Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 61

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Solution Description

Nokia Networks Oyj

1 (61)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Solution Description

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Telecommunications' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Telecommunications welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Telecommunications and the customer. However, Nokia Telecommunications has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Telecommunications will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Telecommunications' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. Nokia Telecommunications WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright Nokia Networks Oyj 2000. All rights reserved.

No. of Pages 61

Edited by 3.11.2000 Janne Urpo

Approved by 1.12.2000 Mika Perttil

Previous issue Approved 07.07.2000

Nokia Networks Oyj

2 (61)

Contents

Executive summary
Wireless data is the key to the high revenue corporate sector and to value-added services for consumers. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a major step forward in wireless data. It gives customers the benefits of instant IP connectivity on-the-move and being continuously connected. Nokia GPRS Core Nokia provides a complete GPRS core solution. Adopting the Nokia GPRS core gives an economical way to provide GPRS coverage over the entire network. As the use of GPRS grows, capacity can be added, while keeping transmission and interconnection costs to a minimum. The Nokia Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) provides carrier class reliability and built-in redundancy. The Nokia Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), as well as the Border Gateway (BG) and the Firewall (FW), are based on a Nokia router platform. This enables market leading security solutions and scalability of the network. Nokia Network Management Nokia has extended its NMS/2000 Network Management System, integrating the management of GPRS with the existing GSM network, giving operators the operational benefit of a single NMS system. Nokia Charging and Billing The amount of charging data created by GPRS needs special consideration. As part of its total GPRS solution, Nokia provides operators with a Charging Gateway (CG). The standalone CG enables a simpler, more secure and quickly configurable interface towards the billing system. The Nokia Charging Centre provides a service management and rating platform for GPRS that can be tailored to operators' specific needs. Nokia BSS and GPRS Nokia radio resource management algorithms, the "Territory Method" (see chapter two, section Territory Method), ensures the highest possible capacity from the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). The system constantly reallocates capacity between GPRS and circuit-switched traffic, while delivering high quality service for voice users. Nokia Professional Services Nokia Professional Services and System Integration provides a full range of services from installation and consulting to network operations. Services can be tailored to meet customer specific needs.

Nokia Networks Oyj

3 (61)

Contents

Contents
Executive summary ...................................................................................................... 3 About this manual ........................................................................................................ 6 Summary of changes................................................................................................... 7 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.8 2.9 2.9.1 2.10 2.11 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 The need for data services............................................................. 8 Service Differentiation........................................................................ 8 More Revenue.................................................................................... 8 Huge Potential Market for Data Services .......................................... 8 GPRS brings benefits to end-users................................................... 9 Fast network roll-out with minimum investment ................................ 9 GPRS uses excess voice capacity for data....................................... 9 GPRS Solution Concept................................................................ 10 Circuit-switched vs. Packet-switched Connections......................... 10 New GPRS Network Elements ........................................................ 11 GPRS Impact on Existing GSM Networks....................................... 24 Terminals ......................................................................................... 25 Nokia GPRS Release 1 Functionality.............................................. 26 GPRS point-to-point IP service........................................................ 26 SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs)................................................... 26 SMS through GPRS......................................................................... 26 Roaming........................................................................................... 27 Quality of Service............................................................................. 27 Corporate access solutions ............................................................. 29 IP security......................................................................................... 30 Lawful Interception ........................................................................... 30 Pre-Paid WAP over GPRS .............................................................. 30 GPRS in the Air Interface................................................................. 30 Coding schemes and multiple timeslots .......................................... 30 GPRS throughput............................................................................. 32 BSS Transmission ........................................................................... 34 A, A-ter and Abis interfaces ............................................................. 34 SGSN to BSC interface (Gb) ........................................................... 34 GPRS Backbone Network................................................................ 36 Network Management System ........................................................ 38 Nokia NMS for unified GSM/GPRS management........................... 38 Rating and Billing of GPRS services ............................................... 39 GPRS Growth Steps ........................................................................ 41 Applications.................................................................................... 42 GPRS as a Bearer Technology ....................................................... 42 Application Categories ..................................................................... 42 Application development support..................................................... 43 Market-making activities .................................................................. 43

Nokia Networks Oyj

4 (61)

Contents

4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 6 7 Appendix 1.

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network.................. 44 Business planning............................................................................ 44 Planning, building and optimising GPRS coverage with the Nokia NMS ....................................................................................... 44 Interworking tool set for planning and building GPRS coverage........................................................................................... 45 Configuring the GPRS backbone network....................................... 46 DNS management ........................................................................... 47 Monitoring GPRS network faults...................................................... 48 Measuring and reporting the performance of the unified GSM/GPRS network........................................................................ 49 Monitoring GPRS services with Nokia ServiceWatch..................... 50 GPRS network administration.......................................................... 51 GPRS network planning................................................................ 53 Radio network planning services ..................................................... 53 GPRS IP backbone planning ........................................................... 54 Service management solution and system integration.................... 54 Building the GPRS network ............................................................. 55 Installation and commissioning service for GPRS core IP backbone.......................................................................................... 55 Network Integration Service............................................................. 55 System Acceptance......................................................................... 56 Managing the GPRS network .......................................................... 56 Software Maintenance Service........................................................ 56 Emergency Support Service............................................................ 56 Hardware Service............................................................................. 56 Technical Assistance Centres - TAC............................................... 56 Nokia GPRS Solution Benefits..................................................... 57 Proof Example Business Case .................................................. 59 HW and SW for Nokia GPRS......................................................... 61

Nokia Networks Oyj

5 (61)

About this manual

About this manual


This document describes the Nokia General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) solution. Confidentiality: Nokia Customer Confidential. For hardware and software support for the GPRS see Appendix 1. For more information on Nokia data solutions see the Nokia Data Applications White Paper. For further information contact your local Nokia representative.

Nokia Networks Oyj

6 (61)

Summary of changes

Summary of changes
Version 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Date 14.01.99 19.02.99 30.04.99 03.06.00 Author AsC AsC AsC RT, BoAx Comments Version 1.0 SGSN capacity corrected GGSN capacity update Restructuring of the presentation order Modifications to Backbone and Security, CS Services, System Integraton and Applications chapters NMS Chapter revised Evolution towards 3G added Benefits chapter added 1.4 3.11.00 JUr Figures 1,2,3,4,16,17, 29 changed Figure 30 added SGSN, GGSN, CG, DNS chapters changed LIG chapter added QoS enchanced Evolution 3G chapter removed Appendix 1 updated.

Nokia Networks Oyj

7 (61)

The need for data services

1
1.1

The need for data services


Service Differentiation
As the amount of voice traffic per subscriber continues to grow and mobile penetration reaches its full potential, mobile operators must find ways to stay competitive other than merely setting aggressive voice tariffs. Offering valueadded services and interesting content is the key to increasing revenues and keeping ahead of the competition. Mobile data services make it possible to offer innovative, segmented services to different user groups to attract new subscribers and reduce churn. Data users may also be the highest speech users, so capturing their business can also increase speech revenues.

1.2 More Revenue


Data services offer the opportunity to increase revenue by providing much more than a mobile connection. Data services also provide additional revenue from the type of content accessed and for the amount of content transferred during that connection.

1.3 Huge Potential Market for Data Services


Mass mobile communications and universal access to information are two of the major trends of our time. In many countries there are now more people with a mobile phone than without one and within the next decade there will be more mobile phone users worldwide than fixed telephone users. On the Internet side, many fixed network operators now carry more data traffic than voice traffic. The Internet has evolved into an interactive and multimedia medium that millions of people are increasingly incorporating into their everyday lives both at work and at home. Separately, the mobile phone and the Internet are powerful forces in their own rights, but together they promise to be even more powerful.

Nokia Networks Oyj

8 (61)

The need for data services

1.3.1

GPRS brings benefits to end-users


The Internet has become a part of everyday life: GPRS gives a direct link between the worlds of the Internet and mobile communications. GPRS is different from current GSM data services. Firstly, it allows users to instantly access data as they would using their office Local Area Network (LAN): the mobile user does not have to connect to the network each time he wants to transfer data, he can stay connected all day. GPRS enables instant, always connected applications. Secondly, GPRS allows you to charge users for the actual amount of data they transfer. This makes a whole new area of mobile data applications possible. With the higher transmission speeds provided by GPRS, end-users will find that file downloads are faster, new applications become possible and data services overall are much more attractive.

1.3.2

Fast network roll-out with minimum investment


Delaying implementation of GPRS may mean the difference between staying ahead of the competition or losing the most profitable market segments to your competitors. Operators need a solution that can be easily integrated with their existing networks, as well as an easily expandable GPRS solution, so they can start small and develop GPRS capacity as GPRS traffic and revenues begin to increase. Nokia has taken this into account in the design of its GPRS solution and as a result, investment risk and payback times are minimised.

1.3.3

GPRS uses excess voice capacity for data


A significant amount of excess capacity already exists in networks that can be used by GPRS - even during the busy hours. For example, a two TRX cell can carry up to 15 Erlangs of speech traffic, but at 2% blocking it can only actually support 9 Erlangs of speech traffic. They cannot be packed in tighter due to the length of the speech calls, so 40% of the potential capacity is unused. GPRS can use some of this excess capacity. Usage patterns of data services may also be different than the usage patterns of speech services. With additional off-peak tariffing incentives, data services too can be used to capitalise on the excess off-peak capacity in the network.

Nokia Networks Oyj

9 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2
2.1

GPRS Solution Concept


Circuit-switched vs. Packet-switched Connections
Standard GSM uses circuit-switched connections, i.e. each time a connection is required between two points, a link between the two points is established and the resources used are reserved for the use of that single call for the complete duration of the call. Data networks, such as the Internet and LANs, use packet-switched connections. With packet-switching, the data to be transferred is divided into packets, which are then sent through the network and re-assembled at the receiving end. GPRS brings packet-switching to GSM. To support GPRS, new network elements are added to the standard GSM network (see the following figure). Circuit-switched connections are made via the MSC, while packet-switched connections are made via the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).
BTS BSC

MSC PSTN ISDN HLR

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

SS7 signaling Network

Packet Core IP Backbone

Firewall GGSN

IP networks Internet

Gateway GPRS Support Node

Figure 1

Basic GPRS Network Structure

Nokia Networks Oyj

10 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.2

New GPRS Network Elements


The Nokia GPRS network includes the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), Gateway GPRS Support Node (GSN), Charging Gateway (CG), Border Gateway (BG), Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) and Domain Name Servers (DNS) functionality. The following figure illustrates the network architecture.

BSS

Circuit Core Backbone Operators Billing System Integrated Network management system CG

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node Packet Core IP Backbone BG Border Gateway

Charging Gateway FW GGSN External Data Networks Internet

FW

Inter-PLMN Network

DNS Domain Name Server

Gateway GPRS Support Node Lawful Interception Gateway

LIG

Figure 2

Nokia GPRS Structure

2.2.1 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)


The SGSN has the following functions: - Protocol conversion between the IP backbone and the protocols used in theBSS and MS - Authentication and encryption - Mobility management - Routing data to the relevant GGSN when connection to an external network is required (all intra-network MS to MS connections must also be made via a GGSN) - Collection of charging data and traffic statistics.

Nokia Networks Oyj

11 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

The Nokia SGSN is a standalone unit based on the fault tolerant carrier class, multiprocessor platform which is configures in two cabinets. The main CPUs are Intel Pentium II processors and a compact PCI bus is used within computer units. All parts of the SGSN have either 2N hot stand-by or N+1 redundancy.

The SGSN consists of advanced router units (Packet Processing Unit, PAPU), common units for high-level mobility management (Signalling and Mobility Management Unit, SMMU) and other units for O&M (Operation and Maintenance Unit, OMU) and charging functions (MCHU).

SGAC PDFU 0 PDFU 1 CPBP CPEA PAPU GSW 0 0 GSW 1


C

SGBC PDFU 0 PDFU 1

SD SD MCHU MCHU MCHU MCHU 0 0 1 1

CPRS
CPETS/ CPETC CPETS/ CPETC

SMMU SMMU SMMU 2 3 4

OMU 0

SD OMU 0

SD OMU 1

OMU 1

CPETS/ CPETC CPETS/ CPETC

PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU 5 6 7 8

ET4C 0
(32 x ET2E/A)

ET4C 1
L
(28 x ET2E/A)

CPX25

PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU 9 10 11 12


L

CPLAN PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU 1 2 3 4 CPLAN

10

PAPU PAPU PAPU PAPU 13 14 15 16

DN99253302

CARTRIDGE, SLOT OR SECTION OF CONNECTOR PANEL LEFT EMPTY

Figure 3

Nokia SGSN cabinet types and unit configuration


S B B

Nokia Networks Oyj

CPRS

SMMU SMMU 0 1

12 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

MSC/HLR SS7 NETWORK

ET BSC ET EXT. SYNC CLS GSW 256

IP BB

PAPU

SMMU

MCHU

MESSAGE BUS
VDU and LPT

OMU

VDU and LPT

DN99253205

Figure 4

SGSN block diagram

Capacities of the SGSN

The SGSN can be scaled to match the required capacity. The SGSN SG1 supports 120.000 subscribers and 240.000 active PDP contexts, 2 PDP contexts per subscriber.

The SGSN SG2 supports 240.000 subscribers and 480.000 active PDP contexts, 2 PDP contexts per subscriber.

Nokia Networks Oyj

13 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

The SGSN SG2 data throughput is up to 130 Mbit/s with on average 1400 bytes packet size. Following table describes SGSN data throughput according to average packet size in different SGSN releases.

Table 1 .

SGSN data throughput Average packet size [bytes] 128 256 512 1024 1400 SGSN SG 1 Data throughput [Mbps] 20 36 48 57 62 SGSN SG 2 Data throughput [Mbps] 41 74 100 118 130

In addition, the SGSN can process up to 300 000 short messages in one busy hour.

SGSN external interfaces allow versatile transmission configurations in order to match required Frame Relay and IP transmission network topologies. Offered interfaces by one SGSN are:

16+1 times 100-Base TX Ethernet Gn connections up to 1024 * 64 kbit/s Frame Relay links for Gb-interface up to 96 SS7 signalling links (i.e. Gs, Gr, Gf, Gd) up to 120 physical E1 PCM lines (Gb, Gs, Gr, Gd, Gf).

The SS7 based interfaces (i.e. Gs, Gr, Gf, Gd) and BSS-interfaces (Gb) can be freely selected and multiplexed to any of the PCM lines via a switching matrix, giving flexibility in transmission solutions.

In addition, the Nokia SGSN supports both header compression (VJHC) and user data compression (V.42 bis).

SGSN release 2 will include following additional features:

Nokia Networks Oyj

14 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Quality of Service IPv6 on User Plane Optimization of CDR Generation Cell IDs in S-CDR IN Based Prepaid Server Based Prepaid Trace

2.2.2 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)


The Nokia GGSN is an essential network element within the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) infrastructure providing interworking with external packet data networks. The GGSN connects the GPRS core network to the Internet, ISPs and corporate intranets, enabling the GPRS mobile subscribers to access various data services.

The Nokia GGSN is a compact device based on a carrier class and proven industry standard platform, offering an ideal solution for building flexible GPRS system configurations. It enables the operator to build efficient solutions since the Nokia GGSN software and hardware are designed for high throughput.

The maintenance of the Nokia GGSN is user friendly. The GGSN is equipped with hot-swap CompactPCI interface cards redundant hot-swap hard disk drives ( Rel 2 GN3500 ) redundant hot-swap power supplies redundant cooling fans

These are all accessible without having to open up the chassis.

The operability of the GGSN is made easy through a Web-browser management interface, with a built-in support for the Nokia Network Management System (NMS).

Nokia Networks Oyj

15 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

The versatile interface options of the GGSN provide flexibility for different network configurations.

Configuration and capacity

The GGSN is a compact unit with minimum configurability options. Basically only the number of physical interfaces can vary depending on the operator's internetworking needs.

The number of active PDP contexts

The maximum number of GPRS active Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts for each Nokia GGSN Rel1 GN2500 network element is 50,000.

With Nokia GGSN Rel2 GN3500 the maximum number of GPRS active Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts is increased up to 1,000,000.

Packet switching capacity

The packet switching capacity of the GGSN highly depends on the size of the packets it needs to handle. Following table 2 clarifies the GGSN Rel 1 GN2500 throughput figures with different packet lengths.

Table 2.

The capacity of the NOKIA GGSN Rel1, measured with single Gn and Gi interfaces and fixed-size packets (Packets include User Payload = IP+UDP/TCP+Payload)

Packet size in bytes 128 256 512 1024 1200

Mbit/s 14 30 55 79 80

Nokia Networks Oyj

16 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Table 3 describers dependencies between different GGSN SW and HW releases and their maximum data throughput and PDP Contexts amounts.

Table 3. SW release Rel 1 Rel 2 Rel 2

GSSN data throughput and PDP Contexts between different SW releases and HW releases HW release GN2500 GN2500 GN3500 Data thoughtput Mbps PDP Contexts

80 with 1200 50.000 byte packet size 100 with 1400 150.000 byte packet size 400 with 1400 1.000.000 byte packet size

Supported number of access points

The Nokia GGSN supports up to 250 Access Points in a single unit, both transparent and non-transparent. It is even possible to configure more than one Access Point onto a single physical interface, if a tunnelling mechanism, such as IP-over-IP or GRE, is used to keep the Access Point traffics separate.

Physical interfaces

The GGSN implements CompactPCI network interface cards. These cards are Hot-Swap, so that a failed network card can be changed without any interruption to the rest of the system.

The supported physical network interface cards are in Nokia GGSN Rel1 and Rel2 in GN2500 :

Four Port 10/100 Ethernet CPCI Interface Card (10/100Mbps) Single Port T1 CSU/CDU CPCI Interface Card (1.544Mbps) Single Port HSSI CPCI Interface Card (max 52Mbps) Dual Port V.35 CPCI Interface Card (max 64kbps)

Nokia Networks Oyj

17 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Dual Port X.21 CPCI Interface Card (max 10Mbps) ATM-MMF CPCI Interface cards (155 Mbps)

The GGSN has six CPCI slots, one of which is used for the hard disk. This leaves five slots for the network interface cards; using five adapters with four port Ethernet adapters, up to 20 separate physical connections are available.

The supported physical network interface cards are in GGSN Rel2 in GN3500:

Four Port 10/100 Ethernet CPCI Interface Card (10/100Mbps) Single Port T1 CSU/CDU CPCI Interface Card (1.544 Mbps) Single port E1 CSU/CDU CPCI Interface Card (2 Mbps) Single Port HSSI CPCI Interface Card (max 52Mbps) Dual Port V.35 CPCI Interface Card (max 64kbps) Dual Port X.21 CPCI Interface Card (max 10Mbps) STM-1 ATM 155 Mbps (155Mbps) Single port Gbit Ethernet (1000Mbps)

The GGSN has four CPCI slots, four built-in 10/100 Ethernet ports, two serial ports and two PCMCIA slots.

Software upgrade from Rel 1 to Rel 2

The GGSN Rel 2 Software will run on the GN2500 HW release. All features will be compliant with the Rel 2 SW provided that all the informed HW and SW (IPSO) upgrades have taken place.

The capacity of the GN2500 with Rel 2 SW will grow. The capacity of the GGSN with Rel 2 SW as installed on the GN2500 is: 150,000 PDP Contexts 100 Mbps throughput @ 1400 byte packets

GGSN Rel 2 features

Nokia Networks Oyj

18 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

GGSN Release 2 will support following features:

Support for GPRS and 3G UMTS QoS Multiple PDP Contexts per IP address IPv6 User Plane Enhanced charging Prepaid Hot Billing Flat Rate

Duplicate CDR removal System Level Trace Lawful Interception

2.2.3 Firewalls (FW)


Firewalls (FW) protect the IP network against external attack (e.g. from hackers). For example, in the case of GPRS, the firewall might reject all packets that are not part of a GPRS subscriber initiated connection. The Nokia Firewall uses the same Nokia IP Routing hardware as the GGSN and the BG. The Nokia FW together with the Checkpoint FireWall-1 software offers market leading security software enabling Stateful Inspection, full VPN support and a centralised management solution.

Nokia Networks Oyj

19 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT

ACCESS CONTROL

CONNECTION CONTROL

AUTHENTICATION

ENCRYPTION CONTENT SECURITY ADDRESS TRANSLATION

Figure 5

Firewall attributes

2.2.4 Border Gateway (BG)


A Border Gateway (BG) is a router that can provide a direct GPRS tunnel between different operators GPRS networks via an inter-PLMN data network (rather than transferring data between operators via the public Internet). The Nokia BG uses the same Nokia IP Routing hardware as the GGSN and the Firewall.

2.2.5 Charging Gateway (CG)


The Charging Gateway functionality includes: Call/Charging Detail Record (CDR) collection from GGSN and SGSN Combining (S&G-CDRs) Intermediate CDR storage CDR validation CDR consolidation CDR formatting Configurable CDR handling NMS alarms (SNMP v1)

Nokia Networks Oyj

20 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

ETSI GSM 12.15 v7.0.0 ETSI GSM 09.60 v6.4.0

The Nokia CG offers a single access point to the Customer Care and Billing system (CCB) and thus reduces the load of the CCB. GPRS charging data is collected by all the SGSNs and GGSNs in the network. Nokia GPRS Release 1.1 supports charging based on data volume transferred (uplink and downlink), length of time with PDP context active, location of the MS (cell, routing area, location area) and the access point used to external networks (e.g. Internet vs. corporate intranet)

The Nokia CG is based on Nokia OMD platform HP-UX 10.20, Unix system running on HP9000. Scalability and redundancy is provided by multiple units connected via the GPRS core network. Release 1.1 Nokia CG can handle from 1 up to 10 million CDRs during 24 period.

Nokia CG has interfaces to GPRS backbone via GTP specified in ETSI GSM 9.60, Management systems (SNMP v1) and billing systems ( FTP (TCP/IP) and NFS (UDP/IP) ).

2.2.6 Domain Name Servers (DNS)


The Domain Name Server (DNS) has important functionality within the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) infrastructure, providing Access Point Name to GGSN mapping. This DNS server works separately and independently of public internet DNS. The architecture of the Nokia DNS hardware is based on HP 9000 A-series server; two units are used to back up each other. The construction of the server makes field installation and service user friendly. All interface cards are accessible at the back. The unit can be mounted to a 19 rack as well as it can be stacked.

Nokia Networks Oyj

21 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Figure 6

HP 9000 A-series

The Nokia DNS is based on latest HP technology available, PA-RISC processor and multiple fast internal bus structure. Enough memory is supplied to allow the whole DNS database to be kept in memory. The hard disk stores operating system, the database and configuration files.

The processor used in the DNS server is a 440MHz PA8500. The motherboard has two 64-bit PCI slots. One of the slots is used for an extra 10/100 ethernet adapter.

One DNS Server can handle a large GPRS network. The database size can be gigabytes. One DNS Server can handle over 5000 queries per second sustained. Multiple DNS Servers can increase the performance when they are assigned to different resolvers (SGSNs).

2.2.7 The Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG)


The Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) is an essential network functionality within the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) infrastructure, providing the authorities with the ability to intercept GPRS mobile data calls. The Nokia LIG is a scalable system based on the same proven industry standard platform as the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) and offering an ideal solution for building the GPRS interception system.

Nokia Networks Oyj

22 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Figure 7

The Nokia LIC and LIB hardware

Nokia LIG includes the following main components and functionalities:

The Lawful Interception Controller (LIC) is based on the Nokia/IPRG IP650 router product. This network element controls the interception and contains a secured Web interface for one or more Lawful Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) and the Authorisation Authorities (AA). The AA gives permission through this interface (depending on the country-specific practices) to intercept subscribers. A LEA activates and deactivates interceptions through this interface by using International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) or Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) as target identifiers. In further releases also the International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) identifier can be used. The Lawful Interception Browser (LIB) is also based on the Nokia/IPRG IP650 router product. This network element temporarily stores the Interception-Related Information (IRI) and Communication Content (CC) which are sent as such to the defined LEA(s). The data is transferred by FTP and it can be secured with Secure Shell (SSH). The IRI data can be browsed remotely through the Web based LEA interface.

The Lawful Interception Extension (LIE) in the GGSN node is based on the GGSN Release 1.1 software. It collects part of the IRI and is responsible for collecting the communication content, namely the user (mobile) data transferred.

Nokia Networks Oyj

23 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.3

GPRS Impact on Existing GSM Networks


Base Stations All Nokia 2nd generation, Talk-family, Nokia PrimeSite, Nokia MetroSite, Ultrasite and Insite BTSs (Base Transceiver Stations) support GPRS without any hardware changes. Coding schemes CS1 and CS2 are supported in all Nokia BTSs (see the section GPRS in the Air Interface). MetroSite and UltraSite can also be updated later to support EDGE, boosting GPRS data speed. Coding schemes CS3 and CS4 are under consideration for future releases. CS3 and CS4 channel coding require more than one 16 kbit/s Abis traffic channel and could be supported in the existing BTS products with only hardware upgrades. Base Station Controller (BSC) Implementing GPRS has no effect on the capacity of the Nokia BSC to handle circuit-switched calls. To support GPRS, new plug-in units are required in the BSC. One Packet Control Unit (PCU) must be installed into each BCSU signalling unit of the BSC (one slot is vacant). The PCUs support the new protocols required for GPRS and also handle channel allocation and radio channel management functions (e.g. broadcast control channel and power control).
CC19V BCBE BCEE R2A1-S

PSA20_ 0 PSFP0

PSA20_ 1 PSFP1

PSA20_ 2 PSFP2

PSA20_ 3 PSFP3

Exchange
GSWB0 GSWB1 CLS CLS ET5C ET5C ET5C 2 3 4

Terminal Abis ET (to BTS) Packets in TRAU frames

Exchange Terminal

ET Group Switch (GSWB ) Packet Control Unit (PCU )

Gb (to SGSN) Packets in Frame Relay

MCMU 0

MCMU 1

BCSU3

BCSU4

WDDC WDDC

OMU

BCSU5

BCSU6

ET5C ET5C 0 1

BCSU0

BCSU7

BCSU8

BCSU1

BCSU2

Packet Control Units (PCU) installed in each BSCU

Figure 8

CUs in BSC and BSC GPRS - functional diagram

One BSC contains eight active PCUs, plus one redundant PCU. One PCU can be freely connected to up to 64 cells. The maximum radio interface channels

Nokia Networks Oyj

24 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

connected simultaneously to one PCU is 256, i.e. a maximum of 2048 radio interface channels in GPRS use per BSC.

Mobile Switching Centre/ Visitor Location Register (MSC/VLR) The MSC/VLR is not involved in GPRS data transfer, but supports signalling for class A and B mobiles and SMS delivery. To allow support for terminals that are attached to both GSM and GPRS services (A and B type), Nokia has implemented the Gs interface between the MSC/VLR and the SGSN (supporting paging and combined procedures for class A and B mobiles). Home location Register (HLR) As for circuit-switched services, subscriber information for GPRS is stored in the Home Location Register (HLR). The HLR supports procedures such as GPRS attach/detach and authentication. Nokia has implemented interfaces between the HLR and SGSN (Gr) and the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) and SGSN (Gf). The interface implementation is MAP v.3.

2.4

Terminals
There are three types of GPRS terminals:

Table 4.
Class A

GPRS Mobile Classes


Class B Either GSM circuit-switched call or GPRS data. Automatically switches between the two. Can listen to GSM and GPRS paging simultaineously. Class C Manual selection of either GSM circuit-switched or GPRS operation (or a GPRS only MS).

Normal GSM circuitswitched call and GPRS data at the same time.

Class C terminals could typically be datacard type terminals, or display fewer mobiles intended for use in machines. The complexity of the terminal also depends on how many timeslots it can use in parallel. The simplest types of mobiles will be capable of up to 2+2 or 3+1 timeslot connections (downlink TS + uplink TS). To go above this requires a more complex terminal that can transmit and receive simultaneously.

Nokia Networks Oyj

25 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

All Nokia GPRS terminals will support all four air-interface coding schemes (CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4). In Nokia GPRS infrastructure release 1, types A, B and C mobiles are fully supported. For type B mobiles, circuit-switched paging commands are sent via the GPRS network (using the Gs interface, MSC to SGSN).

2.5

Nokia GPRS Release 1 Functionality


Nokia GPRS Release 1 offers a comprehensive set of functions and features. It follows closely ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) GPRS specifications (SMG31 level) enabling operators to introduce a wide range of services.

2.5.1

GPRS point-to-point IP service


Nokia GPRS Release 1 supports Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) point-topoint connections IPv6 is supported from Release 2 on user plane. Each user can activate up to two PDP contexts simultaneously. Both static and dynamic IP addressing are supported (defined per subscriber in the HLR).

2.5.2

SGSN to MSC/VLR interface (Gs)


The Nokia solution includes the SGSN to MSC/VLR Interface (Gs). For Class A and class B mobile phones, an association is made in the VLR and SGSN to indicate that they refer to the same physical mobile. This association will give the following functions: combined routing area and location area attaches and updates detaches from GPRS and circuit-switched services class B GPRS mobiles can receive paging for circuit-switched calls via GPRS channels. GPRS service is then suspended and the mobile moves to circuitswitched mode to start the call.

2.5.3

SMS through GPRS


The Nokia GPRS Release 1 will support the sending of SMS via the GPRS network. This is more efficient for GPRS mobiles using SMS. This is achieved by the Gd interface (SGSN to Gateway MSC). For each subscriber, a parameter in the HLR indicates if SMS will be delivered via GPRS or via GSM channels. The Nokia SMS implementation is still based on MAP v.2, so no changes to the Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) should be needed.

Nokia Networks Oyj

26 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.5.4

Roaming
A Border Gateway enables users to use a secure GPRS tunnelled connection to their home network when roaming (via an inter-operator backbone network), rather than connecting via the public Internet.

2.5.5

Quality of Service
The GPRS network may be considered as a number of distinct building blocks with regard to QoS provision. Each of these blocks may use different technologies to classify and enforce the QoS profile. However the interfaces between the blocks must interoperate seamlessly to deliver the end to end service level. Elements related to Quality of Service are illustrated below.

BSC

SGSN GGSN
GPRS IP Backbone

Corporate Network Air Interface BSS to SGSN (Gb interface) GPRS IP Backbone

Figure 9

Quality of Service Elements

BSS In each cell, the total circuit-switched capacity is available for use dynamically by GPRS. Circuit-switched calls always have priority over GPRS traffic, so

Nokia Networks Oyj

27 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

implementing GPRS will not reduce the quality of service given to speech and circuit-switched data subscribers. If a guaranteed minimum quality of service for GPRS users is required, it is possible to reserve a number of timeslots per cell that can only be used for GPRS traffic. This is shown in the following figure.
GPRS Traffic 7 6 Timeslots 5 4 3 2 Circuit Switched Traffic 1 6 TS dynamically allocated for GPRS. Circuit switched traffic has priority 1 TS reserved for GPRS

Figure 10

Guaranteeing a minimum level of GPRS service by reserving one timeslot for GPRS traffic

Note: ETSI GPRS specifications define several Quality of Service classes which are associated with each PDP context, covering priority, reliability, delay and throughput. The Nokia GPRS System release 2 support QoS functionality. The Nokia GPRS Rel1 QoS can be considered as 'best effort'.

SGSN The SGSN is also responsible for managing packet flow onto the Gn interface the IP backbone. There is clearly a need to manage resources on this interface too, despite the fact that the available bandwidth is substantially higher than on the Air interface. One mechanism that is fundamental to managing IP traffic flows is DiffServ, an IETF standards track protocol. The SGSN is responsible for mapping the PDP QoS profiles into DiffServ traffic classes. DiffServ is still under development with the packet classification details still not defined. However it is anticipated that the GPRS backbone network will be able to allocate resources as required to ensure that the DiffServ traffic classes are maintained through the network.

Nokia Networks Oyj

28 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Backbone The GPRS backbone is considered to be any IP transport mechanism. This could be a fully routed network or an ATM switched network. In either case it is possible to utilise the DiffServ service classes. DiffServ is based on the work that resulted in the development of IntServ/RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) and attempts to address the scalability issues associated with RSVP by using coarse traffic classes. DiffServ makes use of the 8 bit Type of Service (TOS) Field in the IPv4 header to classify traffic. Traffic is classified at the edge of the network by a DiffServ boundary router. DiffServ aware devices in the network are able to act on the information in this field (now called the DS field) to deliver the forwarding behaviour expected by the packet. DiffServ works on a hop by hop basis through the network. In the case of a routed network the information in the DS field defines how the router handles the buffering and queuing of the packet. DiffServ offers a means to mark the packets differently and by processing the packets based on their DS field information, differentiated services classes can be created. DiffServ is therefore a relative-priority scheme.

GGSN The GGSN receives the requested QoS profile for each PDP context from the SGSN. This profile may have already been renegotiated from that requested by the MS by the SGSN. A key feature of the GGSN is support for DiffServ so that packets are scheduled appropriately both on the Gn and Gi interfaces.

2.5.6

Corporate access solutions


A key differentiator for operators will be the ability to provide secure connections to corporate networks (and hence capture the corporation's complete mobile telecommunications business). The Nokia GPRS solution includes features that enable operators to offer secure and reliable corporate access solutions.

2.5.6.1

Multiple access points One Nokia GGSN can connect to many corporate intranets. For each GPRS subscriber, the access point used (i.e. which external network to connect the user to), is defined in the subscriber data in the HLR.

Nokia Networks Oyj

29 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.5.6.2

DHCP and RADIUS server access The Nokia solution supports both static IP address allocation (defined in the HLR) and dynamic IP address allocation, either from RADIUS/DHCP servers within the corporate network or from the GGSNs internal address pool.

2.5.7

IP security
Security of the backbone network through the Gn interface and the connection to external networks via the Gi interface is vital. Although the subscriber traffic is transported in a GTP tunnel, there is no encryption or authentication of this traffic. The Nokia GPRS solution supports IP Security to provide the required security at these points. IPSec is an IETF standard in the following RFCs: RFC 2401, 2402 and 2406. In the Nokia solution the IPSec functionality is included in the Firewall feature. IPSec is supported in both the GGSN and BG. The IPSec implementation fully supports both encryption and authentication. Static and dynamic key exchange using IKE are supported.

2.5.8

Lawful Interception
Lawful Interception Gateway is mandatory by law for commercial GPRS services in many countries. This functionality has not been fully standardised, but the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and EU (European Union) have an agreement about lawful interception. Nokia GPRS Release 1 includes Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) enabling authorities to Intercept GGSN traffic.

2.5.9

Pre-Paid WAP over GPRS


The Nokia GPRS and Nokia Artus Messaging Platform (NAMP) Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Gateway enable WAP prepaid services. The NAMP WAP GW provides interfaces towards billing systems and HLRs, allowing control of the prepaid customers.

2.6
2.6.1

GPRS in the Air Interface


Coding schemes and multiple timeslots
In the GPRS standards there are four air interface coding schemes: CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4. CS1 has the highest error correction and lowest data throughput, while CS4 has no error correction but the highest data throughput. In Nokia GPRS Release 1, coding schemes CS1 and CS2 are supported. Coding scheme selection is done dynamically based on BLER (Block Error Rate). Nokia GPRS

Nokia Networks Oyj

30 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Release 1 also allows up to eight air interface timeslots to be combined together to give higher rate connections.
Table 5 GPRS Channel Coding Schemes
CS1 9.05 kbit/s 72.0 kbit/s CS2 13.4 kbit/s 107.2 kbit/s CS3 15.6 kbit/s 124.8 kbit/s CS4 21.4 kbit/s 171.2kbit/s

Channel Coding Single TS Data Rate 8 TS Data Rate

2.6.1.1 Territory Method The Nokia solution in GPRS Radio Recourse Management includes separate territories for circuit-switched and packet-switched connections in each cell. The border between the territories can move dynamically based on the load of circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic. It is also possible to reserve dedicated capacity for GPRS.
Circuit Switched Territory Packet Switched Territory

TRX 1 TRX 2

CCCH

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

Additional GPRS Capacity

Default GPRS Capacity

Dedicated GPRS Capacity

Territory border moves dynamically, based on the circuit-switched traffic load

Circuit-switched capacity is not affected by introducing GPRS

circuit-switched traffic has priority in each cell circuit-switched and packet-switched territories are defined territories consist of consecutive timeslots
Figure 11 The Territory Method

This method of defining separate territories maximises the availability of consecutive time slots being available in both PS and CS territories compared to the alternative of randomly mixing CS and PS calls together. The Territory Method optimises the use of radio resources and ensures the fastest possible throughput for the user.

Nokia Networks Oyj

31 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

A) "Free TS" Solution


1

Nokia Solution

GPRS Territory
1&2 1&2 1&2

Speech

GPRS

The Nokia solution dynamically re-packs the cell to ensure the maximum possibility of GPRS multislot connection.

Figure 12

Maximising availability of consecutive timeslots

2.6.2

GPRS throughput

2.6.2.1

Network throughput The following figure shows the results of Nokia simulations to determine the network throughput rate of user data for each coding scheme (with 1 and 3 timeslot connections). Under high load conditions several users will share this.

Network throughput - 1 Timeslot Typical NW C/I


25 20

Minimum Average

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Network throughput - 3 Timeslots Typical NW C/I


Minimum Average

CS-2 CS-1

CS-4 CS-3 CS-2 K bit CS-1 /s

K bit /s

15 10 5 0 4 6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

C/I
Nokia Simulations - polling interval = 18 blocks, non-frequency hopping)

C/I

Figure 13

Simulated Network throughput of user data for GPRS coding schemes

Nokia Networks Oyj

32 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.6.2.2

User throughput The following figure shows the expected end-user throughput for different traffic loads (the ETSI approved web browsing traffic model has been used). It should be noted that for multislot mobiles, e.g. 3TS (three timeslots), the average throughput is less than three times the 1TS throughput. The figures below are with CS1 and web pages (which typically consist of multiple small elements). With CS2 and/or other applications such as email and file transfer (ftp), end-user data rates will be higher.
18 16 14 12 Mean kbit/s 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Total GPRS Load (kbit/s) in the cell 70 80 1TS Mobile 3TS Mobile 6TS Mobile Coding Scheme CS1

Figure 14

End-user throughput simulation results for a two TRX cell with 4.1 Erl of circuit-switched load CS1 used

End-user perceived data throughput is lower than the theoretical values 1 TS 9.05 kbit/s, 3 TS 27.15 kbit/s and 6 TS 54.3 kbit/s, mainly due to the reasons: under high load conditions, three or more consecutive timeslots are not often available there is a fixed overhead time required to transmit each packet (average web page packet sizes are small). This overhead time starts to be a larger proportion of the total transmission time for multislot connections, hence average throughput is less. the re-transmission of erroneous blocks (RLC ARQ) is not so efficient for higher data rates, due to mobile delays in acknowledging reception or requesting retransmission.

Nokia Networks Oyj

33 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.6.2.3

Logical channels New air interface logical channels are introduced with GPRS. In the Nokia GPRS Release 1, the existing GSM CCCH (Common Control Channel) timeslot has been modified to support the GPRS signalling channels (as defined in GSM 03.64). When there is only a small amount of GPRS traffic, a dedicated PCCCH (Packet CCCH) timeslot is not needed. When GPRS traffic grows, a need for dedicated signalling channels arises. Therefore, Nokia plans to introduce PCCCH channels in GPRS Release 2.

2.7
2.7.1

BSS Transmission
A, A-ter and Abis interfaces
The A and A-ter interfaces are unaffected by the introduction of GPRS, as these are only used for circuit-switched connections. In the Abis interface (BSC to BTS), GPRS data is carried in modified TRAU frames. As with circuit-switched connections, one 16 kbit/s link is required per air interface timeslot. Hence, no increase in Abis capacity is required when introducing GPRS. Coding schemes CS3 and CS4 will not fit into a single 16 kbit/s sub-slot, hence additional Abis capacity and re-mapping will be required when they are introduced. GPRS common control channel signalling uses the existing TRXSIG links on the Abis. Thus, it may be that if a 16 kbit/s TRXSIG link is currently being used this may not be sufficient and may need upgrading to 32 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s.

2.7.2

SGSN to BSC interface (Gb)


The interface between the SGSN and BSC (Gb) is a Frame Relay connection. In the Nokia implementation, this is carried over a G.703/G.704 physical layer (2 Mbit/s PCM). Hence, it is possible to multiplex this onto the same physical connection as used for the A-ter interface (transcoder to BSC). This could then be carried by leased line or microwave link. Note: the PCM timeslots must be permanently reserved for either Gb or A-ter dynamically. It should also be noted that the SGSN to BSC connections might be made via an intermediate Frame Relay network, as shown in the following figure. The optimum transmission solution will be case specific and will depend on the availability and cost of alternative transmission solutions.

Nokia Networks Oyj

34 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Intermediate Frame Relay Network


Transcoders

2Mbit/s PCM
MUX
Transcoders

MSC

MSC

BSC

Ater BSC Gb
Frame Relay Network

SGSN Gb Gb Frame Relay 2Mbit/s PCM, Ater + Frame Relay SGSN

Figure 15

SGSN to BSC (Gb) transmission options

Nokia Networks Oyj

35 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.8

GPRS Backbone Network


The GPRS backbone network is used to connect all GPRS support nodes (GSNs) together. It carries data between GSNs, charging information from the SGSN and GGSN towards the CG, and Q&M links between GSNs and the Network Management System, NMS2000. Fastest and simplest way to start up GPRS network is to locate all GSNs on the same site as illustrated in the next figure.
RAN Backbone Router DNS#1 DNS#2 CG#1 CG#2 LIG BG#1&#2 Inter-PLMN network

SGSN

Gn VLAN GGSN #1 Gi VLAN Firewall #1

GGSN #2

Firewall #2 2 x Cisco Catalyst 6006

RIPv2 /static routing

Backbone Router

ISP

Figure 16

Centralized GPRS Core Network

The GPRS backbone can be integrated in the existing IP network or alternatively a new IP network can be built for GPRS. In both cases, security of the GPRS backbone network must be ensured by tunnelling the GPRS traffic (data, charging and O&M traffic). This can be done using Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology as illustrated in the next figure.

Nokia Networks Oyj

36 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

SGSN RAN Backbone Router Cisco Catalyst 6006 SGSN LIG DNS#1 DNS#2 CG#1 CG#2 Inter-PLMN network

DNS

Gn VLAN BG#1&#2

2 x Cisco 7140 Gn VLAN GGSN #2 GGSN #1 Gi VLAN Firewall #1 Firewall #2 Cisco Catalyst 6006 Intra-PLMN RIPv2 /static routing Gn VLAN Cisco Catalyst 6006 Backbone Router SGSN DNS Intra-PLMN 2 x Cisco 7140 2 x Cisco 7140 E.g. OC3 ATM Intra-PLMN

ISP

Figure 17

Multisite GPRS IP Backbone

Gi interface connections towards the Internet and intranets depends on what services are to be offered, the share of responsibility (between the GPRS operator, ISP, corporations and Content Providers), security policy and the structure of the existing data network. Example of Gi interface connections is shown in the following figure 18.

Corporate Access BSS Cache

FR cloud
Gb SGSN

CG VPN Internet

GGSN Gi

IP Layer 4 Switch

GPRS CORE NW
IP650 Edge Routers & FWs IP Layer 2 Switch

DNS

DNS

DMZ

cloud

WWW Mail WAP

Figure 18

Example setup for Gi connections

Nokia Networks Oyj

37 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.9

Network Management System


Nokia NMS provides a seamless growth path from the current NMS/2000 GSM management system to the imminent GPRS System Solution. Importantly, it is also the foundation of the management solution for the 3rd generation UMTS networks. To develop a comprehensive network management solution that covers all the essential network operating tasks, Nokia has studied the operator business and analysed each process, task area and working environment in depth. The Nokia network management solution for GSM and GPRS networks supports the operators' tasks with matching products and services.

Network reporting Network monitoring

Network development and optimisation

Network administration Service management and charging


ISP VAS Platform

NMS

Services

RAN BSS & NSS GPRS Transmission Backbone

Figure 19

Nokia supports all operator tasks

2.9.1 Nokia NMS for unified GSM/GPRS management


Nokia provides full-scale network management support for GPRS system release 1. The unified GSM/GPRS management solution provides tools for centralised management of the entire GPRS system, consisting of the following components: Fully integrated network management of the GSM and GPRS network with the Nokia NMS (NMS release T12) for monitoring and reporting in the entire managed network, including BSS, NSS, and the entire GPRS system (SGSN, GGSN Same scalable NMS fault and performance management tools, CG, LIG, BG, FW, DNS, and IP network devices) Integrated access to managing the network-wide GPRS configurations in the GSM radio network and the GPRS backbone.

Nokia Networks Oyj

38 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

Interworking RNW planning and implementation tools for global GPRS network optimisation tasks. Support for any standard 3rd party network equipment Service monitoring by means of powerful rule based tools. The modular Nokia network management solution supports the varying needs the operator may have, dependent on the operator's existing network management solutions and business objectives.
NDW Reporting
GPRS RNW, BB and GSM FM, PM, CM data

NMS for GPRS (T12)


Planning tools Totem, Data PlanEdit
NMS

Full-scale support

GPRS service monitoring Nokia Service Watch

Centralised GPRS NDO Unified monitoring and reporting Access to BB element and troubleshooting tools on BB managers Centralised security server management FM, PM Q3 3rd party systems

SNMP

CG SGSN GGSN

NCC Service mgmt and Billing for GPRS and GSM

BTS BSC BTS BG

Figure 20

Nokia system solution for managing the GPRS network.

2.10

Rating and Billing of GPRS services


The Customer Care and Billing (CCB) system must support tariffing based on the GPRS data usage volume and location data. The accounting data generated by the networking elements (WWW and RADIUS server logs) is different from that collected in the standard mobile networks. The CCB system must therefore, have the flexibility to combine all types of raw data into meaningful records and to rate them according to flexible, configurable rules. A mobile operator can choose to have two different roles in the future when the importance of mobile data services grows a mobile access operator and a mobile service provider. When a mobile access operator is also a service

Nokia Networks Oyj

39 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

provider, a service management and rating system is required for the Internet applications and content. There are some alternatives to how billing of the subscribers and clearing between the service provider and the mobile access operator will be done in the future. Mobile operators may produce a combined bill with separate or shared accounts containing several services: GSM services, GPRS-based access to corporate networks and to the Internet service providers, and the classic IP services and content applications. Service providers may produce a bill including both the GPRS access service and related application services to subscribers. Mobile operators want to do the clearing between the service providers regarding the usage of the GPRS access. In some cases, the existing GSM rating system can be modified to meet the new requirements. Quite often they are limited to GSM-specific voice services and it may be difficult to modify the system to meet the requirements of data services. For instance, the GSM rating system may not be flexible enough to meet the requirements of mobile data services and to rate the CDRs produced by the GPRS network or the application servers according to desired criteria. The Nokia Charging Centre (NCC) helps the mobile operators to manage their GPRS, WAP and Internet services. The Nokia Charging Centre for GPRS is a service management and rating system for GPRS access and value-added services. The Nokia GPRS Charging Gateway, which collects, validates, consolidates and merges GPRS network generated charging data, is a part of the Nokia GPRS core network offering.

Nokia Networks Oyj

40 (61)

GPRS Solution Concept

2.11

GPRS Growth Steps


The figure below shows the growth steps in a GPRS network and how the Nokia GPRS solution will address these changing needs.
Entry Phase
Low Penetration

Growth Phase
Growing Penetration

Maturity Phase
High Penetration and Growing Traffic Volumes

Business Cycle

Attract customers with basic services to generate revenue and increase penetration Offer simple pricing mechanisms, but ensure service billing

Differentiate with innovative services Offer more varied pricing schemes Find new revenue sources in niche and vertical markets

Reduce churn by maintaining quality despite growth Increase capacity to serve new and future applications

Nokia Release 1 GPRS Mobile Penetration 60%

Nokia Release 2

Nokia Release 3

40%

Basic GPRS terminals Cost effective network wide introduction of GPRS

High end terminals appear Enhanced GPRS Services Increased GPRS NW capacity

GPRS is a standard feature in all mobiles Full set of GPRS services Optimised NW operation

20%

0%

2000

2001

2002

Figure 21

GPRS growth steps and Nokia GPRS Releases

Nokia Networks Oyj

41 (61)

Applications

3
3.1

Applications
GPRS as a Bearer Technology
Generally, any service that can be run on top of IP protocols (UDP or TCP transfer) is supported by GPRS. This means great offerings on the Internet can be made available to mobile users. From the operator's perspective, GPRS offers the most economical platform for increasing data services in mobile networks.

3.2

Application Categories
Corporate Intranet access The corporate segment is ideal for remote working solutions. Corporations have a strong need for mobile data, and laptop and terminal penetration is already high. Furthermore, users are already experienced with mobile data and are aware of the current limitations on mobile data. Mobile E-mail Mobile e-mail is a step towards device-independent messaging. It provides mobile access to the most universal messaging service. SMS will remain in use, but GPRS will boost its performance. Mobile E-mail will experience rapid growth since mail servers for mobile-optimized message filtering already exist. Furthermore, many enabling technologies are emerging in handsets. Value-Added Services Content owners are quite interested in the new medium; mobility adds real value to the delivery of information. World-leading companies are working on applications in the areas of Personal Services (travel and booking services), Entertainment (games and gambling) and Information Services (news, traffic information). Value-added services will be mainly based on WAP technology. With WAP, users can access Internet-based services tailored for mobile use. GPRS is the ideal bearer for WAP. Instant connectivity, cost efficiency, and faster data throughput will make the Internet mobile.

Nokia Networks Oyj

42 (61)

Applications

Banking and E-commerce Banking services and payments via mobile terminals brings a new dimension in commerce. It means increased revenues, reduced costs and better use of assets for banks and shops. Telematics / telemetry Telematics and telemetry opens an entirely new mass market for GPRS. GPRSbased traffic, security and control applications enable more cost efficient delivery of small amounts of data.

3.2.1

Application development support


Nokia offers tools and support for application developers. Tools such as the Nokia WAP Toolkit, WAP Server API program, Nokia WAP Server Beta program and Nokia Communicator GEOS SDK, help application designers to quickly introduce new and tested applications. Apart from offering these tools, Nokia maintains developer programs, like www.forum.nokia.com, Nokia VAS Forum and WAP Forum, to help developers exchange information.

3.2.2

Market-making activities
Nokia co-operates with the leading media, banking, travel and entertainment companies developing wireless applications. In addition, Nokia works together with key IT and Internet companies enabling smoother integration of the Internet to the wireless world. Nokia also organizes and participates in seminars and workshops providing training and assistance to application developers and corporate IT departments.

Nokia Networks Oyj

43 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

4.1 Business planning


The first step in successful planning of GPRS services is a comprehensive business, market and service analysis. Results of this analysis are then used for more detailed planning of services and network.

Business Analysis

Marketing Analysis

Service Analysis

Deliverables:
Determine Operators Data Strategy Determine ISP Approach Determine Key Success Criteria Determine Target Subscriber Segments Determine Marketing Strategy Initial Service Segmentation Rough Tariffing Guidelines Billing and Order Management Process Proposed Service Packaging Proposed Value Proposition (End User Benefits) Support Level Business Processes Pilot Target Audience

Figure 22

Business, market and service analysis

4.2 Planning, building and optimising GPRS coverage with the Nokia NMS
The Nokia NMS for unified GSM/GPRS management provides: Integrated access to managing the network-wide GPRS configurations in the GSM radio network and the GPRS backbone. Interworking RNW planning and implementation tools for global GPRS network optimisation tasks.

Nokia Networks Oyj

44 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

The Nokia NMS/2000 supports the following tasks to be carried out when enabling the GPRS service in the GSM radio network: Preparing network elements for GPRS. The installation of the GPRS SW for BTSs can be carried out with the SW download tool. GPRS radio network planning with Nokia Totem Access and PlanEdit. The tools support GPRS deployment in the GSM radio network, and all GPRS radio network optimisation tasks. Importing the GPRS radio network plan into NMS Mass download of new GPRS RNW parameters in the NMS. Enabling the GPRS service as a mass operation through the NMS. Stepping back to previous plan if necessary.

4.2.1 Interworking tool set for planning and building GPRS coverage
The introduction of GPRS into an existing GSM network requires advanced tools for radio network planning, centralised plan distribution, and implementation of the plan. Nokia has a fully interworking set of tools for all tasks of network planning and optimisation. Nokia Totem Suite tools support the GPRS radio network parameters needed in frequency and coverage planning. For transferring the plan to the NMS for implementation in the network, the plan created in Totem Suite can be completed and modified using Nokia PlanEdit before transfer to the NMS over the Planning System Interface. The Nokia interworking tool set enables the operator to create a network-wide GPRS deployment plan, and to ensure and verify the consistency of the Gb interface parameters both at the SGSN end and the BSC ends of the interface in the whole managed network. This is particularly useful, as one SGSN typically serves a number of BSCs that can be located under different regional NMSs. The following figure illustrates the interworking of these tools:

Nokia Networks Oyj

45 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

NMS Traffic measurement data Actual parameters

NMS for GPRS (T12)


GPRS RNW objects and parameters NMS

Totem Suite
Plan GPRS coverage

Build and optimise GPRS coverage


Enable GPRS in the GSM RNW RA splits, SGSN splits, LA splits BSS rehost procedures Planning Parameter modifications Data Mass Transfer

NDW reporting
Verify success of configuration changes

GPRS RNW plan

PlanEdit
Modify/add parameters Combine plans Check consistency

Q3
Upload current nw configuration

parameter download

BTS BTS

BSS S9 BSC BG

BB SGSN
SG1

CG GGSN

Figure 23

GPRS radio network planning and development with Nokia tools

The following operations in the GPRS network can be completed with the Nokia radio network planning tools and the Nokia NMS radio network tools: Enabling GPRS in the GSM radio network, including planning of the Gb interface between the SGSN and the BSCs. Splitting a SGSN Splitting a Location Area in the GPRS network Splitting a Routing Area. Includes tools for updating the IP address of the serving SGSN interface element PAPU in the DNS. Rehosting a BSC under a new MSC in the GPRS network Creating and extending BTS sites in the GPRS network Rehosting a BTS site in the GPRS network.

4.2.2 Configuring the GPRS backbone network


The Nokia NMS provides integrated access to tools for managing GPRS element configurations. The elements may have a separate element manager

Nokia Networks Oyj

46 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

running either inside the element or under the NMS system. The element management applications can be launched from the NMS/2000 topology windows.

131.228.196.1 Information Note Alarm History Alarm Handling Trouble Ticket Database Maintenance Telnet Session Element Manager IP Management

GGSN

Figure 24

Centralised access to backbone elements via we-based element managers in NMS

With the backbone element managers it is possible to upload the configuration of the GPRS backbone elements and download and activate a new configuration in the backbone network element. The element managers also allow the user to clean up the old backed up configuration files. Furthermore, individual GPRS backbone node managers provide a set of software management features, such as software download.

4.2.3 DNS management


Solid Domain Name System (DNS) management forms the base for successful operation of the IP based GPRS network. The Nokia NMS provides convenient, centralised access to all Nokia DNSs in the GPRS backbone network through a Web interface, allowing the operator to automate many of the tedious and error-prone tasks of manual DNS maintenance and to detect and diagnose duplicate domain names and IP addresses. The Nokia NMS release for unified GSM and GPRS network management supports DNS management of the Routing Area IP addresses. The RA IP indicates the serving backbone interface element PAPU for the RA. The

Nokia Networks Oyj

47 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

support provided in the NMS tools facilitates smooth centralised management of RA split operations.

4.3 Monitoring GPRS network faults


In the GPRS deployment phase, the Nokia NMS provides a powerful system for maintaining the operational quality of the routed GPRS backbone network and the SGSN with the standard NMS monitoring tools already familiar from the Nokia NMS for cellular networks. In the NMS release for unified GSM and GPRS management, Nokia NMS provides an integrated monitoring solution and full-scale fault management support for surveillance of both GSM and GPRS networks. The Q3-based GSM network elements and the SNMP-manageable devices of the IP backbone are connected to the same Nokia NMS fault and performance management system to enable centralised collection and storing of network data, and consolidated analysis of network problems and their effects on service. The GPRS network view and backbone topology are visualised in the NMS. The NMS/2000 provides device specific icons for all of the Nokia GPRS radio and backbone network elements, and tools for editing the views.

LAYER 1: GPRS Network Topology

LAYER 2: GPRS Backbone Topology

Figure 25

GPRS topology views

The GPRS network topology views in the NMS are suitable for centralised and continuous operations for the personnel already familiar with the Nokia NMS/2000 solution. The GPRS Backbone Server views can be used to display backbone network segments and gateways down to device and interface card level for example for the purpose of troubleshooting network faults.

Nokia Networks Oyj

48 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

The strength of the Nokia NMS monitoring solution for the GPRS backbone lies in the following factors: Failures in the GPRS equipment seen in the familiar NMS alarm format Alarms with state Reliability with sequence numbering for SNMP traps NE status polling High availability of GPRS backbone elements Support for 3rd party IP equipment: Fault management support for other vendors' IP equipment using MIB-II interface is provided.

4.4 Measuring and reporting the performance of the unified GSM/GPRS network
Nokia NMS release T12 supports the new measurements and counters in the following network element releases: BSS S9, MSC M9, SGSN SG1. GPRS Basic Report Set The GPRS Basic Report Set of the Nokia NMS incorporates ready-made reports for measuring traffic, QoS and availability of the SGSN, BSC, and backbone elements. The GPRS radio network reports can be used for example for measuring the load of the Gb interface. The backbone reports can be used to measure, for example, Access Point load balancing, top utilisation IP interfaces, number of Access Point PDP context creations, and number of discarded IP packets for a backbone network element. The GPRS backbone reports in the GPRS Basic Report Set provide a higherlevel view of the performance of the IP network, whereas the backbone KPIs themselves give a link-level or NE-level view of the performance. The lowerlevel view is provided by the reporting tools on GPRS Backbone Server. The statistics can be retrieved at element level and at network level and are displayed in a Web browser. NMS ad-hoc reporting tools for GPRS The NMS reporting tools support the SG1 and S9 measurements, and can be used for creating ad-hoc reports for network troubleshooting in the GSM radio network. Network Data Warehouse All GPRS backbone and radio network KPIs collected in the NMS can be utilised in NDW for long-term reporting.

Nokia Networks Oyj

49 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

For NDW reporting facilities for service management, see NDW product description. GPRS BB Server tools for performance monitoring The Nokia network management solution provides centralised access to tools for troubleshooting the GPRS backbone network devices via NMS. The following Backbone Server tools for troubleshooting and monitoring the performance of the GPRS backbone network: MIB Browsing . The MIB Browser on GPRS Backbone Server provides access to monitoring the Management Information Base (MIB) for event log information and node-specific configurations. GPRS BB topology views . The GPRS Backbone Server views can be used to display backbone network segments and gateways down to device and interface card level for example for the purpose of troubleshooting network faults. GPRS BB KPI monitoring . The backbone KPIs collected on the GPRS Backbone Server can be monitored centrally through the NMS. The GPRS Backbone KPIs provide performance data about volume, quality, and availability of service for the backbone devices. The volume of Service KPIs include performance indicators such as utilisation and throughput. The Quality of Service KPIs provide performance data about reliability, for example.

4.5 Monitoring GPRS services with Nokia ServiceWatch


To support the operator in maintaining and optimising the defined level of GPRS services offered, Nokia introduces powerful tools for monitoring the GPRS services, enabling the operator to efficiently monitor the set network Quality of Service objectives and detect QoS violations.

Nokia Networks Oyj

50 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

Nokia ServiceWatch Web Monitor Status Summary

Trouble Ticket System


Trouble Ticket

Open Interfaces
QoS objectives Trend data

Nokia ServiceWatch
Inference Engine Call Data e.g.: Traffica Trouble Ticket Data
Trouble Ticket

Alarms & Counters

Coverage

Testing Systems

Figure 26

Monitoring services based on several data sources

Nokia ServiceWatch allows the operator to monitor the network Quality of Service objectives and detecting QoS violations based on information collected from a number of data sources such as fault, performance management and trouble history data from the network equipment related to the particular service. Nokia ServiceWatch can calculate the effects of GPRS network problems on service, based on data sources like KPIs and alarm data (e.g. call setup failures) from the GPRS radio network and backbone network devices. The monitoring mechanism provided by ServiceWatch is particularly useful in GPRS release, as the only supported traffic class is Best Effort. In this situation, it is important to have intelligent tools for collecting and utilising network data from several sources.

4.6 GPRS network administration


The Nokia NMS includes a comprehensive set of tools that help the operator maintain the operational quality and safety of the GPRS radio and backbone network by means of: Time management. Real time clocks in the GPRS backbone network elements can be kept in correct time using a node manager application, or automatically using the NTP protocol. The NTP server in the Nokia GPRS

Nokia Networks Oyj

51 (61)

Planning, Building and Managing a GPRS Network

backbone elements can be started, stopped, and configured using the node manager application. Failures in the real time clock are indicated as alarms in the NMS. Time management of the SGSN is supported in the standard NMS time management tools for manual and automated monitoring and management of time. Software management . Individual backbone element managers provide support for software download. These element managers are integrated with the Nokia NMS and can be launched from the NMS topology window. The Nokia NMS provides tools for software download and archiving of the Nokia BTSs, BSCs, and SGSNs. For the BTSs, hardware configuration management tools for viewing the current hardware configuration and units at a BTS site are also available centrally in the NMS. Configuration backups . Archiving of the software and configuration backups for Nokia IP routers. To support the operator in managing multivendor networks, Nokia provides integrated access to administration of the Cisco routers via CiscoWorks2000 on the GPRS Backbone Server.

Nokia Networks Oyj

52 (61)

GPRS network planning

5 GPRS network planning


The introduction of GPRS will bring new challenges. To meet these challenges Nokia has defined network planning as a workstream within the overall GPRS system development program. Nokia offers a comprehensive service portfolio to support their products throughout the lifecycle. The key experience and competence of these engineers can be divided into the following categories: Radio Network Planning Services GPRS IP Backbone Planning Network Consulting Services.

Nokia employs a structured approach methodology successfully applied across major global organisations around the world. This ensures that the designed solution interworks with the existing infrastructure, offers a cost efficient solution and provides a solid platform for the future expansions.

Current Architecture

Existing Infrastructure

Protocols Switching Layers Capacity Scalability

Desired Infrastructure

Topology

Business Strategy

Current Operational Profiling

Security

Figure 27

Structured planning process

5.1 Radio network planning services


Radio Network Planning Services ensures fast rollout and high network quality. The following planning stages are included:

Nokia Networks Oyj

53 (61)

GPRS network planning

Network Design - determines the most suitable way of evolving the network within the given constraints such as the required bearer types or cell count Capacity Planning - in order to maximise the use of capital investment it is important to match the capacity offered by the network with the traffic forecast Coverage Planning to provide adequate radio signal levels at those locations where users are present Frequency Planning - user throughput is highly dependent on network quality, therefore the end-user quality of service will depend on the frequency plan Parameter Planning - to customise radio equipment to geographical and propagation environments with the most appropriate parameter settings.

5.2 GPRS IP backbone planning


Nokia offers GPRS IP Backbone Planning to help operators expand existing networks or build new datacom networks. The GPRS IP Backbone Planning service offers: a total IP solution: Nokia provides an end-to-end GPRS solution. As a result of being one of the world's leading telecom and datacom companies, Nokia has amassed years of network design experience. flexibility: Nokia is able to offer a scalable and flexible-planning service to help maximise an operator's investment in GPRS. IP backbone strategy: whether to adopt a 'from scratch' approach or utilise existing backbone resources is a major strategic decision. Nokia can analyse and map the operator's GPRS business strategy to a scalable and secure IP backbone architecture.

5.3 Service management solution and system integration


Nokia is able to take full responsibility for the system integration, covering also the GPRS Service Management solution. Service management consultancy and systems integration services regarding the CCB and service management applications ensure a smooth launch of the new GPRS based services.

Nokia Networks Oyj

54 (61)

GPRS network planning

The Nokia systems integration includes: Project Management of a GPRS system integration project Solution Consulting Solution Engineering. Project Management covers the integration of GPRS core network to the operator's service management systems. Nokia can take primary responsibility for the entire GPRS implementation project. The service includes system and acceptance tests. Solution Consulting defines the best solution for the operator to offer future data services utilising their GPRS network. The solution supports operator processes to avoid disruptive impacts to the operator's organisation and business environment. The solution definition may cover new services requirement specifications, organisational impacts and plans for marketing the new services. Solution Engineering concentrates on technical issues. A study can be implemented to find out the functionality of the existing operational environment and the needed integration work between the core GPRS and the CCB system. The provisioning solution of services is also defined.

5.4
5.4.1

Building the GPRS network


Installation and commissioning service for GPRS core IP backbone
The different phases of installation are site inspection, installation of complementary equipment, assembly and cabling, and installation of GPRS Core IP backbone network elements. After Nokia has completed the site inspection, assembly and cabling, it can begin the installation of actual network elements. Nokia personnel or qualified Nokia subcontractors complete the wiring and cabling with complementary equipment, installs the network elements in the correct locations according to installation plans, and connects all different components of the site into one integrated system.

5.4.2

Network Integration Service


The Nokia Integration Service for the GPRS Core IP backbone consists of two separate integration phases. The first phase is integration of the network elements within the GPRS Core IP backbone. The second phase is integration of the GPRS Core IP backbone to the NMS for GPRS and the CCB.

Nokia Networks Oyj

55 (61)

GPRS network planning

5.4.3

System Acceptance
The purpose of the System Acceptance is to demonstrate and verify that the system delivered by Nokia functions correctly and according to the specifications of the contract to the extent of verifying the functions and interfaces with the exception of mutually agreed exclusions.

5.5

Managing the GPRS network


In order to assure high quality services in the GPRS network and fast solutions for possible problems, Nokia Customer Services can offer a set of services. The service package will be tailored to suit the operator's needs.

5.5.1

Software Maintenance Service


Software Maintenance Service provides Help Desk services, access to new software releases and Software Change Management

5.5.2

Emergency Support Service


The Nokia Emergency Service offers the operator the availability of the highest expertise in critical situations where a software problem is determined and assistance is necessary. The service provides the best possible resources, which are available within a minimum lead time to avoid potential loss of service in the network.

5.5.3

Hardware Service
The Nokia Hardware Services contributes to high network availability by providing reliable and cost-efficient spare part and repair service for network operators. Properly planned and agreed co-operation procedures enable low spare part inventory and low hardware maintenance costs.

5.5.4

Technical Assistance Centres - TAC


Nokia Technical Assistance Centres provide base support for IP/datacom customers ensure highly qualified technical assistance for Nokia IP/data products and networks.

Nokia Networks Oyj

56 (61)

Nokia GPRS Solution Benefits

Nokia GPRS Solution Benefits


GPRS Capacity - High Capacity and Flexible Growth The Nokia solution allows the operator to start small, then follow the GPRS traffic demand by adding extra capacity to the GPRS Core and BSS. Standalone GSNs (SGSN, GGSN, CG and BG) allow transmission and interconnections to be planned in the most efficient way and thus minimise costs. Security Solutions Security is the main concern when connecting to corporate networks across the Internet. The Nokia market-leading, Security Solutions (VPN) offer a fast and scalable platform for the GPRS backbone and connecting corporations to the GPRS network. Fully Integrated Network Management Solution By fully integrating the management of the GSM and the GPRS network elements, the Nokia NMS for GPRS solution makes it possible for all endusers to receive the best possible level of service, while minimising their operational costs. Rating, Billing and Service Management The Nokia Charging Centre provides a platform for GPRS access billing, ISP services such as e-mail, WWW and WAP services. The system can also be used as a service management and rating engine for a combined mobile network and service operator. GPRS Optimised BSS The Nokia BSS allows scalable GPRS transmission. Transmission configuration at the 64 kbit/s Frame Relay level assures a cost efficient, always optimised use of the transmission. The powerful "Territory Method" radio resource management algorithms ensure that investments in radio access are kept at a minimum, but with uncompromised quality for both circuit-switched and packet-switched users. Support Services Nokia Professional Services and System Integration offers consulting, planning and installation services from pre-defined subprojects to turn key solutions. Services can be tailored to meet specific needs. Nokia Professional Services also provides a comprehensive range of operational services at four different service levels, from selected technical support to full operations outsourcing.

Nokia Networks Oyj

57 (61)

Nokia GPRS Solution Benefits

End-to-End Solution The Nokia GPRS solution covers the entire chain from terminal to support of content providers.

Nokia offers End-to-End GPRS Solution


Services for Network Design and Planning Customer Care and Billing Integration Application Development Support
CG

Support for Content Developers WAP Tool Kit WAP Forum Content Co-Operaton with leading services Entertaiment, Banking WAP VASP and News companies
FW

GGSN SGSN

ISP

Internet / cloud Intranet IP Security IPSec Virtual Private Networks

Terminals GPRS BSS BSC SW+HW BTS SW

GPRS Core SGSN, GGSN, CG, DNS, BG, FW

NMS
1 NOKIA FILENAMs .PPT/ DATE / NN

NAMP Nokia ArtusMessaging Platform for WAP GW Nokia Charging Center Rating, Customer Care, Billing, and Service Management

Figure 28

Nokia end-to-end GPRS solution

Nokia Networks Oyj

58 (61)

Proof Example Business Case

Proof Example Business Case


The following is an example GPRS business case. The example is based on a 'typical' GSM network of 1200 BTS, 10 000 TRX in the year 2000, which then grows in terms of speech subscribers and capacity at around 30% per year. The figures below present the estimated number of GPRS subscribers and the amount of data they transfer monthly by GPRS. It deliberately shows a very pessimistic view of GPRS service take-off.

400 350 300 GPRS Subscribers ( 000's) 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Consumer Business GPRS Penetration % of GSM Subscribers

18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% GPRS Penetration (% of GSM Subscribers) Mbits/month

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Consumer Off-peak Business Peak Business Off-peak Consumer Peak

Figure 29

Example case: GPRS subscriber and traffic penetration

The tariffing scheme used is given in the following table. No connection fee to GPRS service is used, but for business users a US$10 monthly fee is charged. There is no fee for GPRS standby time.

Table 6.

Example case tariffs


Business Peak Business Off-peak 40 Consumer Peak 100 Consumer Off-peak 20

US cents per Mbit transfered

100

It should be noted that no additional BSS capacity or transmission costs have been included in this analysis (for these low GPRS traffic levels the existing BSS network capacity may in any case be sufficient).

Nokia Networks Oyj

59 (61)

Proof Example Business Case

The figures below show the economic analysis of this scenario. It can be seen that even in this extremely pessimistic case (low GPRS take-up and usage) the payback time for the Nokia GPRS solution is around 4 years.

CAPEX / OPEX / Revenue $

Annual Revenues Annual OPEX Annual CAPEX

Cumulative Cash Flow $

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Figure 30

Example Case annual expenditure and revenues. Cumulative cash flow. (y-axis values intentionally missing)

Nokia Networks Oyj

60 (61)

Appendix 1.

HW and SW for Nokia GPRS

Appendix 1. HW and SW for Nokia GPRS


Table 7. The network element hardware/ software versions required to implement GPRS.
Software Release SGSN Rel1 Rel2 GGSN Rel1 Rel2 Boarder gateway Rel1 Rel2 Firewall Rel1 Rel2 Charging Gateway LIG LIC Rel1&2 Rel1 Rel2 LIG LIB Rel1 Rel2 DNS Backbone router Backbone switch MSC HLR BSC BTS - 2nd gen. BTS - Talk Family BTS - Nokia PrimeSite BTS - Nokia MetroSite NMS/2000 Rel1&2 Rel1&2 Rel1&2 M10 M10 S9 B12 DF5 DF5 C2 T12 Hardware Release SG1 / SG 1.5 for ANSI SG1 / SG 1.5 / SG2 GN2500 GN2500 / GN3500 BG2500 BG2500 / BG3500 FW2500 FW2500 / FW3500 A400 LC2500 LC2500 / LC3500 LB2500 LB2500 / 3500 A400 Cisco 7140 Cisco 6006 / 6009 M10 M10 S9 CS1 & 2. No hardware changes required CS1 & 2. No hardware changes required CS1 & 2. No hardware changes required CS1 & 2. No hardware changes required Functionality

Network element

Nokia Networks Oyj

61 (61)