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Perencanaan Strategis Sistem Informasi

Perencanaan Strategis Sistem Informasi
Perencanaan Strategis Sistem Informasi
Perencanaan Strategis Sistem Informasi
Perencanaan Strategis Sistem Informasi

Bagian 1

Penyelarasan bisnis & SI/TI, Kerangka metodologis PSSI

Bagian 1 Penyelarasan bisnis & SI/TI, Kerangka metodologis PSSI
Bagian 1 Penyelarasan bisnis & SI/TI, Kerangka metodologis PSSI
Bagian 1 Penyelarasan bisnis & SI/TI, Kerangka metodologis PSSI

Course Objective

Course Objective Able to evaluate several IS/IT strategies to achieve business objectives Understand the potential

Able to evaluate several IS/IT strategies to achieve business objectives Understand the potential & strategic use of information technology to organization Understand the aspects of managing IS/IT from CIO’s perspective

Penyelarasan SI/TI dalam organisasi

Penyelarasan SI/TI dalam organisasi
Penyelarasan SI/TI dalam organisasi
Penyelarasan SI/TI dalam organisasi
Penyelarasan SI/TI dalam organisasi

SYSTEMSYSTEM

SYSTEM SYSTEM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK
INPUT
INPUT

INPUT

INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
PROCESS OUTPUT
PROCESS
OUTPUT

FEEDBACK

SYSTEM SYSTEM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK

FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS OFOF ANAN INFORMATIONINFORMATION SYSTEMSYSTEM

ENVIRONMENTENVIRONMENT

CustomersCustomers

SupplSuppliersiers

ENVIRONMENT Customers Customers Suppl Suppl iers iers ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION INFORMATIONINFORMATION
ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION INFORMATIONINFORMATION SYSTEMSYSTEM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK
ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION
INFORMATIONINFORMATION SYSTEMSYSTEM
INPUT
PROCESS
OUTPUT
FEEDBACK

RegulatoryRegulatory

AgenciesAgencies

StockholdersStockholders

CompetitorsCompetitors

IS AND IT

Information System? Information Technology? Application

System? Information Technology? Application the use of IT to address a specific business process.

the use of IT to address a specific business process. Maybe costumed/ tailored, maybe generic.

Why some organization fail to realize any benefit from IT investment?

IS AND IT

IS IT; IT (information technology) or ICT

IS AND IT IS ≠ IT; IT (information technology) or ICT Refers to technology (HW, SW,

Refers to technology (HW, SW, telcom n/works); Tangible (eg servers, PCs, routers, cables), and Intangible (eg software)

IS (information systems)

Refers to computerized applications or systems that supports a business through technology Means by which people and organizations, utilization of IT, gather, process, store, use and disseminate information Concerned with purposeful utilization of IT;

SCOPE OF INFO SYSTEMS

1950s:

60s-70s: MANAGERIAL CONTROL

80s-90s: INSTITUTIONAL CORE ACTIVITIES

TECHNICAL CHANGES

1950s: 60s-70s: MANAGERIAL CONTROL 80s-90s: INSTITUTIONAL CORE ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL CHANGES GROWING IMPORTANCE 1.20 1.20

GROWING IMPORTANCE

Planning systems examples Sales forecasting operating plans capacity planning, profit/earnings forecasts, business
Planning systems examples Sales forecasting operating plans capacity planning, profit/earnings forecasts, business
Planning
systems
examples
Sales forecasting operating plans capacity
planning, profit/earnings forecasts,
business mix analysis, manpower
planning, financial modeling
Control
systems
example
Sales analysis budgetary control, management
accounting, inventory management, quality analysis,
expense reporting, market research/statistics, WIP
control, requirements planning, supplier analysis, etc.
Order entry, processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle
scheduling/loading, invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost
accounting, stock control, shop-floor scheduling, bill of materials,
purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word
processing

SIS

MIS

DP

Operational

systems

examples

Early Views and Models of IS/IT in Organizations (Anthony, 65)

TYPES TYPES OF OF INFORMATION INFORMATION SYSTEMS SYSTEMS MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING FINANCE FINANCE ACCOUNTING

TYPESTYPES OFOF INFORMATIONINFORMATION SYSTEMSSYSTEMS

MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING FINANCE FINANCE ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING
MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING
FINANCE FINANCE
ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING

KINDKIND OFOF SYSTEMSYSTEM

GROUPSGROUPS SERSERVEDVED

STSTRRAATTEGICEGIC LELEVVEELL

SENIORSENIOR

MANAGERSMANAGERS

MAMANNAAGGEEMEMENNTT LEVLEVEELL

MMIIDDLEDDLE

MANAGERSMANAGERS

KNOKNOWWLEDGELEDGE LEVELLEVEL

KKNNOWOWLLEEDDGGEE && DATADATA WORKERSWORKERS

OOPPERATIOERATIONALNAL

LEVELLEVEL

OPERATIONALOPERATIONAL

MANAGERSMANAGERS

SALES SALES & &

HUMAN HUMAN

MARKETMARKETIINGNG

RESOURCESRESOURCES

MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS

MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ESS) MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ESS) MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)

SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)
SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS (KWS) OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (OAS) TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)

TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS)

TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS) Dimulai pada jaman “Data Processing” OPERATIONAL LEVEL INPUTS:

Dimulai pada jaman “Data Processing” OPERATIONAL LEVEL INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS PROCESSING: UPDATING OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL

EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE

TPS TPS

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS)

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) MANAGEMENT LEVEL INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS OUTPUTS:

MANAGEMENT LEVEL INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS

VOLUME DATA PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING

EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS)

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED PAST &

STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED PAST & PRESENT DATA INTERNAL ORIENTATION LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS

DECISIONS REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED PAST & PRESENT DATA INTERNAL ORIENTATION LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS

TPS DATA FOR MIS APPLICATIONS

TPS DATA FOR MIS APPLICATIONS TPS Order Processing System ORDER FILE Materials Resource Planning System PRODUCTION
TPS Order Processing System ORDER FILE Materials Resource Planning System PRODUCTION MASTER FILE General Ledger
TPS
Order Processing
System
ORDER FILE
Materials Resource
Planning System
PRODUCTION MASTER FILE
General Ledger
System
ACCOUNTING FILES
MISMIS SALES DATA UNIT PRODUCT COST MIS REPORTS PRODUCT CHANGE DATA EXPENSE MANAGERSMANAGERS DATA MISMIS
MISMIS
SALES
DATA
UNIT
PRODUCT
COST
MIS
REPORTS
PRODUCT
CHANGE
DATA
EXPENSE
MANAGERSMANAGERS
DATA
MISMIS FILESFILES

Perbedaan DP dan MIS

Perbedaan DP dan MIS   TPS/DP MIS Objectives Efficient transaction Effective problem resolution &
 

TPS/DP

MIS

Objectives

Efficient transaction

Effective problem resolution & decision making support

Information

Internal & external transaction

Internal & external transaction + research data

sources

Information time frame

Recent history, current & near future

Historical data, current & future

Process

Algorithmic (very predefined)

Sometimes need human intervention (esp. for decision making)

Users

Operators

Professionals & middle managers

Technology

Mainframe/mini

Local processing linked to information resources

computers

Lessons from DP era

Lessons from DP era Understanding process, not just programming Requirement analysis is important IT investment

Understanding process, not just programming Requirement analysis is important IT investment financial justification Disciplined software engineering process Project management in software development Planning of interrelated set of systems in organization

Lessons from MIS era

Lessons from MIS era IS/IT investment cannot be justified only in financial means The need for

IS/IT investment cannot be justified only in financial means The need for organizational policy (not just DP methodology) From producing data to serving users Data integration is important: using very large database

Strategic IS/IT Management Difference with ‘traditional IT’ management: External factors has significant pressure on

Strategic IS/IT Management

Difference with ‘traditional IT’ management:

External factors has significant pressure on the IS/IT management, not just internal factors Senior management is involved in making IS/IT investment decision that will drive organization’s future business strategy IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS BY CHANGING THE NATURE / CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

Strategic systems Connection to supplier & customer Effective use of information in the value adding

Strategic systems

Connection to supplier & customer Effective use of information in the value adding process Enable to deliver new product/service Provide executive with strategic information

Trends in the Three Eras (Galliers and Somogyi, 1987)

 

ASPECTS

DP ERA

MIS ERA

SIS ERA

Nature of

Computers

Distributed Process Interconnected SW limitation

Networks Integrated People/Vision limitation

technology

Fragmented

HW limitation

Nature of

Remote from users controlled by DP

Regulated by management services

Available and supportive to users

Operations

Issues in systems development

Technical issues

Support business users needs

Relate to business strategy?

Reasons for using the technology

Reducing costs (technology driven)

Support the business (user driven)

Enabling the business (business driven)

Characteristics of systems

Regimented / Operational (internal)

Accommodating / Control

Flexible / Strategic

Characteristics of systems Regimented / Operational (internal) Accommodating / Control Flexible / Strategic

Relationship Between the Three Eras (Wiseman, 1985)

Relationship Between the Three Eras (Wiseman, 1985) Good MIS rely on good DP systems, likewise, good

Good MIS rely on good DP systems, likewise, good SIS rely on good DP or MIS SIS are not essentially different systems, SIS functions are the same as DP and MIS; SIS differ in their impact on the business SIS may make DP and MIS to be redeveloped when they inhibit potential benefits of the SIS.

Success factors in strategic IS External, not just internal focus Adding value, not cost reduction

Success factors in strategic IS

External, not just internal focus Adding value, not cost reduction Sharing the benefits: internally, with supplier & customer Understanding customer Business driven not technology driven Incremental development Use information to develop business

Success Factor in SIS (1/7)

External, not internal focus

Success Factor in SIS (1/7) External, not internal focus Customers, competitors, suppliers, other industries,

Customers, competitors, suppliers, other industries, business’s relationship and similarities with the outside business world. Traditionally IS/IT has been focus on internal processes and issues

Success Factor in SIS (2/7)

Adding value, not cost reduction

Success Factor in SIS (2/7) Adding value, not cost reduction Cost reduction may increase due to

Cost reduction may increase due to business expansion at reduce marginal costs. Consistent with the requirements of companies to differentiate themselves from competitor; better service to succeed

Success Factor in SIS (3/7)

Sharing the benefit

Success Factor in SIS (3/7) Sharing the benefit Within the organization, with suppliers, customers, consumers,

Within the organization, with suppliers, customers, consumers, competitor. Leverage (control) over each department functions

Success Factor in SIS (4/7)

Understanding customers

Success Factor in SIS (4/7) Understanding customers What they do with the products or services How

What they do with the products or services How they obtain the value from it What are the problems they may encounter gaining that value

Success Factor in SIS (5 & 6/7)

Success Factor in SIS (5 & 6/7) Business-driven innovation, not technology driven Pressures of the market-place

Business-driven innovation, not technology driven

Pressures of the market-place often interpreted by IS/IT user

Incremental development

Not the total application vision turn into reality. Doing one thing and building on extending the success by future development Prototyping of systems obviously has a key role to play here.

Success Factor in SIS (7/7)

Success Factor in SIS (7/7) Using the information gained from the system to develop the business

Using the information gained from the system to develop the business

Purchasing patterns shown by transactions Providing different, focused catalogues Product and market analyses External market research information

Evolusi Peran SI

Evolusi Peran SI
Evolusi Peran SI

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS 1.22 1.22

FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS 1.22 1.22
Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS 1.22 1.22

1.221.22

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS 1.22 1.22
Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi FLATTENING ORGANIZATIONS 1.22 1.22

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi

Pilihan-pilihan baru desain organisasi SEPARATING WORK FROM LOCATION REORGANIZING WORK-FLOWS INCREASING FLEXIBILITY

SEPARATING WORK FROM LOCATION

REORGANIZING WORK-FLOWS

SEPARATING WORK FROM LOCATION REORGANIZING WORK-FLOWS INCREASING FLEXIBILITY REDEFINING ORGANIZATIONAL
SEPARATING WORK FROM LOCATION REORGANIZING WORK-FLOWS INCREASING FLEXIBILITY REDEFINING ORGANIZATIONAL

INCREASING FLEXIBILITY

REDEFINING ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES

*

The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies

The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies
The relationship between business, IS and IT strategies
Focusing on technology does not lead to success Must consider IT as part of the

Focusing on technology does not lead to success Must consider IT as part of the business solution Should be business driven! IS/IT strategy must also consider strategies of other functional units

Question

Apa perbedaan antara:

Question Apa perbedaan antara: Strategic Information System, dan Information System Strategy?

Strategic Information System, dan Information System Strategy?

The IS Application Portfolio

The IS Application Portfolio     STRATEGIC HIGH POTENTIAL Future Applications that critical to sus-
   

STRATEGIC

HIGH POTENTIAL

Future

Applications that critical to sus- taining future business strategy

Applications that may be important in achieving future success

KEY OPERATIONAL

SUPPORT

Present

 

Applications on which the orga- nization currently depends for success

Applications that are valuable but not critical to success

Important

Less critical

Closely related and derived from “McFarlan Matrix”

Definitions

Strategic IS:

Definitions Strategic IS: Adalah sistem informasi yang dipakai perusahaan untuk mendukung pencapaian keunggulan

Adalah sistem informasi yang dipakai perusahaan untuk mendukung pencapaian keunggulan kompetitif mereka.

Definitions of IS/IT Strategy

Definitions of IS/IT Strategy IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement or ‘demand’ for information &

IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement or ‘demand’ for information & systems to support the overall strategy of the business.

It includes what applications to develop in the future. Defines applications portfolio along with its priority

It includes what applications to develop in the future. Defines applications portfolio along with its priority

IT strategy is concerned with outlining how the organization’s IS demand will be supported by the technology (‘supply’)

IT architecture, systems development, infrastructure, user support, operations, etc…

What is an IS Strategy? Refers to IS Demand; Defines the organization’s requirement or demand

What is an IS Strategy?

Refers to IS Demand; Defines the organization’s requirement or demand for information and systems to support the overall strategy of the business; Firmly grounded in the business, considers both competitive impact and alignment requirements of IS/IT; Defines and prioritizes requirement investments to achieve ideal portfolio, expected benefits, requirement changes, within constraints of resources and systems interdependencies;

What is an IT Strategy?

What is an IT Strategy? Refers to IT Supply; Concerned with outlining the vision of how

Refers to IT Supply; Concerned with outlining the vision of how technology can support organization’s demand for information and systems; Addresses provision of IT capabilities and resources (HW, SW, Telco) and services (operations, systems development, and support).

Failures from not having IS/IT strategy Systems not integrated Poor management information: not readily available,

Failures from not having IS/IT strategy

Systems not integrated Poor management information: not readily available, inconsistent, inaccurate, too slow Misunderstand between users and IT specialist Technology strategy incoherent Inadequate infrastructure investment Localized justification of IT investment can result in inefficiency of overall business context Systems has shorter than expected usage

External Context of IT

Business Business Environment Environment & & Competitions Competitions in in Industry Industry Redefines The
Business Business Environment Environment
& & Competitions Competitions in in
Industry Industry
Redefines
The The
Organization Organization
Supports
Disrupts

strategy

Impact of

competitor’s

Supports Disrupts strategy Impact of competitor’s Provides novel opportunities Information Information

Provides novel opportunities

Information Information

Technology Technology

Impact of competitor’s Provides novel opportunities Information Information Technology Technology IT Innovations
Impact of competitor’s Provides novel opportunities Information Information Technology Technology IT Innovations

IT Innovations

Beberapa Studi Kasus Klasik Strategic IS

Beberapa Studi Kasus Klasik Strategic IS
Beberapa Studi Kasus Klasik Strategic IS
Beberapa Studi Kasus Klasik Strategic IS
Beberapa Studi Kasus Klasik Strategic IS

Ryanair.com

Ryanair.com Airline with low cost strategy 1999: membuka fasilitas booking via Internet. Customer diberi kode
Ryanair.com Airline with low cost strategy 1999: membuka fasilitas booking via Internet. Customer diberi kode
Ryanair.com Airline with low cost strategy 1999: membuka fasilitas booking via Internet. Customer diberi kode

Airline with low cost strategy 1999: membuka fasilitas booking via Internet. Customer diberi kode referensi dari website, yang harus ditunjukkan saat check-in. Apa dampaknya? Memotong distribution channel yang mahal (travel agent). 90% penjualan tiket lewat Internet Pesaing lain menggunakan cara serupa: EasyJet, Go!

Merrill Lynch

Merrill Lynch 1978: merevolusi dunia sekuritas dan perbankan Membuat sistem banking yang bisa menghubungkan berbagai

1978: merevolusi dunia sekuritas dan perbankan Membuat sistem banking yang bisa menghubungkan berbagai jenis akun (kredit, tabungan, deposito, giro, reksadana, saham, obligasi, dsb) ke seorang nasabah Bisa secara otomatis memindahkan idle fund ke akun yang memiliki return lebih tinggi Menaikkan asset sebesar 1 milyar US$ pada tahun pertama

American Hospital Supply

American Hospital Supply C Perusahaan supplier persedian rumah sakit 1970-1980-an agar lebih kompetitif, memasang EDI
American Hospital Supply C Perusahaan supplier persedian rumah sakit 1970-1980-an agar lebih kompetitif, memasang EDI

C

Perusahaan supplier persedian rumah sakit 1970-1980-an agar lebih kompetitif, memasang EDI dan komputer pada bagian procurement rumah sakit Sehingga bisa langsung pesan secara online Bahkan bisa melihat inventory secara langsung Dampak buat customer near zero inventory AHS menjadi lebih disukai

Schneider International Inc. Perusahaan truk 1980-an melihat potensi teknologi informasi Menggunakan teknologi EDI,
Schneider International Inc. Perusahaan truk 1980-an melihat potensi teknologi informasi Menggunakan teknologi EDI,

Schneider International Inc.

Perusahaan truk 1980-an melihat potensi teknologi informasi Menggunakan teknologi EDI, satelit, positioning system, on-truck ordering system Apa dampak strategik penggunaan teknologi tersebut bagi perusahaan?

Kerangka Metodologi SPIS Ward-Peppard

Kerangka Metodologi SPIS Ward-Peppard
Kerangka Metodologi SPIS Ward-Peppard
Kerangka Metodologi SPIS Ward-Peppard
Kerangka Metodologi SPIS Ward-Peppard
Rencana Perkuliahan 1 3 2 Bagian 1: Penyelarasan bisnis dgn SI/TI, kerangka PSSI Bagian 2:
Rencana Perkuliahan
1
3
2
Bagian 1: Penyelarasan bisnis
dgn SI/TI, kerangka PSSI
Bagian 2: Analisa lingkungan
bisnis
Bagian 3: Analisa lingkungan
SI/TI
Bagian 4: Proses penyusunan
strategi SI/TI, strategi SI,
portofolio aplikasi
Bagian 5: Strategi manajemen
SI/TI
Bagian 6: Strategi TI
Bagian 7: Strategi
implementasi
External
External
Business
IS/IT
Environment
Environment
Internal
Internal
Business
IS/IT
Environment
Environment
IS/IT Strategy
Process
4
5
6
IS/IT
Business
IT
Management
IS Strategies
Strategy
Strategy
Future
Application
Potfolio
7
Implementation
Strategy