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Chronology of the Attacks of September 11,2001,

Subsequent Events through April 15,2002
(Eastern time is used.)

Prepared by the FAA Agency Historian, this timeline is a reference tool. It does not
represent an official position of the FAA.

Sep 11,2001: In an unprecedented terrorist assault on the United States, hijackers

seized the controls of four airliners for use as missiles against ground targets. Events
8:00 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 with 92 persons aboard,
lifted off from Boston Logan for Los Angeles.(a)
8:14 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767 with 65 persons aboard, lifted
off from Boston Logan for Los Angeles.(a)
8:21 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 64 persons aboard,
lifted off from Washington Dulles for Los Angeles.(a)
8:40 a,m.: FAA notified NORAD's Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the
suspected hijacking of American Flight 11.®
8:41 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 with 44 persons aboard, lifted
off from Newark for San Francisco,(a) after leaving the gate at 8:01 .(l)
8:43 a.m.: FAA notified NORAD's Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the
United Flight 175 suspected hijacking.®
8:46 a.m., approx.: American Flight 11 crashed into the north tower of New
York's World Trade Center.1
8:46 a.m.: NORAD ordered two F-15 fighters to scramble from Otis Air National
Guard Base, Mass. They were airborne at 8:52 a.m.®
9:02 a.m., approx.: UAL Flight 175 crashed into the World Trade Center's
south tower.2
9:04 a.m., approx.: FAA's Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)
stopped all departures from airports within its jurisdiction.3
9:06 a.m.: FAA stopped departures of flights bound to or through the airspace of
the New York ARTCC from airports within airspace controlled by that ARTCC and its
adjacent ARTCCs (Washington, Cleveland, and Boston).(d)
9:08 a.m.: FAA stopped departures nationwide for traffic flying to or through the
airspace of the New York ARTCC.(d) FAA also issued a written advisory that
"sterilized" the airspace controlled by the New York ARTCC, meaning that all aircraft
operating in that airspace were ordered to leave it.(e)
9:24 a.m.: jFAAnotified NORAD^s Northeast Air Defense Sector concerning the

jasr mbig from Tjbey were airborne at 9:30 SLm. FAA and
NbRAD estabUsMan opelQluielb dlscuss'AAX Flight 77 aMTJALFnpt 93;®
9:26 a.m. : FAA issued a nationwide ground stop that prevented the takeoff of all
civil aircraft, regardless of destination.(d>e) At 9:29 a.m., FAA issued Advisory 031
concerning the ground stop.(d)
9:40 a.m., approx.: American Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon, the Defense
Department's Washington headquarters.4
9:45 a.m.: In the first unplanned shut down of civil operations throughout
U.S. airspace, FAA ordered all civil aircraft to land at the nearest airport as soon as
possible. At the time of the order, 4,546 flights were airborne. (At 10:39 a.m., FAA
followed up on this order with a Notice to Airmen closing operations at all airports; at
11:06 a.m., the agency issued Advisory 036 suspending operations hi the National
Airspace System.)(M'e)
9:48 a.m.: According to media, the Capitol and the West Wing of the White
House were evacuated; from about 10:00 to 11:30 a.m., Federal buildings nationwide
were evacuated.^
9:55 a.m.: President George W. Bush departed from Sarasota, Fla., according to
media., and arrived at Barksdale Air Force Base, La., at about 11:40 a-m.^
10:10 a.m., approx.: United Flight 93 crashed in Stony Creek Township, Pa.5
In cellular telephone calls, passengers had stated their intention to resist the hijackers.11
12:16 p.m.: The national airspace was clear of civil traffic, except for a small
number of law enforcement or emergency operations, and a few international arrivals.(d)
1:37 p.m.: According to media, President Bush left Barksdale Air Force Base. At
2:50 p.m., the President arrived at Offutt Air Force Base, Neb., where he received
national security briefings. At 4:36 p.m., he left Offutt for Washington, where he arrived
about 7:00 p.m, and addressed the Nation at 8:30 p.m.^

Determining the total loss of life due to the September 11 attacks proved difficult.
The folio whig fatality figures were reported by the Associated Press on Apr 22,2002:
New York, 2,823 (including 128 listed as missing); Washington, 189; Pennsylvania, 44;
total, 3,056.
Sources and Notes Regarding the Times of Events on September 1 1, 2001
(a) FAA (APA), Flights in September 11 Incidents, undated^Sep 2001)
(b) FAA, History of Ground Stop Order, undated (Sep 2001)
(0 FAA (AAT-20)^ American Airlines Flight 77, Sep 15, 2001
fd) FAA (AAT), Initial Ground Stop Decisions/Traffic in the NAS, Sep 18, 2001
fe) FAA, Statement of Administrator Jane F. Garvey before a House subcommittee, Sep 21, 2001
(f) FBI Press Release, Sep 14, 2001
(g) NORAD, NORAD's Response Times, Sep 17, 2001
fh) News media.
1 Approximation, based on document (g) and on Secretary Norman Y. Mineta's testimony before a
Senate subcommittee, Sep 20, 2001; document (a) lists 8:47
2 Approximation, based on (a) and (g); document (f) lists 9:05
3 Approximation; document (d) lists 9:04, but earlier times have been mentioned
4 Approximation^dpaiment (g) estimates 9:37; (f) lists 9:39; Associated Press, Sep 12, 2001, lists

5 Approximation; document (g) lists 10:03; (f) lists 10:10; (a) estimates 10:15

Sep 12,2001: DOT announced that FAA would begin a limited reopening of the
nation's commercial airspace to allow flights diverted during the previous day to
proceed to their destinations. This included international flights bound for U.S. airports
that had been diverted to Canada. Apart from these operations, the ground stop order
remained hi effect while additional security steps were completed. These measures
included: search and security check of all airplanes and airports before passenger reentry;
a ban on curbside and off-airport check-in; access to boarding areas for ticketed
passengers only; increased monitoring of vehicles near airport; and a strict ban on knives
and cutting tools as carry-on items.
In an early example of the attacks' economic effects, Midway Airlines
announced that it was shutting down permanently due to the previous day's events.
The carrier had already filed for bankruptcy protection on August 13.

Sep 13, 2001: DOT ordered the reopening of the national airspace to U.S. air
carriers, effective 11:00 a.m., provided that the airport involved had implemented the
new security measures. Part 135 operators were included in the reopening. General
aviation remained grounded, except in Alaska. Foreign air carriers were still not allowed
to fly into the United States, with certain exceptions, but could depart if they met the new
security standards. By the following day, foreign carriers were being permitted entry if
they met those standards, and depending on their point of origin.

Sep 14, 2001: As of 9:00 a.m., FAA had recertified 421 of 451 airports as meeting the
new security standards. Among the airports continuing to reopen during the day were
the three major facilities serving New York City, which had already reopened for a time
on September 13, but had closed again due to security concerns. The major airports yet
to reopen were Boston Logan and Washington's Reagan National. The latter facility
remained under "temporary, indefinite" closure.
Effective at 12:15 p.m., FAA reauthorized agricultural flight operations (crop
dusting) under Part 137. Effective at 4:00 p.m., DOT approved reopening of the
airspace to certain general aviation flights. Instrument Flight Rules (EFR) operations
were permitted, except within two areas under Temporary Flight Restrictions that
extended 25 nautical miles from New York Kennedy and Washington Reagan National
airports. (Exceptions applied to airports at White Plains, N.Y., and Manassas, Va.)
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations remained grounded nationwide, except to allow
removal of aircraft from the predicted path of a tropical storm in four southern states.
In other developments on September 14, fighter jets reportedly forced down
three small planes in Maryland, West Virginia, and Texas for violating flight
restrictions. The FBI released the names of 19 men identified as the September 11
hijackers. Four were aboard the United Flight 93 that crashed in Pennsylvania, and five
aboard each of the other three hijacked flights.

Sep 15, 2001: Boston Logan airport reopened, leaving Washington's Reagan National
as the only major airport yet to do so. FAA announced that some commercial and
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Sep 16, 2001 : Secretary of Transportation Norman Y. Mineta announced the creation of
two Rapid Response Teams composed of six leaders in aviation and security protection.
The teams would make recommendations on improving aviation security no later than
October 1 , 2001 . One team would focus on airport security, the other on aircraft security.
FAA grounded Part 137 agricultural operations due to security concerns.
Effective this date, however, authorities permitted shipment of mail and packages
aboard passenger flights to resume, subject to heightened security. Such shipments
had been suspended after the terrorist attacks.
In remarks at the White House beginning at 3:23 p.m., President Bush named the
leader of the Al Qaeda organization, Osama bin Laden , "the prime suspect" in the
September 1 1 attacks.

Sep 17, 2001: FAA again permitted the resumption of agricultural flight operations
under Part 137. Other Visual Flight Rules operations remained grounded. FAA's
Administrator Jane F. Garvey held a teleconference with 31 airport operators to review
the status of airports' return to operation, to stress the importance of the new security
measures, and to encourage contact with the agency on questions or concerns.

Sep 18, 2001: By this date, announced aviation employee layoffs following the
September 1 1 attacks reportedly totaled 44,000 in the airline sector. On that same day,
Boeing stated that it would lay off up to 30,000 workers. By October 4, media reported
announced airline layoffs totaled 128,000.

Sep 19, 2001 : On or about this date, FAA initiated a revalidation by airport operators
of identification badges of employees with access to secure areas.

Sep 19, 2001 : Late on this day, the agency permitted limited resumption of general
aviation Part 91 operations under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Exceptions included
flight in Enhanced Class B (ECB) airspace, meaning that VFR flying was not allowed
over, through, or "under the shelf of the Class B airspace category surrounding major
airports. (Later, ECB was defined to exclude airspace above 18,000 feet.) Other types of
Part 91 VFR operations not permitted to resume were: civil flight training; banner
towing; circling or loitering by news reporting helicopters; traffic watch; sightseeing; and
airship/blimp flights.
In another development on Sep 19, FAA prohibited U.S. civil flights to or over
Afghanistan, a ban that remained in effect until Feb 1, 2002.

Sep 20, 2001: At about noon, FAA issued a Notice to Airmen (FDC 1/0257) restricting
flight over major sporting events or other major open-air assemblies. Flight below
3,000 feet was not permitted within 3 nautical miles of such events.

StabilizatioB Act <P.L,4^7^2), Among oth^ provisiom, the act: directed federal
compensation to air carriers for losses due to the September 1 1 terrorist attacks and the
resulting ground stop orders; established an Air Transportation Stabilization Board to
issue federal credit to air carriers; directed DOT to take appropriate actions ensure
continuation of scheduled air service, including essential air service to small
communities; and authorized DOT to provide certain insurance against risks to aircraft in
the United States.
(Later, on Sep 25, President Bush notified the Speaker of the House that he was
providing up to $5 billion to DOT's Compensation for Air Carriers account under the
terms of the Act. Another implementation step came on Oct 5, when the Office of
Management and Budget released regulations that gave the Air Transportation
Stabilization Board broad powers in providing up to $10 billion in loan guarantees
to air carriers.)
Effective at 7:00 a.m. on September 22, FAA lifted some of the restrictions on
general aviation (Part 91) flight training under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Such
training might be permitted in non-turbojet aircraft of less than 12,500 Ibs. outside of
Enhanced Class B airspace. Training in single- and twin-engine piston powered aircraft
and helicopters was permitted within Enhanced Class B airspace except in and around
Boston and in the areas of New York City and Washington, B.C., covered by temporary
flight restrictions. Part 91 sightseeing outside of Enhanced Class B airspace and
temporary restricted areas was also allowed to resume.

Sep 23,2001: Due to security considerations, FAA imposed a ban on Part 137
agricultural flight operations for the second time since permitting the flights to resume
on September 14.

Sep 24,2001: Administrator Garvey traveled by commercial airliner to New York,

where she met with employees of FAA's Eastern Region headquarters, many of whom
lost relatives and friends in the terrorist attacks.

Sep 25,2001: FAA's second ban on Part 137 agricultural flights ended at 12:05 a.m.
in each time zone.
In an address at the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal,
Administrator Garvey called on ICAO member states to cooperate in investigating
the September 11 attacks and to meet at a high level to agree on steps to eradicate
terrorism from civil aviation.
DOT's Research and Special Projects Administration issued a Broad Agency
Announcement requesting papers on innovative technical or operational concepts to
improve transportation security.

Sep 27,2001: President Bush announced a program to enhance civil aviation

security, based on a midpoint review of the work of DOT's Rapid Response Teams.
Elements of the plan included a continued expansion of the Federal Air Marshals

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to^eky ^ dmy^ockpit^iccess4^ workwithCongress to
place the federal government in charge of airport security. Uniformed federal
personnel would manage a combined federal and non-federal security workforce at
airports. The President would request state governors to deploy National Guard troops
at airports pending implementation of the new program, which was expected to take
four to six months.
Media reported on this day that President Bush had delegated to certain military
officers the authority to order airliners shot down, as a last resort, if the public was
FAA permitted the resumption of curbside check-in at some airports with
additional security measures in place. Applications for employment as a Federal Air
Marshal reached more than 20,000 by this date. The total had reached more than
136,000 applications by January 7, 2002.

Sep 28, 2001: National Guard personnel began assisting security at multiple
airports around the nation. By Oct. 16, a total of 6,155 Guard members had been
deployed at 420 airports in 53 states and territories.
FAA issued a 15-part Notice to Airmen (1/0586) on emergency rules currently in
effect. Changes to flight restrictions included authorization for all general aviation Part
91 operations outside of Enhanced Class B (ECB) airspace, including previously
grounded airships/blimps, news helicopters, traffic-watch aircraft, and banner-towing
operations. Flight training operations were permitted for aircraft up to 12,500 Ib. outside
of ECB airspace and up to 6,000 Ib. inside ECB airspace, except in the Boston ECB and
in the continuing restricted areas around New York and Washington, D.C.
Also on Sep 28, FAA warned that pilots who violated restricted or prohibited
areas faced risks that included military interception, forced landing, and, as a last resort,
the use of deadly force.

Oct 1,2001: The Rapid Response Teams completed their reports, which they
submitted to the Secretary of Transportation in meetings on this day and the next. The
aircraft security team made 17 recommendations on issues that included: installation
within 90 days of a flight deck barrier device on the entire airline fleet; new requirements
for future flight deck doors; changes in security training; prompt delivery of security
advisories to crewmembers; and a task force on modifications to assure continuous
transponder signal transmission. The airport security team recommended establishment of
a new DOT security agency for transportation law enforcement, including officers to
oversee airport security. The team's 15 other recommendations concerned: sharing
security information; exploiting new technologies; unproved screening and access
control; and a voluntary pre-screening regimen to qualify passengers for faster
Also on Oct 1, FAA issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation 91 requiring
operators of private charters and general aviation flights using secure areas at
airports to implement security procedures already required for public charters and
scheduled passenger flights. This provision was effective on Oct 6. The rule also

Oct 2, 2001: President Bush announced a phased reopening of Washington's

Reagan National Airport, beginning on October 4, for commercial service only.
Extraordinary airport security measures would include: a ban on aircraft with more than
156 seats; operations only between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m.; and temporary discontinuance of
the river approach that had been used to mitigate noise. Phase I of the reopening, to last
about 3 weeks, would be limited to shuttle flights and service to eight hubs by six
airlines. Phase n, to last 30-45 days, would add flights to additional cities (see Oct 18,
2001). Further phases would be announced after review of the initial operations.
A series of events leading to alarm over terrorist use of anthrax began when a
man who worked in the American Media building in Boca Raton, Fla., was hospitalized
with pulmonary anthrax. He died on October 5. Subsequent incidents involving receipt
of contaminated letters at media offices spread concern over the delivery of anthrax
spores by mail (see Oct 15,2001).

Oct 2,2001: Also on this date, problems during a power failure at FAA's national
headquarters highlighted safety issues and reinforced ongoing security concerns. A
program of improvements at headquarters included barriers and guard booths outside
of the building, as well as more emergency lighting and public address system speakers.

Oct 3,2001: FAA issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 92 granting
temporary relief from certain regulatory requirements in order to permit passenger
airlines to quickly modify flight deck doors to prevent unauthorized entry, using
both short-term and longer-term measures. SFAR 92 also banned possession of flight
deck door keys by cabin attendants during flight. The rule was modified by SFAR 92-1,
issued on October 12, which broadened the regulatory relief provisions to cover cargo
operations as well as passenger flights under Part 121. Further modifications were
contained in SFAR 92-2, published on Nov 21, which allowed cabin attendants on
passenger flights to possess cockpit door keys if the flight crew used an additional lock to
secure the door from the inside. (See Jan 15,2002.)

Oct 4,2001: As announced by President Bush on October 2, Washington's Reagan

National Airport opened to limited airline flights. The event marked the return to
service of all U.S. commercial airports.

Oct 5,2001: Secretary of Transportation Norman Y. Mineta made public the

recommendations of the two Rapid Response Teams. FAA announced that Secretary
Mineta had directed the agency to take any necessary steps to support installation of
secure mechanisms on airline cockpit doors within 30 days. FAA also announced that
the Secretary had established a $20 million grant program to develop aircraft security
technologies as part of the $500 million initiative unveiled by the President on Sep 27.
Media reported that Associate Administrator for Civil Aviation Security
Michael A. Canavan would leave FAA by mutual agreement. Subsequent reports
linked Canavan's departure to a disagreement over the assignment of Federal Air
Marshals to flights carrymgjCabinetrnembCTS.

Ocl6,_2001 :_.Effective_atJ2i01 a.m., thejireas covered by Temporary Flight

Restrictions around New York City and Washington were reduced. The specified 25
nautical miles radii around Kennedy and Reagan National airports were lowered to 18
nautical miles. In the same Notice to Airmen (NOTAM FDC 1/0989), FAA specified
Temporary Flight Restrictions banning general aviation operations within a radius of
15 nautical miles from the Boston's BOS VORTAC, except for Instrument Flight
Rules flights to and from Logan airport. In a separate NOTAM (FDC 1/0982), FAA
permitted "flush flights" for private aircraft trapped within the New York and
Washington restricted areas on this day through October 9.

Oct 7,2001: Starting at 12:30 p.m. EDT, the United States and Britain began air strikes
against targets in Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. In an
address beginning at 1:00 p.m., President Bush stated that the attacks were directed
against the Al Qaeda terrorist network and against installations of the Taliban regime,
which had not complied with U.S. demands concerning the terrorists. According to
media reports, the Nation stepped up security measures as the air campaign began,
including additional police and National Guard at airports.
Also on Oct 7, FAA sent a notice to airlines of a new carry-on security measure
required to be implemented within 72 hours of receipt. Each passenger was to be limited
to one carry-on bag and one personal item such as a purse or laptop computer. On the
following day, FAA issued a news release advising air travelers on this and other current
security measures. Airlines with appropriate security measures in place were now
permitted to operate automated check-in kiosks.

Oct 8,2001: A man with a history of mental problems reportedly stormed into the
cockpit of an American Airlines 767 before being subdued by passengers and
crewmembers. Fighter aircraft escorted the plane to a safe landing in Chicago. This was
the most serious of several incidents in which fighter jets intercepted or escorted
airline flights since the recent terrorist attacks. Examples of these escort incidents
reported by the media included: on Sep 11, a Korean Airlines 757 landed at White Horse,
Yukon Territory, due to a transponder code error; on Sep 19, an American Airlines flight
with radio problems returned to Chicago; on Sep 27, an Air Canada flight returned to Los
Angeles due to a passenger's hostile behavior; and, on Oct 10, a Delta flight made an
unscheduled landing at Shreveport, La., after a passenger gave a suspicious note to a
flight attendant.
Oct 10,2001: Secretary of Transportation Mineta sent to Congress proposed legislation
to strengthen safety and security in transporting hazardous materials. The proposal
included greater enforcement authority for state, postal, and DOT officials.

Oct 11,2001: The FBI warned that there might be additional terrorist attacks
within'the next several days against the United States and its overseas interests, and
called upon law enforcement officials to be on the highest alert.

Oct 12.200JLL FAA announced a three-phase program to allow private aircraftto

r^mTfl^ifil^fiae? Visual Flight Rules (VFRTTn[Enhanced Class B airspace
.aEound45~maj»r cities,. Ai^^
require a waiver. The resumption would be effective each morning as follows: on Oct
15: Houston, Kansas City, Memphis, New Orleans, and St. Louis; on Oct 16: Cleveland,
Dallas-Fort Worth, Honolulu, Minneapolis, and Phoenix; and on Oct 17: Charlotte, Salt
Lake City, Seattle, Tampa, and the area surrounding Cincinnati, Ohio, and Covington,
Ky. Restrictions in the other 15 areas with Enhanced Class B airspace remained
unchanged (see Oct 21, 2001). VFR operations still not permitted in Enhanced Class B
airspace included: news reporting; traffic watch; banner towing; commercial sightseeing;
airship/blimp flights; and flight training in aircraft over 6,000 Ibs.
FAA announced that Secretary Mineta was directing joint teams from the agency
and from DOT's Office of the Inspector General to conduct an audit of employee
background checks of Argenbright Security, a firm providing airport screening
services The audits would take place at 13 airports at which FAA had recently found
background check violations by Argenbright. (On Oct 23, a Federal court reportedly
approved a settlement in a case against Argenbright, under which the firm would
continue on probation and take certain actions related to background checks.) FAA also
announced that separate teams from the agency would soon begin an audit of
background checks of all U.S. airport security screeners.

Oct 15,2001: The developing anthrax hazard spread to the U.S. Congress when a
Senate aide reportedly opened a contaminated letter. On Oct 16, FAA headquarters
employees received notice of a suspensions of mail throughout DOT pending
implementation of a new system to protect against the anthrax threat. (See Oct 23,2001.)

Oct 15,2001: As of this date, DOT had distributed nearly $2.43 billion to 111 carriers as
compensation for losses due to the September 11 attacks. The sum represented nearly
half of the $5 billion authorized (see Sep 22, 2001).

Oct 17,2001: In a speech to the National Press Club, Administrator Garvey said that she
was ordering a criminal history check on all airline and airport employees with
access to secure areas, broadening a procedure that had previously applied to new
employees with such access. (Without new legislation, however, lids could be applied
immediately to only 21 major airports, since the Aviation Security Act of 2000 stipulated
that smaller airport were not required to implement such employee checks before
November 2003.) The Administrator also said that explosives detection program must be
accelerated with the goal of screening every checked bag.

Oct 18,2001: DOT announced an expansion of flight operations at Reagan National

Airport, representing Phase n of the reopening program unveiled on Oct 2 (see that
date). Phase n was to begin on Oct 26 and was expected to last for 45 days. It increased
the number of airports served to/from Reagan National by 18, for a total of 26. (See Dec
Also on this date, a Federal judge in New York City sentenced four terrorists to
life imprisonment for conspiring with Osama bin Laden in the 1998 bombings of U.S.
embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The four had been convicted in May.

Oct21,,200,14- FAA announced restoration ofgeneral aviation-Visual flight Rules

operations in 12 more metropolitan areas under the same terms as for 15 areas
announced nine days previously (see Oct 12, 2001). The restoration was effective at 7:00
a.m. Eastern time according to the following schedule: Oct 22: Atlanta, Las Vegas, Los
Angeles, Miami, and San Francisco; Oct 23: Denver, Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
and San Diego; Oct 24: Chicago and Orlando. Restrictions on VFR flying remained
unchanged in the specified areas of Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C.

Oct 23,2001: As the anthrax outbreak continued, authorities confirmed two fatalities
from the disease among workers at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C.
The victims had died on Oct 21 and Oct 22. Subsequent events included further anthrax
cases and the detection of spores, particularly in postal facilities and government
buildings in the Washington area. On Oct 29, Administrator Garvey reported that tests
had shown no anthrax contamination of the FAA national headquarters mailroom or its
employees. Similar tests at DOT headquarters were also negative. On Oct 30, FAA
resumed delivery of interoffice mail at headquarters. On that same day, however, some
FAA offices at Washington Dulles airport closed for part of the day as a precaution after
a trace of anthrax was found at a U.S. Postal Service facility in the same building. The
anthrax outbreak claimed its fourth fatality on Oct 31 in New York City, and its fifth on
Nov 21 in Connecticut. Unlike earlier fatalities, neither of these victims were media or
postal employees. On Nov 29, FAA headquarters staff received notice that delivery of
external mail would resume.

Oct 25, 2001; The Security Subcommittee of FAA's Research, Engineering and
Development Advisory Committee (REDAC) convened to evaluate industry
recommendations on development of promising security technology. The
subcommittee made its initial report to the Administrator on Nov 20,2001.

Oct 26,2001: FAA sent a letter to U.S. air carriers offering partial reimbursement for
certain increases in war risk insurance costs due to the September 11 attacks, as
authorized by the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (see Sep 22,

Oct 29, 2001; The FBI issued a second alert against terrorism (see Oct 11,2001),
warning that attacks against the United States or its overseas interests might occur during
the next week.
Also on this date, an American Airlines flight made an unscheduled landing at
Washington Dulles airport due to the reported discovery of a threatening note on board.

Oct 30,2001: In response to the previous day's FBI alert, FAA prohibited most
general aviation flying over 86 sensitive sites, most of which were nuclear power
plants. The ban applied within a radius of 10 nautical miles and below 18,000 feet, and
were planned to last through Nov 6. Exceptions included certain law enforcement and
emergency j^ejjtflQni^jwhe^^ _
an area j>f dpwnjgwn jThieagni to l^tii^fb^er notice (see Jan 24, 2002)^ The
agency also implemented temporary flight restrictions to protect New York's Yankee
Stadium during a game attended by President Bush.
In a speech to a National Transportation Security Summit meeting, Secretary
Mineta announced a crack-down on continuing deficiencies in airport security.
Mineta stated that he had met that morning with FAA agents from around the country,
directing them to react to security lapses by such measures as clearing secure areas,
rescreening passengers, or holding flights for luggage recheck. The Secretary also
discussed steps to supplement FAA's agent workforce with personnel from the Office of
the Inspector General, and perhaps by FAA internal reassignments or new hiring.

Oct 3 1 , 2001 : Events on this day included two incidents reported by media. Due to a
suspected biohazard, two Northwest Airlines flights from Tokyo were held at the gate in
Seattle, and authorities detained two passengers from one of the aircraft. At Pittsburgh,
FAA held airliners on the ground while military jets investigated the sighting of a single-
engine plane over a nuclear plant in the area.

Oct 2001 : Bureau of Transportation Statistics indicators for this month reflected the
economic impact of the terrorist attacks on an air travel industry already feeling the
effects of recession. As compared to October of the previous year, for example, revenue
passenger enplanements were down 21 percent for domestic service by large U.S.
airlines. Revenue passenger enplanements for international flights by U.S. carriers were
down 32 percent.

Nov 1, 2001 : In one example of multiple actions such as Secretary Mineta had called for
on Oct 30, FAA agents closed an American Airlines security checkpoint at New York
Kennedy because of a failure to follow proper procedures. After the concourse was
emptied and checked, all passengers and employees were rescreened. Also on Nov 1,
another airliner was diverted due to a threatening note discovered on board, according
to media. Fighter jets escorted the Northwest Airlines flight to a landing at Detroit.
In Washington, Secretary Mineta presented DOT's 2001 Gold Medal Award for
Outstanding Achievement to FAA's air traffic controllers for their performance
during September 1 1 emergency.
The House of Representatives passed an aviation security bill that differed
significantly from a version passed unanimously by the Senate on Oct 1 1 . Reflecting the
Republicans' preferred approach, the House measure provided that airport screeners
might remain employees of private firms, although they would be placed under Federal
supervision. Under the Senate's bill, the screeners would become Federal personnel.
(See Nov 19, 2001.)

Nov 2, 2001: Effective at 5: p.m. EST, FAA revised the temporary flight restrictions
issued on Oct 30 to cover a total of 95 nuclear sites, a change made by deleting four sites
and adding 13. The agency allowed general aviation aircraft located at 15 airports within
the restricted areas to depart during the day between 1 1:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. The
^ ______

Nov 3, 2001: According to media, a Nepalese man breached a security checkpoint at

Chicago O'Hare airport as he attempted to board a United Airlines flight. Argenbright
Security personnel at the checkpoint detected two of the man's knives, which were
confiscated; however, they failed to detect other knives and additional prohibited items
found during a later search at the gate.

Nov 5,2001: Secretary Mineta stated that airport security was still inadequate,
despite the crack-down announced on Oct 30. He cited the incident at Chicago on Nov 3
(see that date) and a lapse in airport screening at Louisville, Ky., on Nov 4. Mineta said
that he intended to hold the airlines and their screening contractors accountable for
security until forthcoming legislation reassigned responsibility to the Federal
government. To underline this, he planned to hold a meeting of the airlines' top
executives during the following week.
Also on this date, FAA announced mat it would hire temporary personnel to
begin assisting security inspectors within the next few weeks. More than 200
individuals were recruited.

Nov 8,2001: FAA issued temporary flight restrictions at Cape Canaveral that
enlarged the permanent restricted area around the NASA and USAF facilities there.

Nov 9,2001: President Bush announced a temporary increase in National Guard

troops protecting air travel during the holiday season. (States were authorized and
funded to deploy a 25 percent increase above current personnel levels for a 60 day period
to begin about Nov 15.) The President also mentioned that FAA was deploying a core
team of security professionals to improve security oversight at airports, and that DOT's
Office of the Inspector General would conduct undercover audits of airport security
nationwide. In addition, he noted that major airlines had now fortified 100 percent of
their cockpit doors.

Nov 10-11,2001: FAA reportedly issued temporary flight restrictions to protect a

United Nations General Assembly meeting in New York City on these dates.

Nov 12,2001: According to media, Federal Air Marshals aboard a USAirways jet
ordered the flight diverted to Washington Dulles after handcuffing a man who was
walking toward the cockpit. The man's action reportedly violated the requirement that
passengers remain seated during the last half hour of an approach to Reagan National

Nov 13,2001: America West became the first airline to apply for a Federally
guaranteed loan under the program established by Congress in the wake of the
September 11 attacks (see Sep 22,2001). The Air Transportation Stabilization Board
te3jtajiyj^_^ M^butjttached
"cc -*-- - *—* -

applied for loans under the program; however, none of them had received approval as of
Apr 12,2002.

Nov 16,2001: A man penetrated a secure area at Atlanta Hartsfield airport, evading
guards by running down an up-bound escalator. The incident resulted in evacuation of
all concourses and widespread interruptions of flight operations. FAA imposed a fine of
$3,300 on the perpetrator, who, in addition, later received criminal penalties including a
jail term.

Nov 19, 2001: President Bush signed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act
(P.L. 107-71). The act created a new DOT organization, the Transportation Security
Administration (TSA), to assume responsibility for the security of all modes of
transportation. TSA was to be headed by an Under Secretary of Transportation for
Security, who would serve for a fixed five-year term.
TSA was to assume the aviation portion of its security responsibilities within 90
days of the law's enactment, replacing FAA as the Federal agency with primary
responsibility in that field. Within one year, airport security screening was to be
performed by TSA employees, who must be U.S. citizens. TSA would then implement a
pilot program under which screening at five airports would be performed by private firms
under TSA contracts. Two years after TSA certified that all Federal screeners were in
place, airports would be granted the option to request such contract screening. The act
required use of the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) for all
passengers and included provisions on the effective use of the system.
To help pay for the screening personnel and certain other expenses, airline
passengers were to pay a security service fee of $2.50 for each time they boarded, with a
maximum of $5 for any one-way trip. The fee was to begin within 60 days, or as soon
possible thereafter. Shortfalls in revenue from the fees were to covered by the airlines.
The legislation authorized the $500 million fund, announced earlier by the President, to
assist airlines in making security upgrades. It also contained provisions on airport use of
funds from the Airport Improvement Program and from Passenger Facility Charges.
The act created a Transportation Security Oversight Board, chaired by the
Secretary of Transportation and including: the heads of the Departments of Justice,
Treasury, and Defense; the CIA Director; and representatives of the National Security
Council and the Homeland Security office. The Board's functions of oversight and
coordination included the authority to ratify or disapprove TSA regulations and
The act required a wide range of security-related actions, many with specific
deadlines. By the end of 2002, for example, TSA was to deploy sufficient Explosive
Detection Systems (EDS) to permit all air carrier airports to screen all checked baggage
with this equipment. Within 60 days, meanwhile, TSA was to implement screening of all
checked baggage at these airports using available EDS or alternative means such as bag
matching, manual search, or inspection by canine units.
The legislation authorized TSA to deploy Federal Air Marshals on all passenger
flights, and required them aboard flights .presenting high security risks. TSA was

ining The art alsn provided fnq- the shirty and pnggihle
authorization by DOT of non-lethal weapons for flight deck crew.
Provisions of the act directed to FAA included: certain required actions
concerning flight deck security; rapid development of guidance and training to prepare
flight crews for threat situations; and establishment of pilot programs at no fewer than 20
airports to test emerging security technologies. The act required U.S. and foreign
airlines, within 60 days, to provide to the Commissioner of Customs passengers and crew
manifests for flights bound for the United States. Among other features of the legislation
were provisions included measures to heighten the security of flight schools and airport
perimeters, and to increase penalties for interference with aviation security personnel.

Nov 23,2001: On the Saturday following Thanksgiving, examples of security-related

air travel problems reportedly included a temporary stop on departures from Seattle-
Tacoma airport, caused by the discovery that a metal detector had been unplugged during
screening. Ripple effects included closure of Oakland and Reno terminals while
passengers arriving from Sea-Tac were rescreened. Other security problems caused flight
delays at Memphis, Tenn., and Santa Ana, Calf.

Nov 26,2001: Administrator Garvey announced that she had recently formed a new
office of emergency operations and communications as a result of the September 11

Nov 27,2001: Secretary Mineta reportedly stated that the government was not
likely to meet the deadline for screening all checked baggage within 60 days, as
mandated in the recent airport security bill. Mineta cited insufficient personnel,
equipment, and bomb-detecting dogs. The next day, however, media carried a DOT
statement that the deadline would be met.

Dec 3,2001: Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge issued a general security alert,
stating that the action was based on intelligence that did not identify a specific threat.
The FBI had issued two similar alerts on Oct 11 and Oct 29, 2001.

Dec 6, 2001: FAA published a rule strengthening criminal history check

requirements for employees at airports who: were screeners; supervised screeners;
possessed unescorted access to secure areas; or had authority to grant such access. It
required a finger-print-based criminal history check, if such a check had not been
performed in the past. The fingerprinting requirement applied to new applicants
immediately and to current employees within one year. On the same day, FAA
announced that the American Association of Airport Executives would serve as a
clearinghouse for these record checks.

Dec 7,2001: Media reported that FAA had unveiled temporary flight restrictions
(TFRs) to protect the Winter Olympics during 19 days beginning on Feb 6,2001.
Included were an "Olympic Ring" TFR area from the surface to 18,000 feet msl within a
45 mites rajdjius of Salt Lake City airport^ and nine smaller TFRs. Before entering the

Boise, Idaho. These requirements were published on Jan 18,2002, as Special Federal
Aviation Regulation 95.
Also on this date, an FAA official testified to Congress that more than 2000
Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) would be needed to meet the mandated goal of
screening all checked baggage with this equipment. Fewer than 200 EDS were currently
deployed. The official noted that FAA was also purchasing Explosives Trace Detection
(ETD) equipment and had installed more than 850 of the devices at airports.

Dec 10,2001: President Bush announced his intention to nominate John Magaw to be
Under Secretary of Transportation for Security. A former director of the Secret
Service and of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Magaw was currently
Acting Executive Director of the Office of National Preparedness hi the Federal
Emergency Management Agency. Magaw received a recess appointment on January 7,

Dec 11,2001: The Justice Department indicted Zacarias Moussaoui on charges of

conspiracy in the September 11 attacks. The first individual to be charged directly in
connection with the attacks, Moussaoui was a French citizen of Moroccan descent. He
had been in custody since August 16, when he was arrested on charges of immigration
violation. The arrest was reportedly triggered by his suspicious behavior as a student at a
Minnesota flight school.

Dec 13,2001: Media reported that 50 Salt Lake City airport employees had been
arrested on charges of giving false information to obtain security access badges. The
arrests were said to be part of a coordinated security effort in preparation for the Whiter
Reported incidents at Boston Logan airport marked Argenbright Security's last
day of duty at the facility. Areas of the airport were evacuated and passengers rescreened
after FAA identified improperly trained screeners. Later in the day, more passengers
were rescreened after an individual objected to screening and fled.

Dec 19,2001: FAA lifted the broad restrictions on general aviation Visual Flight
Rules flying in 27 major metropolitan areas imposed after September 11 on airspace
designated as Enhanced Class B. The agency also reduced flight restrictions in the
Boston, New York, and Washington areas. For the latter city, special restrictions on
general aviation were now limited to a radius of 15 statute miles around the Washington
Monument, with accommodations for three of the area's small airports. Among the
prohibitions not affected by the changes were: Temporary Flight Restrictions for
downtown Chicago, for other specific locations, and for major sporting events; certain
restrictions on both foreign and U.S.-registered general aviation aircraft; and the weight
limit on aircraft that might be used for flight training under Visual Flight Rules.
Also on this day, the Transportation Security Administration issued eligibility
requirements for airport screeners hired by security companies after TSA assumed
toejrj»ntrajtsi duruig.^e teaiurjdojijo.an^all-f^eral^ screjOTer_workforce._&i addition,

Dec 21,2001: DOT announced the schedule for Phase III of the restoration of flights
at Washington's Reagan National Airport (see Oct 18,2001). Phase TTT would be
carried out in three stages, to begin on January 2, February 1, and March 1, 2002.
Service to additional 43 cities would be restored during Phase III, returning service all
airports that had non-stop flights to Reagan National prior to its closure. At the
completion of Phase HI, daily operations the airport were expected to number about 620
flights, representing 77 percent of the level before the September 11 attacks. (See Mar
Also on this day, FAA published a rulemaking proposal on procedures for
reimbursement of certain mandated security costs incurred by airports, on-airport
parking lots, and vendors of on-airfield services.

Dec 22,2001: Aboard an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami, a passenger
allegedly tried to ignite explosives hidden in his shoes, but was subdued by passengers
and flight attendants. The suspect was Richard C. Reid, a British national who was said
to be a convert to Islamic extremism. Reportedly, FAA had earlier issued an alert
concerning the need for airport screeners to check passengers' shoes, and issued more
precise instructions after the Reid incident. In indicting Reid for attempted murder and
other charges on Jan 16,2002, the Justice Department alleged that he had received Al
Qaeda training in Afghanistan.
Inauguration on this date of a new interim government in Afghanistan to
replace the Taliban regime reflected the achievement of an important U.S. objective in
Afghanistan, although not the end of U.S. military involvement in that country.

Dec 28,2001: In issuing amended procedures for compensating airlines for losses due
to the September 11 attack, DOT noted that it had so far received applications from over
300 air carriers. The Department had made payments to 131 of these carriers, totaling
more than $3.8 billion of the $5 billion authorized.

Dec 31,2001: DOT announced that the new Transportation Security Administration
had met the first requirements under the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (see
Nov 19,2001). These included: issuing qualification standards for Federal airport
security screeners; publishing procedures for airports to seek part of the funds authorized
for security improvements; reporting to Congress on airspace security measures for
general aviation; and lifting, through FAA, most restrictions on visual flight rules flying
in major metropolitan areas imposed after the September 11 attacks (see Dec 19, 2001).
As of this date, 30 evacuations at U.S. airport terminals had occurred since
October 30 at the direction of FAA civil aviation security special agents, and 434 flights
had been deplaned due to agents' observations of improper screening. (See Feb 16,
Also on this day, FAA published a request for public comments on certain
issues relating to arming flight crews and to the provision of emergency services on
on Feb 14,_2002,_FAA had_

Jan 5,2002: A 15-year-old student pilot died as he deliberately crashed a Cessna

172R into a high-rise building in Tampa, Fla. No one else was injured. After taking off
without permission from a flight school, Charles Bishop flew over McDill Air Force Base
and ignored signals from an intercepting Coast Guard helicopter before colliding with the
building. Bishop reportedly left a suicide note in which he expressed sympathy for the
September 1 1 attackers, but made clear that he was acting alone. On Jan 9, FAA issued a
notice containing suggested security enhancements for flight schools and fixed base

Jan 8, 2002: DOT announced it had begun to recruit Transportation Security

Administration security directors for the nation's top 429 airports, beginning with the
largest 81 facilities.

Jan 10, 2002: A defense appropriation act (P.L. 107-1 17) signed into law on this date
provided additional funds for civil aviation security through the Airport and Airway
Trust Fund, including added funds to partly reimburse airports for the cost of security
requirements imposed after the September 2001 attacks. On Mar 18, DOT announced
that FAA would dispense $175 million to 317 airports.

Jan 15, 2002: FAA published in the Federal Register a Special Federal Aviation
Regulation (SFAR) 92-3 on cockpit doors, superceding previous SFARs on this topic
(see Oct 3, 2001). The new SFAR required operators to install temporary locking
devices on their cockpit doors within 45 days, if they had not already done so as part of
the already completed short-term fixes (see Mar 19, 2002). The same issue of the Federal
Register carried an FAA final rule setting longer-term standards for reinforced
cockpit doors, to be met by April 9, 2003.

Jan 16, 2002: DOT announced a senior advisor program for the Transportation
Security Administration, under which private sector executives would help establish the
new agency. Secretary Mineta also stated on this date that Baltimore Washington
airport would be used to test TSA procedures, train TS A senior managers, and study
airport security.
Also on this date, a U.S. court sentenced Moktar Haouari, an Algerian, to 24
years in prison for conspiracy to support terrorist activities. On July 13, 2001,
Haouari had been convicted of providing certain assistance to convicted terrorist Ahmed
Ressam. Arrested after he tried to bring explosives into the United States from Canada in
December 1999, Ressam had not revealed his intended target during his own trial. At
Haouari 's trial in July 2001, however, Ressam admitted that he had planned to plant a
bomb at Los Angeles airport.

Jan 17, 2002: Telair International became the first company to both to pass FAA security
requirements for a blast resistant luggage container, also know as a hardened unit load
device (HULD), and to obtain Technical Standard Order (TSO) approval for such a
cojijainer.^ __

screening of all checked baggage at US. airports began, using a variety of approved
methods (see Nov 19, 2001). No major problems were reported. Also on this day, FAA
fulfilled a requirement in the same legislation by issuing detailed new guidance for
training aircrew members to deal with threats such as hijacking, reflecting a revised
strategy that involved active resistance by the crew (see Mar 19, 2002). The
Transportation Security Administration met a similar mandate on time by issuing plans
for training of security screeners.

Jan 23, 2002: The Secretary of the Army reportedly stated that, in the next 60 to 90 days,
the National Guard would begin removing the approximately 6,000 troops assigned
to assist airport security. Also on this day, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
reportedly issued an advisory warning U.S. nuclear power plants that terrorists might
attempt to crash an aircraft into one of the facilities.

Jan 24,2002: At the behest of city authorities, FAA established an expanded

Temporary Flight Restrictions area for downtown Chicago. (Originally set to last 60
days, this restricted area was subsequently extended through Apr 8, 2002.) Other
temporary flight restrictions issued in early 2002 included expanded restrictions for
Washington during the evening of the State of the Union address on Jan 29, and
restrictions on Feb 1-4 to protect Super Bowl activities at New Orleans.

Jan 30, 2002: Authorities ordered an evacuation at San Francisco airport after personnel
at an Argenbright Security checkpoint failed to detain a man whose shoes tested
positive for explosives.

Feb 1,2002: The Transportation Security Administration announced a study of security

procedures at 15 selected airports, to be conducted during the next six weeks.

Feb 4,2002: DOT unveiled a fiscal 2003 budget request that reflected funding for
upgraded security, including $4.8 billion for the first full year of the Transportation
Security Administration. Also on this date, examples of bomb threat incidents
reportedly caused a Delta Airlines flight to return to Denver and a Northwest Airlines
flight to return to Cancun, Mexico.

Feb 6,2002: DOT stated that Argenbright Security would not be receiving new
contracts for security screening when the Transportation Security Administration
assumed from the airlines the responsibility for such contracts later hi the month.

Feb 7,2002: According to media reports, a Uruguayan passenger aboard a United

Airlines 777 kicked in part of the cockpit door, which had been reinforced with a bar
in response to an FAA directive. When the passenger tried to crawl into the cockpit, the
copilot struck him on the head with a fire axe. Other passengers and crew subdued the
individual, and the flight from Miami to Buenos Aires was completed safely.

terroristattackj^as-early-asthe,ibllowing .day, inJheUnited.States or,agains.tU,S^interests
in Yemen. The Bureau identified 17 men, mostly Yemenis, as suspects. U.S. authorities
had previously issued three other broad security alerts on Oct 11, Oct 29, and Dec 3,
Feb 13,2002: FAA announced a rule to enable private flying to resume at three
suburban Maryland airports that had been largely shut down since the September 11
attacks: the College Park, Potomac, and Executive/Hyde airports. Although flight
restrictions for the Washington area had been reduced on Dec 19,2001, the three
facilities had not been able to reopen because they were in the still-restricted area within
a radius of 15 miles from the Washington Monument. Under the new rule, flying could
resume at the three airports when special security procedures were hi place for pilots and
facility managers. College Park and Potomac began flights on Feb 23, Executive/Hyde
on March 2, 2002.

Feb 16,2002: From October 30 through this date, FAA civil aviation security special
agents initiated 40 evacuations at U.S. airport terminals, and directed the deplaning of
636 flights due to agents' observations of improper screening. In addition, the aviation
industry initiated 73 evacuations and 47 deplanings during this same period. (See Apr 6,

Feb 17,2002: Under the terms of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, TSA
assumed responsibilities for civil aviation security formerly assigned to FAA under
Chapter 449 of Title 49, United States Code. FAA personnel responsible for these
functions were transferred to TSA. In addition, TSA assumed management of
airport security screening contracts, formerly the responsibility of the airlines.
Security at airports was now overseen by Interim Federal Security Representatives, who
were scheduled for replacement by Federal Security Directors. (See Mar 13, 2002.)

Feb 19-20,2002: Representatives of 154 states and 24 organizations attended an

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ministerial conference on aviation
security. The group issued a declaration that called for steps to strengthen security,
including regular, mandatory, and systematic security audits through ICAO. To support
the audit program, the United States pledged $1 million in addition to its ongoing ICAO

Feb 25,2002: USA Today reported charges against FAA by a "whistleblower" who
stated that the agency had for years covered up airport security lapses revealed by its own
"red team" inspections. The allegations were attributed to Bogdan Dzakovic, a former
"red team" member and current TSA employee. On the following day, the U.S. Office of
Special Counsel reportedly stated that it had ordered DOT to investigate Hie charges.

Feb 28, 2002: Fighter jets escorted an Air India flight from London to a landing at
M§iy^oi:kJKejmedy^^Bojrt^uejto a report of a suspicious passenger aboard.
AlirMOTti^ .
-was^lughly,publicized example of the continuing military intercepts of ciyU fjigbts^due
to security concerns.

Mar 2,2002: According to media, government officials stated that airport security had
selected 9 of the 19 hijackers for special attention before they boarded on September 11,
Mar 4,2002: DOT and TSA announced a contract with NCS Pearson, Inc., for
recruitment of 30,000 Federal security personnel, including testing and management
of selection processing.

Mar 12,2002: Homeland Security Director Ridge announced the creation of a

Homeland Security Advisory System including five color-coded levels of risk of
terrorist attack. The Attorney General would be responsible for developing the final
system, and for implementing it following a public comment period and approval by the

Mar 13, 2002: Secretary Mineta swore in the first group of Federal Security Directors
to oversee security at airports. He also announced that Washington's Reagan National
airport would be authorized to return to its pre-September 11 capacity by April 15
(see that date).
In addition, Secretary Mineta announced a 60-day extension of DOT's special
war risk insurance program for the aviation industry. In the wake of the September 11
attacks, legislation had broadened FAA's authority to issue war risk insurance to close
the gap between the industry's needs and the coverage available from private insurers on
reasonable terms. The initial policies issued under the new authority were effective
through October 31; however, coverage had subsequently been extended through Jan 11,
then Mar 20, and - with this latest action - through May 19,2002.

Mar 19,2002: All U.S. certificated air carriers met the deadline for submitting to FAA
new training programs for crew members in dealing with hijacking. Legislation had
mandated this be done within 60 days after FAA issued guidelines for the training (see
Jan 18, 2002). By Apr 17, all the airlines had either obtained FAA approval for their
programs or received them back for revision.
Also on this date, FAA published Special Federal Aviation Regulation 92-4
clarifying certain provisions concerning cockpit doors contained in SFAR 92-3, which
it superseded (see Jan 15, 2002).

Mar 21,2002: The International Civil Aviation Organization (1CAO) announced

strengthened international inflight security standards. The new standards included
reinforced cockpit doors on international flights of more than 60 passengers, effective
Nov 1,2003.

Mar 25,2002: USA Today reported criticism of airport screening by the DOT Office
19 memo by the OIG stating that
after4he-.Sjep^emberJA-attacks-~ — -

Mar 25,2002; The first 300 TSA screener-trainer candidates took the oath of office
before staring their training.
Apr 1, 2002: A Frontier Airlines crew attracted media attention when their 737 strayed
into restricted airspace near the White House after takeoff from Reagan National

Apr 2, 2002: Media reported that JetBlue had begun installing video cameras in the
passenger cabins of its aircraft. The airline was the first to begin regular use of this
system, which FAA had approved for installation but had not required.

Apr 4,2002: The New York Times reported that two companies had announced orders
from TSA for hundreds of explosives detection systems for screening luggage. The
firms were L-3 Communications Corporation and InVision technologies.

Apr 6, 2002: Figures on security actions from February 17 through this date indicated
that TSA had initiated 31 evacuations at U.S. airports, and also the deplaning of 179
flights for passenger rescreening. During the same period, the aviation industry initiated
an additional 36 evacuations and 39 deplanings. (See Feb 16,2002.)

Apr 15 '02: DOT completed its phase-out of broad restrictions on airline service at
Washington's Reagan National airport that had been imposed after the September 11
attacks. The airport still remained under certain security-related rales that included a ban
on general aviation flights and on aircraft seating more than 156 passengers, as well as
flight path restrictions and a curfew. On April 24, however, DOT announced that these
restrictions would end on April 27 insofar as they affected commercial aviation.