis, and

is

proportional to the

"moment

of inertia " of the

body about the


of inertia, as a

this article is

devoted to a discussion of

moment
is

preparation for the following article.* The moment of inertia of a body with respect to a line
ucts obtained

the

sum

of the prod-

by multiplying the mass


Or,

of each particle of the


if

body by the

square of
etc.

its

distance from the line.

= moment

of inertia, mi, mi, m^,

the masses of the particles, and n,


line or axis,

r^, r^,

etc., their distances respectively

from the

then
/

miTx^

+ nhr2^ +
/=

Swr^;

or

if

the

body

is

continuous, then

jdM-r^,
its

(i)

where

dM denotes

the mass of any elementary portion and r

distance from

the line about which

moment

of inertia

is
it

taken.
is

The elementary

portion
line,

must be chosen so that each point of

equally distant from the

else there is doubt as to what distance to take for r. It is plain from the foregoing formulas that a unit of

moment

of inertia de-

pends upon the units of mass and distance used. There is no single-word name Each unit is described by stating the units for any unit of moment of inertia. " and in accordance with the "make-up in it, involved of mass and distance
*

Euler (1707-83) introduced the term

"moment

of inertia,"

and he explained

its

appro-

priateness (in his "Theoria

choice of the

Motus Corporum SoHdorum," p. 167) somewhat name, moment of inertia (Ger. tragheits-moment), is based on

as follows:

The

analogies in the

In a translation the acceleration is equations of motion for translations and rotations. proportional directly to the "accelerating force" and inversely to the mass, or "inertia," directly to of the moving body; and in a rotation the angular acceleration is proportional
the

moment

of the accelerating force

and inversely

to a quantity, Xmr~,

depending on the
of inertia."

mass or

inertia.

This quantity, to complete a similarity, we


for translations

may

call

"moment

Then we have

and rotations

respectively,

linear acceleration

(force) /(inertia or mass);

and
inertia).

angular acceleration

= (moment

of

force)/(moment of

Art. 36 of the unit.

169
Thus, when the pound and the foot are used as units of mass and

length respectively, then the unit of


square;
unit

moment

of inertia

is

called a pound-foot

when

the slug (about 32.2 pounds)


inertia
is

and the foot are used, then the

moment of The moment

called slug-foot square.*

of inertia of

any

right prism

cross

with respect to any line parallel to the axis of


special

any form the prism can be computed in a


section of

way, preferred by some.

Thus

if

we take

as elementary portion a

filament of the prism parallel to the axis, then


altitude of the prism,

dM =

{adA)

where a

the

dA

the cross section of the filament, and 8

density;
(2)

and

1=

p
a8
I

dAr\
is

This integral (extending over the area of the cross section)


of inertia of the cross section

called the

moment
it

about the

line specified (see

appendix B).
in length,
it is

Since a

moment

of inertia

is

one dimension

in

mass and two

can

be expressed as the product of a mass and a length squared;


convenient to so express
a line
is
it.

sometimes
to

The

radius of gyration of a

body with respect

such a length whose square multiplied by the mass of the body equals

the momxent of inertia of the

body with respect

to that line.

denote the radius of gyration and


to

moment
or

of inertia of the

That is, if k and / body with respect

any

axis

and

M=

its

mass, then

M = I
The
of a

k=

y/JjM.
:

(3)
all

radius of gyration

may be viewed

as follows

If

we imagine

the material
of inertia of of inertia of

body concentrated

into a point so located that the

the material point about the line in question equals the


the

moment moment

body about that

line,

then the distance between the line and the point

body about that line. The material point body for the particular line. To furnish still another view of radius of gyration we call attention to the fact that the square of the radius of gyration of a homogeneous body with respect to any line is the mean of the squares of the distances of all the equal elementary parts of the body from that line. For let r^, r^, etc., be the distances from the elements, dM, to the axis, and let n denote their number (infinite). Then the mean of the squares is
equals the radius of gyration of the
is

sometimes called the

center of gyration of the

W+
the body.

rs^

-f

)/ = {n^dM

+ r^^dM +

)/ndM = I/M = k\

Obviously the radius of gyration of a body with respect to a line is intermediate between the distances from the line to the nearest and most remote particle of
This fact
Examples.

i.

rod about a line

will assist in estimating the radius of gyration of a body. Required to show that the moment of inertia of a slender through the center and inclined at an angle with the rod is

-x^MP

sin^ a,

where

M = mass,
Let a

length,

and a

angle between the line and


5

the axis of the rod.


*

the cross section of the rod,


inertia, see

the density, and

For dimensions of a unit of moment of

Appendix A.

lyo
X

Chap, ix

(Fig. 288).

the distance of any elementary portion from the middle of the rod = 5 {a dx), and the distance of the element from CD Then

AB
=

dM

sin a.

Hence
I

J-U

8adx'
yV

x^

sm^ a

8a sm^

=
3

'

ISA-u

and

this reduces to

MP sin^ a,

since 8al

= M.

Fig. 288

Fig. 289

2. Required to show that the moment of inertia of a right parallelopiped = mass (ab-) where about a central axis parallel to an edge equals yV = perpenthe lengths of the edges which are of the parallelopiped and a and b See Fig. 289 where the s axis is the one to which this dicular to that axis.

moment
dxdydz;
z axis

of inertia corresponds.
its

We

take for elementary portion a volume


its

mass =

(dxdydz), and the square of

distance from the

x^ +3'^.

Hence

a/2

J -b/2

Jo

(x2

{a?b + a) + v2) dx dy dz= 12

etc.

Required to show that the moment of inertia of a right circular cylinder = its mass and r = the radius of its with respect to its axis is | Mr"^, where We use the special method for prisms (see equation 2) and choose polar base. coordinates (see Fig. 290) then dA = pdddp and dM = 8 {ap dd dp) hence
3,

I=a8 fdAp' =

a8

P^^ dp'de
,

'"

''^'^' ""

etc.

Fig. 290

Fig. 291

Required to show that the moment of inertia of a sphere about a diameter = its mass and r = its radius. We might begin with equation is I Mr^ where exam(i) but we will use a special method, making use of the result found in
4.

ple 3.

We

conceive the sphere

in question; determine the

made moment of

of laminas perpendicular to the

diameter

moments

of inertia of the laminas.

inertia of each lamina; and then add the Let XX' (Fig. 291) be the diameter in

Art. 36

171

question,

is b (iry'^dx).

section of one of the laminas; then the mass of the lamina According to example 3 the moment of inertia of this lamina (cylinder) about its axis (XX') is ^ 5 (iry^ dx)y^. Hence the moment of inertia

and

PQ a

of the sphere is

J
2.

5 (tt/

dx)

ttS

J_

(r2

- ^2)2 dx =

j% dw

r^

etc.

las.
radii

There

Parallel Axis Theorem; Reduction or Transformation Formuis a simple relation between the moments of inertia (and the of gyration) of a body with respect to parallel lines one of which passes

through the mass-center of the body.


simplify

By means
of inertia,

many

calculations of
it

moment

of this relation we can and avoid integrations (see

examples following);

may

be stated as follows:

The moment of

inertia of a body with respect to

any

line equals its

moment

of

inertia with respect to a parallel line passing through the mass-center plus the

Or,

product of the mass of the body and the square of the distance between the lines. if / = the first moment of inertia, 7 = the second (for the line through the

mass-center),

M = mass, and d =

the distance between the parallel lines,

I
Proof. Let

= l+Md\

(4)

(Fig. 292) be the mass-center, and body (not shown), LL the line about which the moment of inertia is /, and OZ a parallel line (through

P any

other point of the

the mass-center) about which the


is /.

moment

of inertia
is

Distance between these parallel lines

d.

For convenience we take x and y axes through O, the former in the plane of the two parallel lines and
the latter perpendicular to that plane.
z

Let

x, y,

and
Fig. 292

the coordinates of P.

The square
x'^

of the disy'^,

tance of

from the

z axis equals

hence

7=

dM
x)^

(x"^ -\-

y^) .

The

square of the distance of


/

from the

line

LL

equals (d

+ y-,

hence

= J[{d - xy+y']dM = Jix^ + y')dM


the
first of

+ d'JdM -2dJxdM.
=
Md"^.
If
(4)
is

Now

the last three integrals

/,

and the second one


proved.

now we show
integral
is

that the third

o,

then formula
of the

The

third

proportional to the

moment
if

body with respect

to the yz

plane; but this plane contains the mass-center, and hence the
zero (Arts. 21

moment

equals

and

23).

Thus,

Tf

weight of the body,

JxdM=
If

CxdW/g =

(i/g)Wx.

we

divide both sides of equation (4)


k^

by M, we get

I/M = I/M

-f d^, or
(5)

k^-\- d^

172
that
is,

Chap. IX
the square of the radius of gyration of

a body with respect


to

to

any

line

equals the square of Us radius of gyration with respect

a parallel line passing

through the mass-center plus the square of the distance between the two lines.

According to

(5) k is

always greater than d; that


is

is,

the radius of gyration of


line

a body with respect to a line


sections of the

always greater than the distance from the


But,
if

to the center of gravity of the body.

the dimensions of the cross

pared to

d,
2).

body perpendicular to the line in question are small comthen k/d is small compared to i and k equals d approximately (see
,

example
to

In such a case the

moment

of inertia

is

approximately equal
of cast iron

Md\
Examples.

i.

Required the moment of inertia of a prism

(weighing 450 pounds per cubic foot) 6 inches


to

9 inches

3 feet

with respect

one of the long edges.


the

The block weighs 507 pounds.

According to example

2, I,

moment

of inertia of the block with respect to the line through the


is 507 (6^ 9-) -^- 12 = 4940 poundsfrom a long edge to the mass-center =

mass-center parallel to the long edge


inches^.

The square

of the distance

29.25 inches^;

hence the

moment

of inertia desired

4940 -f 507
i

29.25

19,760 pound-inches^
2.

4.27 slug-feet-.
steel

Required the radius of gyration of a round


1

rod

inch in diameter

with respect to a line


3, I,

inches from the axis of the rod.

According to example
its

the square of the radius of gyration of the rod with respect to

axis

is

5 0.5^

0.125 inches^.

According to equation
12.01, nearly the

(5)

the radius of gyration desired


line of

= V (0.125
3.

+ 144)

same as the distance from the

reference to the mass-center of the rod.


It is required to

show that the moment


of the cone, r

of inertia of a right circular

cone

with respect to a line through the apex and parallel to the base
4 c^) where Af
l r

mass

radius of

its

base,

and a

= j\ M {r^ + = its altitude.

->

We

conceive the cone as

made

of laminas parallel to the base,

find the
specified

moment
line,

of inertia of each lamina with respect to the


all

and then add

the moments.

For conrequired

venience we take the axis of the cone as the ^'-coordinate


axis,

and the

line for

which the moment of

inertia

is

as the X axis (Fig. 293).


Fig. 293

The moment
is

of inertia of the

lamina

indicated about a diameter

dM

x"^

where

dM =

the mass

of the

lamina and x
J dMx"^
/

its radius.

Hence

its

moment

of inertia

about the x

+ dMy"^ (see equation 3), and the moment of inertia of the entire cone = {\dMx^ + dMy^), the limits being assigned so as to include all laminas. We choose to integrate with respect to y, and so must express dM
axis

and X
X

in

terms of

y.

From

similar

triangles in the figure x/y


5

r/a, or

ry/a; obviously

dM =
4
a*

dirx^dy

8t (r^y^/a^) dy where
irr^Sa

density.

Hence

= C
I

Trr^hfdy

Jo

C'^Trr^v^dv ^^ -f Jo V-^ = a
,

irr^a^

20

- =

etc.

Aet. 36

173

Composite Body.

By

this

term

is

meant a body which one naturally conexample, a flywheel which consists of a

ceives as consisting of finite parts, for

The moment of inertia of such a body with hub, several spokes, and by adding the moments of inertia of all computed be respect to any line can that same line. The radius of gyration to respect with the component parts equal the sum of the radii of gyration of the not does of a composite body
a rim.

component

parts.

It

can be determined from equation

(3),

where /

= =

moment
3.

of inertia of the

whole body and

its

mass.

Radius of Gyration of Some Homogeneous Bodies.

Let

radius of gyration, a subscript with k referring to the axis with respect to which Also k is taken; thus kx means radius of gyration with respect to the x axis.

mass and

density.

Straight Slender Rod.

Let

its

length,

=
^

angle between the rod and

the axis.

Then about an

axis

through the mass-center k^


k^

tV

l^

sin^ a;

about an axis through one end of the rod Slender Rod Bent into a Circular Arc
arc, then
kx-

sin^ a.

(Fig. 294).

Let
+

=
a

radius of the

''"

[i

(sin

a cos a)/a\, and

ky"^

| r^

[i

(sin

cos a) /a].

The
j^2

divisor

^2 (^^j^g 2

a must be expressed in radians (i degree = 0.0175 radians). axis is through O and perpendicular to the plane of the arc).

0-H^

P'iG.

295

Fig. 296

Fig. 297

Right Paralleloplped (Fig.

295). The
kx^

axis

OX
axes

contains the mass-center,

and

is

parallel to the edge

c;

tV

(^^

Right Circular Cylinder (Fig. 296).


mass-center,
r

Both
(3

^")-

OX

and

OY

contain the

radius and a

altitude; then

kx'^hr^
radius,

V = tV
r^~

'-'

+ ')
radius, r
iY

Hollow Right Circular Cylinder (Fig. 297). and a = altitude; then


kx'

Let R = outer
I

inner

^^^.^

= h(R' +

r');

ky'^

= HR'
is

+ + U')-

Right

Rectangular Pyramid (Fig. 298).

The

x axis

^
^__^_^,Fig. 298

contains the mass-center and

parallel to the edge a;

M=

I ahhb.

iy4
Right Circular Cone (Fig. 299).
is

Chap, ix

The x axis contains the mass-center, and


of larger base, r

parallel to the base;

M=^

irr'^ad.

base,

Frustum of a Cone. and a = altitude.

Let R = radius

radius of smaller

For the axis of the frustum

sphere.

Let

radius.

For a diameter
I^^Sirr^b.

k^=ir^;

Fig. 299

Fig. 300

Hollow Sphere.

Let R = outer and


2 a, 2 b,

inner radius.

For a diameter

yfe2=

|(^5_^)_^ (/23_^).
and
_|_

^^^Tr{R'-r>)8.

Ellipsoid.

Let
k^

2 c

= =

length of axes.

For the axis whose

length

2 c,

l (a2

j2)

^^ Trahcb

(a2

b"").

Paraboloid Generated by Revolving a Parabola about


radius of base and h

its

Axis.

Let

its

height.

For the axis of revolution

Ring

(Fig. 300).

The
=

x axis contains the mass-center


is

and

is

parallel to the

plane of the ring; the y axis

the axis of the ring.

K''-hR'+l r-;
ky'
7^2 _|_

h = Tf'Rr'd
7^

(R'

I r').

^.2.

2 ^2J^r2^ (7^2 _^

^2),

4.

Experimental Determination of Moment of Inertia.


is

When

the body

so irregular in shape that the


easily,

moment

of inertia desired cannot

may be simpler. There methods available. This method is available if the body can be By Gravity Pendulum. suspended and oscillated, like a pendulum, about an axis coinciding with or parallel to the line with respect to which the moment of inertia is desired. Let T = the time of one complete (to and fro) oscillation, c = distance from = weight of the pendulum, g = the mass-center to the axis of suspension, acceleration due to gravity, k = radius of gyration, and I = moment of
be computed
then an experimental method
are several experimental

inertia

about the axis of suspension; then

k=

T Vcg
2
TT

and

= VcW 54
TT'^

(i)

Art. 36

^75
are based on
t he

Above formulas

fo rmula for

the time of oscillation or


If

period of a pendulum
desired, then

T=

2tv

Vk^cg

(see Art. 39).

the axis of suspenis

sion does not coincide with the


it

remains to

Hne about which the moment of inertia ''transfer" / to that Hne (see 2).

The

desired

the same axis about which the suspended body " mathematical pendulum," a very small bob with cord oscillates suspend a adjust the length of the cord so that the periods suspension (see Art.

vation as follows:

moment of From
;

inertia can

be determined without any time obser-

39) (times of oscillation) of bob and

body become equal; then


/

= Vd, and

= Wd/g,

(2)

where

and

k,

W,

the distance from the center of the bob to the axis of suspension The foregoing result is c, I have the same meaning as above.
(for the

based on the fact that k^/c

pendulum) equals the length

of the

mathematical pendulum

(see Art. 39).

By

Torsion Potdulum.

The
=

torsion

pendulum here

referred to

consist of

an

elastic wire

suspended

in a vertical position, the lower

would end

being fashioned or terminated in a disk so that objects, whose moments of inertia are to be determined, may be suspended on the wire and made to
oscillate

about

its axis.

Let

the (observed) period (time of one oscilla-

tion) of the bare pendulum, h = the (observed) period of the pendulum when (as a cube or cyUnder) it is loaded with a body A which is so regular i.\ shape can be computed oscillation of axis the about inertia of moment that its

and h = the (observed) period of the pendulum when it is loaded with the body B whose moment of inertia is desired; further let h = the (computed) moment of inertia of A and I2 = the m.oment B about the axis of
easily,

suspension.

with or
desired.

is

parallel to the line (of

should be suspended so that the axis of suspension coincides B) about which the moment of inertia is

Then

l2=h{k-t)^{h-t).
This result
is is

(3)

pendulum

based on the fact that the square of the period of a torsion proportional to the moment of inertia of the pendulum with Thus,
if

respect to the axis of oscillation.

the

moment

of inertia of the

bare pendulum, and

the proportionality factor, then

CI, k^

=C

(/

+ /i),

and

/o-

= C

(/

+ A).
C and
I and thus

These three equations


give equation
If
(3).

may

be combined so as to eliminate

cannot be suspended so as to

make

the axis of oscillation and the line

(of

B) about which the moment of inertia of

is

desired coincident, then

it

remains to reduce, or transform,

to that line (see 20 of this article).

iy6
37.
I.

Chap, ix

Rotation
line of the
is

A rotation

is

such a motion of a rigid body that one

body or

of the extension of the

body remains

fixed.

The

fixed line

the axis of the

The motion of the flywheel of a stationary engine is one of rotatiorv^ and the axis of rotation is the axis of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted; the motion of an ordinary clock pendulum is one of rotation, and the axis of rotation is the horizontal line through the point of support and perpendicular Obviously all points of a rotating body, except to the axis of the pendulum. those on the axis if any, describe circles whose centers are in the axis and whose planes are perpendicular to the axis. The plane in which the mass-center of the body moves will be called the plane of the rotation, and the intersection of
rotation.

the axis of rotation and the plane of rotation will be called center of rotation.
points of the

All

body on any

line parallel to the axis

move

alike;

hence the motion

of the projection of the line

the points, and the motion of the


its

on the plane of the motion represents that of all body itself is represented by the motion of
is

projection.

By
meant

angular displacement of a rotating body during any time interval


the angle described during that interval

by any

line of the
all

body perpensuch lines deselect a line

dicular to the axis of rotation.


scribe equal angles in the

Obviously
interval,

same

and we

which cuts the

axis.

Let the irregular outline

(Fig. 301) rep-

resent a rotating body, the plane of rotation being that of

as
If

the center of rotation. Let P be any point the paper, and and 6 the angle XOP, OX being any fixed line of reference. Fig. 301 ^g customarily, 6 is regarded as positive or negative according OX when turned about toward OP moves counter clockwise or clockwise. di and 6i denote initial and final values of 6 corresponding to any rotation,

then the angular displacement

Oo

6\.

The
of the

angular velocity of a rotating body


or,

is

the time-rate at which

its

angular

displacement occurs;

otherwise stated,

it is

the time-rate at which any line

body perpendicular
Hence,
if co

to the axis describes angle.

The
is

time-rate at which
dd/dt (see Art. 28,

OP

describes angle, or the time-rate (of change) of 6

Note).

denotes angular velocity,


CO

de/dt.

(i)

Any
is

angular displacement divided by the duration of that displacement gives


If the

the average angular velocity for that duration or interval of time.


rotating uniformly (describing equal angles in
is

body

all

equal intervals of time),

then the average velocity

also the actual velocity.

imply as wm/* the angular velocity of a body rotating uniformly and making a unit angular displacement in each unit time. There are several such units; thus, one revolution per minute, one
for angular velocity

The formulas

degree per hour, one radian per second, etc.


*

The

last is the

one usually used


Appendix A,

For dimensions

of units of angular velocity

and

acceleration, see

Art. 37
herein.

177

An

angular velocity must be regarded as having sign, the same as that


is

of dd/dt.

Since dd/dt

positive or negative according as d increases or de-

creases algebraically, the angular velocity of a rotating


is

body

at

any instant

positive or negative according as

it

is

turning in the counter clockwise or

clockwise direction at that time.

The angular

acceleration of a rotating
If,

body

is
co

the time-rate (of change) of

its angular velocity.

as in the preceding,

denotes the angular velocity,


is

then the general expression for the time-rate of the angular velocity

do:/dt;

hence

if

a denotes the angular


a

acceleration,

dio/di

d^d/dtK

(2)

The change in angular velocity which takes place during any interval of time divided by the length of the interval gives the average angular acceleration for
that interval.
tion
is

If the velocity

changes uniformly, then this average accelera-

also the actual acceleration.

The foregoing formulas imply as unit * the angular acceleration of a body whose angular velocity is changing uniformly and so that unit angular velocitychange occurs in each unit time. One revolution per second per second, one
radian per second per second,
etc.,

must be regarded as having


is

sign,

the
co

are such units.

An

angular acceleration
Since dw/dt

same as that

of dw/dt.

positive or negative according as


is

increases or decreases algebraically, an

angular acceleration
is

positive or negative according as the angular velocity

increasing or decreasing (algebraically).

There are simple


a of any point
body.

relations between the linear velocity v

and

linear acceleration

Let
in

P of a rotating body and the angular velocity and acceleration of the the distance of P from the axis of rotation, s = distance travelled
fixed point in the path of P,

by

any time from some

and

the angle

described

by

the radius to

P in
or

that same time.


V

Then

s =^ rd ii

dhe expressed

in radians;

ds/dt

r dd/dt,

roi.

Differentiating again,

we
at

find that dv/dt

=
(=

r do^/dt,
v'^/r)

or
rco^.

ra;

also

Here
of

at

and a mean the tangential and normal components

of the acceleration

(Art. 34).
2.

Equation of Motion.

We
sum

have already called attention to the

fact (Art. 36, footnote) that in the case of rotation the angular acceleration
is

proportional to the algebraic

of the

moments

of all the external forces

body directly and to the moment of inertia of the body inversely, both moments being about the axis of rotation. Or, if To and Iq be used to denote these moments, and a = the angular acceleration, then a is proportional
acting on the
to {Tq -^ Iq)
;

and,

if

systematic units (Art. 4) be used then

To

= ha =

Mko'a,
and
acceleration, see

(3)

* For dimensions of units of angular velocity

Appendix A.

178

Chap, ix

where

M = mass of the body and


If

ko

its

radius of gyration about the axis of

rotation.

W/g
is

be written for

(Art. 4, 2), then

any unit

of force (in(3).

cluding W), any unit of length, and any unit of time

may

be used in
it

The
the

foregoing

called the equation of

motion
the

for a rotation;

may
(Fig.

be deall

rived from a consideration of the torque, about the axis of rotation, of


forces

acting

on

each

particle

of

body.

Let

P'

302)
its
all

represent a particle of the rotating

mass, and

a'

its

acceleration.

body not shown, m' = Then the resultant of

and the tangential, normal, and axial components of this force are m'o/, m'an and o respectively. Similarly the tangential, normal, and axial components of the resultant of all the forces acting on the Fig. 302 second particle P" are m"at", m"an", and o. All the radial or normal components are directed toward the axis of rotation, and all the tangential components clockwise or counter clockwise. Now the torque of all the forces acting on P' equals the torque of m'at and m'an ; this torque =
the forces acting on P' m'a'
,

m'at'r'

Similarly the torque of

all

the forces acting on

P" = m"ai"r"

Hence the torque


m'at'r'

of the forces acting

on

all

the particles equals

+ m"at"r" +
The

m'r'ar'

m"r"ar"

cvSwr^

ah.

Now

the system of forces acting on

all

the particles consists of internal and

external forces.

internal forces jointly

of pairs of coUnear, equal,

and opposite

forces.

have no torque since they consist Hence, the torque of the ex-

ternal forces equals

Examples.

Ua.
It is supported on a fixed horizontal shaft 3 inches in wrapped around the disk, and then a pull P = ^...j'_.^

Fig. 303 represents a circular disk of cast iron 4 inches thick

and

3 feet in diameter.

diameter.

A
is

cord

is

100 pounds

applied to the cord as shown.

What

is

the angular

acceleration of the disk?

The

external forces acting on the disk

and

cord are the weight of the disk and cord P, and the reaction of the

Only one of these, P, has a moment about the axis of rotaare assuming that the disk is homogeneous so that the center of gravity is in the axis of rotation, and that the shaft is
shaft.
tion.

We

'

'^"^

frictionless.

Tq of equation (3)

is

therefore 100

1.5

150 foot-pounds.

Now
is

the square of the radius of gyration of the disk about the axis of rotation

is .T053

0.125^) = 1. 133 feet^ (Art. 36). And since the weight of the disk I (1.52 pounds, its moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is (1053 -^ 32.2)

1.J33

37.0
2.

= 37-0 slug-feet^. Hence the angular = 4.0 radians per second per second.
Suppose that a turning force
"

acceleration of the disk

is

150

-^

P in the preceding example is supplied not but by means of a body suspended from the cord, and suppose that the body weighs 100 pounds. Obviously the system (disk and suspended body) moves with acceleration hence the two forces acting on the body (gravity
"by hand
;

and the

pull

of the cord) are not equal or balanced

but have a resultant

Art. 37

179
(direction of the acceleration of the body).

downward

That resultant

is

100 P, and it equals the product of the mass and acceleration of the body, The torque on or 100 P = (100 -V- 32.2) X a where a = the acceleration. = = tangential = a the But a. P /a and 1.5 37.0 the disk is P X i-S,
acceleration of

any point on the rim

of the disk

1.5

X
a

a, or a

1.5 a.

These three equations


100

-P=
i

(100/32.2) a,

1.5

P=

37.0 a,

and

=1.5

a,

solved simultaneously give


in

3.41 radians per second per second, less than

example

as was to be expected, because the pull

in this

example

is less

than 100 pounds.


is

The

value of

as obtained from the foregoing equations

84.1 pounds.
3.

A = 64 pounds, of P = 96 pounds, and of of friction under B = I ior sliding, coefficient assume pounds; pulley 144 = 2 feet 6 inches, and the radius pulley of diameter take axle friction zero;
In Fig. 304 we take weight of

C=

of gyration of the pulley about the axis of rotation


to determine the acceleration of the system.

10.6 inches.

We

show

Let a = acceleration of A how Obviously a = 1.25 a. = the pulley. of acceleration (angular) and B, and a and C. On A there A, B, each body on acting forces the consider Let us now On (see Fig. 305). cord pull of the the Pi and pounds) gravity are two, (64

96 /bs.

B F
Fig. 304

Fig. 307

Fig. 306

there are three,

gravity (96 pounds), the pull of the cord P2, and the
D
(see Fig. 306

re-

action of the supporting surface

where
axle,

this latter force is

represented
forces,

gravity (144 pounds), the reaction Q of the


Since the mass
of.

by two components

and F).
is

On

the pulley there are three

the cord.

the cord
is

negligible, the tension at

and the pressure any point


to the pulley

of of

the cord from


P2.

to the pulley

Pi,

and

at

any point from

it is

Hence the pressure of the cord against the pulley equals the resultant of Pi and P2 (Fig. 307), and that pressure is equivalent to Pi and P2. Therefore the equation of motion becomes (Pi - P2) 1.25 = (i44 ^ 32) (10.6 -^ i2ya
a = 3.5 a. Since the acceleration of B is toward the right, - ^N the resultant force on it acts in that direction and equals P2 - P = P2 Since "^ <i = = P2 = hence 19-2 32) = P2 (96 3 Po 19.2; and 96 that direcin A acts on force resultant the the acceleration of A is downward

4.5

0.778

^,

tion

and equals 64

Pi;

hence 64

Pi

(64 -^ 32) a

2 a.

Now
Pi

solving

the three equations of motion,


(Pi

^^2)

1.25

3.5 a,

P2

19-2

3 a>

and

64

2 a,

l8o
together with a

Chap, ix

= 1.25 a, we j&nd that a = 6.19 feet per second per second, = per second per second. The equations also show that radians and a 4.95 = P2 = 37.77 pounds. and pounds, 51.62 Pi
38.

Axle Reactions

Rotating bodies are commonly supported by shafts I. Simple Cases. upon or with which the bodies rotate. In such a case, axle reaction means the force which the shaft exerts upon the rotating body. To determine
such a force we

make

use of the principle of the motion of the mass-center.

The
any

principle states (Art. 34) that the algebraic


line

of all the external forces acting

equals the product of the mass of

along sum of the components on a body, moving in any way, the body and the component of the accelera-

tion of the mass-center along that line.

In general, the principle furnishes


in the axis of rota-

three independent equations, one for each of three rectangular lines of resolution.
If the

mass-center of the (rotating) body does not

lie

tion then there are three lines of resolution


to use than

which are generally more convenient


describe.

any

others,

and these we now

Let the

circle (Fig.

30S)

be the path of the mass-center of a rotating body (not


shown),

be the center of rotation (intersection of the axis

of rotation

and plane

of the

path

of the mass-center),

and

be the mass-center.
two.

Then

the three convenient lines are

the axis of rotation, the line OC, and a line perpendicular to the
FiG. 30S
first

The

directions of these lines are called re-

(OC being a radius and and tangential (the third line being parallel to the tangent at C). Now let I1F<,I!F, and ^Fa = the algebraic sums of the tangential, normal, and axial components of all the external forces acting on any rotating body; at and a = the tangential and normal components of the acthe axial component of the acceleration equals celeration of its mass-center
spectively axial, radial or normal

normal

of the circle),

zero;

and

M = the mass.
2F, =

Then
Alat,

:SF

= Man,

2F, =

o.

(i)

Systematic units (Art. 31) must be used in the foregoing. If W/g be substituted (Art. 31) then any unit may be used for force (including weight), any for

unit for length,

and any unit

for time.

Let

radius of the circle described

the mass-center,
rotating

a =

angular acceleration,

by the mass-center, and co = angular

velocity of

velocity of the

body

at the instant under consideration;


at

then (see Art. 37, 1)


rco^,

ra,

and

v'^/r

and we may use these


If the

in equations (i).
is

mass-center of the rotating body

in the axis of rotation,

then the

Art. 38 acceleration of the mass-center


is

181

always zero, and the algebraic sum of the

components

i. AB (Fig. 309) is a bar of wrought iron 1.5 inches (perpendicular to paper) X 4 inches X 6 feet, suspended from a horizontal axis at A. Suppose that the bar is made to rotate and is then left to it- r, self rotating under the influence of gravity, the axle reaction, and the initial velocity given to it. Suppose further that the initial velocity was such that when the bar gets into the

Examples.

of the external forces along

any

line equals zero.

is 60 revolutions per Required the axle reaction in the position shown. = 120 The only forces acting on the body are its weight

position shown, the angular velocity

minute.

pounds, and the axle reaction represented by two components

Ri and R^.

We

neglect the axle friction;

Fig. 309

then the lines of

actions of Ri and

R-i cut the axis of rotation, and the equation of motion (Art. becomes IF Now I = (IF/32.2) ^2 = (120/32.2) 7.01; (2 sin 35) = la. 37) hence a = 5.26 radians per second per second, and Cj = 2 X 5.26 = 10.52

feet per

second per second.

The angular

velocity, 60 revolutions per minute,

equals 6.28 radians per second; hence a

6.28^

78.8 feet per second

per second.

Finally, equations (i)

become

120 sin 35

Ri=
=

(120/32.2) 10.52
(120/32.2) 78.8

R2

120 cos 35
29.7,

= 39.2, = 294.

and

= 392 pounds. brake for retarding the motion of the drum C and suspended body IF. Let IF = 2000 pounds, weight of the drum = 1800 pounds, radius of gyration of drum about axis of rotation =2.5 feet, coeflBcient of
From
2.

the

first

Ri

and from the second R2

AB

(Fig. 310) is a simple

Fig. 310

friction "

between " brake and drum

the brake pull

P is 1000 pounds.

= 0.5. Suppose that IF is descending and Required the axle reaction on the drum. Fig.

311 shows

all

the forces acting on the drum,

its

own weight

(1800 poimds),

the brake pressure represented

(friction), the pull

of

by two components N (normal pressure) and the rope, and the axle reaction represented by two
a consideration of the forces acting on the brake
6.5) -^ 1.5
in

components Ri and
it is

R2.

From

plain that

N=

(1000

X
of

4333

2167 pounds.

Now

order to get

4333 pounds; and hence F = 0.5 T we write out the equations


Since

motion of the drum and the suspended body.

is

greater than the

l82
weight of the body the velocities of

Chap, ix

drum and body


If

are being decreased; hence

T is
a

greater than

W but
2167 y.

less

than F.

the acceleration of the

drum and

the acceleration of the suspended body, then the equations of motion are
2)

T^

T
These equations and a

2000

^ (1800/32.2) 2.52a, = (2000/32.2) a.


drum

and

T)^^^

solved simultaneously, give

T =

2103 pounds.

Since the acceleration of the mass-center of the

equals zero,

2167

R2

4333

Ri^ o, or Ri = 1800 2103 = o, or

2167,

and
8236 pounds.

R2

= V{2i6'j'^ 8237') = 8500 pounds inclined upan angle of 14I degrees with the vertical. Axle reactions cannot be determined by means 2. Non-simple Cases. The of equations (i) in some cases; moment equations must be resorted to. moment equation To = ha (Art. 37) is available for all cases but additional
Therefore the axle reaction

wards and to the

left at

ones

may

be needed.

It will

be recalled that To

is

the torque of

all

the external

forces about the axis of rotation;

the torque about other bodies of certain

lines,

we

will presently

deduce expressions for

first for

a body of any shape and then for

common, symmetrical

Body

of

any Shape.

Let the

shapes.

axis of rotation

be taken as the

z axis of

an

x-y-z coordinate frame, the x axis containing the mass-center

on the positive

k>x4
<

S Q
I

/
Fig. 312

Mrcc

Z
Fig. 313

t|

'

symmetry

'Mru)'

Fig. 314

Fig. 315

side of the axis.

The
MFco2,

following six equations apply to this general case:

(i)

2F, =
llFy

T,=

-a
a

fzx

dM +

aj2

Cyz dM,

(4)

(2)

= M?a,
0,

Ty= -

yzdM -or
Mk'^a.

zx

dM,

(5)

(3)

2F. =

T,= ha =
and
(3) follow

(6)

from Art. 38 (page 180); (6) is equation (3) of Art. 37, the notation being changed to agree more appropriately with Fig. 312; (4) and (5) will be deduced immediately. The method used for arriving at (4) and (5) is like that used to get (6).
Equations
(i), (2),

Art. 38

183
of the resultant of all the forces acting

The moment
puted;

on each particle

is

com-

then such

moments

for all the particles are


it,

summed; and

since the

internal forces contribute nothing to

the external forces about the axis of


represent

this sum is the value of the torque of moments being used. Let P (Fig. 312)

any

particle of the rotating body, r the radius of the circle described

The resultant of all the forces acting on the particle P equals ma. Components of this resultant along and perpendicular to PA equal mrur and mra. The first component acts in the (radial) direction
its

by P, and a

e the

varying angle

PAB,

(x, y, z)

the coordinates of P,

its

mass,

acceleration.

PA

and the second

in the direction of the tangential

component

of a.

The
the

moments of the resultant ma about the x and y axes respectively equal sums of the moments of its components; these sums are
and
If

mra cos 6s + mror sin 6z mazx + mcJ'yz, mra sin dz mroi^ cos 6z = mayz moihx.
all

now we add

such moments about the x

axis,

and then those about the

axis, for all the particles

comprising the body, we arrive at

aLmzx-{- orllmyz,

and

allmyz

(j?'Lmzx\

and these reduce, for a continuous body, to the right-hand members of (4) and (5). (i) The body is homogeneous, has a plane of symmetry, and rotates about an axis perpendicular to that plane. In this case, (4) and (5) become
Tx
For:

and

Ty

=
(.v,

o.

(4') (5')

The xy plane

(Fig. 312)

now
z).

coincides with the plane of symmetry;


y, 2) there is

hence, for any particle whose coordinates are

a corresponding

one whose coordinates are

(x, y,

And

because of the (assumed) homo-

geneity of the body the masses of the particles may be taken equal. It follows that Swsx = o and Hmyz = o for the two particles. Therefore, these
zero,

summations extended to all the pairs of and hence Tx = Ty = o SiS stated.


the mass-center,

particles comprising the

body equal

Let Fig. 313 represent the plane of the symmetry section of the body, C the center of rotation, Q a point on OC extended so that OQ = k-/r. In general, the resultant of the external forces is a single force
acting in the xy plane, and through Q.

The components

of the resultant

along and perpendicular to


acts from

OC

are indicated in the figure;

the

first

always

toward

and the second


components

in the direction of the tangential accelis left

eration of C.

Proof of this statement

for the student to supply.

The

fact that the described

and

(6)

may

satisfy equations (i), (2), (3), (4'), (5'), be regarded as sufficient proof.

When
forces
is
is

the angular velocity is constant (a = 6), the resultant of the external a force directed along the radius CO and in that direction; its value Mroi^. When the mass-center is in the axis of rotation (r = o), the reis is

sultant

a couple;
/.

its

plane

is

perpendicular to the axis of rotation and


r

its

moment

When

both a and the

o,

the resultant

is nil.

184
(ii)

Chap- IX

The body

is

homogeneous, has a line of symmetry, and rotates about an

axis parallel to that line.

In this case,

(4)

and
T,

(5)

become, as in

(i),

Tx
For:

and

(4") (5")

Let Pi and P2
is

the line P1P2


axis).

(Fig. 314) be any symmetrical pair of particles (so that perpendicular to the axis of symmetry and is bisected by that
(x2}'2Z2)

Also let the coordinates of Pi and P2 be (xiyiZi) and Evidently these coordinates are related as follows:

respectively.

(xi

+ X2)

r,

yi= -

y2,

and

Zi

Z2.

On

account of homogeneity, the masses, taken equal; hence for the two particles

nii

and

m^, of the Pi

and P2 may be

and

+ m2y2Z2 = = Smzx = miZiXi +


Hmyz =
niiyiZi
^W2Z2a-2
if

wiyiZi
miZiXi

miyiZi

o,

+ WiZi(2 r Xi)
all

2 miZi?.

It follows that,

the summations be extended to

the pairs of particles

constituting the body, then

fyz dM
where
in the
s

o,

and

jzx dM = rjz dM = rMz

(see Art. 23),


is

denotes the 2 coordinate of the mass-center; but the mass-center


plane,

XOY

and hence i
(i)

o.

Thus

finally,

we

see

from

(4),

(5),

and the foregoing


All the

results that T^,

and T^

remarks under case

= o as stated. about the resultant of the external forces

hold in this case.


(iii)

The body

is

homogeneous, has a plane of symmetry, and rotates about an

axis in that plane.

In

this case, (4)

and
and

(5)

become

r,
Yox:
for

= - afzx dM,

Ty

= of

'^""^zx

dM.

(4'") (5'")

The xz plane coincides with the plane


particle

symmetry
there
is

in this case;

hence

any

whose coordinates are


{x,

(x, y, z)

a corresponding one and, from


(4)

whose coordinates are

y, z).

It follows

thatjjs

dM^o,

and (5), that T^ and Ty have the values stated above. In general, the resultant of the external forces is a single force as in cases
(i)

and

(ii);

but in this case, the resultant acts not in the xy plane but in a

parallel plane, the z coordinate of

which

is

jzxdM ^

Mr.

See Fig. 315;

Q' is the point where the Une of action of the resultant pierces the plane of symmetry. Proof of the foregoing statements is left for the student to supply.

The
(6)

fact that the described resultant satisfies (i), (2), (3), (4'"), (s'"),

and

may be

regarded

as sufficient proof.*

Centrifugal Action and

a rotating body

unless well

It is common experience that Dynamic Balance. and "balanced" exerts forces upon its shaft

thus upon the bearings supporting the shaft

which

are due in part to the

*For some remarks on special cases, see page i88b.

Art. 39

185

velocity of rotation.

Such parts or components

of the forces are said also to

be due to the "centrifugal action " of the rotating body; and the components A rotating machine part so shaped are called " centrifugal " forces or pulls.
or loaded that
is
it exerts no resultant centrifugal pull said to be in "running " or "dynamic balance."

on

its

shaft or bearhigs

The common method

of designing for

running balance consists in arranging

or proportioning the various (simple) parts of the rotating body, a motor crank shaft for example, so that the centrifugal pulls of all the various parts
will

neutralize.*

Even

after

careful design

and manufacture

of

a crank

shaft, say, the

running balance

may be imperfect. Then mechanical methodsf

are resorted to for completing the task.

The

tions (i) to

conditions for dynamic balance can be stated with reference to equa(6): (a) The mass-center of the body must be in the axis of

rotation

{r=

o);

this

insures
(see Art.

"standing" or "static balance."


57)

(b)

The
zero;

"products
this

of inertia"

J yzdM &nd jzxdM


is

must equal

with

fulfilled

For: When (a) insures dynamic balance. and the angular velocity is constant, the right-hand members
(i) to (6)

these conditions are


of

equations

equal zero, that

they are equilibrium equations; hence,

the bearing pressures are independent of the motion.

The
axis
is

axis of rotation of a

body which

is

sometimes called a " free axis " of the body; for,

dynamically balanced for that if the body could be

rotated about that axis and then


forces,

left to itself entirely free

from
axis.

all

external

even gravity,

it

would continue to rotate about that

39.
I.

Pendulums

By this term is meant the common pendulum, Gravity Pendulum. axis so that it can be made to oscillate horizontal on a suspended that is a body real pendulum is sometimes called a A gravity. of influence the freely under
compound or physical pendulum to distinguish
it

from an imaginary one con-

sisting of a mass-point or particle suspended by a massless cord; this latter is Let T = the period or time of one called a simple or mathematical pendulum. oscillation, k = the radius of gyration of the fro) and (to double or complete

pendulum with respect to the axis of suspension, c = distance from the center of gravity of the pendulum to that axis, and 2 jS = the angle swept out by the pendulum in one single oscillation. Then, as will be shown presently, the period is given closely by

T =2T Vk'/cg,
*

(i)

For a good treatment of dynamic balancing, see the book by Dunkerly or Sharpe on
For a description of an ingenious balancing machine, Akimofif's, see American Machinist
18, 1Q16.

Balancing of Engines.
t

for

May
X

For a theory of balancing of engines based on these conditions extended see Lorenz,

Tecknische Mcchanik,

Band

I.

86
j8

Chap, ix
is

provided that
of

small.*

Since

jS

does not appear in this formula the period

any pendulum is independent of /3; that is all small oscillations of a pendulum have equal periods or, as we say, they are isochronous. When g is expressed in feet per second per second then k and c should be expressed in feet; T will be
in seconds. of equation (i) let OG (Fig. 316a) be a pendulum in any O the center of suspension, G the center of gravity; let W = the weight of the pendulum, c = OG, and 6 the (varying) angle which OG makes

For the derivation

swinging position,

with the vertical, regarded as positive when the pendulum


of the vertical, as

is

on the right side

There are three forces acting on the pendulum, gravity, the supporting force at the knife edge, and the pressure of the surrounding air. The moment of the first force about the axis of suspension is
shown.

Wc sin 6;

the

the resultant

two forces we take as negligible. Hence pendulum in any position = Wc sin 6 practically. torque on the

moments

of the other

The angular

acceleration

<Pd/dfi (see Art. 37);

hence according to equation

(3) of that article

Wc sin 6= -

{W/g) m^QldC-,

the negative sign being introduced because sin Q and d^d/df are always opposite in sign.

It follows readily

from the preceding equation that


(cg/k^) sin

(Pe/df

= -

=
will

-A sin

d,

where
of
6,

is

an abbreviation for
jS,

cg/k^.

We
and

assume that the greatest value


then as a good

that

is

is

so small that sin d

6 are nearly equal;


6,

approximation we

may

substitute 6 for sin

and have

deydf

= -

Ad.

To

integrate

this

simply,

let

dd/dt;

then d^O/df

du/dt

(du/dd)

{dd/dt)

{du/dd) u, and hence


(du/dO)

Ad,

or

udu = Ad dd.
we
get

Now

integrating

and replacing u by

dd/dt,

where Ci

is

a constant of integration.

Remembering that

dd/dt

the angular

velocity of the pendulum,


fore for these

we note
and

that where d

^, there dd/dt

o;

there-

(simultaneous) values the preceding equation becomes o

-^AjS^-h

Ci, or Ci

.4/32,

finally

dd/dt
*

AWp^-d\

The

exact value of the period

is

given by

r = 2,rVFAg[i
If
/3

(iysin^^-}-(i.^ysin^^+

].
the value
is

8 degrees then the bracket above


is still

i. 001 2 2;

and

for smaller values of

of the bracket

nearer unity.
if /3

Hence the

error in the approximate formula

less

than one-eighth of one per cent

does not exceed 8 degrees.

Art. 39

187

The positive sign is to be used when dd/dt is positive; that is when the pendulum is swinging in the positive direction. Now let r = the time required for the pendulum to swing out from its lowest to its highest position on the To get a value of this time we right, that is while d changes from o to /3.
integrate the preceding equation as follows:

VA
Let
t'

dt^

Jj

Jo

\/,32

or

02

sm-1 V V TL /3jo
,4

W V

eg

the time required for a swing from the extreme right position to the
is

lowest position, that


integrate as follows:

while Q changes from

/3

to o.

To

get this time

we

Jo

Ji3

V/32-02'

y
to

Ai

^\p

eg

Hence

and

t' are equal, as

was

b e expected.
as

Finally, the time of one

complete oscillation

= 47 = 2x V^-/t:g,

Let k
through
k^

=
its

the radius of gyration of the

was to be shown. pendulum with respect

to

an axis

center of gravity and parallel to the axis of suspension; then


(see Art. 36),

^R

-\- c-

and hence

gc

g\

(2)

c-J
all

Contrary to

common

belief,

the period does not increase for

increases in

c,

the distance from the center of gravity to the axis of suspension.


ing the foregoing expression for

For examinc,

T with

reference to a variation in

we

find that

dT^
dc

TV {c"

?)

cV[gc(c2-fP)]*
than
k,

Now
when

this is negative for all values of c less


k.

and positive
c

for all values

greater than

Hence when
its least

c is less

than k an increase in
c increases T.

decreases T;
c

c is greater

than k an increase in

When

k,

then

dT/dc

o,

and T has

value equal to 2x\/(2 k/g).


I,

In the case of a simple pendulum of length

the radius of gyration k


is

and

also c

I;

hence

the period of a simple

pendulum

given by
(3)

r=27rv77g.*

physical

pendulum and a simple pendulum whose periods


Periods are equal
if

are equal are said

to be equivalent.

k"/cg

l/g, or

k'/c.

Imagine the entire mass of a


* Strictly speaking, a simple or

(real)

pendulum concentrated
exist

into a point

mathematical pendulum can

only in imagination,

but a

bob suspended by means of a cord may be regarded as a That is the period of the cord-bob pendulum = t V77^ where / = the distance from the axis of suspension to the center of the bob. For k/ for the cord-bob pendulum is small compared to i, and hence equation (2) gives T = 2w ^c/g
real

pendulum made

of a small

simple pendulum in computing period.

practically.

j88
(Fig. 316a),

Chap, ix

whose distance from the center of suspension equals k'^/c. Then, as just shown, the period of such an (imaginary) simple or mathematical pendulum would be 2TVQ/g), where / is the length OQ or k'^/c; hence
the period would be
2
tt

Vik^cg), that

is

equal to the period of the real


center of oscillation of the pen-

pendulum.
For
dulum.
this reason

is

sometimes called the

(It coincides with the center of percussion, see Art. 48.)

The

dis-

tance from

the center of gravity to the center of oscillation

is

GQ = c
c

a
0,

w]

"The

centers of suspension

and

of

oscillation of
is if

pendulum

are interchangeable," that


()

be suspended from

(Fig. 316b),

center of oscillation.

For,

then suppose that Q'


(2,

pendulum becomes the


a
is

the

center of oscillation corresponding to

then

hence Q' coincides with 0.

It follows

from the prop-

erty of interchangeability that the periods of a penduFig. 316, a, b, c and from Q are equal. lum when suspended from The pendulum is our best device for accurately determining the acceleration due to gravity at any place. We have only to determine the period T and the length k^jc of a pendulum at the place, and then compute g from the But it is not easy to determine k^jc directly. formula T = 2 -k y/ {]r I eg)
.

Captain Kater

first (18 18)

made

use of the property of interchangeabiUty of

centers of suspension

and

oscillation to

make a pendulum whose


Fig.

length W-jc

could be determined accurately and readily.

316c represents a Kater

pendulum
where

in principle;

Oi and O2 are two knife edges as

shown

at a

known

distance apart;
desired.

is

a weight which can be slid along the rod and clamped

The

periods of oscillation for 0\ suspension and O2 suspension

but by shifting the weight and trying repeatedly, the periods can be made equal. When the periods are equal, then either knife

would be
edge
(a
is

different,

the axis of oscillation for the other as axis of suspension, and O1O2
distance)
is

known

the length of the equivalent simple


of a

pendulum

or the

Kater pendulum the value of g for Washington was determined to be 980.100 centimeters per second per second. Values by comparing of g at many other places have been determined more simply
W'lc of the formula.

By means

the periods of oscillation of a

more ordinary pendulum


is

at

Washington and the

based on the principle that the squares of the periods of oscillation of any pendulum at two different places are inversely proportional to the values of g at those places hence if Ty, and T = the periods
other places.

This comparison

Washington and some other station and g place, then g = 980.1 {Tw/Tfat

the acceleration at the latter

Art. 39
2.

1 88a

This consists of a heavy bob suspended Torsion Pendulum. by means of a Ught elastic wire, the wire being firmly embedded Any horizontal couple appUed to the bob will in the bob and in its support. turn the bob and twist the wire. If the couple is not too large so as not then the angular displaceto stress the wire beyond its "elastic limit" ment of the bob will be proportional to the moment of the couple applied. = the moments of two couples apphed successively and That is, if C and 6 and 6' are the corresponding angular displacements produced by the couples, then 6/6' = C/C. Hence, the moment C required to produce any displacement is given by C = {C'/d') 6. In any displaced position of the bob, the wire exerts a couple on the bob equal to the appUed couple. If the bob were released from any position of (moderate) angular displacement j8, it would oscillate under the influence of the couple exerted by the wire. We will assume that this (varying) couple follows the law expressed
vertically

above.

Then

the equation of motion (rotation) for the bob would be (see

equation
Since a

3, Art. 37)

C
6

=^

la, where

/
a.

respect to the axis of the wire

and

= moment of inertia of the bob with = the (varying) angular acceleration.


equation can be

drd/df,

and

and

d"d/dt" are opposite in sign, the

written

where

is

an abbreviation

for {C'/d') -^ /.

This

last

equation

is

just like the

equation d^6/dtexcept that


ulas in
I

.40 of i, relating to the

motion of a gravity pendulum


in the other.

appears in one equation and


this section
if

apply to

be changed to B.
is

Hence the formThus the time of one

quarter complete oscillation of a torsion pendulum

TT

C/6' \/|[-iI=^v/c^
tt,

The

period (one complete to and fro oscillation) equals 4

or
^

T=
/

2ir\/l^{C'/d').

(i)

= Mk^ = {W/g) k' where = weight and k = radius of gyration of the bob with respect to the axis of the wire. If, in a numerical case, is taken in pounds and g in feet per second per second, k should be expressed in feet, in foot-pounds, and 6' (always) in radians; T will be in seconds. C'/d' (the ratio of the moment of any twisting couple to the angle of twist produced)

is

a measure of the torsional stiffness of the wire, for that ratio

is

the

moment
stiffer

required for twisting per radian of twist.

Formula

(i)

shows that the

the wire the

less

the period.

i88b
Continued from page 184.

Chap, ix

When
forces
is

the angular velocity

is

constant (a

o),

the resultant of the external


in Fig.

a single force

R = Mro)^)
{

acting as

shown

315 and

its

dis-

tance from

CO

is

/zxdM
When
the mass-centre
is

-T-

Mr.

in the axis of rotation {r

o),

the resultant

is

couple whose

moments about

the x, y,
<a~

and

axes respectively are

ai zxdM,
When
both a and
r

zxdM, and Mk^a.


is

o,

the resultant

a couple whose

moments about

the X, y, and z axes respectively, are


o,

ar

zxdM, and

o.

CHAPTER X
WORK, ENERGY, POWER
40.

I.

Work
is

Definitions, Etc.
said to be

Work
it
is

common word and

has

many mean-

ings (see dictionary), but

used in a single special sense in Mechanics.

by the agent exerting moves so that the force has a component along the path of the point of application. This component will be called the working component of the force; and the length of the path

Work

is

the force

when the point

done upon a body by a force

also

of application of the force

of the point of application the distance through which the force acts.

The

work done by the force is taken as equal to the product of the working component and the distance through which the force acts. The meaning of this measure of work done by a force is clear when the working component is constant. For example, suppose that the body represented in Fig. 317 is moved along the line AB by a number of forces, two of which (indicated) are constant in magnitude and During any portion of the in direction. J^''^ r--^--i _5__ motion, as from A to B, the work done by l,,,Jy,,[Zj^ Fi is Fi(AB) and the work done by F2 is {F2 cos 6) AB. This expression when written F (AB cos 6) means the product of the force and the component of the displacement along the line of action of the force, which is a " view" of amount

amount

of

'

of

work done by a

force sometimes
is

more convenient than the


like this:

other.

When

the working component


for the

not constant in magnitude, then

arrive at an expression

work somewhat

Let AB

we may

(Fig. 318)

be the path of the point of application of one of the forces acting upon a body not shown, and P any point on the
path.
'A

Let

/'

the force,

the angle between

F and

the tangent atP, and ds

the elementary portion of the

path at P.
I^iG.

318

displacement

or tangential

component
( Ft

of

work done by F during the elementary 'ds or Ftds where Fi means working F; and the work done by F in the displacement

Then

the

=F

cos

4>

from

to

B =

ds, limits of integration to

be assigned so as to include

all

elementary works Ft ds in the motion from A to B. It is worth noting that if the force F acts normally to the path at all points, then Ft = o always, and
the formula gives zero for the work done
189

by

F, as

it

should.

190

Chap, x
unit work
is

The

the

work done by a

force

whose working component equals

The unit of work depends upon the units used for force and distance; thus we have the foot-pound, centimeterdyne, etc. The second unit is also called erg; and 10^ ergs = i joule. The horse-power-hour and the watt-hour are larger units of work. They are the amounts of work done in one hour at the rates of one horse-power and one
unit force acting through unit distance.*

watt, respectively (see Art. 41); thus,

One horse-power-hour = 1,980,000 foot-pounds, and One watt-hour = 3600 joules.

When When
force

the works done

by

several forces are under discussion,

it

may

be

convenient to give signs to their works according to this commonly used rule:
the working component acts in the direction of motion, the work of the

is

regarded as positive;

when

opposite to the direction of motion then the


cos
cf)

work

is

regarded as negative.

The formula J F

ds,

with the lower and


final positions

upper limits of integration to correspond to the

initial

and
if

and B,

respectively, observes this rule of signs for work,

tive in the direction of motion from some fixed from the " positive tangent" around to the line of action of the force as shown Forces which do positive work are sometimes called efforts; in the figure.

measured posiorigin to P, and 4> is measured


s is

those which do negative

Work Diagram.

work

are called resistances. "f

If

values of Ft and 5 be plotted on two rectangular axes

(Fig. 319) for all positions of the point of application of F,

then the curve joining the consecutive plotted points might be called a " work-

The portion of the diagram "under the curve" (between the curve, the 5-axis, and any two ordinates) is called the work diagram for the force F for
ing force-space" (Ft-s) curve.
"
^ia->i
"

'"I

the displacement corresponding to the bounding ordinates.

ordinates.

The

area of a work diagram represents the work done

by the

force during the displacement corresponding to the bounding

Proof: Let
is,

m=

the force scale-number, and

the space scale-

number; that
abscissa (inch)

unit

ordinate (inch)

= m
let
I

units of Ft (pounds)

and unit

= n
I

units of 5 (feet).
/ij

Also

A =
C^
r^

area;
J

then

A= Jx,
Hence,

ydx=

nhp^s
I

Ja
is,

Ftds= mnja
/

work

mn
number mn

{mn)

work; that

A = work
F
is

according to the scale

to be used for interpreting the area.

By

average working component of


52

by the distance
*

Si,

or b
is

a,

gives the

meant a value of Ft which multiplied work done by F. Obviously, that


to the curve of

average working force


For dimensions

represented

by the average ordinate


is

Appendix A. work done by a resistance on a body work done by the body against the resistance.
of unit work, see
t

The

(negative)

often referred to as (positive)

Art. 40

191

the

work diagram.
and

When
s,

that curve

is

straight, that

is,

when Ft

varies uni-

formly with respect to


of the initial
Fig.

then the average working component equals the

mean
(a

final values.

320

is

a fac-simile of a record

made by

the traction

dynamometer

spring balance essentially) in a certain train test.


travelled

Abscissas represent distances

and ordinates represent " draw-bar pulls" (the pulls between the tender and first car of the train). Thus, the figure is a work diagram. To determine the area of such a diagram as this we first draw in an average curve "by eye," and then ascertain the area under this curve in any convenient way.

by the

train,

3 tons

\//^vMv***^^'^^VV'^^^
6 ins. =
/

Mile.

V V

Fig. 320

Fig. 322

(i) The work done by a force which is conand direction equals the product of the force and the projection of the displacement of its point of application upon the line of action of the force. For, let F = the force, APB (Fig. 321) the path of its point of application, ^ = the (variable) angle between and the direction of the motion of the point of application P. Then the work done by F is

2.

Some Special Cases.

stant in magnitude

F cos (j)ds = F

ds cos </>,

where ds

is

an elementary portion

of the path.

Now

ds cos

is

the projection

of the element ds

upon F, or upon any

line parallel to F,

and

Cds cos

<^

is

the

sum

of the projections of all the elements of

sum AB.

of the projections

the projection of

APB upon the line. But the APB = the projection of the chord
in

(ii)

The work done by gravity upon


and the
Let
is

body

of its weight

vertical distance described

any motion equals the product by the center of gravity;

the work

positive or negative according as the center of gravity has descended


Wi, w^, etc.,

or ascended.
yii y2
,

denote the weights of the particles of the body;

etc., their

does not descend

ji" jo", etc., their distances above that plane at the end of the motion (see Fig. 322) where a' a" is the path of the first particle, b'b" that of the second, etc.). Also let denote
,

distances above

at the beginning of motion;

some datum plane and

below which the body


W

and final heights of its center of gravity above the plane. Then the works done by gravity on the particles respectively, are Wi {yi y/'), K'2 iyi y^"), etc., and the sum of these works can be written
initial

the weight of the body, and y' and y" the

{wiyi

+ W2y2 +

-{wiyi"

W2y-i'

+...).

192

AP.

The
the

first

term of
of these

this

sum

sum = Wy', and the second = Wy" works done on all the particles equals

(see Art. 21);

hence

Wy'
(iii)

- Wy" = Wiy'the works done

y").
of forces having a

The

algebraic

sum of

by any number

common
etc.,

point of application during any displacement of that point equals the


their resultant during that displacement.

work done by

For, let F', F", F'",

etc., and Rt = the components of the forces and of the resultant, respectively, along the tangent = Rt F" F"' Now Ft to the path of the point of application. = Rtds, and F/" ds -\Hence Ft' ds Ft" ds (Art. 4).

the forces,

R=

their resultant,

and F/, Ft", F"',

fFt'ds^ fFt"ds-\that
is,

CFt'"ds-\-

fRtds;
their

the

sum

of the

works done by the forces equals the work done by


pair of equal, colinear,

resultant.
(iv)

The work done by a

and opposite

forces in

any

displacement of their points of application equals

X2
necessarily

Fdr

or

r^i
I

F dr

according as the forces tend to separate or draw the points of application not constant together; F = the common magnitude of the two forces

the distance between their points of appHcation, and


final

and

r2

initial

and

values of

r.

Let

A and B

(Fig. 323)

application of the

y^/y'

^
Fig ^2^

V
^"_;:::^:^^^;^

|p^^-^

/By"
y.

acting on a body two forces any intermediate stage of the displacement, and suppose that the path of A is Let x',y' be the ^i^^2 and that of B is BA. (For coordinates of A, and x", y" those of B.

not shown

at

be the points of

figure we have taken the paths of A simplicity ^ J in V and B as coplanar. The following proof could

be extended to cover the case of any paths. The paths are not necessarily due to the forces F alone; but since we are concerned with the work done by
these

with the motion.)

no mention is made of any other forces concerned According to the preceding paragraph the work done by either force F in any displacement equals the sum of the works done by the X and y components of F in that same displacement. Hence in an elementary

two

forces only,

displacement ds the work of

F on ^ = (-F
-\-

cos

dx'

-F

sin 6 dy'),

and the

work
forces

oi

F on B =

{F cos 6 dx"

FsinO
is

dy").

The work done by both

in the elementary displacement

It will readily

be

+ sin 6 {dy" - dy')]. seen from the figure that (x" - x')- + (y"- y')^ =
F[cosd (dx"

dx')

r';

and,

by

differentiation,

we
x')

find that

(x"-

{dx"-

dx')

{y"-

y')

{dy" - dy')

rdr.

Art. 41

195
r

Dividing by

and transforming we
cos 6 {dx"

find that

dx')

+ sin d {dy" - dy') = dr.

Hence, the work done

in the elementary displacement is F dr, and the work done in the displacement from AiBi to A1B2 equals the integral of F dr between the limits as stated. Obviously, changing the senses of the forces F (in the

figure) so that

they tend to make


forces.

and

approach, changes the sign of the

total

work done by the

41.

Energy

body is such that it can do work against body is said to possess energy. For example, a stretched spring can do work against forces applied to it if they are such that it may contract, and a body in motion can do work against an applied force which tends to stop it; the spring and the body, therefore, possess energy. The amount of energy possessed by a body at any instant is the amount of work which it can do against applied forces while its state or condition changes from that of the instant to an assumed standard state or condition. The meaning of the standard condition is explained in subsequent articles. The unit of energy must, in accordance with the above, be the same as the unit of work. Thus we have the foot-pound, foot-ton, centimeter-dyne (or erg),
the state or condition of a
it,

When

forces applied to

the

the joule, horse-power-hour, watt-hour, etc. (see preceding article).*

I.

Mechanical Energy.
body
is

Energ>^

is classified

into kinds depending on


it

the state or condition of the body, in virtue of which


Kinetic Energy of a
velocity.
is

has energy.

energy which the body has by virtue of its The amount of kinetic energy possessed by a particle at any instant

the

instant to

work which it can do while the velocity changes from its value at that some other value taken as a standard. It is customary to take
this being understood,
is

zero velocity as the standard one;


kinetic energy possessed
''

then the amount of

by a

particle

the work which the particle can do in


particle

giving up all its velocity." The kinetic energy of a single mass and velocity are m and v, respectively, equals | mv'^. Proof: Let Fi, Fi, F3, etc., be the forces which act on the particle P (Fig. 324) and eventually stop it; and let AB he

whose

the path,

the beginning (where velocity

Vi)

and

the

end where velocity

o.

Then we

are to prove that the

work done by the

particle

on the neighboring particles or

bodies (which exert the forces Fi, F2, F3, etc.) equals | mvi^, during the motion. Now, the work done by the forces Fi, F2, F3, etc., on the particle is

Fi cos

(f>ids

^
*

Fa cos

(f>2

ds

+''

'

/ (Fi

cos

<^i -f-

F2 cos 02

ds,

For dimensions of a unit of energy, see Appendix A.

194
where
4>i,

Chap,
02, 03, etc.,

are the angles between Fi. F2, F3, etc.,

and the
its

direction of

motion

(Art. 40).

Since the particle

exerts forces

on

neighbors, equal
its

and opposite to

Fi, F2, etc., the

work done by the

particle

on

neighbors

is

(Fi cos 01

+ F2 cos 02 +
Jnat

ds.

But Fi cos 01 + F2 cos 02 + component of the acceleration

= m dv/dt,

where

at is

the tangential

of the particle; hence the

work done by

P is

m (dv/dt) ds ^

m {ds/dt) dv =

mv dv

^ mv^.

The kinetic energy of a body (a collection or system or particles) is the sum of the kinetic energies of the constituent particles of the body. We will now evaluate this sum for certain common cases, namely, (i) translation,

(ii)

rotation,

(i)

combined translation and rotation. In translatory motion all particles of the moving body have at each
(iii)

and

instant equal velocities; hence, the simi of the kinetic energies of the particles
is

\ ntivI WoZ'the particles and v


if

+
=

"^^

their

common

(2^0, where Wi, nh, etc., = the masses of velocity at the instant imder consideration.

Or,

M = the mass of the body and E = energy, then


E = ^Mv^ =
i(W/g)v\
(i)

If 32.2 is written for g,

then v should be expressed in feet per second.


etc.,

will

be in foot-pounds, foot-tons,
tons, etc.
(ii)

according as

is

expressed in pounds, or

In a rotation about a fixed axis the velocity of any particle of the body

equals the product of the angular velocity of the body, expressed in radians per
unit time,

and the distance from the


i

particle to the axis of rotation (Art. 37).


is

Hence, the sum of the kinetic energies of the particles of the body
I mi
(ri co)2

-f

1712

(r^f^y

oj^

Zmr-,

where

co

the angular velocity of the body at the instant under consideration,


etc.,= the distances of the particles respectively from the axis of

and

ri, ^2,

rotation.

But

I,mr^

the

moment

of inertia of the

body about the

axis of

rotation;

hence, the kinetic energy

is

given by

=
where I
the

i /co2

i Mk^o:'

h (W/g) kW',

(2)

= the moment of inertia described, and k = the radius of gyration of body about the axis of rotation. If 32.2 is written for g, then k should be expressed in feet and co in radians per second (w 2 -wn where n = revolutions per second). Then E will be in foot-pounds, foot-tons, etc., according
as

W
(iii)

is

expressed in pounds, tons, etc.

A body which
rolling,

has a combined plane translation and rotation (Art. 50),

Uke a wheel

has kinetic energy given by


i

M^^

+ Hco^ = I

{W/g)

v'

+ i (W/g) oi\

(3)

Art. 41

195

where

mass

of the body, v

velocity of the center of gravity, /


to

the

moment

of inertia of the

body with respect


and w

an

axis

through the center of


Proof

gravity perpendicular to the plane of the motion, k


respect to the
of this formula

radius of gyration with

same
is

axis,

the angular velocity of the motion.

given in Art. 51.

The

portions ^

Mv^ and

/co^ of

the kinetic

energy are sometimes called the translational and rotational components,


respectively.

As an example

of the use of the preceding formula

we

find the kinetic energy


in weight,

of a cylindrical disk, 6 feet in diameter

and 400 pounds

which
-i-

is

rolling so that the center has a velocity of 4 feet per second.

M = 400
is

32.2

12.4 slugs; the square of the radius of gyration of the disk

(see Art. 36);

second.

and Hence
- 12.4

cxi,

the rate at which the wheel

is

turning,

is

| 3^ = 4.5 feet^ 4 -^3 radians per

4"

+ - 12.4 X

4.5(4 -^

3)'"

148.8 foot-pounds.

Potential Energy.

A body may possess energy which


attracting bodies can do

is

not due to velocity.


forces applied to

Thus two mutually


either or both
if

work against

allowed to

move

so that they

approach each other; and, as


of condition or state"

stated, a compressed or stretched spring can


if

do work against applied forces

permitted to resmne
is

its

natural length.

The "change

in the first case

a change in configuration, a change in the positions of the


and, in the second case,
is
if

bodies relative to each other;

we conceive

of the

spring as consisting of discrete particles, the change


(of the particles).

also one in configuration

Energy
is

of a

system of particles dependent on configura-

configuration, and potential energy more commonly. The amount of potential energy possessed by a system in any configuration is the work which it can do in passing from that configuration to any other
tion of
called energy of

the system

taken as a standard,
takes place.

it

being understood that no other change of condition


configuration
all

The standard
it

may

be chosen at pleasure, but

it is

convenient to so select
tial

that in

other configurations considered the poten-

energy

is

positive.

A most common
body.

case of potential energy is that of the earth and an elevated In this case, standard configuration means one in which the body and
Practically,
it is

earth are as near together as possible.

necessary to regard

the earth as fixed and the energy as resident in the elevated body.
of potential energy of

an elevated body

is

just equal to the

The amount work which gravity

would do upon the body during the descent into the standard or lowest position, = the weight and this work is given by Wh (see preceding article), where of the body and h = the distance through wliich the center of gravity of the body can descend. Kinetic energy and potential energy 2. Other Forms of Energy.

It

are often called mechanical energy.

is

the opinion of

some that

all

energy

Iq6
is

Chap,
kinetic.

mechanical, and some think that


it is

it is all

Whether

either of these

views be correct,

practically necessary to recognize other forms.


is

mere

enumeration of these with brief remarks


since

sufficient for the present purpose,

we
if

shall deal

mostly with energy known to be mechanical.

Thermal Energy.
thus,

A
is

hot body

may

do work under favorable conditions;

such a one

placed in a boiler containing water, the water will be

heated and a part


engine, that
is,

may

be converted into steam which

may

drive a steam

do work.

By

giving up

its

heat the hot body has done work,


its

and, hence,

by

definition, it possessed

energy in

heated

state.

Not only

is

this fact well

known, but

also the fact that a given quantity of heat represents

a
is

definite

the

amount of energy. Thus, one British thermal unit (B.T.U.), which amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water

one Fahrenheit degree,


is

=
=

778 foot-pounds.

And
(at

one (small)

calorie,

which

the

amount

of heat required to raise the temperature of

one gram of water

one Centigrade degree,

4.187

10^ ergs
is

15 degrees).
is

molecular hy^Dothesis the

common
is,

theory

that heat
is

Based on the due to the vibratory

motion

of molecules, that

Chemical Energy.

Many substances combine chemically,

thermal energy

kinetic.

and

their

com-

bination gives evidence that they possessed energy.

Thus, coal and oxygen

combine and produce heat which, as we have seen, is a form of energy. We rightly say, therefore, that the coal and oxygen before combination possessed
energy.
in cases

Based on
where heat

this molecular hyj^othesis


is

the theory of chemical energy


is

generated in the chemical combination

that internal

(molecular) forces of the substances do

work during the combination, and,


energy of the molecules.
is

hence

(see Art. 43), increase the kinetic

According

to this explanation the energy before combination


kinetic.

potential;

and

after,

Electrical Energy.

If a

charged storage battery be connected with a motor,

work may be done by the latter. As the work is done, the electrical condition of the battery changes, and we therefore ascribe the energy to the batter}'.

The energy is called electrical because it is due to a change of electrical condiThe nature of electrical energy is even less understood than that of tion. thermal energy, and no commonly accepted explanation of it has yet been made^
42.

I
.

Power

In

common
And

parlance the word power has


of the

many meanings

(see diction-

ary).

Thus we hear

power

of a giant,

power

of example, power of the

press, etc.

of things mechanical,

we hear such

expressions as a powerful

On reflection we note that derrick, a powerful cannon, a powerful pump, etc. probably does not refer to the same expressions the adjective in these three
and pump. A derrick is probably called powerbody, or exert a very great (lifting) force. heavy ful because it can lift a very powerful because it can project a heavy shot called A cannon is generally
feature of the derrick, cannon,

Art. 42

197

with great velocity, and


the energy which the

we

shall see presently

such performance depenas on

gun can impart

to the shot.

A pump

is

probably called
in a short

powerful because

it

can elevate or transport a large quantity of liquid

space of time, or perform

much work

per unit time.

Use
lete.

of the

word power
one time.

in the sense of force

was very common

in engineering

literature at

Such usage

is

comparatively rare now, but not obsoof a locomotive" to denote pull in

Thus we read

of the " tractive

power

the bulletins of the American Locomotive

(But Goss in his LocoHenderson his Operation, and in Locomotive seem to prefer motive Performance, Tests Exhibits, of the Pennsylvania and Railtractive force and in Locomotive road System at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, we find " tractive effort The other two uses of the word power to denote (i) to denote that pull.) work or energy, and (ii) rate at which work is done or energy is transmitted Thus in the same text-book we find: or transformed are c[uite common. (i) " the actual power utilized is one-half the energy available," and (ii) "the power of the plant is about 470 horse-power" (258,500 foot-pounds per second, see below). And in another book there appear: (i) " the power of the rotating shaft could be converted into electrical energy," and (ii) '"the
;

Company.

power

is

here measured in kilowatts " (one kilowatt equals 10'" ergs per second,
It

see below).

seems probable that


will define

this

double usage of the word power in

engineering literature will persist.

In

common

with most authors, even those

quoted above, we

power

in a single sense,

namely,

as the rate at

which work

is

done.

Units of Power * like units of work

may be

classed into gravitational, which

vary slightly with

locality,

and absolute.

Thus, the foot-pound per minute and


first class
;

the kilogram-meter per second are units of the

also the (practical)

EngUsh and American horse-power

= =

550 foot-pounds per second 33,000 foot-pounds per minute,

Continental horse-power ==^75 kilogram-meters per second

=
The dyne-centimeter
watt which
is 10'^

4500 kilogram-meters per minute.


a unit of the second class; also the
(practical)

(or erg) per

second

is

ergs per second,

and the

kilowatt

1000 watts

io^ ergs

per second.

The Bureau

of

Standards has recently decided to adopt the English and

American horse-power as the exact equivalent of 746 watts, thus making " Thus defined it is the rate of work exthis horse-power an absolute unit. pressed by 550 foot-pounds per second at 50 latitude and sea level, approximately the location of London, where the original experiments were made by James Watt to determine its value. The continental horsepower is similarly
' '

most conveniently defined as 736 watts, equivalent to 75 kilogram-meters per


second at latitude 52
* t

30', or Berlin." f

For dimensions of a unit of power see Appendix A. Circular of the Bureau of Standards, No. 34.

198
2.

c^^-

'^

Measurement of Power.

There

is

only one instrument in


It

common
electric
elec-

use which measures power directly, the wattmeter. power and reads in watts, hence the name wattmeter.
trical is generally

measures
of

Power other than

measured indirectly by measuring the amount

work done

or energy transmitted in a certain length of time; this work or energy divided by the time gives the average power for the period. And to measure the

work or energy generally requires the measurement of a force; this force multipUed by the distance through which it acts (as explained later) gives the work Thus most appliances for ascertaining power measure force first or energy. Dynamomof all, and so are properly called dynamometers (force-measurers). the first of Those absorption and transmission. eters are of two kinds, second the of those and measure, kind absorb or waste the energy which they dynamometers many great it. A kind transmit the energy or nearly all of

have been devised. Only one of each kind is here described.* k simple form is shown in Fig. 325. AA are two bearing Prony Brake. blocks which bear against the face of the pulley on the shaft of the motor or other machine whose power is to be measured; BC is the beam, one end of which is supported on a post D which rests on the platform of a weighing scale; BB are nuts by means of which the pressures between the pulley and the bearing blocks may be changed and consequently the frictional drag also when the pulley is turning. The drag on the brake tends to depress the end C

when the

pulley

is

rotating as indicated.

'

w/!nu//f

'

Fig. 325

Fig. 326

Let 5

the reading of the scale

when

the pulley

is

rotating at the desired

speed, the brake then absorbing the energy which is to be measured; n = the revolutions of pulley per unit time; a = the horizontal distance from the

support of

to the center of the shaft;

and

X=

a correction explained below.

Then

the power equals

P=
If

(5

X)

2 -Kan.

(i)

S and

X are expressed in pounds, a in feet,


P=
0.000190 (5

and n

in revolutions per minute,

then

X)

an

horse-power.

(2)

The meaning
Let F =
*
ichs'

appear from the following derivation of formula (i). the total frictional drag on the pulley while the energy to be measured
of
will
descriptions of

For

full

many others see

Flathers'

Dynamometers or Carpenter and Deder-

Experimental Engineering.

Art. 42
is

199

being absorbed and d

diameter of pulley.

The work done on


it is

the pulley
is Fir

by

this friction per revolution is


let

F ird, and

per unit time the work

dn.

Now

weight of the brake, and

w =

weight of D; then

plain from

+ Wb = (S - w) a, or Fd = 2[S - {w + Wb/a)] a; and hence P = [S - (w like (i) except that X replaces w + This last equation
Fig. 326 that

\Fd

-\-

Wb/a)]

wan.
obvi-

is

Wb/a.

Now

ously

Wb/a
to

is

the pressure on the scale due to

W;

hence

is

that portion of

S due

and w. X can be determined directly as follows: Loosen the screws BB and insert a small roller between the top of pulley and the upper block A, but without shifting C; then read the scale. That reading = X,
for the pressure

on the scale then

=w

Wb/a.

H.-j^f^^-y --V,
t....^x....J

k-b-H

V-'b

-H

Fig. 327

Fig. 328

This consists of four pulleys, A, B, C and D Tatham Dynamometer. Pulleys F, a weighing beam G, and a belt HIJK. E and (Fig. 327), two levers D are and pulleys C dynamometer; of the frame the on A and B are mounted knife on supported are in turn, which, levers the on idlers and are mounted from suspended L and Hnks knife-edge and by frame edges resting on the the from supported is beam weighing the shown; all as the weighing beam,

frame at N.
are vertical,
levers.

The dimensions
and

are such that the straight portions of the belt

and

are vertically below the knife-edge supports of the

A and B extend backwards to connect with machines In all cases, the to be measured is transmitted. energy between which the in I is greater tension the that made so should be machines connections to the machine possible, if and, "slack"); / and /(/"tight" than that in
The
shafts of

whose power

is

When

the
if

dynamometer
the

to be determined should be connected to or be on the shaft of pull on the weighing is in operation, then L and

beam; and,

beam be balanced by

the poise, then the scale-reading gives

the difference in tensions of / and /, or P2

P\ (see Fig. 328).

Let

5 =

the

200
scale-reading,

Chap,

revolutions per unit time of pulley A,

D^

diameter of

the pulley plus thickness of belt,

and

P=

power; then

P=

STrDn.
;

For Sir D is the work done by the belt on A in one turn of A and, hence, the work done per unit time is Sir Dn. Fig. 328 shows the forces acting on the various parts, and makes plain how the poise measures P2 Pi- Thus, from the right-hand lever Qi = Pic/b; from the left-hand lever Q2 = P2c/b; and from the weighing beam Wx = Hence, P2 - Pi = {Wb/ac) x. Now, Wb/ac (Q2 -Qi)a= (P2 - Pi) ac/b. is a constant, and so it is possible to graduate the scale beam (mark values of X on it), so that the readings will give the corresponding values of P2 Pi. (No mention has been made of the weights of the parts. These are counterbalanced by a balancing weight on the scale beam as in an ordinary platform
scale.)

3.

Indicator; Locomotive Power.

To

determine the work done in


is

the cylinder of a steam or gas engine per stroke or per unit time, use
of

made

an instrument called an indicator. The indicator makes a diagram or " card" from which the intensity of the pressure on either side of the piston

at

any point

of a stroke can be read.


original

Fig.

329 represents, in principle, the

form

of indicator as used

by James Watt (1736-1819).


coil

is

a cylinder;

is

a piston working against a

spring

whose upper end

is fixed;

D
is

is

a,

pencil which presses against


left in

the card or paper E;

a frame, movable right and

suitable sHdes, for holding the paper or card.


is

When

the piston

moved the pencil simply makes a vertical line on the card; when the frame is moved the pencil makes a horizontal line.

To

take a diagram the cylinder of the instrument

is

connected

with one end of the cylinder of the engine to be indicated,

and the frame

is

connected to the cross-head of the engine with

suitable reducing device so that the frame gets a motion just like

that of the piston but greatly reduced.


is

When

the instrument

connected up, as just described, then the pencil describes a curve, something

GHIJG, the upper portion GHI being drawn during the forward stroke and the lower portion IJG during the return. The ordinates to the curve from the line of zero pressure K represent pressure per unit area in the
like

cylinder, the scale of ordinates

depending on the

stiffness of the spring of

course.
piston.
Fig.

The
330
is

horizontal width of the diagram represents the stroke of the

a facsimile of an indicator card; the solid curve pertains to one

end

of the cylinder,

and the dotted curve

to the other end;

AB is the line of zero

work done on one side of the piston (per unit area) during the forward stroke, and the area BEFCAB But the first work is represents the work done on it during the return stroke.
pressure.

The

area

ACDEB A

represents the

Art. 42
positive,

2^

piston during both strokes

and the second negative; hence the work done on that side of the is represented by the area enclosed by the curve
Similarly, the area of the dotted

CDEFC.
other
side

curve represents the work done upon the


of

the piston

(per unit area)

during

to-and-fro

stroke.

The mean
effective

heights of these areas represent pressures

per unit area which are called mean


pressures,

^iq. 330

one for the head-end and one for for the headthe crank-end of the cylinder. Let pi = mean effective pressure

area of cross-section of the cylinder, Then A' = area of cross-section of the piston rod, and I = length of stroke. strokes consecutive two during the work done by the steam in the head-end A') I, and the = piAl; that done by the steam in the crank-end = p2 {A
end, p2

that for the crank-end,

A =

total

sum of these expressions. mean effective pressures {pi and P2) for the two ends of cylinder). the cylinder is sometimes called the mean effective pressure (for the of the average = the a area) Let p = this mean effective pressure (per unit
work done
is

the

The average

of the

what amounts to the same thing, the the crossarea of the cross-section of the cylinder minus one-half the area of per unit piston the of strokes = of the number section of the piston rod; n presently, shown be will as Then, = length of stroke, as before. time; and /
areas of the

two

sides of the piston, or

the work done on the piston per double stroke

is 2

pal closely; and, hence, the

work done per

unit time, or the power,

is

F =

plan.

(i)

in feet, If the customary units are used, namely, p in pounds per square inch, / in foot-pounds is P, above, then minute, per a in square inches, and n in strokes

per minute; and

P =

a^^^

horse-powers.

33,000

To

justify 2 pal:

As

already explained, the work done in the cylinder per

double stroke equals

p^^i

_[_

p^

(^1

A')

I.

This can be written as follows:


[{Pi

+ P2)A-P2A']1,
p2 nearly,

or

X
p2

l(Pi -^

P2)

(a

- j-^^A'Y
^ nearly.

Now

pi

and therefore

(pi

P2)

Hence the

work done per double stroke equals approximately


2

I {pi-h P2) {A

-h ^') I

or

2 pal.

= 2 plan. Let 5 = the For a single-expansion, two-cylinder locomotive, " piston speed," the actual distance which a piston describes in its cylinder

per unit time; then

In

and

P =

pas.

(2)

202

Chap, x

With customary units for p, a, and 5 (pounds per square inch, square inches, and feet per minute respectively) the foregoing formula gives P in foot-pounds Since the piston speed and the velocity of the locomotive are per minute. related, it is possible to express the indicated power of a locomotive in terms Thus let v = the velocity of the locomotive, and D= diamof its velocity.
eter of the driving wheels;

then one turn of the drivers means a displacement

of the locomotive equal to irD


its

cylinder equal to 2
s

/.

and a displacement of the piston relative to Hence v/s = xD/2 /, or 5 = (2 l/irD) v. Substitutformula for P, we find that

ing for

in the preceding

4 pal

(3)

where

c?

= diameter

of the cylinder.

(Strictly

the diameter of a circle

whose area equals the area of the cross-section


the area of the cross-section of the piston rod.)
for p, inches for d,
I,

of the

cyUnder minus one-half


the foregoing formula

With pounds per square inch


for
v,

and D, and

feet per

minute

gives

Both formulas for P show that the power of a locomotive is zero at starting, and would increase exactly with the velocity if the mean effective pressure were the same at all speeds. The mean effective pressure depends upon the boiler pressure obviously, and on the cut-olT and piston speed.* The American Locomotive Company

P in foot-pounds per

minute.

has adopted the


100

line

A BCD

(Fig. 331), as

expressing the variation of


80

mean

effective

pressure with change of piston speed, for the manner of running (cut-ofif, etc.) which

60
-o

engine

men

usually employ.

Thus, for

all

;q-4o

speeds up to 250
effective pressure

feet per minute, the


is

mean

?0

taken at 85 per cent of the boiler pressure; at 500 feet per minute, Let it is taken at about 65 per cent, etc.
po

boiler pressure

and

K=

ratio of

mean

effective to boiler pressure,

which

may be

called speed coefficient for convenience; so

that p

= Kpo.

Then

the formula for indicated power of the locomotive can

be written

p _

A^o^^.

(4)

Thus, for a given boiler pressure the power varies as Ks. The line OEFGH (Fig. 331) is a graph of the preceding equation, the maximum value of P being
It appears, then, that for the American Locomotive speed coefficients, the power increases uniformly up to a piston speed of 250 feet per minute, then less rapidly up to a maximum value at about 700 feet per minute, then remains nearly constant up to about 1000 feet per

called 100 per cent.

Company

minute, and then diminishes.


* See Fig. 42 in Goss'

High Pressures
a test

in Locomotive Service,

which shows

clearly

how

the

mean

effective pressure varied in

made by him.

Art. 43

203
43.

Principles of

Work and Energy

I.

Principle of

Work and

of a single particle the forces acting

Kinetic Energy. In any displacement upon it, if any, do more or less work; and,
is

in general, the velocity of the particle


also.

changed, and, hence, the kinetic energy


in the displacement
will

There

is

a simple relation between the total work done upon


all

the particle by and the change

the forces acting upon

it

in the kinetic energy as

we

now show.
be
its

Let

(Fig. 332)

be the particle;

m=
Vi

its its

mass;

OAB

path (not
v^

a plane curve necessarily);


velocity at B;

velocity at A,
all

and

its

R =

the resultant of

the forces acting on P;

and Rt

the component of

along the tangent to the path at P.

Then

the

work done by
is

all

the forces during an elementary dis-

placement ds
gential

Rt

ds.

But Rt
is

= mat = ^ dv/dt,
= m

where a

tan-

component

of the acceleration of P.

the

displacement ds

(dv/dt) ds

Hence the work done on P in (ds/dt) dv = mv dv; and the work

done in the

total displacement

AB

is

mvdv =

^ mvi^

\ mv^.

Now
P.

^ mvz^

is
;

the kinetic energy of the particle at B, and | mvi^

is its

kinetic

energy at
the

hence | mvz^

nivi^ is

the increment in the kinetic energy of

Thus we have the simple relation, in any displacement of a particle, work done by all the forces acting upon it equals the increment in the kinetic energy of the particle. If the total work done is positive then the increment in the kinetic energy is positive also, and there is a real gain and increase in velocity; if the total work done upon the particle is negative, then the increment in the kinetic energy is negative and there is a loss and decrease
in velocity.

Let Pi, P2, P3,

etc.,

be the particles of any body (not

rigid necessarily).

In

any displacement

of the body,

work done by
(<

forces acting
i(
li

a a

<(

upon Pi " p
a
etc.
jj
-f

__

increment in kinetic energy of Pi,


<' '< <<

"

'I

p
n
-13,

II

((

(I

c(

ic

etc.

Adding we get
kinetic energies

total

work done on
total

all

particles

= sum
by

of increments in their

increment in kinetic energy of the system.

displacement of any body the


forces acting

work done upon

it

all the

external

That is, in any and internal

upon

it

equals the increment in the kinetic energy of the body.

In a displacement of a rigid body the total work done by the internal forces
equals zero.

Proof:

Consider any internal force exerted, say, on Pi by P2;


Since the

Pi exerts an equal, opposite, and colinear force on Po.

body

is

rigid

the distance between the points of application {Pi and P2) of these two forces

204

Chap, x

does not change, and hence (Art. 40) the total work done by these two forces But all the internal forces occur in such pairs; hence, the total equals zero.

work done by
the principle,
the

in

all

the internal forces equals zero, as stated.

Thus we have
work done upon

any

displacement of a rigid body the total


it

body by the external forces acting upon

equals the increment in the kinetic

energy of the body.

From

these principles

it

follows that the rate at which

body equals the rate at which it work is done is power; so we may


doing work on a body at any
energy then.

gains kinetic energy.

work is done upon a But the rate at which


it is

state that the combined power of all the forces

instant equals the rate at which

gaining kinetic

The

foregoing principles written out mathematically would take the form:

increment in kinetic energy. Since work is of the form force or space, we may state that the " space-efifect " of force is kinetic distance (The " time-effect" of force is momentum, see Art. 45.) The foreenergy.

work done

going principles are especially well adapted for ascertaining the change in when it is possible to compute the total velocity-square, rather velocity

work done on the body under consideration


takes place.

for the space in

which the change

means we may ascertain also something about the forces or displacement which accompany any given change in the kinetic energy of a body. We illustrate by means of some It is dragged .4 (Fig. 2>2>z) is a body weighing 400 pounds. i. Examples. along a rough horizontal plane B by a force P, inclined as shown; P = 80

By

their

pounds.
^

The

coefficient of friction

is

about i/io.
10 feet?

What

is t)ie

velocity acquired from rest in the

first

In the

first

^'-"f/iii/inii'

20 feet?
sin 20

The normal
all

pressure between

B
Fig. 333

372.6 pounds; hence, the

A and B = 400 80 friction = 37.3 pounds. Now'

we know

the forces acting on

A
by

no work on

the work done

Gravity (400 pounds) does during a displacement of

ID feet

work
yl

in

= (80 cos 20) X 10 = 752 foot-pounds; the reaction of B on A does = 37.3 X 10 = 373 foot-pounds. Hence, the total work done on = y52 373 = 379 foot-pounds; and this is also the amount of the gain Let Vi = the the kinetic energy of A during 10 feet of displacement.
first

velocity (in feet per second) at the end of the

10 feet; then the kinetic


Vi^

energy of

A A

at the end of the


6.21
Vi^

first

10 feet
Vi

pounds.

Hence

379, or

| (400/32.2) ^r = 6.21 Let 7.81 feet per second.

foot-

V2

velocity of
V2^.

at the

end

of the first 20 feet; then the energy of

there

= the = 6.21

Since the work done on


V2^

during the

first

20 feet

758 foot-pounds,

6.21

758, or

V2

ii.o feet per second.

Such a problem can be solved also by first finding the acceleration. Thus, since the resultant force acting on ^ = 80 cos 20 - 37.3 = 37.9 pounds, the
acceleration

37.9

(400/32.2)

time for describing the

^1/3-05

0-328

vi.

= 3.05 feet per second per second. The first 10 feet = the velocity acquired -^ the acceleration The distance = the average velocity X the time; that

Art. 43
is,

205

10

vi

0.328111, or Vi
is

7.81 feet per second as before.

Obviously,

the
2.

first

method

more

direct than the second.

A piece of timber

12"

12"

16' is

suspended by means of two parallel

ropes as shown in position A'B' (Fig. 334).

The

ropes are 10 feet long and

the timber weighs Soo pounds.


position

It is raised into the

AB, two

feet

above A'B', and then allowed


its

to swing.

What
reaches

are
its

kinetic energy

and velocity

when

it

lowest

position?
its

The

forces

acting on the timber during

descent are gravity,

the pulls of the ropes, and air pressure. the


last.

We

neglect

At each instant the


do no work.

pulls are

normal to the

Fig. 334

direction of the displacement of their respective points of application; therefore the pulls

The work done by


Since this
is

gravity during the descent

800

1600 foot-pounds.

the total

work done on the timber,

the kinetic energy of the timber inUts lowest position

Now

the timber has a motion

of translation

no

1600 foot-pounds.

turning

and therefore

at each instant all points of the timber have identical velocities (Art. 35). Hence, ii v = the velocity in the lowest position, then

f (800/32.2)
3.

v~

1600,
its

or

=
=
is

11.35 feet per second.

certain flywheel

and

shaft weigh 400 pounds; the radius of gyration

both with respect to the axis of rotation rotating at 100 revolutions per minute, and
of

10 inches.

The wheel

is

set to

then

left to itself,

under the influence of axle friction and air resistance after Required, the average torque of the resistances. The moment of inertia of
the wheel and shaft, about the axis,

coming to rest making 84 turns.

(400/32.2) (10/12)^

=
tt

8.64 slug-feet^.

The angular
released,

velocity,

100 revolutions per minute,

100/60

10.47

radians per second.

Hence, the kinetic energy of this wheel and shaft, when


10.47'

| 8.64

474 foot-pounds.

Besides the forces mentioned

above, gravity and the normal pressure of the bearings act on the wheel and
shaft,

of the resistances in foot-pounds;

= average torque but these do no work during the stoppage. Let then the work done by them during the
is

stoppage

M 2^84. =
and
its

528

kinetic energy of the wheel; that


4.

M foot-pounds. This equals the gain in the $28 M = 474, or M = 0.90 foot-pounds.
is,

A
A

(Fig, 335) is

a sheave supported on a smooth horizontal shaft.

is

3 feet in diameter,

radius of gyration with respect to the axis of rotation

9 inches.

pounds, respectively.

The weights of A, B, and C are 100, 200, and 300 The system is released and allowed to move

under the influence of gravity and the resistances brought into Required the velocity of the suspended weights when action.
they have
C

moved through
and the

10 feet.

The system moves under

the

action of the following external forces,


air resistance,

gravity,

axle reaction,

Fig. 335

internal reactions between sheave

and rope

and the

fibers of the

rope.

If the

rope

is

quite flexible then the forces

2o6
in
slip

Chap,

the rope do

little

work; this

will
is

be neglected.

If

the rope does not

done by the internal forces. The work done by air resistance is small unless the speeds of the moving bodies get high; The work done by the frictional component of the axle it will be neglected. is the frictional moment which we will assume reaction per turn isil/2 tt, where
is

on the sheave, then no work sheave. Thus, little or no work

done by the reaction between rope and

has been found to be 10 inch-pounds. In the displacement under consideration, ID feet for B and C, the wheel makes 10/3 tt turns. Hence, the total work 2x) (10/3 x) = 66.7 inch-pounds = 5.6 foot-pounds. done by friction = (10

Gravity does no work on A;

1000 foot-pounds.

We

and C its work = 300 X 10 neglect its work on the rope as small.
or\.

200

10

Hence, the

Now 1000 5.6 = 994.4 foot-pounds. of velocity angular the then second; per the required velocity in feet let V of energy kinetic The = per second. 0.6677; radians the wheel =.v-^ 1.5
total

work done on the system

the system equals


-^5
I

300

200

v~-\--

-\-

-I
2

N2

{o.ob'jv)^,

232.2

232.2

where 7

= moment
2.

of inertia of the sheave.

Now
=

(100/32.2)

X
^

(9/12)^
z)^

1.75 slug-feet

Hence, the kinetic energy of the system


is

8.16
v

foot-

pounds.

Thus the work-energy equation


certain pair of car wheels
is

994.4

8.16

v-;

hence

11 feet

per second.
5.

diameter

and their axle weigh 2000 pounds. Their of gyration of wheels and axle is 9 inches. radius the and 33 inches
is

They
ute,

are rolled along a level track until their speed


left

60 revolutions per min-

(Data not from an actual rolling a distance of 1000 feet. When released, the resistance. rolling average the Required, experiment.) = 6.28 radians second = per revolution one wheels the of velocity angular
per second, and the linear velocity of their centers second. Hence, the kinetic energy =
I

and are then coming to rest after

under the influence of the

rolling resistance of the track,

tt

33/12

8.64 feet per

2000

2 32.2

2000 _ 8.64+I (9/12)- X X 2 32.2


,

6.282

30J0 foot-pounds.

This
of

is

also the value of the

work done by the

rolling resistance, air resistance

neglected.

Hence,

the rolling resistance is equivalent to a constant pull-back

3010/1000
2.

3 pounds.

Moving Trains.

We

will

energy to some

train problems.

First,

now apply the principles of work and we briefly consider the forces directly

concerned with the motion of a train consisting of engine, tender, and cars. For convenience we regard the train as consisting of two parts, namely, the
locomotive (engine and tender) and the cars; notation as in Art. 42, 3. For simplicity we regard the locomotive as being driven by Locomotive. an imaginary (forward) force F equivalent to the steam pressures. To be

Art. 43

207

equivalent the work done by

per unit time (or power of F) must equal the

indicated power of the locomotive, or Fv

must equal pd^{l/D)

v;

hence,

F = p dH/D.
This force

F we

will

call

the cylinder efort of the locomotive.

The

resist-

ances to motion experienced by a locomotive running alone on a straight

and
its

level track

may

be put into three groups:

(i)

action as a machine, consisting of

friction in

Those which arise through the working mechanism

(valves and gear, cross-head, piston, crank pins,


(ii)

and journals of driving-wheels)


For convenience we
it

those which arise through

its
;

action as a vehicle, like the resistances exper(iii)

ienced

by the
all

cars (see below)

the air resistance.

may

regard

the resistances in each group lumped, as

were, into a single

resistance acting

backward on the locomotive. We call them machine resistance, vehicle resistance, and frontal resistance, respectively; and we designate them by Rm, Rv, and Rf. The sum of these three is called locomotive Thus, we regard a moving locomotive resistance, and will be denoted by Ri.
as under the action of the following forces (see Fig. 336)
:

gravity, the support-

^
\ \
Fig. 336

^J-^^r

till
{Rm

ing forces of the track (having no components along the rails), the draw-bar
pull T, the locomotive resistance

+ -^w + Rf),
in Fig. 337.

and the cylinder

effort F.

The

actual external forces are

shown

c
y^

nn

11
locomotive
is

t
Fig. 337

tilt
is

If the velocity of the


level,

constant and the track


is

straight

and

then for any run of length


[{p

the work-energy equation

dH/D)

-T - Ri]L = o;

hence

T=

{p

dH/D)

Ri.

2o8
If the velocity is

Chap, x

changing, then the power equation

is

where

velocity of locomotive

and a

its

acceleration.

Hence

T=
If the

ip

dH/D)

- Ri-

Ma.

locomotive

is

running on a grade then the grade resistance Rg must be

included in an obvious way.

According to the American Locomotive


resistances in

Company

{Bulletin,

No. looi), the

pounds are as

follows:

Rf
R^,

= =

0.24 V~, where


22.2

is

velocity in miles per hour;

R =

weight on drivers, in tons; and

the same as for cars (see further on).


force, the pull of the

The Cars. tender on the

The cars are urged forward by only one


first car;

this is called draw-bar pull.

The

cars are retarded

by
of

several forces, namely:

The

rolling resistance of the rails

upon the treads

the car wheels;

ance; and " laws" of these separate resistances are

the journal friction at the axles of the wheels; the air resistThe miscellaneous forces, due to oscillation and concussion.

known only

in a very general

way.

Because of lack of knowledge of these separate items of resistance, and, for convenience, it is customary to " lump" them into a single equivalent resistThus we may imagine trains to be without ance, called train resistance.
actual track, journal,
air,

etc.,

resistance,

but subjected to
train.

this equivalent

force, conceived as a single pull

backward on the

train of cars, then,

may

be regarded as moving under the action of four


pull, the train resistance, gravity,
rails.

forces,

namely, the

draw-bar

and a supporting

force exerted

by

the track, having no components along the

Many
"

experiments

have been made to determine train

resistance, special

dynamometer cars" (equipped with instruments for measuring and recording speed of train, draw-bar pull, steam pressure, wind velocity and direction, The methods for determining etc.) being used for that purpose now-a-days. the locoOne method is this: train resistance are very simple in principle.

motive drags the cars along a straight, level track at a constant speed; the draw-bar pull and the speed are measured. Then the (total) train resistance
for that

speed equals the draw-bar pull. But level stretches of track are not always convenient of access, and constant speeds are not easily maintained. = the ascent or descent of the center of For an experiment on a grade let

gravity of the train during the experiment,

L =

the length of the run,

W=

weight of

cars,

T =

average

Then

the

grade

resistance

draw-bar pull, R = average according is Rg = WH/L,

train resistance.

as

the
is

train

i IS

ascending or descending the grade, and the work-energy equation

{T-Rt-

Rg)

L =

E,

Art. 43

209

where

is

the gain in kinetic energy of the cars during the run, to be regarded
if

as negative

there

is

a loss of kinetic energy.

Hence

Rt

T-Rg- E/L.

This gives average train resistance for the speeds of the run, or, perhaps, the Another method is based train resistance for the average speed of the run.

on the power equation (the rate at which work is done on the cars equals the rate at which they gain kinetic energy); this is

Mv^
dt\2

Mva,

where

M = mass of

cars, v

velocity,

and a

acceleration.

Hence

Rt
If the train is

= T - Rg- Ma.
There
dis-

being retarded then a should be regarded as negative.

are

many

practical difi&culties in carrying out experiments as suggested;


is

cussion of these

not appropriate here.*

Obviously, train resistance depends upon

many

conditions, as state of track


train.

and

rolling-stock,

weather and wind, and velocity of


all

It is practically

impossible to express the influence of


resistance.

these conditions in a formula for train

For a long time a favorite formula was the so-called


Engineering

News

formula,

+ j F,

where

of train in miles per hour.

pounds per ton (weight of cars), and V = velocity Recent experiments have shown very clearly that train resistance (per ton) depends very much on the loading of the cars, being much less for heavily loaded cars than for empties, and not so much on velocity as formerly
r

train resistance in

belie\'ed.

in Bulletin

The American Locomotive Company No. looi states that " The best data
pounds
for 72-ton cars to 6 to 8

available shows that the resistance varies from

about

2.5 to 3

pounds

for 20-ton cars" (see Fig. 338);

and "for

speeds from 5 to 10 up to 30 to 35 miles per hour the resistance is practically constant."

20

40

Schmidt, in the bulletin already mentioned, gives


formulas for train resistance (per ton) for trains
consisting
of

Tons per
Fig. 338

60 Car.

cars of different average weights;

also

the

following as an

approximation

_ V -\where

39.6
-{-

0.031

w
velocity in miles per hour

4.08

0.152
ton,

and

r = train resistance in pounds per w = average weight of cars in tons.


*

V=

See Schmidt's Freight Train Resistance, University of

Illinois Bulletin

No.

43.

2IO
Examples.

Chap.

and tender) weighs 178.5 tons, There are two cyhnders, 23 inches (diameter) X 32 inches (stroke); the drivers are 63 inches in diameter; and boiler pressure Required the maximum draw-bar pull which is 200 pounds per square inch.
i.

A certain locomotive (engine

106 tons on the drivers.

this

locomotive can exert on a level track at 20 miles per hour.

The

cylinder

effort is

KpodH/D = {K

200

232

X 32)
=

-^ 63

if 53,800 pounds.

Now
-^
(it

the piston speed s

2 vl/ir

(see preceding article)

(2

20

32)

63)

6.465

miles

per

coefficient (see Fig. 331) is

569 feet per minute. The speed about 0.60; hence the cylinder effort is 0.60

hour

53,800

32,300 pounds.

The
22.2

frontal resistance

0.24

20'

96 pounds;

the machine resistance


is

106

about 4 pounds per ton or 4 locomotive resistance is about 2740 pounds, and the

2350 pounds; the vehicle resistance Hence, the total (178.5 106) = 290.

maximum

draw-bar pull

32,300
2.

2740

29,560 pounds about.

A freight train consists of 30 cars,


is
is

average weight with load being 60 tons.

What

the " resistance" of this train at 20 miles per hour?

According to

about 3.5 pounds per ton or 6300 pounds P. R. R. (Fig. 338), the resistance about it is total; according to C. B. & Q., 2.5 pounds per ton or 4500 pounds formula, it is about 4.4 pounds per ton or Schmidt's According to total.
7920 pounds total. 3. The locomotive (example
i) pulls

the train (example 2) along a straight

Required to show graphically how the cylinder effort and the various track. resistances vary with the velocity, assuming laws of resistances, etc., as in
the preceding examples. the piston speed 5

As

in

example

the cylinder effort

F=
is

iiT

53,800;

2 vI/ttD

28.45 ^ ^^^t per minute where v

velocity of

locomotive in miles per hour.


V

Thus we have

fiRT.

44

211

velocity for the range from 5 to 35 miles per hour.

This plotted gives

line

number 3. The ordinate between

lines

and

3 at

any velocity represents the net or


Thus, at

resultant driving or accelerating force on the train at that velocity.

20 miles per hour that ordinate scales about 23,500 pounds.


Lbs.

50 000

40 000
30 000

20 000

roooo

212
is

Chap.x

a machine does not convert or transmit the entire input. The difiference between output and input, for the same interval of time of course, is called By efficiency, in this connection, is meant the ratio lost energy or loss simply.
of

output to input; that

is if e

efficiency,
-i-

then

output

input.

are designed for a definite rate of working or for a certain load Then we speak of the efficiency of a machine at full load, called its full load. half-load, quarter over-load, etc., these efficiencies being different generally.

Most machines

The two
of the

following tables are given to furnish

some notion

of the efiiciencies

more common

machines.*

Full-load Efficiency of

Efficiency of Some Machine Elements*


P'^'"

Hydraulic turbines impulse wheels

Per cent

cent

60-85 75-85
50-75 5-20 5-20

Common Common

bearing, singly bearmg, long Imes of shaftmg. Roller bearings

96-98
.

95

Steam

boilers

engines turbines

Gas and
Electric

oil

engines

16-30 80-92 75-90 50-95

Ballbearings .. .. Spur gear cast teeth, mcludmg beanngs. Spear gear cut teeth, including bearings. Bevel gear cast teeth, including bearings. Bevel gear cut teeth, including bearings.
.
.

9^ 99
93

96 92 95

dynamos
motors
transformers.
*
. . .

Belting Pin-connected chains, as used on bicycles. High-grade transmission chains

96-98 95-97 97-99

From Kimball and

Barr's Elements of Machine Design.


etc.,

The
to B,

efficiency of a

combination of machines. A, B, C,

transmitting

B
=

toC,

etc., is

the product of the efficiencies of the individual machines.

For, let

61, 2, ez,

etc.

the efficiencies of the separate machines

A,B,C,

etc.,

and
of

^ =

the efficiency of the group. Then if exE = the input for B; the output oi

= the input for A, the output B = CieiE = the input for C;


Hence, the output
of the
.
. .

the output of
last

C =
-^

eze^eiE

the input for D; etc.


first

machine

the input of the


e

{eie^ez

)E

-^

E =

exe^ez

or

e\' ei' ez

For example, if a dynamo is run by a steam engine, then the efficiency of the combination or set = the product of their separate efficiencies, say 0.20 X
0.90

0.18 or 18 per cent.

There are certain rather simple apHoisting Appliances, Etc. can overcome a relatively large force given a pHances by means of which
2.

resistance;

example, the lever, the wedge, the screw, the pulley, etc. Such an appliance is generally operated by means of a single force, which we
as, for
*

in the first table were taken;

most values For detailed information see IMead's Water Power Engineering, from which Gebhardt's Steam Power Plant Engineering; and Franklin and

Esty's Elements of Electrical Engineering.

Art. 44
call

^'3

driving force
is

and denote by F;
is

it is

called effort also.


call resisting force

the appliance
or

desired to overcome

we

The force which and denote by R,


In

when

the force

a weight, by t^;

it is

called resistance also.

many

appliances (hereafter called

"common

") all equal displacements of the point

of application of the driving force result in equal displacements of the point of application of the resisting force;

and generally these displacements

re-

spectively take place along the lines of action of the driving and resisting These displacements, or their components along the lines of action forces.
of the forces respectively
will
if

the displacements are inclined to the forces,

we

denote by a and b respectively.

In a common appliance, the work done by the driving force and (by the appUance) against the resisting force are respectively Fa and Rb; hence the
efficiency
is

given

by

e^ Rb^
Let Fo
if

Fa.

(i)

the machine were frictionless; then Foa


is

the effort which would be required to overcome the resistance R = Rb. Substituting in (i) we find

that efficiency

given also by
e

= Fo-^F.
if

(i')

Let Ro
less;

the resistance

which

could overcome

the machine were frictionis

then

Fa =

Rob.

Substituting in (i)
e

we

find that efficiency

given
(i

also

by

= R-^Re.
discussion can be operated

Most

of the appliances

now under

backward

as

For example, the lever, the wedge, the screw, etc., can be heavy body as well as to raise it. Some of these appliances, which can be run either way, will run backward without direct assistance when loaded; that is the load will overcome the internal friction. Such Some will not run backward unassisted; appliances are said to overhaul. Such appUances are that is the load cannot overcome the internal friction.
well as directly.

used to lower a

said to self-lock.
(direct) *

An
is

efficiency

appliance will overhaul or self-lock according as its greater or less than one-half, if the works done in

overcoming
sistance, a

friction in a

forward and in an equal backward motion are equal


before, let

(usual case).

Proof:
b

As
if

F =

the effort,

and
w.

corresponding displacements of
friction, all in

R = the (useful) F and R, and w =

re-

the

work done against

Fa = Rb
half,

-\-

Now

the efficiency (forward motion)

forward motion of the appliance. Then is greater than one-

then more than one-half of the work Fa is expended usefully (against friction in is Rb is greater than w, and hence R could overcome the backward motion. If the efficiency (forward motion) is less than one-half.

R)

that

* When a machine is run backwards it is said to have reversed efficiency, by (considerable) In such case the load (on the hoist, for example) extension of the definition of efficiency. In case the machine resistance. is the effort, and the applied force is regarded as the useful considerable stretch selflocks so that the applied force (P say) must assist the load, then by P is regarded as the useful resistance; the computed (reversed) efficiency imagination

of
is

negative.

214
then
less

Chap, x
one-half the

work Fa

is

done against R; that


is is

is

Rh

is less

than w,

and hence

could not overcome friction unassisted in backward motion.

By
speed.

mechanical advantage of an appliance

meant the
is

ratio of the resisting

to the driving force

when

the appliance
(i),

operating steadily, at constant

Thus, see equation

mechanical advantage

given by
(2)

R/F =
work; that

a/b
loss or

Obviously the value of the ratio a/h does not depend on the

wasted

is, it is independent of the efficiency. (The ratio depends solely on the geometrical proportions of the appliance.)* Hence we may assume e = I and write a/b = R'/F' where R'/F' means the mechanical advantage of the appUance if it were without friction. Finally,

R/F =
or,

R'/F'

(2')

(mechanical advantage)

(efficiency c)

(mechanical advantage at

=1).

In some appliances or mechanisms the driving and (useful) resisting forces

{F and R) are applied at a wheel (pulley, gear,


in the discussion to deal with the torques, or

etc.),

and

it is

more convenient

moments

shaft axes respectively, than with the forces.


torques, of the driving

about the Let Ti and T2 denote those


of the forces

and

resisting forces respectively,

and a and

/5

corre-

sponding angular displacements, in radians, of the wheels to which Ti and T2 are applied. The works done by the force F and against R during the displacements a and
/3

are Tia

and

T^^.

Hence, the efficiency


ea/^.
a/jS

is e

T-S/Txa,

and
Ts/ri

(3)

Reasoning as

in the preceding

paragraph we conclude that

= T2/T1 =
i.

where

T2 /Ti

means the
if

ratio of the resisting torque to the driv-

ing torque

the appliance were frictionless, e

Hence
(3')

T,/T,

e T^'/T,'.

We may
result

call

the ratio of the resisting and driving torques,

the mechanical advantage of torque;

then the foregoing

may

be stated as follows:

(mechanical advantage of torque)


chanical advantage of torque at
e

= (efficiency = i).
is r,

e)

(me-

Examples.
h,

is

i.

The

pitch of the screw-jack (Fig. 340)


the efficiency of the jack

is

the

mean
is
/.

radius of the screw thread

the length of

the lever

What
shown

is

when

it is

overcoming
*

(raising) IF?

It

in Art. 20 that the force required at


is

the end of the lever to start the screw

==^

(r/l)

tan (^

+ a),

where

When

the displacements a and b are not inclined to the forces

F and R

respectively,

then the ratio a/b is sometimes called the velocity ratio of the appliance, for the velocities Thus we have for such cases of the points of apphcation of F and R are as a to b.

mechanical advantage

efficiency

velocity ratio.

High mechanical advantage requires high velocity adage "what is gained in force is lost in velocity."

ratio, b small

compared to a; thus the

Art. 44
is

215

(f)

the angle of static friction and

is

the pitch angle, tan~^


is

{h/2

irr).

Hence the
expression

force required to raise the load


if

W uniformly

given by the same

is

Let

it

be so understood in

taken to denote the angle of kinetic friction (see Art. 45). what follows. If the screw were frictionless then

the force required would be Po


e

(r/l)

tan a; and hence the efficiency

is

=
2.

tan

-^

tan

((^

a).

Fig. 341 represents a

double purchase crab, for hoisting.

Hand

cranks

can be applied on the ends of the shaft


the drum.

or

C
drum

The
is

hoisting rope winds on

The crank
gears

is

18 inches long;

the

10 and the rope f inches

in diameter;

A' and

are 20

and B' and


is

are 4 inches in diameter.

Required the mechanical

advantage
on C.

of

the appliance

when a crank
to 5
;

used

Evidently, angular displacements of gears


i

'

and B' respectively are as


displacements of gears
turn of A',

also the angular

and C.

Hence, for one

turn of A',

C makes 5 X 5 == 25 turns. For one b = 10.75 tt, ^.nd a (the corresponding


Fig. 341

displacement of the point of application of the


effort)
is

= 36X X
83.8

25

900 TT.

Therefore, the velocity ratio of the appliance

83.8.

If the efficiency is

So per cent say, the mechanical advantage


(2).
(2')

is

0.80

67.

See equation

This result could be obtained from equation


effort

as follows:

Let P'
^-I'

=
B',

at the crank handle, T'

tooth pressure between gears

and
T',

T=

tooth

pressure between gears


* Fig.

B
342

and C,

6'

obliquity *

of

represents

parts of two gears Oi and O2.


ofi

Imagine the tops of the teeth cut


hollows
filled in

so that the toothed wheels

and the remaining become friction

wheels, transmitting

power by

friction (developed

by

press-

ing the wheels together).

Evidently the diameters of these

(imaginar\') friction wheels could be chosen so that the ratio


i

of the angular velocities of the wheels

would be equal to

that of the gears.

The

intersections of the faces of such

wheels, of the particular diameters mentioned,

and

plane

perpendicular to the shafts are the "pitch circles" of the


gears.

The common

point of the two pitch circles

is

the

"pitch point."
locities of

To

insure constant ratio of angular vein

two gears

mesh, the form of the teeth must


(For proof,

be such that the normal to the surfaces of two teeth where

they touch passes through the pitch point.


see

The angle beany standard book on Mechanism.) tween this normal and the common tangent of the pitch In some gears circles is called " obliquity " of the normal.
this

obliquity
it

remains constant, as the gears turn; in


In the figure,
is

others,

varies.

the pitch point,

OT

Fig. 342

the

common

tangent to the pitch


,

circles,

AO

the normal

for the teeth touching at

A and BO
by
0'

the normal for the


d".

teeth touching at B; the obliquity of these normals are denoted


If the teeth

and

were

frictionless, the pressure

between two teeth

(in contact)

would act along

2l6
obliquity of

Chap, x

T,

and R'

resistance,

appliance
shafts
it is

is

frictionless, or e

i.

all on the supposition that the Then, considering torques on the three

plain that

P'

i8

r
3.

locos^'

= r X 2 cos ^, r X = R' X 5.375;

lo cos ^

r'

cos

6',

and from these it Hence the is 83.8.


Fig. 343

follows that R'/P', the mechanical advantage at e


(true)

mechanical advantage

is,

as before, 83.8

0.80

= i, = 67.
is

shows the operating mechanism


/Tower posf of fixed span
Truss of

for a lift-bridge,

but there

liff

span
'^0

Equalizing sinaff
ffack

gearing at

opposite

end of span

Socket for., capstan

T-.'

iL-A
^ ^TZc^f^FTi^ IThfi
r^

s^

IT

z.

Truss of
|<-

lift

span

'\

Liff

span

''Tower post of fixed span


Fig. 343

Let TV denote the the normal, at the contact pohit, and hence through the pitch point. resultant of all the pressures on the frictionless teeth of either gear; obviously iV passes
let

through 0. Imagine iV resolved at O into components along and perf)endicular to OT, and Then the (frictionless) torques exerted by the driving t denote the first component. and driven gears on each other are respectively

iVt I dx

and

A"t \

d-i,

(i)

where

d\

and

dt are the diameters of the pitch circles of the gears respectively.


friction,

On

account of the tooth

each tooth pressure


<^

is

inclined to the normal at the

contact,

by an amount equal

to the angle of friction

(see Art. 45).

At two

teeth which are

approaching, the pair touching at A, the directions of the frictional forces are such that., At two teeth which are receding, 4>. the obliquity (to OT) of the tooth pressure R' is Q'

the pair touching at B, the directions of the frictions are such that the obliquity (to OT) of In either case, the Hne of action of the tooth pressure <^. the tooth pressure R" is B"

cuts the line joining the centers of the gears between the pitch point
of the driven gear.

O and

the center O2

It follows that the line of action of the resultant of all the tooth pres-

and O2. on either gear cuts the line O1O2 in a point C between Let .V denote the distance from C to 0, R the mentioned resultant, and Rt the component of R parallel to OT. Then the torque exerted by the driving and the driven gears on each other are respectively
sures

Rtildi-x)
If e' is
did-2

and

Rtihdi+x).

the efficiency of the gears alone, shafts frictionless, then


(i
2

e'))

approximately.

(2)

di

-\-

d2

For, let Ti be a torque applied to drive the driving gear, and Tj a resisting torque applied to

the driven gear; then


e'

Tsrfi

T,d2,
(2).

Ti

= Rt

ih di

+ x),

T-i

= Rt

{h d.

x).

These three equations yield

Art. 44

217

mechanism on the other end of the Hft span not shown. All mechanism rests on and moves with the lift span. There are fixed tower posts adjacent to the lift span as shown, and on these posts there are fixed
a duplicate
this

vertical racks

The pinions
is

are driven

which engage spur pinions GG of the operating mechanism. by the motors or hand capstans, and thus the Hft span

raised or lowered.

The intermediate
number

drive consists of:


of teeth,
18,

a motor pinion
cross shaft gear

A B
CC

diameter,

14 inches

126

36.00
10 .00

cross shaft bevel pinions

20

counter shaft bevel gears DD counter shaft spur pinions EE operating shaft spur gear FF operating shaft pinion GG bevel pinion on hand operator A' bevel gear on hand operator B'

60
15

30.00
8.36
29 .00
11 -94

52 15

16 24
is

12.72

19.08

The

lift

span

is

accurately counterweighted so that no work

done against

gravity either in raising or lowering; but vertical pressure must be developed

between the racks and the pinions G to overcome the (internal) friction in the counter weight mechanism. It is estimated that a vertical pressure of 5000

pounds

is

required at each pinion for lifting the bridge.


is

How

great a driving

torque, at each motor,

required to develop this pressure at each pinion G?

We

will first neglect losses in

mechanism.

Let

T/ be

the driving torque

at the motor and T2' the resisting torque at the pinion G.

Then

the

torque to the cross shaft


torque to the counter shaft

and

torque to the operating shaft

= = =

T/ -j%^-,
tI

Ti ~\%^ |,
Ti' VV' In

36.9 T/.

But 36.9 r/
per cent.
pinion

T2',

or T2 jTi

36.9.

We

take the efficiencies of the gears

to be as follows:

A and
X
0.92

Then
is

5, 96 per cent; C and D, 92 per cent; E and F, 96 the efficiency of the transmission from the motor to the

0.96

0.96

0.85, or 85 per cent.


is

Hence the

ratio of

the actual driving and resisting torques


lever

T^lT^

0.85

arm

of the vertical pressure of the rack against the

= pinion G
36.9

31.4.
is

The

5.97

a;

(see footnote
is infinite,

on page 216).
(2)

Since di (diameter of the pitch circle of the rack)


is

equation

as written

not usable;

it

can be written

which, since d\l di ~ 1 di % _


2

=
(i

in the present
e')

problem, becomes
(i

11.94

0.98, say)
is

0.12 inches.

Therefore, the actual resisting torque on the pinion

5000

6.09

30,450 inch-pounds

2537 foot-pounds.

Hence Ti
is

= 2537 -^ 31.4 160 foot-pounds.

80 foot-pounds, and the required motor torque

2l8

Chap, x

-^

Art. 44

219
fixed pulley (Fig. 345),
for example,
is

Tackle. When a
ing,

used for

lift-

P=

KW or W/P =
(i

i/K;

for lowering,

W=

KP,

or

P/IV = i/K.

When

a movable pulley (Fig. 346)

W/P =

is used for lifting, IF = P + T = P + P/K, or = P -\- S = P -\- KP, or W/P = i + A'. K)/K; for lowering, In a similar way we can determine the mechanical advantage of any com-

bination of pulleys in terms of K.

sented in Fig. 347.

For example, consider the tackle repreThere are two separate pulleys in each block A and

''/(//////////{

^i

-'//(///////////^
i,

Fig. 345

Fig. 346

B.

The

pulleys in a block are generally alike in size but are here represented

unlike for clearness.

Let

P=

the applied pull

and

W=

load. Pi, P2, P?.


is

and P4

the tensions as indicated in Fig. 348.

When

the tackle

used for

lifting. Pi = P/K, P2 = Pi/K = P/K\ = P3/K P/K\ And since PF = Pi -^ P2 +

P3
P3

= PoJK = P/X^ and

P4

+ P4,

we have

also

P
or

P
K^

W/P =
When
Pi
the tackle (Fig. 347)

(A'3 -f
is

+ A' -f

i)/A4.

used to lower the load,

A"P, P2

/CPi

K^P, Pz

= KP^ -

A^P, Pi

= KPi =

A'4P.

-/////////////////////.

-//////////////////

w//'/jum>

w////(////M.

Uw

jw

W
Fig. 347 Fig. 348

And
or

since

TF
TF

Pi -f P2

+ P3 + P4,
-j-

we have

= AP + A^P +

A''P

A^P = P (A
-F

A^

-f

K^

-\-

K^)

W/P = A (i

A+

A2

A^).

220
Special {Chain) Hoists.

Chap, x

Fig.

The upper block

contains two pulleys differing sUghtly in diameter;

349 represents a Weston differential hoist. they are


contains only one pulley.
fit;

fastened together.

The lower block

The

pulley

grooves have pockets into which The chain of the chain is prevented.

the links of the chain


is

thus slipping
If

endless

and

is

reeved as shown.

there were no lost work, then the tension in each portion of the chain to block

would equal one-half the load


figure.

(Fig. 350),

be as indicated in the
of the pin in block

Now if R

and the pulls on the block A would and r = the distances from the center

to the axis of the chain as indicated then

moments about

the axis of the pin give

PoR

h ^Vr

WR,

or

Pq

RliR

r)\

the ratio, HV^o = 2R/{R r) may be made very large by making The mechanical advantage is

r small.

IF

W
Po

P
where

R-r'

P =

the actual force required to raise


of various capacities

W
=

and

efficiency.

These

hoists are

made

up to

3 tons;

their efficiencies are

relatively low,
lists.

from about 25 to 40 per cent according to the manufactiu-ers' In the so-called Duplex and Triplex hoists the upper blocks are screw-

geared and spur-geared respectively.


hoists varies

At

full

load the efficiency of these

from about 30 to 40 and from 70 to 80 per cent. We will now show how to apply some of the preceding prinExample. ciples and formulas in a computation relating to the operating machinery of the vertical lift bridge represented in Figs. 351 and 352. The Hft span when down in place rests on two piers. When up it is balanced by two counterweights as shown. Each counterweight is suspended by means of two pairs

of one-inch cable;

each pair of cables extends upwards from the counterweight,

over a sheave and downward to a point of attachment on the lift span. At each corner of the lift span there is a spirally grooved drum carrying two onehalf-inch cables.

Each
is

cable has one end attached to

its

drum; the other end

of the up-haul cable

attached to a point vertically above at the top of the


is

tower, and the other end of the down-haul cable

similarly attached at the

base of the tower.

As the drum is revolved, one cable is wound upon it and the other is paid out. The tw^o drums at either end of the span are mounted upon a single cross-shaft A, which carries a bevel gear B. The gears BB mesh with bevel pinions DD mounted on the longitudinal shaft C which also carries
a bevel gear E.

meshes with a bevel pinion F on a vertical shaft which This capstan head takes a horizontal lever by means To lift the bridge he rotates the of which a man operates the mechanism. capstan headed shaft in the proper direction and drives the drums; they wind

carries a capstan head.

the up-haul cable upon themselves and pay out the down-haul cable as already'
described.

This winding up necessitates upward motion of the bridge.

Art. 44

221
length of the lever (radius of circle in which the

The

man

walks as he oper-

ates) is 6 feet.

The

pinions

F and

D are alike;
E

each

is

6.86 inches in diameter

and has

21 teeth.

The

bevel wheels

inches in diameter and has 53 teeth. lift span 54 inches, and the sheave shafts are 3^ inches in diameter. The amount. one-half that weighs weighs 68,000 pounds and each counterweight

and B are also alike; each is 16.87 The drums are 18 inches, the sheaves

Thus the span would be perfectly balanced, if the mechanism were frictionless and the cables without stiffness and weight, and no effort would be required
to operate the bridge.

Ouf/m_e_ ofUft^ ^PPJl^

Drurriia

Drum

Tower
Brat

1-^
[A
Drum%\
Diagram
of Operating

Sheave^

Drum
Machinery.

Counterweight-

4-"Sheave

Court terweiqht

7777777rr777777mTmmr,

Side

Elevation.
Fig. 351

Cross

Section.

Fig. 352

In the following computation the weight of cables is neglected. Then the tension in each counterweight cable on the counterweight side of the sheaves When the span is being is one-fourth of 34,000 pounds or 8500 pounds. sheave is less than 8500 of the side following or other on the lifted, the tension
pounds.
Call that tension T\

then
or

8500

= KT,

r=

8500

-^

222
(see

Chap, x

under " pulley" above). We will take K == 1.06; then and hence the hft on the span due to counterweights = 8
pounds.

T =

8020 pounds,

8020

64,160

This leaves 68,000


b

64,160

3840 pounds to be furnished by the


effort

four up-haul cables, or 960 pounds apiece.

Let a and
at the

respectively

hand

lever

and the

resistance 960

any corresponding displacements of the pounds at each drum; then

3.43

21

18

Hence,

if

the mechanism were frictionless the effort Pq required to produce

960 H- 50 = 19.2 pounds; and the effort P by means of the actual mechanism = 19.2 -^ e, where e = the efi&ciency of that part of the mechanism which transmits from P to the resistance 960 pounds. The efficiency of each pair of gears and necessary bearings we take as 0.95; the efficiency of a drum about i -h 1.03 =
960 pounds tension in one rope
required to produce that tension
0.97; hence e

= 0.95 0.95 0.97 = 0.875. Therefore P = 19.2 -^ 0.875 == 22 pounds, and the effort (at the lever) required to develop a tension of 960

pounds at the four driuns = 4 X 22 = 88 pounds. The computation can also be made as follows: We regard the total force Q exerted at the hand lever and the force of gravity on the counterweights as two efforts which overcome the (useful) resistance (gravity on the lift span) and the wasteful resistances in the entire mechanism. For any rise b of the

lift-span the
effort
I

counterweights descend an equal distance and the hand-lever


b;

-^

works through a distance 50 1.06 = 0.944, we have


2

and

since the efficiency of a sheave

QX SobX 0.875 -f X 34,000 XbX 0.944


45.

I.

-=

68,000

6,

or

(J

87 pounds.

Kinetic Friction
of

Kinetic Friction, or Friction

Motion,

is

the friction between two

bodies
bodies

when
is

sliding actually occurs.

The

coefficient of kinetic friction for

two

the ratio of the kinetic friction to the corresponding normal pressure

between them.
kinetic friction).
coefficient is less

The

angle of kinetic friction

is

the angle between the normal

pressure and the total pressure (resultant of the normal pressure and the

One

of the so-called laws of friction states that the kinetic


static coefficient (Art. 19),

than the

a sudden or abrupt change in the values of the coefficients.

Jenkin and Ewing* on the kinetic coefficients

and implies that there is Experiments by at speeds as low as 0.0002 foot


is

per second (about f foot per hour) lead them to conclude that "it

highly

probable that the kinetic coefficient gradually increases when the velocity becomes extremely small, so as to pass without discontinuity into the static
coefficient."

Experiments by Kimballf also indicate that there


* Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1877, Vol. 167, Part 2.

is

no abrupt

Am.

Jour. Set., 1877, Vol. 13, p. 353.

Art. 45

223
static

change from

to kinetic coefficient.

Moreover, they show that the


static.

kinetic coefficient

may

be greater than the

Galton and Westinghouse

experiments* indicate that the coefficient for dry surfaces probably decreases progressively from the value of the static coefficient as the velocity increases.

See the following table of


Coefficients of Friction at Various Speeds
Cast-iron Brake Shoes on Steel-tired Wheels
Velocity

24
Coefficients of Friction
*

Chap, x

Various Brake-shoe Materials on Steel-tired Wheels


Velocity, miles per hour
Pressure,

Materials

pounds per square inch


15

Lubrication

Cast iron. Cast iron.

lO

40
10

43 36

0.37
30

Oak Oak
Poplar.
. .

60
43

55

40
.

40
72

10

Poplar Cast iron.


.
.

40
20 32

Cast iron.

Oak Oak
Poplar. Poplar.
. . . .

80 40 120 40
120

30 037 073
041

53 28 26

070

032 055 038 053

none none none none none none water water water water water water

From Experiments by Ernest

Wilson, Engr. News, 1909, Vol. 62, p. 736.

Coefficients of Kinetic Friction (Rough Averages)

Compiled by Rankine from Experiments by Morin and others

Wood on wood, dry


.

soapy Metals on oak, dry wet soapy Metals on elm, dry. Hemp on oak, dry.
.
.

wet.

Art. 45

225
this resistance

moment of take dA =

about the axis of the shaft

iJ.(W/irR^)dA-p.

We

pdd-dp; then the total resisting

moment =

Jo

r Tm w
Jo

-iddp'^dp

pW-R.
3

Thus the actual resistance may be regarded as a single force = pW with an arm ^R; and, for example, the work done against friction per revolution or the power lost may be computed simply on that basis. Thus the work done per revolution = | irpWR, and the power lost = | irpWRn where n = number
of revolutions per unit time.
(ii)

In a similar

way we might determine

the resisting (frictional)


find the

moment

in

a collar bearing pivot (Fig. 354).

We

would

moment

to be

1pW{R^-r^)-^ {R^-r^).
Hence we may regard the
f {R^

resistance as a single force

= pW

with an arm

r')

(i?2

r'~).

Fig. 353

Fig. 354

Fig. 355

Fig. 356

(iii)

friction too, is increased

In the conical pivot (Fig. 355), the total normal pressure, and hence the by wedge action. Let p = the intensity of normal

pressure at any point of the contact, regarded as constant.


pressure on an elementary area

Then the normal


all

dA = pdA

Since the friction has no vertical

component, the vertical component of the normal pressures on


tary areas

the elemen-

= W;

that

is,

pdA

sina

W = pA sin a, or p = A W sin a

But A sin a = the horizontal projection of the actual surface of contact. Hence the intensity of the normal pressure is independent of a, the pivot angle. For Fig. 355, p = W/tR-; hence the normal pressure on the elementary area dA is {W/irR-)dA and the frictional resistance = p(W/TrR^)dA. The moment of this resistance about the axis of the shaft = p{W/TR^)dA-p, and the entire resisting moment = the integral of this expression. For simplicity in integration, imagine dA to be of such shape that its horizontal projection equals pdd-dp (see Fig. 355). Then sin a-dA = pdd-dp, and the
resisting

moment =
7r

pL ^^pWddp^dp^

Jr2

pW
sin

Jo

irR^ sin

a 3

'-R.

226

Chap, x
resistance as a single force

Hence we may regard the


^

p.W/sm a with an arm

R
(iv)

In a similar

way we may compute

the resisting (frictional)

moment

in the case of a frustrated conical pivot (Fig. 356).

We

would

find that the

resisting

moment =
IjW
sin
2

R^
i?"

a3

r^

r^

Hence we may regard the


I (R^

friction as a single force

= nW/sin a

with an arm

f^)/{R^

r^).

Journal Friction.

We do not attempt to compute the normal pressure and


each point of a journal bearing and then the resisting So-called coefficients of journal friction have
friction.

frictional resistance at

moment
is

as in the case of pivots.

been determined from direct experiments on journal

This coefficient

the ratio of the frictional resistance to the pressure between journal and the Thus in a certain experiment there were 20 babbitt bearings susbearing.
taining a 2yV-inch shaft; the load per bearing

was 2,000 pounds, and it was found

24 watts were required to run the shaft at 350 revolutions per minute. Since 11 24 watts = All the power was used to overcome the journal friction. 49,600 foot-pounds per minute and 350 revolutions per minute corresponds to

that

11

a (shaft) surface velocity of 223 feet per minute, the total frictional resistance = 49,600 -T- 223 = 222 pounds or I I.I pounds per bearing. Hence the coefficient
of journal friction in this particular instance

was

ii.i
is

2000

0.0055.

The

pressure between a journal and

its

bearing

not uniformly distributed

over the surface of contact.


for brevity)
is

By nominal

intensity of pressure ("pressure"

meant the whole pressure divided by the product of the length and diameter of the bearing. Thus in the experiment just mentioned, the length of each bearing was 9!^ inches; hence the nominal intensity was 2000 (2tV X 9i) = 90 pounds per square inch. It has been found from numerous experiments that coefiicients of journal friction depend on (i) the method of lubrication, (ii) the lubricant, (iii) its temperature, (iv) the velocity of rubbing, and (v) intensity of pressure on the
bearing.

Tower* and Goodmanf report the following relative showing effect of the method of applying the lubricant:
(i)

coefficients as

Method

Tower

Goodman

Bath
Saturated pad Ordinary pad Siphon

.00

.00

6.48 7.06

1.32 2.21

4.20

* Proc. Inst.

Mech. Engrs., 1883.


to

t Mechanics Applied

Engineering, 1896.

Art. 45
(ii)

227
following table (according to Tower) indicates

The

how

the coefficient

depends on the lubricant.


sperm

Numbers

are relative.

oil

227a
pressure.
follows:

Chap, x

The

lubrication

was forced; journal and bearing combinations as

Number
Journal Bearing.

II

steel

nickel steel

III nickel steel

IV
nickel steel

V
wrought iron white metal

white metal white metal

bronze

The heavy

each figure represents the average law for the five combinations, and the other two curves relate to the two combinations departing most
line in
result.

from the average


0.015

^ g

0.010

it a. 0.005

Art. 45

22711^

Tests to determine the coefficients of friction for ball, flexible roller, and babbitt bearings for line shafts have been made at the University of WisconThe diameter of the shaft was 2^^ inches, the speed 150 to 450 revolusin.
tions per minute, the load 700 to 2250

pounds per bearing, (33 to 100 pounds

per square inch for the babbitt bearings); the extreme (natural) variation of the temperature of the lubricants was from 65 to no degrees Fahrenheit. For absolute values of the coefficients for the various conditions named, see
report of the tests.*

The

relative value of the coefficients for four condi-

tions are given in the following table

RELATIVE VALUES OF COEFFICIENTS OF JOURNAL FRICTION, AT LOAD OF ABOUT 1200 POUNDS PER BEARING.
Peripheral Speed
100 ft/min.
77 deg.

300 ft/min.
77 deg.

Lubricant Temperature.

100 deg.

100 deg.

BaH bearings. F]exible roller.


Babbitt
*

2-5

3-6

2.7 4 5

Thomas, Maurer, and Kelso, Jour. Am.

Soc.

Mech. Engrs.

for

March, 1914.

CHAPTER XI
MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE*
46.
I.

Linear

Momentum and

Impulse
of a

(Linear)

Momentum.
mass and

By momentum
We
thus,

moving

particle is

meant

the product of its


tion,

velocity.

namely, that of velocity;

momentum as having direcmomentum is a vector quantity. By


regard

momentum

of a collection of particles is

meant the vector-sum of the momentums of the particles. For example, let m' and m" = the masses of two particles (Fig. 362), v' and v" = the velocities of the particles at a certain instant, and suppose that AB = m'v' and BC = m"v" according to some
convenient
scale;

then'

AC

represents

the

two particles. Since the component of the vector AC along any line equals the algebraic sum of the components of the vectors AB and BC along that line, it follows that the component of the momentum of a pair of particles along any line equals the algebraic sum of the components of their momentums along that Obviously, this proposition can be extended to a collection of any number line.
of the

momentum

of particles. follows:

simple expression for this component can be arrived at as

velocities;
X.

m' ", etc. = the masses of the particles; v' v", etc. = their and v'^, -a" x, etc. = the components of these velocities along any Une Then the component of the momentum of the collection along this line =
Let m',

m"

^'^'^

_|_

yn"v"x

+
/,

Now
.

if

x' , x",

etc.

the x coordinates of the


all

moving

particles,

and x

the x coordinate of the mass-center,


. .

at the

same

instant, then m'x'

+ m"x" +
we

= xHm

(Art. 34);
.
. .

and

differentiating

with respect to

get m'dx'/dt

-\-

ni"dx"/dt

-|-

{dx/dt)llm, or

m'v'^

+ m"v"x

+....=

VjJZm
is,

Mvx,

where

M = 2m =

the mass of the collection.

That

the x component of the

momentum

product of the mass of the Hence, collection and the x component of the velocity of the mass-center. the component momentum is just' the same as though all the material of the
of the collection of particles equals the

body were concentrated at the mass-center. In the case of a body having a motion of
at

translation, all the particles

have
their

any instant

velocities

which are equal

in

magnitude and the same

in direc-

tion (Art. 35).

Hence the momentums


*

of the particles are parallel,

and

This chapter

is

not prerequisite to Chapter XII. 228

Art. 46

229

vector

sum = m'v
and

+ m"v +
of unit

vTtm

= Mv,

where

their

common

velocity

M=

the mass of the body.

The

definition of
of a

momentum impUes

that the unit of

momentum

equals the

mass moving with unit velocity. The magnitude No of the unit, therefore, depends on the units of mass and velocity used. The single word has been generally accepted for any unit of momentum.

momentum

body

dimensional formula for momentum is F'T' (see appendix A), that is, a unit momentmn is one dimension in force and one in time. Hence, any unit of momentum may be and commonly is called by names of the units of force and time used. Thus the unit of momentum in the C.G.S. system is called the
dyne-second; in the ''engineers' system," the pound (force) -second,
etc.

In Art. 34
exert

it is

explained that the acceleration of the mass-center of any

collection of particles does not

depend at

all

on the forces which the particles

upon each other but on the external forces; also that the algebraic sum of the components of the external forces along any line equals the product of the mass of the system and the component of the acceleration of the masscenter along that
line,

that

is,

n + i^"x+
where
F'x, P"x, etc., are the
is

Mi.,
a

(i)

components

of the external forces along

line x,

and

ax

the x component of the acceleration of the mass-center.

Now

ax

equals the rate at which the x component of the velocity of the mass-center

changes, that

is,

ax

dvx/dt,

where

Vx is the

x component

of the velocity of the

mass-center; hence,

Max =
F'x

M dvx/dt = d{Mvx)/dt;
+
.
.

and

finally
(2)

F"x

d{,Mvx)/dt
of the system,

But Mvx
is

is

the x component of the

momentum

and d{Mv^/dt

the rate at which that component changes;

components of the external forces along any line

hence the algebraic sum of the x equals the rate at which the x

component of

the linear

momentum

changes.

The
law.

principle just arrived at (equation 2)

of the mass-center (equation i),

But

practically

was derived from the law of motion an alternative form of the the former seems to apply more simply in certain cases and
it is

essentially

as the following examples show.


Fig. 363 represents a jet of

water impinging against a


plate.

flat plate.

Required
the angle

the pressure of the jet

upon the

Let

W=

the weight of water impinging


jet,

per unit time, v

the velocity of the water in the

and a

between the

and the plate as indicated. We suppose that the water does not rebound from the plate with any considerable velocity; then the momentum of the water after striking has no component normal to the plate. The before striking is {W/g)v, and momentum of an amount of water equal to the component of that momentum along the normal to the plate = (W/g)v sin a; hence the change in the (normal) component momentum is iW/g)v sin a. This change takes place in unit time; therefore, it is the rate at which
jet

230

Chap, xi

momentum

along the normal

is

changed, and also the value of the normal

pressure of the plate against the


against the plate.
force
If

jet.
is

The

jet exerts

an equal (normal) pressure

the plate

rough, then the water also exerts a frictional

on the

plate.

-w/m//w^/w7i^;/w,.

Fig. 363

For another example, we will determine the pressure on a bend in a pipe = the weight of by water flowing through it at constant velocity. Let the water flowing past any section of the pipe per unit time; v = velocity of the water, assumed to be the same at all points of inlet and outlet cross Also let sections of the bend; and a = the angle of the bend (Fig. 364). A^ = the time required for the body of water AB to move into the position A'B'. The momentum of the body of water at the beginning of the interval = that of AA' -\- that of A'B; its momentum at the end of the Hence the change in the momentum interval = that oi A'B -\- that of BB' of the body of water in the time Ai = momentum of BB' momentum of AA'. These momentums respectively are in the direction BB' and AA'; each equals {WM/g)v. Hence the change of momentum under consideration is where OM and ON represent the two morepresented by the vector = 2{0M) sm\a; hence the change = mentums just mentioned. But 2{WM/g)v sin ^ a, and the rate at which the change occurs = 2{W/g)v sin ^ a. The direction of this rate is MN; it bisects the angle a. This rate of change of momentum is maintained by the forces acting on the body of water in A 'B. Those forces consist of gravity G, the pressures Pi and P2 (of the water) on the front and rear faces of the body, and the pressure P of the bend upon it. Their resultant R = 2{W/g)v sin | a, and R bisects a. If R, G, Pi and P2 are known then P can be determined. For it is such a force which compounded with G, Pi and Pi gives R. The pressure of the water on the bend = P.

MN

MN

essentially of a

For another example, we take the jet propeller of a ship. This consists pump which takes in water from the sea and ejects it from
v

nozzles toward the rear (to propel the ship forward).

water so ejected per unit time,


tive to the sea)

velocity of the ship,

Let and

W = weight V velocity

of of

the ejected water relative to the ship.

= V
is

v.

Hence the
etc.)

pimiping plant (pump, pipes,


direction of this

The absolute velocity of the jet (relaamount of momentum produced by the per unit time = (W/g) (V v). The

horizontal and backward; hence the plant exerts a force on

the body of water within the passages at any instant equal to (W/g) {V the water exerts an equal force forward on the passages.

v);

Art. 46
If

231

the algebraic

sum

of the

components
zero,

along any

line

of the external

then the rate of change of the component momentum (along that Une) equals zero; hence, if the sum remains zero for any interval of time, the component momentum remains constant. This is
forces acting

on a body equals

known
if

as the principle of conservation of linear

momentum.
is

It follows that

there are no external forces acting on

the body, its linear

momentum

remains
solar
solar

constant.

system.
system,

The grand illustration of this principle Even the nearest stars exert no appreciable attractions on the and so the members of the system move under the action of
Accordingly, the component
of the

furnished

by the

their

mutual attractions only. the system along any line does not change; the linear constant in amount and direction. It follows that the mass-center of the system moves uniformly, and in a straight line. If the magnitude and direction of a force are 2. (Linear) Impulse. constant for any interval of time, then the product of the magnitude of the

momentum of momentum is, therefore,

force

and the interval is called the impulse of the force for that interval. If the magnitude varies, then the impulse for any interval equals the sum of the impulses for all the elementary periods of time which make up the interval
that
is

impulse

=
lim [F'At

+ F"At +
If

j Fdt,

where

the direction of the force varies, we regard the impulse for any elementary portion of time as a vector quantity having the direction of the force, and then in principle we add (vectorially) the elementary impulses for all the portions of time which make up the interval.

F =

the varying force.

That

is

to say,

we

integrate

Fdt

vectorially, arriving at a definite vector

quantity.

Units of impulse depend on the units of force and time used.* Each current single- word name for any unit of impulse.
unit
is

There

is

no

named by
it.

the

names

of the units of force

and time
;

involved in

Thus, in the C.G.S. system the unit of


in the "engineers'
(force) -second.

impulse

is

the dyne-second;
is

system"

the unit of impulse

the

pound

It is evident (Fig. 365) that the


is

elementary inpulse

F dt

Fig* "365

the resultant of the impulses of the x and y components of F (or .v, y, and 2 components, if preferred). Hence the x, y, and z components respecthe force tively of the impulse of F equal the impulses of the components of
If

F.

we

integrate equation (2) over

any
.

interval

ti

ti,

say,

we

get

f'^F'^dt

rV".(f^

-f-

= MvJ' - M^J = A

(M^x),

(3)

where vj and vj' = the x velocities of the center of gravity of the system at Equation (3) can be put into the following times ti and fe respectively.
*

See appendix A.

232
principle of {linear) impulse

Chap, xi

ponents

along any
of the

line

of the impulses
line,

and momentum.

The

algebraic

sum

of the

of the external forces acting

any system

of particles equals the increment in the

component

of

comon the mo-

mentum
ferring to

system along that same


of time.

the

sum and

the increment re-

any interval

how The principle of impulse and momentum answers such questions as, certain vetime produce to a much velocity in a given time? or how much is required how much time For example, it is required to ascertain locity?
40 feet per second to a certain body by sliding it along a by means of a constant push of 20 pounds, the body weighing 100 pounds and the frictional resistance of the rail being 8 pounds. The external forces acting on the body are gravity, the push, and the reaction of the rail, the horizontal and vertical components of which are friction and the " normal pressure." Only the impulses of the push and friction have comto give a velocity of

horizontal rail

ponents along the

line of

motion; hence
20
/

(100/32.2) 40,
/

where

the required time.

Therefore
of this
8) -^

10.3 seconds.

Solution of such

a problem

by

earlier

methods

book would be as
(100/32.2)

follows:
feet

Let a

the

acceleration;

then a
/

=
-^

(20

3.86

per second per

second.

Hence

40

3.86

10.3 seconds.

47.
I.

Impact or Collision
of a blow,

Blow. Momentum
two
colliding bodies
is

energy of a blow, and especially


less

force of a
of the

blow are terms generally used more or


fixed,

vaguely.

But when one

then the

first

two terms

are taken to

mean
just

the

momentum and

the kinetic energy respectively of the

moving body
is

before the impact, perfectly definite quantities.


translation, these are
in a

If the motion

one of

Mv =

{W/g)v and \ Mv^

numerical case we write g


used, then the

If | {W/g)v' respectively. second), v should per be 32.2 (feet per second

expressed in feet per second;

pound

is

W may be expressed in any force unit. If the momentum is in pound-seconds and the energy in

foot-pounds.

Force of a blow means the pressure which two colliding bodies exert upon each other. The pressure changes during the collision. Analysis of this
variation
is

beyond the scope

of this book.

We

will deal

only with average

values of the force of a blow.


are

In the

first

place,

it

should be noted that there

two average values

of the force of a given blow,

a space-average and a
of

time-average.

We

explain the distinction

by means

an example, but we

choose the simpler case of a varying horizontal pull dragging a

body along a
first

smooth horizontal surface instead of a blow.

Let us suppose

that the

pull varies uniformly with respect to time, from a zero value to 40 pounds in 20 seconds (see Fig. 366). Then the time-average is represented by the

average ordinate to the line which shows

how

the force varies with respect to

Art. 47

233
hence
it is

the time;

20 pounds.

with respect to distance.


starting;

then the law of

We wish to find now how the force P = the value of the pull at any time Also let M = mass of the force is P = 2
Let
^.

varies
t

after

body;
t,

a and v respectively
s

the

acceleration

and velocity at any time

and

the displacement up to that time.

Then
Yji",

-r7

ir7i,

and

r-^

t\

The

total displacement
last

(^i)

in the 20 seconds

=
2 (3

(1/3

M)

8000.

It follows

from the

equation that
t

(3

Ms)^\

hence

P=

Ms)^.

parent that the space-average force

This equation determines the graph shown in Fig. 367, from which it is apis more than 20 pounds, or the time-aver-

40

lbs

234

Chap, xi

done on the cylinder up to each stage was computed. Amounts of compression and corresponding amounts of work were plotted to determine the curve. Curve C is a static curve but for a higher speed. D is a so-called dynamic
curve.
It

subjected to a blow from a

was obtained from drop or impact tests in which each crusher was "hammer" dropped upon it. The hammer

c o
1-

O-

e o

Art. 47

235

^T,

^ inch and time of impact about xmiTT second; the weight of hammer was pounds and the drop 15 inches. For the copper crushers used the maxi-

mum
was
2.

pressure occurred just before the end of the compression, and

its

value

slightly less

than twice the space-average.

Motion after Collision.


of

In this section we discuss the changes of


collision in certain

motion

one or both colliding bodies due to the

compara-

tively simple cases.

In most cases of collision the pressures which the colliding

bodies exert on each other are enormous compared with other forces acting

on the

bodies.

balls colliding with velocity of 8 feet per

For example, the space-average pressure between two billiard second is about 1300 pounds. There-

fore in discussing changes of

motion

of the bodies during collision

we may

neglect the other (ordinary) forces acting on the bodies, gravity for example;

that

is

we regard the two bodies

jointly as

under the action of no external

Hence, according to the principle of conservation (Art. 46), the momentum of the two bodies jointly is not changed by the impact.
forces.
If

the centers of gravity of two bodies about to collide are


straight line, then the collision or impact
If
is

moving along the


if

same

called direct;

otherwise,

oblique.

the pressures which two colliding bodies exert upon each other

during impact are directed along the line joining their centers of gravity, then
the impact
is

called central;

if

otherwise, eccentric.

These are the kinds

of

impact called simple, above.


Direct Central Impact.
lation before impact.
(of

We assume that the bodies have motions of transis

Since the impact

supposed to be central, the pressure

impact) on each body acts through the center of gravity of that body and
it.

does not turn


translation.

Hence the motion

of each

body

after collision

is

one of

and

A and B be the two bodies, Ml and M2 = their masses, Ui and ih. = their velocities just before impact, Vi and V2 = their velocities just after impact respectively.
Let

We

regard these velocities as having sign; velocity in one direction (along the

line of

motion) being positive, and that in the other being negative.


after

Then

the

momentum of the two bodies before impact = MiUi -fit = MiVi -\- M2V2. Since the momentums before and
we have
MiVi

M2M2, and after impact

impact are equal,


(i)

+ M2V2

MiUx

7I/2M2.

The

foregoing expressions are correct whether

A and B

are

moving
if

in the

same

or opposite directions before or after the impact.

Thus,

both are moving

toward the right before impact, at 8 and 10 feet per second say, their momentum is 8 ^1/1 -|- 10 7I/2; but if A is moving toward the right and B toward the
left,

their

momentum

is

Mi

10 M2.

It

has been learned experimentally that when two spheres

A and B

collide

directly

and centrally the velocity of separation is always less than and opposite' to the velocity of approach, and the ratio of these two velocities seems to

236

Chap, xi

depend only on the material of the two spheres. The ratio of the velocity of separation to that of approach (signs disregarded) is called coefficient of restituThe following are approximate values of tion; it is generally denoted by e.
e for

a few materials,
glass II, ivory |, steel

and cork

|,

wood about

\,

clay

and putty

o.

Now

the velocity of approach equals Ui

ih (or W2

is

Ui),

the

Vo

first

with
(reVi).

reference to

(regarded as fixed) and the second with reference to

garded as fixed)

and the velocity

of

separation

Vi

(or v^

Since these velocities are opposite in direction,

we have

Equations
V2 v.

{vi

v^/{ui
(2)

U2)

e,

or

{vi

V2)

e (th

U2).
Vi

(2)

(i)

and

solved simultaneously for the final velocities

and

give

= u^-(i+e)j^^j^^{u,-u.);v2 = i^-{i
one of the colHding bodies
is fixed,

+ e)j^-^^^^
=
Vy

(3)

If

say B, then 1^

o,

and M2
eui.

is

the mass of

and

its

supports, infinitely great.

We assume as before that the bodies A and B Oblique Central Impact. have a motion of translation before impact; then the pressure on each during the impact acts through the center of gravity and produces no turning. Let Ui and 1/2 = the velocities of A and B before impact; Vi and F2 their velocities after impact; Ui and M2 = the components of Ui
and U2 along the
tact);
^'
.
V]_

Thus we have

fine of

impact pressure (joining

the centers of gravity of

A and B when

in con-

and

V2

the components of Vi and F2

along that
of
Z7i

line;

and Wi and W2

the components

and U2 at right angles to that line. See Pjg Fig. 369 which represents one of several possible ways of oblique collision. Since the impact pressure on either body has no component transversely to the line of pressure XX, the component of the momentum of either body at right angles to XX is not changed. Hence the transverse component of the velocity of either body is not changed by
the impact.

The
V2

longitudinal components are changed as in direct impact,

and

vi

and

are given

therefore, are determined,

by equations (3). The final velocities Fi and Vi by its components Vi and Wi, and V2 by

F2,
its

components % and W2. Loss of Energy in Impact.

Let L = the
+
i M2U2')

loss of kinetic energy;

then

L=

(i

M,U^'

Vi"

(^

MiFi^
Vi"

+ \ M2V2').
and Fg^

Now
hence

f/i^

wi2 -f wi2, C/2'

^2^

+ W2\

+ Wi",
(3)

V2^

+ W2^;

Z=
Substituting for
Vi

MM' - V) + h M2W from equation


.
.

^2^).

and

V2

their values
,

and simplifying we get

M1M2

s.

Art. 48

237
elastic bodies (e

For perfectly

i),

L =
in

o.

For other bodies

(i

is

e-) is

not

zero but a positive quantity;


finite positive

quantity.

and That is,

since (th

ito)

is

not zero,

always a

every collision of bodies not perfectly


If the

elastic there is loss of kinetic energy.


(e

bodies are without elasticity

[{M,M2)/(Mi + M.)] (ih - u^y. The foregoing is essentially Newton's analysis of impact. Several more recent analyses have been made independent of any coefificient of restitution but taking into account the vibrations set up in the colliding bodies. On account of the difficulties of the problem they include only impact of spheres and cylinders end on. Explanation of these analyses fall beyond the scope

o),

the loss

of this book.*

48.

is is

Angular

Momentum and
linear
;

Impulse
of a

I.

Angular Momentum.

The

momentum

moving

particle

a vector quantity, as explained in Art. 46

the magnitude of the

momentum
is

mv (where

m=

mass

of the particle

and

its velocity),

and the direction

that of the velocity.

mentum and to the momentum of a moving


of the velocity.

now and assign position to the momomentum-vector. The position, or position-line, of the
go farther
particle
is

We

vector quantity,
tion

Thus the Hnear momentum


like

the line through the particle in the direction " of a particle is a " locaUzed

a concentrated force, which has magnitude, direcit is

and a

definite position, or line of action as

more commonly

called.

apply the term moment of momentum to a product which is analogous to the product which we call moment of a force about a line. Thus the moment
of

We

momentum

of a

moving
it is

particle

about a
is

line (or

angular momentimi as
of the

also called)

the product

component

of the

momentum

perpendicular

component being parallel to it and the distance from the line to the perpendicular component. (Compare definition of

to the Une -- the other

moment
example,

of a force
let

about a

line,

Art.

8.)

For

(Fig. 370)

be the position of the

moving
whose

particle at a given instant,

OC

the direc-

tion of its velocity,

and

OABC

a parallelogram

Fig. 370

and perpendicular to the line LL\ an axis of moments. (QQ is a plane perpendicular to LL' represented to make the figure more plain.) Then according to some scale OC represents the momentum mv, and OA and OB represent components of mv perpendicular ajid parallel to LL' respectively. The angular momentum of the particle about LL' is OA X PL. It follows from the definition of
sides

are

parallel

* See Love's Theory of Elasticity, Vol. 2; Nature, Vol. 88, p. 531 (1912) for an instructive paper by Prof. Hopkinson, on "The Pressure of a Blow"; also Journal of the Franklin Inslitutc, Vol. 172, p. 22 (1911) for an account of some determinations of the time of impact of metal spheres.

238

Chap, xi

the term, that the angular momentum of a particle about a line parallel to its momentum is zero; and about a line perpendicular to its momentum the angular momentum is the product of the momentum and the distance from

the line to the particle.

There
in

is

another method for computing the angular

ing particle

about a

line

which

is

momentum of a movmore simple generally than that described


It
is

the definition of angular

momentum.

as follows:

we

resolve the

momentum
axis ot

into three rectangular components, one of which

is parallel to

the

and moments then the other two are perpendicular to the axis add the moments of the two perpendicular components about the line; the sum equals the angular momentum of the particle. Proof: Imagine the
,

momentum OC
and

two rectangular components OA and then OA into any two rectangular components perpendicular to LV. These last two are not shown in the figure but their relations to OA and the axis LL' are shown in projection on the plane QQ in Fig. 371. The moment of the component O'M about LL' is O'AI X L'm
(Fig. 370) resolved first into

OB

as before,

'

U^

X
Fig. 371 Fig. 372

= O'M X
of the

O'L' sin

fi

= O'M

sin

fx

X O'L'.
sin

O'N is O'N X L'n = O'N

O'L'

= O'N

moments = (O'M sin fi + O'N O'L' sin a = O'A' X L'P' which is


angular

sin

The moment of the component Hence the sum sin 7 X O'L'. = sin O'L' = O'A' a O'L' O'A' X 7)

the angular
*

momentum

of the particle

as defined.

By
that

momentum
sum

of

any

collection of particles (body)

about a

line is

meant the
line.

algebraic

of the angular

momentums

of the particles
axis, the

about

In the case of a rigid body rotating about a fixed


of the

angular

momentum
easily.
1-2,

body about the

axis of rotation can be

computed quite
r\,

Thus

let Wi, fth, etc.,

the masses of the particles of the body;

etc.,
CO

the distances of the particles respectively from the axis of rotation;

and

the angular velocity of the body.


rico, r2co,

Then

the linear velocities of the


their linear

particles are respectively

etc. (Art. 37),

and

momentums

are Wiriw, m^roco, etc.

These momentums are perpendicular to the axis of

moments; hence the angular momentums are ntiViuri, nhrooir-i, etc. And since these are of the same sign, the angular momentum of the body is Wi^i^co + = coSwr- = co/, where / = the moment of inertia of the miV^cji

body about the

axis of rotation (Art. 36).

general formula for the angular

momentum

of a

body about a

line

can be

Art. 48

239
Let

arrived at as follows:

(Fig. 372)

be one of the particles of the body,

compute the angular momentum, and PD = the Let OXYZ be a set of fixed coordinate axes; x, j, and z = the velocity of P. (varying) coordinates of P; m = mass of P; d = velocity of P; v^c, Vy, and v^ = the axial components of v (represented by PA PB, and PC respectively). Then to some scale, PD represents the momentum mv of the particle, and PA, PB, and PC represent the axial components of the momentum; these equal mv^, Hence the angular momentum of P about OZ mvy, and mv^ respectively. is mVyX mV:,y, and the angular momentum of the entire body is

OX

the line about which to

'J/)

{mVyX

mVxy).

We
line

will

now

ascertain

how

the angular

momentum

of a

body about any

depends on

the forces concerned in the motion.

of the particles of a body,

OX

a fixed line

Let P, Fig. 373, be one about which


Y.
A'^y

the angular
all

momentum

in

taken,

R =

the resultant of

the forces acting on this particle, v

its

velocity,

R>

and a = its acceleration. Further, let the coordinates of P at any particular instant under consideration be .v, y, and s referred to axes one of which is the line OX; R^, Ry, and R^ = the axial components of R; v^, Vy, and of v; a^, Oy, and Oz = the Vz = the axial components
components of a; and Tz = the torque of all the Then T^ = RyX - R^y forces acting on P about the z axis. = = (Art. may and Ry ma^ since Rx 34),
axial

-^-x-

Fig. 373

(Art. 8);

and

Tg

niGyX

maxy.

down for each particle of the the sum of the right-hand equals members body. The sum of the left-hand forces (exerted by the internal sum the members of course. To the first these internal forces because nothing particles upon each other) contribute and opposite, and ecj^ual, colinear, being each occur in pairs, the forces of first sum is also the Therefore, cancel. forces so the moments of such two Thus, we have axis. the 2 about forces the torque of the external

Now

imagine one equation

like the last written

SPj = 2 {mayX
where SP^
the 2 axis.

maxy),

(i)

the torque of

all

the external forces, acting on the body, about

{mayX The second sum, about body the angular momentum of

maxy), equals the rate at which the


z axis is

the

changing.

We

prove

this

by

differentiating the expression for angular

momentum about

the 2 axis,

{mVyX

mVxy), with respect to the time;


(dvy

thus

at

-J-

{mVyX

mVxy)

=2 m

dx\
,

(dvx

dyW

240

Chap, xi
dvy/dt

Now

ay,

dx/dt

Vx,

dvx/dt

= d, and

dy/dt

Vy-,

and substitution

of these equivalents of the four derivatives in the long equation gives

-7-

2 {mVyX mvxy)= 2
Thus
finally

{mayX

maxj),

at

which was to be proved.


at

we have

the important principle that


line equals the rate

the torque oj the external forces, acting

on any body, about any


body about that line
is

which the angular momentum of

the

changing, or
(2)

2r, =

dh/dt,
hz

where the

line in question is called z,

and

the angular

momentum

of the

body about that line. For an example we


sented in Fig. 374.

will

apply the foregoing principle to determine the

torque of the water flowing through the water motor (Barker Mill) repre-

AB, mounted on a

motor consists of a horizontal cylinder and an inlet D connected by a water-tight On opposite sides of the cylinder and near its sleeve joint to a feed pipe E. ends there are orifices or nozzles through which the water escapes horizontally. = the weight of The water turns the motor in the opposite direction. Let
Essentially, the
vertical pivot C,

water escaping per unit time,

the velocity of escape relative to the orifices,

and

CO

the angular velocity of the motor.


is

The amount

of water

which

escapes in a short interval of time A/


of escape

W M;

and, since the absolute velocity


of this water

t>

rco

(Art. 53), the angular


(v

momentum

about the

axis of rotation

gives angular

{WM/g) momentum to
is

rw)

r.

Hence the
is

rate at which the

motor

the water

(W/g)

{v

rco)r,

and

this equals the

torque of the motor on the water; also the torque of the


'

water on the motor.


If the

torque

about

any

line

of the external
if

forces acting

on a body

equals zero, then the rate of change of the angular

momentum
This
is

of the

body
as the

about that

line equals zero;

hence,

the torque remains zero for any interval

of time, then the angular

momentum

remains constant.

known

principle of the conservation of angular

momentum.

It can be well illustrated


It consists

by means
of a

of the

apparatus on which the

man

(Fig. 375) is standing.

metal plate

supported on balls in suitable circular races in


line

and

that

can be rotated about the

with very

little friction

resistance;

B so B is

fixed.

Imagine that a
all

man

has mounted the plate

pole as shown,

being at rest; then the angular

pole system about


in

CC

equals zero.

A and holds a balancing momentum of the man-plateNow suppose that the man exerts himself

any way, to move the pole about for example, but touches nothing except A and the pole. The only external forces acting on the system are gravity, The first has no torque about reactions of the balls on A and the air pressure. C; the other two very little and are negligible here. Hence there is no external
,

Art. 48

241

torque about C, and the angular


always.

momentum
if

of the

system about

equals zero

This

is

strikingly illustrated

the man, without moving his feet on

the plate, trys to rotate the pole (over his head as shown) about C. In doing If / and /' = the so, he and A begin to rotate in the opposite direction.

moments
and
w'

and the pole respectively about C, and co any instant, then the principle requires that the angular momentums /w and Ico' shall be equal (and opposite). Or, imagine the man-plate-pole system is given an angular velocity by external means (the man holding the rod as shown, say), and then left to itself. If now the man should change the pole into a vertical position before him, he would reduce the moment of inertia of the system (about C) very materially; and
of inertia of

man

(and

.1)

their angular velocities at

since the angular

momentum must

remain constant, the angular velocity of the

system would increase accordingly.

The grand
is

illustration of the principle of conservation of angular

momentum

furnished

by the
forces;

solar system.

The system moves under

the influence of

no external

hence the angular

remains constant.

The angular
is

momentum of the system about any line momentum about a certain line through the
the system a plane perpendicular

mass-center of the system

greater than that about

any other such

line.

The Une
to
it

is

known

as the invariable axis of

as the invariable plane

and

''is

the nearest approach to an absolutely

fixed direction yet

known."

Center of Percussion.

Fig.
R=

376 represents a body

OC

suspended

like

pendulum;

is

the center of suspension, and

C is

the center of gravity or mass-

center of the body.

Let

the reaction of the axle supporting the pendulum.

rO
Ry
=

!lD

C
I

B
r

J-4

>i<-

Fig. 376

Fig. 374

and P = the time average force of a blow applied as shown. In general, R would not be vertical during the blow; so let R^ and Ry = the horizontal and The value vertical components of the time-average of R during the blow. of R^ depends not only on the force of the blow P but also on the arm of the blow with respect to the axis of suspension. It will be shown presently that

242
if

Chap, xi

the arm has a certain value, then Rx equals zero. The point Q in OC (extended) and in the line of action of a blow applied as just explained so that there is no component axle reaction parallel to the blow, is called the center
of percussion of the

body

for the particular axis of suspension.

{Q

is

the

point that was called center of oscillation in Art. 39.)


center of percussion from the axis of suspension equals
q

The

distance of the

k'^/c

c -\-k /c,

where k
c

the radius of gyration of the pendulum about the axis of suspension,

the distance from the center of gravity to that axis, and k

the radius

of gyration

about a Une through the mass-center and parallel to the axis of


let
co

suspension.

To

p body produced by the blow, and At


of the

the

develop the expression for q given above arm of P about the axis of suspension,

M = the mass of the body,


the angular velocity of the

=
be

the duration of the blow.


ceo,

blow the velocity

of

will

By the end and practically horizontal; hence,

according to Art. 46,

P-

Rx

Mco:/At.

The only

force

which has a torque about

during the blow

is

P; hence

Pp = Mui/M.
These two equations solved simultaneously for R^ give R^ = P (1 cp/P); therefore, if ^ = k^/c, Rx = o which was to be shown. Every American boy has batted a baseball a few times in such a way that
the bat "stung " his hands; and he soon learned that such stinging
of
is

a result

impact near

his

hands or quite near the big end

of the bat;

in fact, quite

remote from the center of percussion of the bat (with reference to the particular
axis of rotation

Such a blow

also results in rapid vibrations of the material of the bat

about which the bat was being swung at the instant of impact). which

cause the sting.

Large pendulums are used

in certain

impact testing machines

for striking a blow.

To

avoid the impulsive reaction at the suspension and

vibrations in the pendulum, they are always so arranged that the line of action

blow passes through the center of percussion of the pendulum. If the line of action of a force is fixed in posiAngular Impulse. tion then the angular impulse of that force for any interval about any line is the moment of the impulse of the force for the interval about that Hne. The
of the
2.

moment
angular

of

an impulse

is

computed
is,

just like

moment

of a force (Art. 8) or

momentum;

that

we

resolve the impulse into two components,


line

one parallel and one perpendicular to the

and then we take the product


it

of the perpendicular component and the distance from

to the line.

If

the

line of action of the force changes then the angular impulse of the force about any line for any interval is the algebraic sum of the angular impulses for all

the elementary portions of time which comprise the interval. the force, i"

Thus

let

/'

the interval, 6

the angle between the line of action

F = F

Art. 48

243
line,

and the

and p

the perpendicular distance between the


nt"
\

two

lines.

Then

the angular impulse

is

Xt" F dt-?,md- p=
Since

F sin d p dt.
-

sinO

the torque of the force about the line in question, the

angular impulse of the force

torque of the force.

any instant then the

may also be regarded as the time-integral of the if T the torque of the force about the line at angular momentum for the interval equals
Hence,

h'

Tdt.

Now

let

us integrate equation

(2)

over any interval /"


T,dt,

/'

say;

then

r
in

^T,dt, or

///'

hj

A/?

(3)

which

JiJ

and

lij'
t'

denote the angular


t" respectively.

momentums
Equation
(3)

of the

body about the


fol-

z axis at the times

and

can be put into the

lowing principle of angular impulse and momentum: The sum of the angular impulses of all the external forces acting on a body about any line equals the

increment in the angular

momentum

of the

body about that

line.

49. Gyrostat

generally used synonymously but sometimes a distinction

words gyroscope and gyrostat are is made, as follows: A gyrostat consists of a wheel and axle, both being symmetrical to the axis of the axle, and mounted so that they may be rotated about that axis; a gyro I.

General Description.

The

scope consists of a gyrostat mounted in a frame which can be rotated.

Fig.

377 represents a

common form

of gyroscope; the gyrostat (wheel

W and axle
/^^^-^
.

A A')

is supported by a ring R which can be rotated about the axis BB'; the axle BB' is supported by the

forked pillar

which can be rotated about the axis CC. Thus the wheel can be rotated about its center into any desired position. The gyroscope seems to have
been designed for illustrating principles of composition In 1852 Foucault (French phyof rotations (Art. 54).
sicist)

l\^5^/\^^.

t^^^^&A^^
^

IWV>^-/^)"^b'

^^^y^JJJ
x.^-^^

made an
its

interesting application

of

the instru-

p^^

i-"^-s^i=P"

ment; by
rotation of

means he practically made visible the More recently the gyroscope has the earth.

k:;--_1_--^

been made use of in several connections,

to

steer

torpedo, to serve as a substitute, unaffected

by the

iron of the ship, for the

ordinary (magnetic) mariner's compass, to stabilize a mono-rail car, and to

steady a ship in a rough sea;

it

has been proposed also to stabiHze flying

machines by means of a gyroscope. When its wheel is spinning, a gyroscope possesses properties which seem

244
peculiar to students as yet uninformed in the matter, inasmuch as
it

Chap, xi

does not

always respond as expected to

efforts

made

to change its

motion or position.

a gyroscope like that represented in Fig. 377, well made and practically frictionless at all bearings and pivots, be grasped by the pillar and

For example,
then

if

moved about

in

any way, the

axle of the wheel remains fixed in direction

any attempt to alter it. The (gimbal) method of support makes it impossible to exert any resultant torque on the gyrostat (by way of the pillar) about any line through the center; and hence, as will be proved later,
in spite of

the direction of the axle cannot be thus changed.

It is this

property of peris

manence

of direction of the spin-axis of a

gimbal-supported gyrostat which

made

use of in the self-steering torpedo.


effect of a

For another example, consider the


gyrostat.

torque applied directly to the

would turn the gyrostat when not spinning about the axis B. But when spinning, that force U would rotate the spin-axis about the axis C, the direction of rotation depending upon the
vertical force, say, applied at

direction of spin.

When

the gyrostat

is

spinning in the direction indicated

by the arrow

co,

then such force

would rotate the spin-axis about

in the

by the arrow fx. Again, a horizontal force applied at A, But w^hen say, would turn the gyrostat when not spinning about the axis C. spinning, such force L would rotate the spin-axis about BB'; and in the direcThis behavior of a tion indicated by the arrow X if the spin is as indicated. spinning gyrostat under the action of torque is exhibited more strikingly by a gyroscope represented plainly in Fig. 378. The wheel may be spun on the axle A; the gyrostat and its
direction indicated

frame

may

be rotated about

the axis BB';

and

all

rotated

about the axis

may be CC.

is

the weight which can be

clamped on the stem A' to balance or unbalance the frame


with respect to the axis BB'.

Now
Fig. 378

imagine
gyrostat)

W
is

clamped so

that the frame (with


the

and

unbalanced.

Then

if

the gyrostat

is

set spinning
will

and the frame be released


on the direction
of

in the position

shown, say, the frame

not rotate about

BB' but about CC.


spin

The

and on the diis clamped If, for example, rection of the torque of gravity about BB'. quite near BB' so that the torque of gravity is clockwise as seen from B and
direction of this rotation depends

the spin

is

as indicated, then
is

rotates toward B.

This rotation persists except

in so far as it

interfered with
still

by

friction at the pivots,

and

air resistance.

We

might

recite

other peculiar performances of a gyrostat but the foreProfessor Perry's book on "Spinning

going suffice for our purpose.

Tops"

would be found interesting

in this connection.

Art. 49

245

Any such rotation of the axis of a spinning gyrostat is called a precessional motion or precession of the axis or of the gyrostat; the axis and the gyrostat We will call precession normal or obiique according as are said to precess.
the axis precesses about a line perpendicular or inclined to the axis. It may not be clear from the foregoing examples of precession how to predict the
direction of precession that
stat with a given spin.

would

result

by applying a given torque


is

to a gyroit is

The

following

a simple rule for predicting;


seen later: "

When based on the dynamics of the whole matter as will be upon a spinning body tending to cause rotation about any other axis than the spinning axis, the spinning axis sets itself in better agreement with the new
forces

act

(other) axis of rotation;

perfect agreement

the direction of rotation being the same." what amounts to the same thing, the precession
vector* toward the couple or torque-vector.

would mean perfect parallelism, (From "Spinning Tops".) Or,


is

such as to turn the spin-

an incomplete proof of the foregoing rule. Further exFig. 379 represents planation is given in the next section and in Art. 56. a gyrostat pivoted at O so that it can be

The

following

is

rotated freely about that point; we suppose the center of gravity of the gyrostat Imagine that the gyrostat is to be at O.
at rest, not spinning, in the position shown,

-TIX
y^i^

~^^^

^ and that a downward force is applied to and the axle on the left-hand side of downward. The torque makes the gyrostat rotate about the axis OB, that is the torque produces angular momentum about that axis. The amount of angular momentum produced is proportional to the torque and to the duration of This angular momentum may be represented by a its action (see Art. 48).

OB, the length of the vector representing the amount of the angular momentum and the arrow-head pointing so as to agree with the direction of
vector on
rotation, according to the usual convention, that
is
is,

forward in this case.

Now

shown but the imagine that the axis of the gyrostat The anright. from the viewed when wheel spinning, say, counter-clockwise represented be would its about axisf gyrostat gular momentum of the spinning
at rest in the position

by a vector on
*

OA

pointing in the direction


its

OA;

let

01 be

that vector.

spin-vector

is

a vector on the axis of spin,

arrow-head pointing to the place from

the arrowwhat amounts to the same thing which the spin appears counter-clockwise; or screw right-hand were it a if advance would axis the which along direction head points in the turning in a fixed nut.

The

length of the vector

immaterial

in the present

connection

represents the angular velocity of spin to


(see Art. 8)
is

some convenient

scale.

Likewise the couple-vector

a vector perpendicular to the plane of the couple pointing to the place from which

the rotation,

what which the couple tends to produce, would appear counter-clockwise; or the arrow-head points in the direction along which the vector amounts to the same thing would advance if it were a right-handed screw turned by the couple in a fixed nut. This angular momentum is greater than that for any other line, and hence may bf

regarded as the total or resultant angular

momentum

of the gyrostat (see Art. 55).

246

Chap, xi

suppose that the torque already described comes into action, and let OJ represent the angular momentum which it would produce in a short interval This angular momentum added to the original angular momentum of time.

Now

gives

OR

as the resultant angular

momentum

of the gyrostat at the

end

of the

interval. It seems, therefore, that the spin-axis would coincide with OR at the end of the interval; indeed, that axis does approach OR, that is the spin-

axis turns

toward the torque-axis as stated


just

in the rule

which

v/e

undertook

to prove.

The approach

mentioned
is

is

to the torque just as though there were no spin; that


instance) slightly.
of the spin-axis

not a direct one; the gyrostat yields slightly is the wheel rises (in this
first

nutation
O

This

only the
as
it is

(small) swing of a rapid oscillation

called

which

accompanies the (more

prominent) precession of the spin-axis toward the torque-axis.


able) friction at the pivot

The (unavoid-

rapidly

damps

this oscillation so that the oscillarise of

tion generally escapes notice.

The mentioned
it

the spin-axis

may

be

explained as follows:
rotates about

In the approach of that axis toward


acquires angular
since there

OR

the gyrostat

OC, due to which

momentum about OC,


is

clockwise

when viewed from above; but


48 on conservation)
;

the gyrostat can acquire no (resultant) angular


(see Art.

momentum
rises so

no torque about OC, about that line


that at each instant

hence the spin-axis

the component along

OC

of the angular

momentum due
OC.

to spin just equals the

angular

momentum due
is

to the rotation about

another item of gyrostat behavior worth noting here. Suppose that the gyrostat shown in Fig. 378 to be precessing as already explained.

There

If the precession be hurried, say by means of a horizontal push applied at .4', the center of gravity of the frame (with gyrostat and weight) rises; if the This behavior is in precession be retarded, the center of gravity descends.

accordance with the rule for predicting precession.


a torque about
is

In the

first

case

we have

CC;

the torque vector

is

in the direction

OC;

the spin- vector

in the direction
is

that

CC
rule:

OA'; and in accordance with the rule OA' turns toward OC In the second case we have a torque about rises. but the torque- vector is OC; and the spin- vector OA' turns toward that
the center of gravity
is

vector, that

the center of gravity descends.

Thus we may
falls,

state as another

Hurry a

precession, the gyrostat rises or opposes the torque which causes

the precession;

retard a precession, the gyrostat

or yields to the torque

which causes the precession.


Self-steering Torpedo.

The gyroscope of such a torpedo


way

is

linked to appro-

priate valves of a compressed air engine in such a

that any turning of

the spin- axis toward either side of the torpedo causes the engine to turn the
(vertical)

rudder of the torpedo in the opposite direction.

Prior to projection

of a torpedo, the gimbals are locked so as to hold the spin-axis of the gyrostat
parallel (or

inchned at any desired angle) to the axis of the torpedo.


is

the discharge of the torpedo, the gyrostat the gimbals are unlocked.

automatically set

During spinning and

During the

flight,

the spin-axis continues to point

Art. 49
in its original direction

247
;

any deviation

of the torpedo

from

its

intended course

changes the incHnation of the spin-axis relative to the torpedo; simultaneously


the gyroscope actuates the rudder as explained, and the torpedo is deflected back toward its proper direction. Like a common pendulum swinging to its

lowest position, the torpedo swings beyond a

mean

direction,

and

is

then swung
flight so

back again by

the rudder.

And
2

this oscillation is
is

kept up during the

that the actual path of the torpedo


stat (wheel and axle) weighing

a zigzag, about two feet wide.

gyro-

pounds and rotating at 2500 revolutions per

minute has been made to serve the purpose just described. For our purpose we may regard a gyro-compass as conGyro-compass. sisting essentially of a gyrostat (wheel and axle), the axle supported in a ring See A, Fig. 380. Such a comor case, and the ring suspended from above.

pass,

when

the gyrostat

is

spinning, sets its spin-axis into the plane of the

meridian at the place where the compass happens


to be.

Imagine such a compass to be


its

equator with

spin-axis pointing east


is

set up at the and west, and

suppose that the direction of spin

counter-clockwise
rotating

when viewed from the


remain parallel to
were supported in

west.

The

earth

carries the gyrostat eastward;


its original

the spin-axis
if

would
in

position

the gyrostat
consider the gyrostat as

frictionless gimbals,

and would

time be positioned as shown at B.

Now

shown

at

B, supported not in gimbals but suspended from above as in the gyrocompass. The supporting force (above) and the force of gravity would have a torque counter-clockwise as viewed from the north; thus the torque vector

would point toward the reader.


toward the north.

The

spin- vector points to the right;

hence

the torque would turn the end of the spin-axis

marked n from the west

Of course the action

is

does not remain parallel to

not precisely as outUned above, that is the spin-axis its original position for a time and then yield to

the influence of the torque mentioned.


slightest rotation of the

The

action

is

really continuous; the

compass with the earth from the position A induces the gravity torque, and the spin-axis begins to turn toward the meridian as
described.

Though the
float in the

restraint of the support (fine wire in the Sperry


is

and mercury

very small, the gravity torque is so small that the turning of the spin-axis into the meridian is very slow. Like a magnetic compass the gyro-compass swings beyond the meridian from a In the Anschutz type the period deflected position and oscillates for a time.

Anschutz compass)

of a free oscillation is

about

hour and 20 minutes.

Special

damping

ar-

rangements reduce the


degrees) in about one

oscillations to zero (from a deflected position of

40

and one-half hours.


rail

The

spin

is

maintained

electrically,

at about 20,000 revolutions per minute.

Mono-rail Car.

A car on a single

can be rendered stable even

if

the

248
center of gravity of the car
is

Chap, xi

above the

rail

by means

of a suitable gyroscope

apparatus.

Fig.

381 represents the germ of one type of such apparatus.


Z, is

A A'

is

the spin-axis,

a lever rigidly fastened to the axle

BB' by means

of

which the gyrostat can be made to precess about BB'.


standing on the car so that he
that the car
forces
is tilted,

Imagine the car to be

standing or travelling in an upright position, the gyrostat spinning, and a

man

may grasp and

operate the lever.

Now suppose
is

as

by a wind

against either side.

The

car exerts tilting

on the gyrostat axle at

and

B', the torque-vector of

which

parallel

=c=

A'

Art. 49

249

was spun at 1600 revolutions per minute. In still water the ship would settle down from a heel of 20 degrees to one of | degree in about 20 single oscillations; the period was about 4I seconds. The stabilizer produced the same extinction
in less

than three oscillations of 6 seconds period.

(See

London

Engineering,

Vol. 83, p. 448 (1907)).

2. Rate or

Normal Precession; Determination of Forces.


we
way;

In

the preceding section,


stat in a qualitative

discussed the effect of a torque on a spinning gyro-

we

will

now

discuss the matter quantitatively.

Let /
CO

the

moment

of inertia of the gyrostat

about the axis of spin and

the angular velocity of spin;

then
If

gyrostat about that axis (Art. 48).

the angular momentum of the T = the applied torque, the angular


/co

momentum produced by

it

in the element of time dt is

T dt, and

the angular

approach of the spin-axis toward the torque-axis in that time is lOR (Fig. 379) = tan-i (r dt/Iw) = T dt/Iw. The rate at which this angle is described,
that
is

the angular velocity of precession

generally denoted by O
=
r//co.
is

is

n =
If the

{IOR)/dt
its

torque

is

applied so that
there
is

vector

always perpendicular to the axis

of spin

OA, then

no torque about
is

OA

and hence
it

co

is

constant;

if

also

the magnitude of the torque

constant, then
is,

follows from the preceding

formula that

is

constant.

That

in the case
is

assumed, the velocities of

The case spin and precession are constant. moving particle subjected to a constant force whose line of action is always Such a force perpendicular to the direction of motion and in a given plane. changes the continually but velocity does not change the magnitude of the
quite analogous to that of a
direction of
(Art. 34).
it;

indeed, the particle describes a circle with constant speed

Let

(Fig. 383)

be the particle,
r

m=

its

mass,

its

velocity,

F=

the force,

PQ

be the path and

the radius of the


the
in

circle.

The
Since r

linear

momentum =
is

mv;

angle.

POQ
/

i.-ja^'^

>

^^I

through which the vector mv


vt/r.

turned

any time

is

,|__7_t^v$r:r^R

mv^/F (see Art. 34), the angle = tF/mv. Hence the rate at which F turns the linear momentum vector is F/mv, a result strictly analogous with T/Ioj, the rate at which the torque T turns the angular momentum vector /o). The result can be arrived at, independently

^^^

of Art. 34, in a

way

to bring out the analogy


of

still

more.

We may

regard

During that time it produces constant in direction for an element PO, equal to F dt. Let PJ direction own its an amount of momentum, in momentum mv. At the end of initial the represent this momentum and PI represented by PR. Hence the is momentum the interval the (resultant) -=- (mv), and the = {F dt) is I PR momentum the change in the direction of divided dt, that is F/mv. by the change is rate at which the change occurs Normally at Constant Speed. Precessing Gyrostat The Forces Acting on a which the forces in such conditions a case certain determine We will now
time
dt.

250
always
12

Chap, xi
fulfill.

Incidentally,

we

give an alternative derivation of the formula

T/Iw.
is

^A^
spin

take the gyrostat represented by two projections in Fig. 384. is the axis of prethe axis of spin, the perpendicular to the paper at
of

We

cession,

and Q is the mass-center of the gyrostat. The assumed directions and precession are indicated by the curved arrows oj and 12 respectively.

Fig. 384

sets of coordinate axes, one fixed and and OZ, the latter not shown; OZ is taken coincident with the precession-axis, and OX and OY in the plane in .which the spin-axis moves. The moving set consists of NA, NB, and NC;

For the investigation we

shall use
is

two
,

one moving.

The

fixed set

OX,

OY

NA
Let

is

the spin-axis (as already stated),

the axes of spin


/'

and precession, and

NB is the common perpendicular to NC is perpendicular to iV.4 and NB.


about the axis NC,
</>

the

moment

of inertia of the gyrostat

the

(ON) between the axes of spin and precession, angle which the spin-axis makes with OX, P be any particle
distance

the (varying)

of the gyrostat,

m=
X, y,

its

mass,

BNP,

a, b,

and

its distance from the axis of spin, 6 = the (changing) angle and c = the co()rdinates of P with respect to the moving axes, and = its coordinates with respect to the fixed axes.
r

It follows

from the trigonometric relations


a cos
c sin
c
4)

in the figure that


r
''

X y

and

= = =

(b -{ e) sin

(6 -f
^.

e)

cos

</>

= a cos 4> = a sin 4</>

cos
cos
<^

sin

</>

-\-

e sin 0, e

cos 6

cos

<^,

f sin

Dififerentiating these expressions with respect to time (and noting that a,

r,

and

are constants, and that dd/dt


x, y,

= w

and

dip/df

=
12
12

12),

we

get the following

values of the

and
Vx

components
{cw
(al2
b(j3.

of the velocity of
(6 -f e) (6

P:

Vy

and

= = Vn =

al2) sin ^ ceo) cos


P

cos 0,
sin 0,

e)

The angular momentums


are (see Art. 48)
in{vzy

of

about the axes OX, OY, and

OZ

respectively

VyZ),

m(vxZ

Vzx),

and m(vyX

Vxy).

Art. 49
If

^5^
V:,,

we

substitute in these expressions for

Vy,

and

v^,

their values as just de-

duced, then

sum up

for all the particles of the gyrostat,

we

arrive at the follow-

ing simple expressions for the angular


X, y,

momentums
sin
<^,

of the gyrostat

about the

and

z axes respectively

:*

hx

loi

cos 0,

hy

lu

and

hz

/'O.

h^,, hy, and h, with respect to time (and remembering that co and 9, are assumed to be constant), we find that the rates at which the angular momentums change are and dhjdt = o. dhy/dt = Iol cos 0, dhx/dt = /a;12 sin

Differentiating these expressions for

(/>,

Now
is

consider the instant, or position of the gyrostat,

when

the spin-axis

NA

parallel to the x axis.

Then

<t>

o,

and the

rates respectively equal o,

/wS],

and

o;

these respectively are also the torques {T^, Ty, and

T^
that

of the exis

ternal forces about the %, y, and z axes,

when

</>

o (Art. 48)

Tx

o,

Ty

Ioi%

and

Tz

o.
it is

By means
that

of these results

and the following paragraph,


0,

shown

in 3

T,

Tp

o,

and
all

T=

/cofi,

(i)

where

Ts, Tp,

and

denote the torques of

the external forces about the


perpendicular.

axis of spin, the axis of precession, and their

common

For further information,

we

will

now

resort to the principle of the

motion

The mass-center describes a circle of the mass-center (Art. 34, page 159). of that point is always directed acceleration the hence speed; at constant and its value is rli^ where r circle, the of center the center to massfrom the
denotes radius of the
circle.

Now

let

M=

mass

of the gyrostat, Rr, Rp,

and

R3

the sums

of the
axis,

components

of all the external forces along the radius,


lines;

the precession

and the perpendicular to these two

then according

to the principle

named above
Rr

MrO^,

Rp

o,

and

i?3

o.

(2)

The

six

equations in
of

(i)

and

(2) are

the certain conditions referred to at the

page 249; they are applied in the following (i) Fig. 385 represents a side and end view of the armature Examples. The armature shaft is parallel to the of the motor of an electric locomotive. We will discuss the forces acting on the armature when the ties of the track. locomotive is rounding a curve. Inasmuch as we are not now concerned with

bottom

assume that the armature driven around the curve is spinning but under no load, the locomotive being by another locomotive. And for simplicity, we assume that there is no elevation of the outer rail, so that the precession of the armature is normal; that is,
the driving of the locomotive

by

this

motor we

will

In reducing the summations, the student should note that


Sm(b'-

c'-)

I,

^mia'

h"-)

I',

and

Sm&c = I,mca = T^mab = ^mb =

'^mc

o.

252

Chap, xi
axis of spin

we take the angle between the


to be 90 degrees.

and the

(vertical) precession-axis

radius of

We take the weight of the armature = 8000 pounds, its gyration =15 inches, its speed =750 revolutions per minute,

Art. 49
If the

253

armature were not spinning (co = o), or the car were running on a straight = o) then /c<j12 would equal zero, and hence the reactions Pi and Qi would equal 4000 pounds. Thus the effect of the spin and precession is to
track (^

and decrease the other by 670 -^ 4 = 168 pounds. This and decrease are called the gyrostatic couple or gyrostatic effect. The force P2 does not depend on the spin of the armature, only on the radius It is often described as the centrifof the curve and the velocity of the car.
increase one reaction increase

ugal effect.

which we assume to be rounding We assume that the a curve. We will determine the forces acting on them. were slipping if there wheels are "coned" so that there is true rolling; even
(2)

Fig. 386 represents a pair of car wheels

because of the excess length of the outer over the inner rail
be practically correct.
precession as normal.
axle),

our
and

results

would

We
Let

neglect the

tilt

of the track

so regard the

the weight of the wheels (including their

r = their radius, = curve, and / = of the radius the velocity of the center of gravity, R T' = of the components vertical the and gage of the track. Further let P Q = the transverse comH wheels; on the pressure of the outer and inner rails

M=

their mass, k

the radius of gyration of wheels,

ponent of the pressure of the outer rail. Besides these there are components along the rails with which we are not concerned. According to the last of
equations
(i),

P{R + y)+Q(Rand according


to the
first

hf)

-WR-Hr = MkWyRv,
P -f () = W.
and

two

of equations (2)

H = MVyR
_,
.

and

Solving these three simultaneously for

Q we

get

W MVh.MkWIRT

^~
The
first

_ MVh _ MkW^
Rf
Rrf

terms in these two expressions are due to gravity. The second terms are due to centrifugal action; they have the same values as if the wheels were skidding, that is, they do not depend on the spin of the wheels. The
third terras are due to gyrostatic action; the

components

of

and

which

they stand for constitute the so-called gyrostatic couple. In general, any system of forces can be 3. Gyrostatic Reaction. compounded into a single force acting through any desired point and a couple

(Art. 9).

Let us imagine

all

the forces acting on a gyrostat which

is

precess-

ing normally, to be
of

compounded

into a force acting through the mass-center

the gyrostat and a couple.

Let these be denoted by

F and C

respectively;

also let

and n respectively
per unit
time,

revolutions

= =

the

number

of precessional of

the weight

and spinning the gyrostat, and k = its

radius of gyration about the axis of spin.

2^4
It follows
(Fig. 384)

Chap, xi

from equations

(2),

that

is

directed from the mass-center

to

and

F=
When

MrS^2

(p^/g) r/^Trm\

(3)

F and C together, about the x, y, and s axes, and o respectively. But F has no torques about these axes; hence C has no torques about the x and 2 axes, and its torque about the pery axis equals /col]. Therefore the plane of the couple C is normal to the

0,

the torques of

must equal

o, /coO,

pendicular to the spin and precession axes, and

C = l0i^=
The
ofif

{W/g)

k^

4 TT^wiV.

(4)

be described as follows: Imagine a vector laid on the axis of spin to represent the direction of the spin; then the vector
sense of the couple

may

representing the couple at any instant

is

parallel to the position

which the

spin-vector will occupy at the end of a quarter of the precession period (time is See Fig. 384; required for one turn about the axis of precession).

NA

the spin-vector and

NB

is

the couple-vector.

From
The

the stated facts in regard to

F and

C,

it

should be plain that equa-

tions (i) are correct.

gyrostat exerts reactions on the bodies which exert forces upon it equal and opposite to those forces respectively. Hence those reactions are equivaand C denote a force and a couple respecand C, where lent to

tively equal

equation

i)

and opposite to F and C. Now F is independent of the spin (see but C depends on it. Hence C is called the gyrostatic (part of

the) reaction.

In the examples of the preceding section we determined the forces acting on Thus, certain gyrostats, and it is easy to pick out the gyrostatic reactions. and of forces 3832 4168 downward in example (i) the armature shaft exerts

and right-hand bearings as seen from the rear. As already pointed out each of these pressures is the resultant of two components, thus
pounds on
its left-

4000

+168

and 4000

168;

by

the second components are the gyrostat reaction, that is the couple denoted equal to C. In example (2) the car wheels exert downward pressures gyrostatic P and Q. The third components of these reactions constitute the

reaction of the wheels.

side (paddle) wheel

circumstances.

When

steam boat sustains gyrostatic reactions in certain such a boat is turning, the (pair of) paddle wheels and

shaft exert a gyrostatic couple

the boat

is,

say,

on the boat which makes the boat heel. When travelHng forward and turning to starboard, the couple heels the

boat to port.

when

she

is

Likewise a screw-propelled ship sustains a gyrostatic couple turning; it is due to the precession of the screw and shaft (and
so equipped).

turbine too

if

The

couple depresses the

bow

or stern depending

Art. 49

255
of turning of the ship

on the direction

and sense

of rotation of the screw.

It

has been suggested that the gyrostatic reactions to which (comparatively


torpedo-boat destroyers are subject
is,

frail)

may
J.

over-tax their strength.

The

fact

these reactions are quite insignificant


(see J.

which such boats withstand


page 531).

and

compared to other straining actions G. Gray's "Treatise on Dynamics,"


its propeller,

flying

machine

is

subjected to a gyrostatic reaction of

shaft

and engine when


circumstances.

turning or

when

describing any curved path.

When

turning,

the reaction tends to raise or depress the front of the machine, depending on the
Propellers being right-hand screws (turning clockwise

left. When he makes a dive the couple tends to advance machine on the right-hand side of the air man. The flight of a machine fitted with two screws which rotate in opposite directions is not thus Each propeller exerts a couple on interfered with by gyrostatic reactions. It has been suggested the machine but the two couples are always opposite. that gyrostatic reactions of propellers and motors may have been the cause

viewed from when he turns to the


the side of the

the rear), the front is raised (unless

prevented by the

air

when man)

of

some flying-machine

accidents.

However, a

well-built

machine can

safely

withstand such reactions even under conditions of legitimate quick diving

and turning.
seconds,
it

has been ascertained* that a loo-horse-power


1

Thus, for a dive or turn at the rate of one revolution in 20 speed Gnome motor
200 revolutions per minute

not stated, but probably about


184 foot-pounds.

exerts a gyro-

static couple of 140 foot-pounds;

and the

(suitable) propeller, a couple of

The

forces involved in the couples


of the engine

come upon the


shaft, f

flying

machine at the supports


*

and the propeller


for April, 1913.

M. O'Gorman
For a
full

in

The Aeronautical Journal

discussion of the subject of this article, consult Crabtree's Spinning Tops attd

Gyroscopic Motion.

CHAPTER
TWO DIMENSIONAL
50.
I.

XII
MOTION

(PLANE)

Kinematics

of

Plane Motion

Plane motion

is

a motion in which every point of the

remains at a constant distance from a fixed plane.

moving body Each point of the body

moves in a plane; that is, its motion is uniplanar. By plane of the motion is meant the plane in which the mass-center of the body moves. The wheels of a locomotive running on a straight track have plane motion also a book which A translation (Art. 35) may or is slid about in any way on the top of a table.
;

may

not be a plane motion; a rotation about a fixed axis (Art. 37)


all

is

always a

plane motion.

In a plane motion

points of the

ular to the plane of the


of this line

motion move

moving body which lie on a perpendicalike, and the motion of the projection

on the plane of the motion correctly represents the motion of all So also the motion of the projection of the moving body upon the plane of the motion correctly represents the motion of the body itself. Thus we have a plane figure (the projection just mentioned) moving in a plane representing a plane motion of a body; and since the motion of the plane Hereafter, figure is uniplanar, the motion of the body is called uniplanar. we will sometimes refer to the projection of the body as the body itself. By angular displacement of a body whose motion is plane is meant (as in rotation) the angle described by any line of the body which is in the plane of Obviously all such fines describe equal angles in the same inthe motion.
the points.
terval
of

time.

As

in

rotations also, displacements are

regarded as positive or negative according as they are due


to counter-clockwise or clockwise turning of the body.

Let

the irregular outline (Fig. 387) represent the projection of


the
^ ^

fine of the projection,

moving body on the plane of the motion, AB n. fixed and OX a fixed reference fine; also

let 6

denote the angle

XOA,
denote

it

being regarded as positive or negative ac-

cording as
clockwise.

OX, when turned about


If di

toward AB, turns counter-clockwise or

and final values of 6 corresponding to any motion of the body, then the angular displacement = 62 Oi = AG. If a body has a plane motion, its angular velocity is the time-rate at which its angular displacement occurs, and its angular acceleration is the time-rate at which its angular velocity changes. These definitions are precisely similar to those of the angular velocity and acceleration of a rotation about a fixed axis
62

and

initial

256

Art. 50

257
article

hence the expressions, units, and rules of signs given in that hold also for any plane motion. The expressions are
(Art. 37);
0)

dd/dt

and

do)/dt

d~d/df,
of the

CO

and a denoting angular velocity and acceleration


2.

moving body

re-

spectively.

Any

uniplanar displacement of a body can be accomplished by means

body followed by a rotation, or vice versa. Thus let AiBiCi (Fig. 3S8) be one position of a body ABC, and A2B2C2 a subsequent By means of a translation the body can be displaced so that one position.
of a translation of the

of its points

is

put into

its final

position;

thus a translation to A2b'c' puts

B,

...-

Fig. 388

into into

its final its final

position. position.

Then a rotation of Or, by means of a

the

rotation

body about A2 puts the body we can put the body into

an intermediate position Aib"c" so that each Hne in it will be parallel to its final position (in A2B2C2); and then the body may be put into its final position by a translation. Obviously, the translation and rotation might be performed
simultaneously.

The
occur

point (or axis) of the

body about which we imagine the rotation

to

is

called a base point (or base axis).

Fig. 388 also represents a displace-

ment from AiBiCi to A2B2C2, accompHshed with B as base point. A translation puts the body into the position B2a"'C", and a suitable rotation about B2 puts it into the final position B2A2C2. It is clear that the amount of the translation component depends on the base point; thus A1A2 is the translation for

as base point, while B1B2


of the rotation
is is

is

the translation for

as base point.

But

the

amount

point; thus the rotation

component does not depend on the base the angle ^'.42^2 for A as base point, and it equals
the rotation for

the angle a"'B2A2 which

The

successive small displacements of

B as base point. ABC from AiBiCi to A'B'C, A"B"C",

A2B2C2 (Fig. 389) already mentioned (and which altogether approximate to a continuous motion of ABC in which all points of the body move along smooth curves), can each be made by a small simultaneous translation and And if we take some one point as base point for all these small disrotation. placements then we may regard the motion as a continuous combined or
etc., to

2S8

Chap, xii

of the base point

simultaneous translation and rotation, the translation being like the motion and the rotation being about that point. In accordance

with this view, the velocity of any point of the moving body at any particular instant consists of two components, one corresponding to the translation and

one to the rotation.


velocity of

be the chosen base point, v' = the for the position of the body shown, and co = the angular velocity

Thus

let

(Fig. 390)

-.Bg

Ar'A'
Fig. 389

of the

body

at the instant under consideration.

Then the
v';

first

component

of

the velocity of any point

P
co

equals
is

v'

and

is

directed like

the second compo-

nent equals

rco

{r

= AP)

and

directed at right angles to


.

AP,

the sense

depending on the sense of


tion of
lation

(clockwise or counter-clockwise)

Also the accelera-

two components, one corresponding to the transmotion and one to the rotation. Thus let a' be the acceleration of the base point, and a = the angular acceleration of the body. Then the first component of the acceleration of any point Q equals a' and is
any point component
consists of
of the

-> 2 ft/sec/sec ^

8 -ft/sec

^"^^A

30.4

fi-Aec/sec

^""'"^A

Q w///m////////////////mMm^' ^
Fig. 391 Fig. 392
Fig. 393

directed like a'\ the second component we describe by means of two components, as in a rotation about a fixed axis (see Art. 37), one of which (the normal component) is directed along QA and the other (the tangential com-

ponent)

is

at right angles to

QA.
<3

The normal component

equals rur

{r

= AQ)

and
its

is

always directed from

to ^, toward the base point or center of the

rotational

component;

the tangential component equals

m, and

obviously

sense depends on the sense of the angular acceleration.

For a numerical example


6
feet,

let

the ends of which slide along the hues

us consider the motion of the bar AB (Fig. 391) OA and OB. Let the length of the bar --=
of
^4

and the velocity and acceleration

6 feet per second

and

2 teet

Art. 50

259

per second per second respectively (both toward the right) when Required the velocity and acceleration of P, 4 feet from A. degrees.
plain from the figure that 6 cos^

=
It

30
is

x;

hence,
or

where
co

6 sin

dd/dt

dx/dt,

6 sin

d'c^

v,

(i)

the angular velocity of the bar and v

velocity of

A
get

at

any

instant.

Differentiating the last equation with respect to time


-

we

6 6

(oj

cos d'dd/dt cos 6


-\-

+ sin d'doi/dt)
a,

dv/dt, or
(2)

(a;2

aimd) =

where a
Sit

the angular acceleration of the bar and a

the acceleration of

any

instant.

Now when 6 =

30", (i) gives

co

= 2

radians per second, and

a = 7.6 radians per second per second. The negative signs mean that CO and a are counter-clockwise, clockwise having been taken as positive for = 6, and 4 X w = 8 feet per Finally, the velocity components of P are 6. second as shown in Fig. 392; the acceleration components of P are a = 2, 4X0;= 30.4, and 4 X co^ = 16 feet per second per second as shown in
(2) gives
t>

Fig. 393-

uniplanar displacement of a body can be accomplished by means Thus consider the displacement of ABC from the position of a single rotation.
3.

Any

AiBiCito A2B2C2 (Fig.394). The points can be brought from ^1 to ^2 by means


B^
B,r-

^T

-vB

Fig. 394

Fig. 395

Fig. 396

AB about any point on the perpendicular bisector aO (of .4 1^2); and B can be brought from Bi to B2 by means of a single rotation oi AB about any point on the perpendicular bisector bO (of B1B2). If the intersection of the bisectors is taken for the center of rotation of both A and B, then the
of a rotation of

amounts

of the rotations (angles

A1OA2 and B1OB2)

are equal; hence, the line

AB

(and body

ABC)

can be displaced from one position to any other (uni-

planar displacement) by means of a single rotation as stated. In case the two bisectors coincide (Fig. 395), then the angles Bi and B2 are
equal and hence the lines AiBi and .42^2 extended intersect on the bisector ab

extended; this extension

is

the center of rotation

which would

disi)lace

AB

from AiBi to A2B2.

In case the bisectors are parallel (Fig. 396) the center of

26o
rotation
is

Chap. xi7
" at infinity,"

and the displacement

is

a translation; thus a uniplanar


infinity.

translation

may

be regarded as a rotation about a center at

from one position AiBi to another A2B2 (in which A and B describe smooth curves) can be closely duplicated by a succession of rotations of AB from AiBi (Fig. 389) into successive inter-

The

actual

continuous motion of

AB

mediate positions A'B', A"B",


tion
is

etc., until .42^2 is

reached.

made about

a definite center 0', 0",

etc. (not

shown).

Each small rotaThe closer these

intermediate positions are taken (and the more numerous and closer the centers
of rotation 0',

0"

etc.)

the more nearly do the successive rotations reproduce

the actual continuous motion.

"In the

limit," the actual

motion

is

repro-

duced by

the rotations, the centers of rotation forming a continuous line.


of a

Thus we may regard any uniplanar motion

body

as consisting of a con-

tinuous rotation about a center which, in general, is continuously moving. about which the moving body is rotating at any The position of the center
instant
is

called the instantaneous center of the

motion

for the particular instant

or position (of the body) under consideration, and the line through that center and perpendicular to the plane of the motion is called the instantaneous axis
of the

motion for that instant.

In general, the instantaneous center moves about in the body and in space. Its path in the body is called body centrode; its path in space the space cen-

Thus, in the case of a wheel rolling on a plane, the instantaneous center at any instant is the point of contact between the wheel and plane; the successive instantaneous centers on the wheel trace or mark out the circumtrode.

body centrode; the successive instantaneous centers mark out the track and this line is the space centrode. It can be shown that any plane motion may be regarded as a rolling of the body
ference

and

this line is the

in space trace or

centrode on the space centrode.

Now

in a rotation

about a fixed axis the velocities of

all

points of the

are proportional to the distances of the points from the axis of rotation,

body and

the velocities are respectively normal to the perpendiculars from the points to the axis (Art. 37); the velocity of any particular point is given by v = rw,

where
axis,

=
co

the velocity of the point, r

the distance of the point from the

and

the angular velocity of the body.


all

So too, in the case of a uni-

planar motion, the velocities of

points of the

body

at

any particular instant

are proportional to the distances of the points from the instantaneous axis (corresponding to that instant); the velocities are respectively normal to the

perpendiculars from the points to the instantaneous axis; and the velocity v of any particular point is given by z^ = rw, where r = the distance from the

point to the axis and

co

the angular velocity of the body.

By means
center for

of the foregoing velocity relations,

we can

locate the instantaneous

moving body if the directions of the velocities of two of its points are given; and then if the value of one velocity is given we can compute the angular velocity of the body and the velocity of any other
any given position
of the

point.

For an example we

will consider the

connecting rod of an engine {BC,

Art. 51
Fig. 397), in the position

261

Since the velocity of the point

shown, the speed being 100 revolutions per minute. B of the rod is along the tangent to the crank-

pin circle at B, the instantaneous center of the

connecting rod
at B, that
is

is

on the normal to the tangent

on

AB

or. its

extension;

and
is

since

the velocity of the point

of the rod

along
C'
-pic
\

AC, the instantaneous center is on the normal Hence the instantaneous center is at the to AC. intersection O. Now velocity oi B 2 t Y. AB
(to scale)

X 100 = 2000 feet per minute; hence, the angular velocity of the = 2000 -^ OB (to scale) = 185 radians per minute. The velocity of C = OC (to scale) X 185 =1110 feet per minute.
rod
51.

I.

Kinetics of Plane Motion

mass-center (Art. 34)

General Principles. From the we may write at once

principle of the

motion of the

^F, = Ma,,
where SF^,
'ZFy,

HFy = May,

and

SF, =

o;

(i)

ternal forces

and HF^ = the algebraic sums of the components of the exacting on the body along three rectangular lines, the third one

being at right angles to the plane of the motion, a, and ay respectively

the

= the mass X and y components of the acceleration of the mass-center, and of the body. In addition to the above, we have another simple relation
(established later),

f=
where

la

Mk'-a

(2)

denotes the torque of

all

the external forces about the line through

the mass-center and perpendicular to the plane of the motion, J


of
inertia of

the

moment

the

body about the

line

just mentioned,

~k

the radius of

gyration of the body about that hne, and

moving body. Systematic units (Art. and (2). But we may substitute W/g for = the weight of the (where body and g = the acceleration due to gravity) and then use any convenient units for force (and weight), length, and time. To derive equation (2), let Fig. 398 represent the moving body, C be the mass-center, a = the acceleration of C, 00 and a = the angular velocity and

a = the angular acceleration of the 31) must be used in equations (i)

acceleration respectively of the body.

Further, let Pi, P2,


Vi, r^,

etc.,

be particles of

the body; mi, m^,


line
etc.,

etc.,

their masses;

etc.,

their distances

through

C and

perpendicular to the plane of the motion;


all

from the and Ri, R2,

the resultants respectively of

the forces acting on Pi, P^, etc.

We

regard the motion as consisting of a translation Uke the motion of C and a rotation about the " base axis " through C. Then the acceleration of Pi can
will

be regarded as consisting of three components,

a, ria,

and

rico-

as indicated;

likewise the acceleration of P2 can be regarded as consisting of three

com-

262
ponents,
a, r^a, riw-;

Chap,

xn

etc.

Therefore, the resultant Rx consists of three comWirio;- directed like the

ponents wia, wiria, and


similarly, the resultant

corresponding accelerations;
n^fl, nhT^a,

Ri consists of

three components
etc.

and

m^r-ior
all

directed like the corresponding accelerations;


forces acting

Now

the torque of
of Ri,

the

on Pi
all

the torque of the (three)

components

similarly,

the torque of

the forces acting on P2

the torque of the (three) com-

ponents of R2;

etc.
r.a

Hence, the torque of all the forces acting

on

all

the

Fig. 3g8

Fig. 399

particles (external

the components (as nia, mra,

the internal forces

and internal forces acting on the body) = the torque of and mm^) of all the resultants Ri, R2, etc. Since occur in pairs of equal, opposite, and colinear forces, they
first

contribute nothing collectively to the

torque just mentioned.

It

is

plain

from the figure that the normal components mirioj-, nhVoj^-, etc., have no torque about the (base) axis. Since the resultant of the components WiO, fn^, etc., passes through the mass-center (Art. 35), they have no torque about the axis. The torque of the remaining set of components is
Wi^iari
(see Art. 36).

+ miTiari +
(i)

= al
(2).

Three Special Cases.


stant in

T = /a, or equation When the velocity of amount and direction {a = o), the torque of
Hence, we have

the mass-center

is

con-

the external forces about

any
line

line

angular velocity

iii) When the perpendicular to the plane of the motion equals la. is constant (a = o), the torque of the external forces about a

equals zero.

through the mass-center and perpendicular to the plane of the motion {Hi) When a and a = o, the torque of the external forces about
perpendicular to the plane of the motion equals zero. Required the value of P for starting a wheel (Fig. 399a) i.

any

line

Examples.
or stopping
right.

it

(Fig. 399b).

The

figures

show the wheel

rolling

toward the

In the two figures respectively, the angular accelerations are clockwise and counter-clockwise; hence the friction F on the wheels act as shown, and F = \D = Mk~a. And since the accelerations a of the mass-center are

toward the right and


a

left respectively,
it

ra.

From] these equations,

follows that
is

P - F = Ma iox each P = M (i +
i

figure.
a.

Also

k'^/r'^)

the "effective inertia " of a rolling wheel


skidding, for in the latter case

k'^/r'^

times

its inertia

Thus when

P Ma.

Art. 51
It is required to discuss the rolling of a

263

2.

homogeneous cylinder on an

inclined plane.
of its bases

Let the weight of the cylinder

200 pounds, the diameter

3 feet,

and the

inclination of the plane

25 degrees.

Further,

we assume
is

that the cylinder and plane do not distort each other, so that there

only line-contact between them and no "rolling resistance" (Art. 52); also

that the surfaces in contact are sufficiently rough to prevent slipping so that

the roUing

is

perfect.

There are only two external forces acting on the


Wj
^

rolling

Fig. 400

Fig. 401

cylinder, its

own weight and

the reaction of the plane, but the latter

is

repre-

sented by two components,

and F,

in Fig. 400.

Since the mass-center


ay

moves in a (i) become

line parallel to the incline, ax

a,

and

o;

hence equations

200 sin 25

F=
=

(200 -^ 32.2) a,
o,

200 cos 25

and

0.

The second equation shows that iV = 181 pounds. The first equation contains two unknowns (F and a) and does not furnish the value of either of them;
so

we

resort to equation (2).

Since ^

| 1.51.

1.125 (see Art. 36), equa-

tion (2)

becomes

FX

1.5

(200 -^ 32.2)

125

oc.

Now we
ditional

have two equations but three unknowns, and so we need an adthis is given by the (simple) relation between a and a. Since there is no slipping, the displacement s of the mass-center in any interval of time and the angular displacement 6 of the cyUnder for that interval are = 1.5 (6 in radians and s in feet); hence d^s/df^ = i-5 d^O/df^, related thus:
equation;
.j

or a

1.5 a.

Substituting 1.5 a for a in the


V\^ith

first

equation and then solving

simultaneously

the fourth,

second (o
3.

=
is

9.07 feet

a = per second per second) and

we

find that

6.05 radians per second per

F =

28. 2

pounds.

It

is

required to discuss the forces acting on a rolling wheel whose center

of gravity

not in the axis of the wheel, the speed of rolling being maintained

uniform by a suitable horizontal force


wheel, r

(Fig. 401).

Let

W=
A

weight of the

radius,

and

gravity C;

further let 6

= the distance from its = the angle between AC

center

to the center of

position of the wheel under consideration.

and the horizontal in the There are three forces acting on


for

the wheel, P,

W, and

the reaction of the

by two components

A^

and

F).

Equations
~a,

roadway (represented (i) become

convenience

P- F =

(Pf /g)

and

N-W

{W/g)

ay.

264
Since the angular velocity
is

^^p- ^^
constant,

o,

and equation

(2)

becomes

(r

+ c sin 6)

Nc

cos d

Pc

sin d

o.

These equations contain five unknowns {P, F, N, Ux, and ay), and so we need other equations. Obviously the relations between a^, ay, and d furnish
the additional equations.
sisting of a translation

To

determine these
as base point

let

us regard the rolling as con.

with

since

A moves

uniformly, the acceleration of

Then and a rotation about A the translational component = o;

and there being no angular acceleration, the acceleration of the rotational component of the motion of C is wholly radial (along CA) and equals cor. Hence a equals cw^ and is directed from C to .4 and
;
'

a^

ceo-

cos

0,

and

ay

coi"^

sinQ.

Substituting these values of a^ and ay in the


ing them simultaneously with the third

first

two equations, and

solv-

we

find that

For

CO

we may

write 2

ttw,

where n

the

number

of turns of the

wheel per

unit time.

from the foregoing results that P and F are always opposite; act as shown whenever the center of gravity C is on the left of that P and 90) the vertical through the center A id between 90 and F act opposite to the directions indicated in the figure when C is on the right
It follows

that

and

of the vertical

through
90)

that

always acts upward unless cor

sin 6 is

greater than g;

that the greatest value of

low
the

{d

-=-

and then

N=W

(i

N +

obtains

when C

is

vertically be-

coi'^/g).

This excess TFccoVg over

W in

the value of

is

called "

hammer blow

" in locomotive parlance, but

hammer blow

of a locomotive driving wheel

depends also upon the side

rods attached to the wheel (see Art. 35).

Referring to equations (i), Independence of Translation and Rotation. depending on the rotaterm page 261, it will be noted that they contain no show that the motion therefore, they tion of the body about the mass-center;
of the mass-center
is

entirely independent of the rotation

about that point.

And as already pointed out (Art. 34), the acceleration of the mass-center is the same as though the entire body were concentrated at the mass-center and
the external forces were applied at that point parallel to their actual lines Equation (2) contains no term depending on the motion of the of action. mass-center; therefore, the rotation of the body about the mass-center is
all

independent of any motion of the mass-center itself. And on comparing equations (2) with the equation of motion for rotations about fixed axes
(Art. 37), it

becomes plain that the external

forces produce rotation about a

free (moving) axis through the mass-center as though that axis were fixed. Thus we have complete independence of translation (of mass-center) and

rotation (about mass-center).

Art. 51

265

apply the principle of independence to explain center of Let percussion; Art. 48 includes an explanation based on other principles. center its and C surface, horizontal on a AB (Fig. 402) be a prismatic bar lying Now imagine the bar to be struck a blow in the line of gravity.

To

illustrate

we

will

other forces acting on the bar are gravity and the supporting force of the surface; these produce no appreciable The motion produced, effect on the motion during the blow.
F.

The only

ra
\

therefore, consists of a translation as

though the blow

acted

-k-

through the mass-center, and a rotation about the mass-center Any point beyond C as though the mass-center were fixed.
gets a velocity toward the right due to the translation,
velocity toward the left due
ticular point these

__^

and a
Fig. 402

to the rotation.

For some par-

two

velocities are equal

hence

if

the bar were pivoted there,

and opposite, and the pivot would feel no pressure from the

bar during the blow.

For such a point, G is the center of percussion. Let us = mass of the now find where this pivot point is. For that purpose let perpendicular to through C line = the about gyration its radius of bar, k mass-center, R the be F about = blow the of arm the the supporting surface,/

the pivot point,

its

distance from C, a

the average acceleration of the

the average angular acceleration of the body during the blow, mass-center, = the duration of the blow. The velocities of R due to the translation and and rotation respectively equal a At and raAt. Now

a =

= F/M

and

Ff/Mk^l

therefore, for the pivot point

we have

(f/M)
That
is,

At

= r{Ff/Mt)

At,

or

fr

= t.

r2
yfe

//.

For a given pivot the distance of the center of percussion

from the center


Art. 48.

of gravity is/

/r,

which agrees with the

result reached in

Kinetic Energy of a

body,

W=

its

= the mass of the Let Body with Plane Motion. weight, 7 = its moment of inertia about a line through the

mass-center perpendicular to the plane of the motion, k = its radius of gyration about the same Une, v = the velocity of the mass-center, and co = the

angular velocity of the body.

Then

the kinetic energy of the

body equals
(I)

im' + hr<^'=h (w/gw + \


The
latter is the

{wig)k

i^\

more convenient form generally


(feet

for use in a numerical case.

per second per second), then the foot and second should be adhered to as units of length and time; co should be expressed in be ex-pressed in pounds, tons, etc., then the result radians per unit time. If
If g is

taken as 32.2

will

be in foot-pounds, foot-tons,

etc.

266

Chap,

xn

if its

first term of (i) equals the kinetic energy which the body would have motion were one of translation with velocity equal to v; and the second term equals the kinetic energy which it would have if its motion were one of rotation about a fixed axis through the mass-center and perpendicular to the plane

The

Hence the kinetic energy of a of the motion. body with any plane motion may be regarded as consisting of two parts; they are called translational and rotational. The following is a derivation of the preceding
formula after the view that a plane motion
is

combined translation and a rotation (Art. 50, 2). its Let Fig. 403 represent the moving body, mass-center, and P any other point of the body. Fig. 403 Also let r = the distance of P from the fine perpendicular to the plane of the motion, and v = the velocity of P. through Then v is the resultant of v and rw as indicated. The angle QPS = 90 0), where /3 and 6 are the angles which v and OP respectively make with (iS
the X
axis.

Therefore
^)2

^2

_|_

^2^2

_|_

^/-co

sin (^

6),

and the

kinetic energy of the entire

body (2 ^ mv~) equals


(sin

I v'^^m

+ I w-Swr- + 2
(see

I'co

/SSwr cos

cos ^ Hmr sin 9).

Now r cos 6 and r sin 0,


mass-center;

respectively, equal the

Swr COS0 = 2wx = xHm

and since x = Hence the foregoing expression

x and y coordinate of P. Hence page 158), x denoting the x coordinate of the Similarly, Swr sin 9 ^ o. o, '^mr cos 9 = o.
for the kinetic

energy reduces to

The

follo\Adng is a derivation

based on the view that any plane motion con-

a succession of instantaneous rotations (Art. 50, 3). Let / ^ the moment of inertia of the body about that Hne which is the (instantaneous)
sists of

axis of rotation at the instant in question, d

the distance from that axis to

the mass-center, p
z^

the distance of any point


(as

of the

body from the


of

axis,

velocity
v

of

before),

and

co

angular velocity

the

body.

Then

pw,

and the

kinetic energy of the

body

is

SI mv^ =
This
ally,
is

\ w-2wp2

/aj2

(2)

(2)

a much simpler ex-pression than (i) but not so convenient to use generbecause / refers to an axis not fixed in the body. It remains to reduce According to the parallel axis theorem (Art. 36, 2), / = / to (i).

Md-\ hence
|/a;2

/co2

+ i M{d

a))2

/co2

+ i .1/^'

Art. 51

267
will

For an example we
rolling

compute the
Let

kinetic energy of a solid cylinder

on a plane

surface.

W=

weight of cylinder,

D=

its

diameter,

and n = number of turns iW/g)D~ V = tDh,

of the cylinder per unit time.


(see Art. 36),

7=1

and

co =-

im.

Then Hence

M=

W/g,

the kinetic

energy of the cylinder equals i (W/g)TrWhl'

+i

(W/g)TrWhi\
is

Thus
is

it

appears that two-thirds of the energy

translational

and one-third

rotational.
2.

= weight of Let Dynamics of a Simple Moving Vehicle. wheel (in= each of weight the if any; w load, its and vehicle of the body the cluding one-half of the axle if the wheels are rigidly mounted on their axles)
k
r

= radius of gyration of wheel = radius of wheel; n = number


kinetic energy of each wheel

(with one-half of axle in case mentioned);


of wheels;
is

and

=
(i

velocity of the vehicle.

The

(w/gy

+ h (Wg)k' (v/ry =

i (w/g)
is

+ k^r^y.

Hence the

kinetic energy of the entire vehicle

47"^
Comparing
this expression

VW

nw
g

-^)}

with that for the kinetic energy of a body with a

motion of translation, we see that the motion of the entire vehicle may be regarded as one of translation provided that the weight of the vehicle is taken nw (i -\- k^/r-). For modern freight cars r = 16.5 inches and equal to

W+

= 0.35. Therefore the "effective in9.5 inches (about); hence k-/r^ ertia " of the wheels when rolling is about one-third greater than when at rest
k

or skidding.

Fig. 404 represents a vehicle, as a railroad car, being Height of Draw Bar. dragged on a level track by a pull P. The other external forces acting on the

W
/
N

^-tr

ra^
77777?7;77T^'777777777777777m777777777777/l^.

"-5^5^
h
\

Fig. 404

Fig. 406

car are gravity iyV

-f-

nw) and the reactions

of the rails

on the wheels (each


In Fig. 405 there are
in Fig.

represented represented

by
all

its

horizontal and the external forces acting on one wheel,

vertical components).

406 those
repre-

acting on the car body.

The

pressures between axles


vertical

and bearings are

sented

by

their

horizontal and

components; axle

friction is disregarded.

Let a

the acceleration of

the car;

then the angular acceleration of the

268
wheels

Chap, xii

a/r.

Consideration of the forces on the wheel, equation

(2),

page

261, shows that

Fr

= -h?g
r

or
i,

F =

g
(.

-a.

r^

We

have also (according to equations

page 261)

e-. = ^a,
(W/g)a, or

or

e=

+ !>
P nQ =

Consideration of the forces acting on the car body shows that

la.

When
sures.

applied high up on the car,

tends to raise the rear end, decreasing

the rear vertical axle pressures and increasing the forward vertical axle pres-

When
now

applied low,
certain line,

applied in

some

P produces the opposite effect. Obviously, when P has no such effect on the vertical axle pressures.

let h = its height above the plane of the axes and H = the height of the center of gravity of the car body and its load above that plane. When the car is at rest {P and Q = o), the (vertical) pressures of the axles on the car body take on certain values. If, when P (and nQ) act on the car body, their resultant acts through the center of gravity, then those forces do not tend to rotate the car body and do not affect vertical pressures of or on the axles already mentioned. Thus,

We

will

locate that line;

of the axles,

to provide against extra loading or unloading of axles

by

(draw-bar

effect),

and nQ about the transverse horizontal line through the center of gravity of the car body (and load) should balance. That is, we should have P{H - h) = nQH,' or
the

moments

of

H
+
(nw/W)
(i

+ k^/r^)

52,
I.

Rolling Resistance
roller is
its

Rollers. In the present connection a


former has no axle but takes
its

taken to

differ

from
its

a wheel (of a vehicle) in that the latter sustains


axle, while the

load indirectly through

load directly.

When

a roller

(or wheel) is

made

to

roll,

it

experiences
it rolls.

more or

less resistance

from the
resist-

track (or roadway) upon which

Obviously the amount of this

ance depends in large part on the nature of the surfaces in contact and on the

amount

of the pressure

between them.

In the case of an inelastic roadway


is

{A, Fig. 407) the roller leaves a rut,

and there and

a continual expenditure of

energy in thus (permanently) deforming the track as well as against friction

due to actual rubbing between

roller
is

track.

In the case of an elastic


roller

roadway

(B,

Fig. 407)

also,

there

rubbing between the

and the

deforming and recovering portions of the track and consequently friction

Art. 52
loss.*

269
In any case there
the
is

expenditure of energy against the (internal) friction

in portions of

roller

and track which are deforming or recovering.!

Let

R=

the resultant reaction of the track

on the

roller.

Obviously the point of apis

plication of

on the surface

(or arc) of
it

contact between wheel and roadway; and


will

be shown presently that this point is in front of the vertical diameter of the roller,
the roadway supposed to be horizontal.

The
is

distance from this point to the diameter


sistance;

called the coefficient of rolling reof the coefficient

we

will

denote

it

by

c,

and express numerical values

in

Obviously the coefficient of rolling resistance depends on the nature of the wheel and roadway, and is greater for yielding surfaces than for It would seem that the coefficient depends on the load but in rigid ones.
inches.

certain cases at least the coefficient


coefficient
is

is

not influenced

much by
way
in

it.

The
also

claimed to be independent of the radius of the

roller;

that

it

varies as the square root of the radius.

The

precise

which the

with the conditions named has not been established. Below we give some of the meager ex-perimental data relating to the matter. Coulomb seems to have made the first ex-periments to determine coefficients The following are his results for of rolUng resistance.
coefficient varies

Lignum
Load.

Vit.e

Rollers on Oak "Pieces"

270

Chap, xii

In these experiments, increasing the length of bearing from 0.97 to 2.94 (about triple) more than halved the coefficient. Thus it appears that the
coefficient

depends on the loading per unit length of contact between

roller

and roadway.

But the

coefficient

probably does not decrease indefinitely

with increase of length of contact.

For some conditions the


radius of the roller, that
is

coefficient

seems to vary as the square root of the

</)

V7,
Dupuit gives the

where

<f>

is

another coefficient and r

radius of the roller.

following average values:

Wood on wood
Iron on moist Iron on iron

0.0069
.0063

wood

.0044
.19

Wheel on macadam
For the conditions
that
is c

of his experiments,* Prof. C. L. Crandall takes the co-

efficient of rolling resistance as

proportional to the square root of the radius,

i, 2, 3 and whose length was i inch. Plates and rollers were used as they came from the plane and lathe; were not polished or filed. Loads varied from 350 to 2500 pounds per linear inch in contact. The coefficient did not seem to vary much with load; with
r.

Roller plates used were i| inches thick; rollers


all

4 inches in diameter,

i| inches long except the

first

materials

it

varied as follows:

Cast iron

=
iron

0.0063
.0120
-0073

Wrought
Steel

These values

refer to cast-iron plates;

for wrought-iron plates they should


steel plates

be increased about 13 per cent, and for

they should be decreased

by that amount.
Fig.

408 represents in principle the device used by Coulomb to determine

the coefficient of rolling resistance.

W=

weight of

roller,

Wi and W2 =
adjusting the

weights of suspended bodies as shown.


difference

By

Wi and W2 the roller was made to roll quite uniformly. When rolling at constant speed, the reaction R of the track on the roller is vertical, and R = W -\- Wi + W^between
Also there
is

no resultant torque on the

roller;

hence the

moment
and

of

must be counter-clockwise

(in this illustration),

so the point of application of


roller (as stated).

is

in front of the vertical

diameter of the

It follows that (IF2

W\)

/ = Re = (W + Wi -hW2)c; or c = / (W2 - Wi)/iW + Wi-\from which


c

W2),

can be computed
* Trans.

easily.
Soc. C.E., Vol. 32, p. 99 (1894).

Am.

Art. 52
Fig.

27

two

rollers

409 represents in principle the device used by Crandall. There were under load (and a third one to preserve stability only), and three

plates as shown.
testing machine;

The lower
to a force

plate

was supported on the weighing table


start the plate.

of a

load was applied on the upper plate; and then the middle

plate plate

was subjected was subjected

P sufficient to

Thus the middle


shown.

to the reactions of the

two main

rollers, inclined as

Plate

Plate

w
\-^^
'

'

1-^>

Plate
"'^'//////////////A'

'^'//?^/i(J/////W///////7//tp////////////m/^///////'

Fig. 409

Fig. 410

Let

R=

these reactions (nearly equal),

and

their inclination to the vertical.

Then, evidently,
hence

P=

2 i? sin ^

Rclr^ and Rco&d

W or R = W nearly;
as

P=
Let
6
r

Wc/r

and

Pr/W.
shown
in Fig. 410.

Rollers are generally used for

moving a heavy load


Ri, R2, etc.,

radius of rollers,

their coefficient of rolHng resistance

(assumed

same

for top

and bottom contacts),

the reactions of the rollers,

their 'inclinations to the vertical,

mo\'e the load.

Then since

is

small,
-{-

W = load, and P = the pull required to = W (nearly) + +


(i?i

-^2

and

since sin d

c/r,

P=

(Ri

R2

-\-

c/r.

Hence

P=
2.

Wc/r.

Rolling Wheel.
is

The

general nature of rolling resistance in the

roller. rolHng wheel of a vehicle experiences axle friction as well as rolling resistance,* and few experiments have been made to determine them separately. For cast-iron wheels 20 inches in

case of a wheel

hke that against a

diameter on cast-iron

rails

coefficient of rolling resistance c

Weisbach and Rittinger, respectively, found for the = 0.0183 and 0.0193 inches.f For an iron

railroad wheel 39.4 inches in diameter,


inches.

Pambour

gives c

0.0196 to 0.0216

(i) Wheel without Axle Friction. We assume the velocity to be constant. Of course a force must be applied to the wheel to maintain the velocity; we assume it to be applied to the axle of the wheel as shown in Fig. 411, and,

for simplicity,

that the axle

is

frictionless.

Let

D =

diameter of wheel,

P=

driving force,

W = weight

roadway, and Rh and 7? = Fig. 411b and c). Rh is the "rolling resistance."
* See Baker's

and load upon it, R = reaction of the horizontal and vertical components of R (see
of wheel
for full information
friction).

Roads and Pavements

on

total resistance to traction oi

vehicles (due to roUinR resistance

and axle

t Coxe's translation of Weisbach's Mechanics.

272
Since there
is

Chap, xii

no angular acceleration, the

(resultant) torque

on the wheel
It

equals zero (see Art. 51) and

acts through the center of the wheel.

Fig. 411

follows that the line of action of

cuts the rim of the wheel in front of the

vertical diameter of the wheel as shown,

and

of course within the arc of con-

tact of wheel

and roadway.
is

The

distance of this point

on the rim to the

vertical diameter

the coefficient of rolling resistance, already denoted


is

by c
P,
(2)

Because the torque of the three forces (P, W, and R)


distance between

zero,

and the
since

vertical

and

is

nearly,

| Z)

= Wc;

and

Rh

R^

P= W

c/D.
of the

The work
is

overcome the rolling resistance per turn equal to the work done by the driving force P per turn. But
required to

wheel

this latter is

plainly

PirD,
(ii)

or

2 TTC.

(3)

Wheel with Axle Friction. Fig.


say,

412 represents the wheel, of a horse-

drawn vehicle

moving

at a constant speed

toward the

right.

In addition

to the foregoing notation, let d

diameter of axle,

W = weight

of wheel,

Q=
(see

resultant pressure of the axle on the wheel, Qh


tical

and Qv the horizontal and ver-

shown but their inclinations to the verFig. 412b shows R resolved at A into its horitical are much exaggerated. zontal and vertical components, and Q resolved at its point of application Fig. 412c shows into its normal and frictional components N and F; F fQ. Q replaced by Qh and Qv at the center of the wheel, and a couple C; the
Art. 45).

components R and

of Q,

act

and / the somewhat

coefficient of axle or journal friction

as

moment

oi

is

d.

Since the speed

is

constant,

Rh

Qh

and

Rh

D^

R,c

+ F\d.

{Continued on page 27 g.)

Art. 53

273
53.

Relative Motion

We can specify position of a point I. Motion Relative to a Point. only by means of a set of reference axes or some other equivalent base described or implied in the specification.

Thus when we say

io| degrees west and 3 degrees north of Washington the cities regarded as points we are really specifying the position of the former city with reference to the meridian and the parallel through Washington. But we say

that Chicago

is

briefly that the specification is relative to

that a

moving ship A

is

Washington. 40 miles east and 50 miles north

So too when we say


of another ship -B at of the meridian

certain instant,

we

are specifying position of

A by means

and

the parallel through


cation
is

at the instant in question; but

we say

that the specifi-

relative to B, the coordinate axes being understood.

Being small

compared to the distances mentioned (40 and 50 miles), the ships were regarded as mere points. If, however, the ships were
at close quarters, then to describe the position of

relative to

would specify the position of at least two points in A (bow and stern for example) relative to axes fixed in B, as indicated in Fig. 415, say. Even if B were turning about, we would still use those axes to specify subsequent positions of A relative to B. For the present we will deal with position (and
point

B we

'

^^^

motion) of points (or bodies regarded as mere points) relative to another base not body and it should be understood that the coordinate axes,

though moving with the base point, remain fixed in direction. Let the points o, i, 2, 3, etc. (Fig. 416), on the lines aa and bb be the positions

274 Taking points


o; i, 2, etc.,

Chap,

xn

on the

line cc (Fig. 416) as the positions (relative

C at the hours mentioned, we have the following tabulation of the coordinates of the positions of A relative to C from which the path of A relative to C (Fig. 418) was constructed. Thus it is clear that in
to the lighthouse) of a third ship

general the path of a


point.

moving point depends on the point

of reference or base

Time

(hours)

East (degrees)

North (degrees)

Art. 53
2-3 of Fig. 420.

275

Apparently these vectors are equal and parallel (also opposite) and it seems that such displacement vectors would be equal, parallel, and If this be true, then opposite for any interval of time.
it

follows that the rates at which these displacements occur (the relative velocities) are equal and opposite at each

instant;

and

if

the velocities are always equal and oprates of

-E

posite then

change (the relative accelerations) are also equal and opposite at each instant. To prove that displacements such as mentioned in the
their

preceding illustration are equal and opposite, we will use Suppose that the pencils A and the glass-board illustration.
at the middle

Fig. 420

are attached

points of the glass

and board respectively, and that at a certain instant glass and board are in the positions shown at (i) in Fig. 421, and at a later instant in positions shown at (2); the table is not shown. Ai and Bi and A2 and

A) B2 are the corresponding positions of the pencil points. During this displacement, A will have traced some such
line as

A'A2 and

the line B'B2.

A^A'
is

is

equal and

parallel to B1B2;

hence A1B1B2A'

a parallelogram,

and A'B2 and AiBi are equal and parallel. BiB' is equal and parallel to ^1^12; hence BiA^A^B' is a parallelogram, and B'A2 and BiAi are equal and parallel. It follows that A'B2B'A2 is a parallelogram, and so A'A2 and B'B2 are equal and parallel. That is, the
421

displacement of

relative to

(chord A'Ai)

is

equal

and parallel to the displacement of

relative to

(chord B'Bi).

Obviously

the senses of the displacements are opposite. Motions of Two Points Relative to a Third Point.

For convenience we

re-

gard the third point as fixed, and call velocities and accelerations relative to that point as absolute. To illustrate this case we will modify the glass-

board apparatus as follows: Imagine another pencil a


glass plate so
it

rigidly fastened to the

presses against the table as

extended downward so
the glass and board are
of

and

relative to

shown directly under A, and B that its lower end b presses on the table. Then when moved about without turning, a and b draw the paths any (third) point as C on the table; and as already
arise:
(a)

stated,

A and B draw

their paths relative to each other.

In this case two problems


of the second;

Given the velocity

(or acceleration) of

a point relative to a second point, and the absolute velocity (or acceleration)
point,

(b)

Given the absolute

required the absolute velocity (or acceleration) of the first velocities (or accelerations) of two points;

required the velocity (or acceleration) of either of the the other.


(a)

two points

relative to

To do this problem we merely


first

velocity (or acceleration) of the

need to add (vectorially) or compound, the point relative to the second and the abso,

276
lute velocity (or acceleration) of the second;

Chap,

xii

the

sum

is

the desired quantity.

To

justify this solution

we

first

ment

of the first point relative

show that the (vector) sum of the displaceto the second and the absolute displacement
first,

of the

second point equals the absolute displacement of the


velocities (and accelerations) are related as
let

all

dis-

placements being taken for any interval of time.


tive

It will follow that the rela-

and absolute
Let

above stated.

Referring to our glass-board-table device,


respectively.

B, and

be the three points

at the beginning

(i) and (2), Fig. 421, be the positions of glass and board and end of any interval, as before. Then A'Ao is the dis-

placement
of

of

relative to
is

as explained; ^1-62

is

the absolute displacement

B; and A1A2

the absolute displacement of ^.

quadrilaterals in the figure are parallelograms; hence the vector

As already shown, the sum oi A'A2

and B1B2 equals A1A2. (b) Let A and B be the


(or acceleration) of

first

two points and

the third, and the velocity

relative to

the desired quantity.

According to

(a),

the absolute velocity (or acceleration) of

A =
to
(or

the vector

sum

of

//

the velocity (or acceleration) of


relative

A
B.

and the absolute


acceleration)
of

velocity

Therefore the (desired) velocity (or


acceleration) acceleration)
is

such a velocity (or

which when
(or

added
of
Vb
if

vectorially to the absolute velocity

acceleration)
let Va

5 =

the absolute

velocity (or acceleration) of A.

For example

and
then

(Fig. 422)

be the

absolute velocities (or accelerations) of

A and B;

OM

and

ON

be

drawn

to represent Va

and

respectively,

NM will

represent the velocity (or

acceleration) of

relative to B.

The problem can be


of the

solved also on the basis of the principle that

if

we add

equal velocities (or accelerations) to the absolute velocities (or accelerations)

two points we do not change the


Va

velocities (or accelerations) of either

of the points relative to the other.


will

Thus, taking the preceding example, we


Vb is

add to

and

Vb

a velocity equal and opposite to

(Fig. 423);

then

the

new

Vb

o and the
velocity of

new

to C, the
to B.
2.

new

= NM. A relative to C
Va

Since
is

now B

at rest relative

also the velocity of

relative

Motion or a Point Relative to a Body.


moving point

As explained

specify the positions of a

relative to another

in i, we moving point by

means
body.

of reference axes of fixed directions through the second point, but its

positions relative to a

moving body by means

of reference axes fixed in the

See illustrations of the ships.


is

Then

the path of a point relative to

a body

the fine through the successive positions of the point relative to

the body.

Thus, to

illustrate, consider

again the glass-board-table appara-

tus (Fig. 419).

When

both the glass and board are rolled about in any way,

Art. 53

277

the pencil

traces a line

on the board, and that

line is the

path of

relative

to the board.

By

velocity of a point relative to a


its

moving body

is

meant the

rate at

which

the point traverses

path relative to the body at the instant in question. By acceleration of a point relative to a moving body is meant the rate at which the velocity of the point relative to the body is changing at the instant
in question.

When
of

a point

P is moving
sum

relative to

a moving body

then the absolute velocity

equals the vector

of

its relative velocity

and

the absolute velocity of that

point of

with which

coincides at the instant in question.

For simplicity of

proof
point

we take the

pencil

of the glass-board-table apparatus as the

moving

and the board


is

as the

moving body B.
Let Bdi

Since

and

have plane

motion, the proof

not general.

(Fig. 424)

be the position of

at

Fig. 424

a particular time

/i,

and Bdi the position

of

5 at a
is
ti

later

time

^2;

also

Pi and P2

respectively, the positions of

at those times.

Let
at

M be the point of B with


(under Pi)
;

which
/2,

P
is

coincides at time
at M2.

ti.

At time

/i,

is

Mi

and at time

Then

for the interval

t^

the absolute displacement of

is

PiP2;
of

the relative displacement of

P
=

M2P2; and the absolute displace-

ment

is

M1M2.

Obviously P1P2

M'2P2

+ MiM^

(vectorially).

Since

this relation holds for

any

interval, the rates at

which these displacements occur


is,

(velocities) are related in the


its relative

same way; that

the absolute velocity of

P=

velocity

the velocity of
relative to

M.
a moving body

When
tion of tion of

a point

P is moving
vector

B then the

absolute accelera-

P equals the

sum

of three accelerations,

namely

the relative accelera-

instant in question,

P, the absolute acceleration of that point of B with which P coincides at the and a so-called complimentary acceleration. The complimentary acceleration equals twice the product of the relative velocity of P and
the angular velocity of

at the instant in question; its direction

is

the same

278
as that of the Hnear velocity of velocity of

Chap, xii

p where Pp

is

a vector representing the relative

P
=

due to the angular velocity of B.


restrict

For simphcity again we


(Fig. 424)

the proof to plane motions.

Let Pipi

the relative velocity of

P at the time h,
at the time h.

and If iWi

the absolute

velocity of

at

that instant.

The

vector simi of

these two velocities


to

equals the absolute velocity of

Making OA' and OB'

represent these velocities respectively,

the absolute velocity of

P at the

time

h.

is P coincides at the time k; time k) equals the vector simi of the velocity of i/2 and the velocity of TV "about " M2. Now the velocity of A' about I/2 equals the product of M-2.N

which

OC N be the point of the board with under P2 then. The velocity of N (at
we
get the diagonal

to represent

Let

and the angular velocity of the board (at time h), or Ar X C02, where Ar = MoN and C02 = the angular velocity. The direction of this velocity Ar C02 is perpen

dicular to

M2N

as indicated (assuming that


parallel

C02

is

counter-clockwise).

OB
hence

and bB" are equal and

to

Mim^ and

Ar'C02 respectively;

OB"

is

the velocity of
of P

at time h.

Now

let Po_p-i

(= OA") be the
is

relative

velocity

at time h-

Then

the diagonal

OC"
to.

of the parallelogram

on

OA"

and OB" is ment in the absolute velocity of P for the interval h from the geometry of the figure that
the absolute velocity of
at time

Therefore C'C"

the incre-

h-

It follows readily

C'C"

= A'A"

+ B'B",
and
in the following.

(i)

vectorial addition being understood here

P\pi and the angle between these vectors equal the angular displacement Ad of the board during the interval /2 k- Then the increment in the relative velocity of P for that interval equals the difference between the
let

Now

Mia =

vectors

Mia and

Pipi-

Oa

is

equal and parallel to Mia;

hence

aA"

is

that

difference.

Therefore

A'A" = A'a+
where
to
Vr

Avr

2Vr sin i A9

Avr,

means

relative velocity of

P at time h.
B'b
is

Since

Ob

is

equal and parallel

Mimi

(velocity of

M at time

h',

/o),

the increment in the velocity of

during the interval h

and

since

bB" = Ar'Ui,

B'B" = A%n

Ar

C02,

where Vm means velocity of M. Substituting the foregoing values and B'B" in equation (i), we get

of

A'A"
(2)

C'C" = Azv

+ Avr^ +2Vr sin | A^


ti,

-j-

Ar - on.

Now

let

At

= h
,.

h,

and ^ approach
,.

then we get
,

C'C" 7 = hm At

lim

At..
-

At

-+ + hm At
,.
,

Av^n

,.

Vr

lim - At

Ad ...

+ lim At

Ar
(02.

The

right-hand

member is the absolute acceleration of P; the first term of the member is the relative acceleration of P; the second term is the acceleration of M. Lim {A6/ At) = wi, the angular velocity of the board at
left-hand

Art. 53

279

time/i; hence the third term

ZJrCOi.

Lim

(Ar/A/)co2

lim (Ar/At)

limw2
their

directions they

Vr^i.

Hence the

third

are

vectors are
is

and

fourth terms are equal in magnitude,


parallel,

and

if

then their

smn =

2 VrWi.

The

direction of the third term

the limiting direction of


is

A' a, perpendicular to
the limiting direction

OA' or of bB"

Vr

obviously.

The

direction of the fourth term

approaches h) perpendicular to M2P2; or Nc. Now Nc is of P, the Umiting direction of displacement and since 1/2^2 is the relative of Nc is perpendicular to Vr. direction limiting Hence the M2P2 is Pipi (or Vr).

always

(as

/2

Thus the sum of the last two terms =


perpendicular to
it is
tv-

2 Vrcoi,

and

it

has the direction mentioned,


discovered the rela-

And

this

sum is

the so-called complimentary acceleration;

called also acceleration of Coriolis after

him who

first

tion between the accelerations under discussion.


{Continued from page 272!)

From

the last equation on that page

and Rv

Qv ^-

W,

it

follows that

Rh

= Qh={Q.
is

+ W')^ + F^-

(4)

In most cases of vehicles, Qv

nearly equal to Q, and

is

neghgible com-

pared to Qv

therefore

we may

write as a close approximation

nished

The work required to overcome rolling resistance and by Qh. Per turn of the wheel, that work is
QtjvD

axle friction

is

fur-

((?

+ W)

TC

+ Qhd =

TT

(2 c

+ /J)

(?.

(5)

CHAPTER
THREE DIMENSIONAL
54.

I.

XIII
(SOLID)

MOTION

Body with

a Fixed Point; Kinematics

Spherical Motion means motion of a rigid body with only one Each point of the body, excepting the fixed one, moves on the surface of a sphere, whence the name spherical motion. Any spherical displacement of a body can be accomplished by means of a rotation about some line of the body passing through the fixed point, and Evidently, we mav describe any position of the fixed in space. Proof: body by describing the positions of two of its points, not in line with the fixed Let A and B denote two such points, equally distant from the fLxed point. point 0; then during any motion of the body, A and B move on the surface Let OAiBi be one position of of the same sphere. Then we are to the body, and OA2B2 another. prove that the points A and B could be brought from AiBi to .42^2 by means of a single rotation about some fixed line through 0. Let the lines
point of the body fixed.

.4

1^1 (Fig. 425)

and A2B2 be arcs


mentioned;

of great circles

of the

sphere

these arcs are equal

A and B are points of a rigid body. The A1A2 and B1B2 are arcs of great circles; and NR are great and N bisect these arcs; _ Fig a2^ circles perpendicular to ^1-42 and B1B2 respectively. In general two such great circles do not coincide but intersect at two points, R and S. The diameter ROS is the axis, rotation about which would produce the given displacement, proven presently. Let AiR, A2R, BiR, and B2R be Since A1A2R and B1B2R are isosceles triangles, AiR = arcs of great circles. A2R and BiR = BoR; and, as already stated, AiBi = .42^2. Hence the triansince
fines

MR

gles

RAiBi and RA2B2

are equal,

and the angle AiRBi

A2RB2.

Finally,

A1RA2 = A1RB2
Hence a rotation
equal to the angle

A2RB2 = A1RB2 - AiRBi = B1RB2.


A^R and BiR about RS
of

of the great circles

an amoimt

from ^1 to ^2 and B from Bi to B2. Imagine any actual continuous spherical motion of a body, in which the two points A and B of the body are displaced from ^1 to yl2 and Bi to B2 reLet A', A", etc., be several intermediate positions of A, and let spectively. As already shown, B', B", etc., be corresponding intermediate positions of B. the displacements of AB from AiB^ to A'B', from A'B' to A"B", from A"B"

A1RA2 would

displace

280

Art. 54

281

to A"'B"', etc., might be accomplished


fixed lines R'OS',

positions

by single rotations about definite R'VS", R"'OS"', etc. If a large number of intermediate A'B', A"B", etc., be assumed, and if the successive rotations be

accomplished in times equal to the times required for the actual displacements in the continuous motion, then the succession of rotations would closely

The more numerous the intermeand the more numerous the succession of single rotations, the more closely would the succession resemble the actual motion. "In the limit," the succession would reproduce the actual motion; hence we may regard any spherical motion of a body as consisting of a continuous rotation
resemble the actual continuous motion.
diate positions,

about a

line

through the fixed point, the

fine continually shifting

about in the

body and
is

in space.

The Kne about which

the body

is

rotating at

any

instant

the instantaneous axis (of rotation) at that instant.

At any particular instant


of the

of a spherical motion, the


is

body

is

rotating about

the instantaneous axis at a definite rate; this rate

called the angular velocity

We will, generally, denote magnitude of angular In a rotation about a fixed axis, the (linear) velocity of any point of the body equals the product of the angular velocity and the perpenvelocity

body by

at that instant.

co.

dicular distance (or radius) from the point to the axis;

and the

direction of

perpendicular to the plane of the radius and the axis. So too in a spherical motion, the linear velocity of any point of