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A ratio is an expression that compares quantities relative to each other. The most
common examples involve two quantities, but any number of quantities can be compared.
Ratios are represented mathematically by separating each quantity with a colon – for
example, the ratio 2:3, which is read as the ratio "two to three". The quantities separated
by colons are sometimes called terms.

If the two or more ratio quantities encompass all of the quantities in a particular situation,
for example two apples and three oranges in a fruit basket containing no other types of
fruit, it could be said that "the whole" contains five parts, made up of two parts apples
and three parts oranges. In this case, , or 40% of the whole are apples and , or 60% of
the whole are oranges. This comparison of a specific quantity to "the whole" is
sometimes called a proportion. Proportions are sometimes expressed as percentages as
demonstrated above.

A fraction (from the Latin fractus, broken) is a number that can represent part of a
The earliest fractions were reciprocals of integers, symbols representing one half, one
third, one quarter, and so on.[1] A much later development were the common or "vulgar"
fractions which are still used today, and which consist of a numerator and a denominator,
the numerator representing a number of equal parts and the denominator telling how
many of those parts make up a whole. An example is 3/4, in which the numerator, 3, tells
us that the fraction represents 3 equal parts, and the denominator, 4, tells us that 4 parts
make up a whole.

Direct proportion:
When a quantity gets larger or smaller, we say that it changes.
Sometimes a change in one quantity causes a change, or is linked to a change, in another
quantity. If these changes are related through equal factors, then the quantities are said to
be in direct proportion. Or one might say that the two quantities are directly proportional.

For example, suppose that you are buying cans of soup at the store. Let us imagine that
they cost 50 cents, or $0.50, each.
Case #1:
Suppose that you buy 4 cans. You would pay $2.00.
Case #2:
Suppose that you buy 8 cans. You would pay $4.00.
So, changing the number of cans that you buy will change the amount of money that you
Notice that the number of cans changed by a factor of 2, since 4 cans times 2 is 8 cans.

Indirect proportional:
Means and extremes:
As you know, the "means" are the inside terms, b and c, and the
"extremes" are the outside terms, a and d, in the proportion we might
write in any of these ways:

a : b :: c : d


a/b = c/d

a c
--- = ---
b d

Whichever way we write it, except the last, b and c are on the inside,
and a and d are on the outside.

The word "mean" comes through French from Latin "medius," meaing
"middle." (It is used in several ways in math, all related to the

The word "extreme" comes from Latin "extremus," the superlative form
of "exterus," meaning "outside"; so it means "outermost."


In mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (per

cent meaning "per hundred"). It is often denoted using the percent sign, "%". For
example, 45% (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to 45 / 100, or 0.45.

Percentages are used to express how large one quantity is, relative to another quantity.
The first quantity usually represents a part of, or a change in, the second quantity, which
should be greater than zero. For example, an increase of $ 0.15 on a price of $ 2.50 is an
increase by a fraction of 0.15 / 2.50 = 0.06. Expressed as a percentage, this is therefore a
6% increase.

Infosys planning:

INFOSYS Technologies is gearing up for another sponsored secondary American

Depository Shares (ADS) offering.
The company's board will meet on Monday, to consider the proposal to sponsor the issue
of ADS against the company's existing equity shares.
Infosys did not disclose any further details, but the market expectation is that the issue
size in value terms could be in the range of $500 million to $700 million, much larger
than the previous issue.
The market has been widely expecting another sponsored ADS issue from Infosys and the
stock has gained significantly over the last few weeks on this expectation.
Industry sources said the proposed ADS issue would help the company enhance the float
of its stock on Nasdaq. In turn, this increased float could help Infosys qualify to obtain a
slot in the Nasdaq 100 Index, the main index of the exchange.
A senior Nasdaq official recently told Business Line, "Infosys is close to breaking into the
Nasdaq 100 Index and it is matter of months before the company could do it."
Moreover, the sources said the proposed issue could also help Infosys improve its
visibility in the US market and attract talent, especially for its recently set-up consulting
With the rhetoric against outsourcing set to die down post-elections, Infosys could get
aggressive on hiring in the US market, they said.
Infosys went in for a sponsored secondary ADR offering in July-August 2003 and offered
60 lakh ADS, representing 30 lakh equity shares. The total size of the offering was $294
The Infy ADR, which normally trades at a premium of over 40 per cent to the Indian
stock, has gained over 35 per cent since early August and touched $68.98 on November
4. However, in early trade on Friday, it was trading at $66.18, a drop of almost 4 per cent.
On the Bombay Stock Exchange, the stock closed at Rs 1976 on Friday, a gain of over 40
per cent since the company announced its first-quarter results.