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How it started

Started in October 2004 Funded by Canonical Ltd. via Mark Shuttleworth (Thawte) Mark Shuttleworth wanted to create a hi h !uality di"tribution relea"ed at re ular interval"

Release cycle set

Si# $onth relea"e cycle %ach relea"e "u&&orted 'or () $onth" ((.*yr") %very 'ourth relea"e i" "u&&orted 'or +, $onth" (+yr")

What Ubuntu means

- a$ what i a$ becau"e o' what we are

./u$anity toward" other".

Goal of Ubuntu

%veryone "hould have acce"" to 'ree hi h !uality "o'tware %li$inate barrier" between "o'tware and &eo&le (i.e. lan ua e" and u"ability) .Linu# 'or hu$an bein ".

Humanity towards others

0hat i" 1buntu all about2 1buntu ((4 O''ice Tool" 3roductivity Tool" 0eb 4row"in Mu"ic and 5ideo 3hoto" and 6e"i n 7a$e" Live 6e$o.

Ubuntu is about...

8 co$$unity develo&ed9 Linu# ba"ed o&eratin "y"te$ Co$&arable to Micro"o't 0indow" Contain" a lot o' a&&lication" 'or word &roce""in 9 e$ail a&&lication"9 in"tant $e""a in 9 web "ur'in 9 ra&hic" de"i n and a$e" -" and alway" will be 'ree:

Office Tools
8 co$&lete o''ice &roductivity "uite O&enO''ice contain" a u"er inter'ace and 'eature "et that i" "i$ilar to other o''ice "uite" -nclude" all the key de"kto& a&&lication" ; 0ord 3roce""or ; S&read"heet ; 3re"entation %a"ily o&en and "hare 'ile" that u"e" Micro"o't O''ice9 0ord 3er'ect9 <o''ice or StarO''ice

Productivity tools

%volution Mail i" included with 1buntu Fully'eatured e$ail9 calendar9 ta"k and contact "harin &ro ra$ -nte rate" with onde"kto& clock to $ake "ure you don=t $i"" any $eetin "

Productivity Tools
Su&&ort 'or $ulti&le in"tant $e""a in &rotocol" ie9 MS>9 ?ahoo:9 -C@9 -AC9 Facebook9 7oo leTalk %#tendable throu h &lu in" Tabbed conver"ation Su&&ort" "o$e 'ile tran"'er"9 with ability to &au"e9 re"u$e and cancel tran"'er"

Web Browsing
Co$e" by de'ault with the late"t brow"er 'ro$ MoBilla9 Fire'o# + 4eta * One o' the $o"t &o&ular brow"er" bein u"ed on $illion" o' de"kto&" S&eci'ically the$ed 'or 1buntu and u"e" 'a$iliar lookin icon" Sa'er than

usic and video

Ahyth$bo# i" the 'ully "u&&orted $u"ic &layer Strea$ live radio on to& o' the &recon'i ured o&tion" 8cce"" (truly) 'ree $u"ic "tore" 3lu in your device" Share your $u"ic acro"" a network

usic and video

Lar e nu$ber o' video &layer" available 'or 1buntu 6e'ault video &layer &rovide" 656 &layback Strea$ video 'ro$ MythT5 "erver" -nte rate with ?ouTube and other online video content &rovider" 3lay $o"t video 'ile 'or$at"

Photos and !esign

FS&ot Mana er a terri'ic utility 3lu and 3lay your ca$era Or ani"e your &hoto" in a 'un way %#&ort to your 'avourite online &hoto allery %dit your &hoto"

Photos and !esign

Free "o'tware re&lace$ent 'or 8dobe 3hoto"ho& Create ra&hic" and lo o"9 re"iBin and cro&&in &hoto"9 alterin color"9 co$binin $ulti&le i$a e"9 re$ovin unwanted i$a e" 'eature" and convertin between di''erent i$a e 'or$at" Co$e" with 4) "tandard bru"he"9 &lu" 'acilitie" to create new one" -nclude" 'ilter"9 a" well a" tran"'or$ation9 "election9 layer and $a"kin tool"

Photos and !esign

8vailable 'or download via 1buntu "o'tware collection O&en Source vector ra&hic" editor a&&lication Co$&liant with CML9 S57 and CSS "tandard" ObDect creation u"in ba"ic ty&e" o' 3ath"9 Aectan le" and $ore ObDect $ani&ulation "ubDect to tran"'or$ation" Stylin obDect" u"in 'ill9 "troke 'ill and other" Te#t "u&&ort and renderin

Photos and !esign

8vailable 'or download via 1buntu "o'tware collection O&en Source vector ra&hic" editor a&&lication Co$&liant with CML9 S57 and CSS "tandard" ObDect creation u"in ba"ic ty&e" o' 3ath"9 Aectan le" and $ore ObDect $ani&ulation "ubDect to tran"'or$ation" Stylin obDect" u"in 'ill9 "troke 'ill and other" Te#t "u&&ort and renderin

There are thou"and" o' a$e" which are 'ree and will run natively on 1buntu Mo"t are available throu h 1buntu=" "o'tware "ource" %ven 0indow" a$e" can run u"in an e$ulator available 'or cla""ic a$e" con"ole" %nDoy card a$e" or "hoot =e$ u&"9 there=" "o$ethin 'or everyone

"irtual Terminals
In most Linux distributions, the console emulates a number of virtual terminals Each virtual terminal can be seen as a separate, directly attached console Different users can use different virtual terminals Typical setup: VT 1 through 6: text mode logins VT 7: graphical mode login prompt (if enabled) Switch between VTs with Alt-Fn (or Ctrl-Alt-Fn if in X)

#inu$ %ommands

%verythin on a Linu# "y"te$ can be done by ty&in co$$and" (%ven brow"in the 0orld 0ide 0eb...) The 7ra&hical 1"er -nter'ace (C 0indow Sy"te$ or C) i" not needed 'or runnin a Linu# "y"te$ 4ut i" "o$eti$e" $ore convenient -n order to be able to ty&e co$$and" in C9 you need to "tart a ter$inal e$ulator

&tarting a Terminal 'mulator

To run a Linu# co$$and in"ide the C environ$ent9 o&en a .ter$inal window. or .ter$inal e$ulator. %$ulate" a te#t con"ole

%ommand Prom(t

The co$$and &ro$&t indicate" that the "y"te$ i" ready to acce&t co$$and" 6e'ault de&end" on di"tribution %#a$&le"E Fu"erGho"t dirHI dirI I J The dollar (I) u"ually $ean"E .lo ed in a" re ular u"er. The ha"h (J) u"ually $ean"E .lo ed in a" root.

#inu$ !irectory &tructure

-n the Linu# o&eratin "y"te$9 all 'ile"y"te$" are contained within one directory hierarchy under root &artition K


The root directory i" the to& level directory.

The root directory )*+ of a #inu$ system is the directory that contains all other

directories and files.

Kroot L Mho$eN 'older 'or the root u"er


Kbin L binary a&&lication" ($o"t o' your e#ecutable 'ile")


Kboot L 'ile" re!uired to boot ("uch a" the kernel9 etc )

where the Kernel is stored and GRUB gets its information from. and where module information is stored.

%ontains every thing that is re/uired for the boot (rocess. The *boot directory stores data that is needed before the 0ernel is loaded.

Your best bet is to ignore this directory completely as for a normal user, it is dangerous to play with


Kdev L your device" (everythin 'ro$ drive" to di"&lay")

The /dev directory contains file system entries which re(resent devices that are attached to the system. These files are essential for the system to function (ro(erly


Ketc L Du"t about every con'i uration 'ile 'or your "y"te$ KetcK&ro'ile.d L contain" "cri&t" that are run by KetcK&ro'ile u&on lo in.

KetcKC(( L con'i uration 'ile" 'or the C 0indow "y"te$

HO '

Kho$e L locally "tored u"er 'ile" and 'older"

This is where your users have their accounts. ,f you have added any users other than your standard root account. they will show u( here.


Klib L "y"te$ librarie" ("i$ilar to 3ro ra$ File")

#ost and 1ound

Klo"tO'ound L lo"t and 'ound 'or lo"t 'ile" (FSC<)

2ou will find a lost3found directory in the to(4level directory of every filesystem. When fsc0 is run on an unmounted filesystem. any recovered data will be (laced in files and (laced in the lost3found directory.


K$edia L $ounted (or loaded) device" "uch a" cdro$"9 di ital ca$era"9 etc.


K$nt L $ounted 'ile "y"te$"


Ko&t L location 'or Mo&tionallyN in"talled &ro ra$"

Thi" directory i" re"erved 'or all the "o'tware and addLon &acka e" that are not &art o' the de'ault in"tallation. (thirdL&arty a&&lication")

For e#a$&le9 StarO''ice9 >et"ca&e Co$$unicator9 O&en O''ice9 Lotu" 6o$ino9 -4M 642 and 0ord3er'ect &acka e" are nor$ally 'ound here.


K&roc L dyna$ic directory includin in'or$ation about and li"tin o' &roce""e"

The /proc directory contains s(ecial files that either e$tract information or send information to the kernel

Provides information about running (rocesses and the 0ernel. 5 directory is (rovided for each running (rocess.

, would advise against deleting anything in that directory.


K"bin L "y"te$Lonly binarie" ("ee Kbin)


K"y" L contain" in'or$ation about the "y"te$


Kt$& L te$&orary 'ile"


Ku"r L a&&lication" $ainly 'or re ular u"er"


Kvar L $ainly lo "9 databa"e"9 etc.

This is where your log files. and (rinter files are 0e(t.

&ome subdirectiories include6

/var/log 5 directory that contains system log files.

/var/mail ,ncoming and outgoing mail is stored in this directory.

/var/spool This directory holds files that are /ueued for some (rocess. li0e (rinting


u"rK"hareKdoc L docu$entation.