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Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University Language Institute

Buddhist Critical Thinking Skills

Dr. Dion Peoples, Lecturer, Faculty of Buddhism Manager, International Association of Buddhist Universities 2012

Funded by: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, MCURS0648048

Abstract As a university lecturer of Buddhist Studies, Ive discovered that many monastic students have not read the Tipitaka, or if they have it is selective reading: mainly readings that focus on popular discourses. It is often my responsibility to convey the contents of various discourses to students. The inspiration behind this study of the discourses determines to give the greatest value to students, in terms of providing material that should generate greater intellectual ability amongst the students, if the chosen discourses are examined. Inside are several hermeneutical tools to assist students in examining material that they may be researching, such as: the sixteen hras; sequences for conveying a meaning or for conveying phrases; the criteria from the Kesaputta Sutta; and for whatever else that there might be, many charts were designed from the compiled material from various sources to illustrate or explain the contents. The first section of discourses covers six selections related to social morality: five discourses and the Bhikkhu-Patimokkha. The second section of discourses covers training in higher mentality, and features seven discourses. The third section of discourses features material related to training in higher wisdom, as drawn from three selected discourses. The conclusion ascertains that the selected discourses also have the theme of progress as a predominate characteristic, and therefore an analysis of progress concludes the study.

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Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents Chapter I - Introduction: Buddhist Interpretive Skills: Secular Interpretive Skills: Using Excerpts of Selected Texts and Discourses: Theravada Position for Scientific Hermeneutical Methods: Chapter II - ADHISILA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Morality: Abridged Version of the Gulissni Sutta: Illustrated and Abridged Version of the Anumna Sutta: The Initial Value of the Aparagthsagaika Compendium of the Sagti Suttas Moral Pronouncements: Selected Portion of the Pohapda Suttas Section on Morality: Abridged Version of the Mahsuata Sutta: The Abridged Version of the Vinaya/Patimokkha: Chapter III - ADHICITTA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Mentality: Introduction: the Aitareya Upaniad: Abridged Version of the Cahatthipadopama Sutta: Abridged Version of the Vitakkasahna Sutta: Abridged Version of the Mahhatthipadopama Sutta: Abridged Version of the Mahvedalla Sutta: Abridged Version of the Cakkavattishanda Sutta: Abridged Version of the Pohapda Suttas States of Perception: Contriving a Meditative System from the Sagti Sutta: i ii 1 2 3 5 22 30 32 34 35 40 48 52 60 68 68 69 76 81 83 87 89 99

Chapter IV - ADHIPANNA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Wisdom: 104 Abridged Version of the Cak Sutta: 104 Representation of the Dasuttara Sutta: 114 Selected Aspects of the Sagti Sutta in Charts: 121 Abridged Version of the Kaakatthala Sutta: 125 Chapter V Analytical Conclusion: Examining Progress from the Guide: Collective Conclusion: Concluding Message: References: 128 130 143 147 148

Chapter I Introduction:

There are many ways to enter into the realm of Buddhist wisdom - for many people there is: the standard meditative route where people are taught to reside in calm states or scrutinize their body-mental functionalities; for others they endeavor through the monastic realm of learning through discipline, meditation and eventually becoming wise; however, this work is inspired in a completely different manner. This singular endeavor has several layers of interpretation built into it: there is the proper doctrinal perspective of a gradual training, as well as the perspective of how someone should develop in cognitive or intellectual abilities. This endeavor devoured the Tipiaka, looking for the Buddhas most powerful lessons that could provide the greatest benefit towards raising the cognitive or intellectual level of the student-reader. In the sense that someone may be inspired by the wise words of a Buddhist-master, these words here are presented to assist in communicative action, or in a likewise manner: to assist in the development of personal cognitive-intellectual abilities or ones psychological abilities. To acquiesce to traditional Buddhist teachings, the selections are organized through the Buddhist principle of the three-fold training, where criteria is determined by its moral benefit, meditational benefit and for the development of intellectual wisdom. Layered upon the previous criteria is the shroud of Buddhist Hermeneutics or the attempts at interpreting these texts to bring out greater intellectual awareness or to provide cognitive benefits for the student-reader. Again Buddhist lessons were selected primarily for their modern cognitive value though their ability to serve ones intellectual development, and not as blatant examples of the three-fold training; although the teachings were arranged into circumstantial chapters pertaining to the beneficial criteria. The vision for this research arose from being a university-level lecturer for international Buddhist monks; and this endeavor on selected lessons is intended as a tool for these students who may not have a version of the Tipiaka with them; and thus, these selections endeavor to provide intellectual tools necessary for students to maneuver through various course-subjects and Buddhist Studies with critical perspectives necessary at times when students forget that they are Buddhist disciples acquiring necessary tools to assist themselves or society. Buddhists may wish to begin by using Buddhist tools. In former times, scholars could be found reading texts influential in shaping ideologies or methodologies. In the postmodern university-realm, reading a book is seen as an antiquated endeavor: data is sought from computerized internet searches, and compiled for presentation, with only a few lines of original material to link the borrowed concepts together. Few students seem to crave for wisdom as they have in previous generations. There are numerous anthologies of suttas available but this work aspires towards another aim: enabling monastic students to recollect the Buddhadhamma and reinforce the tradition of honor that being a Buddhist monastic entails, through reinforcement of regulations and that supramundane attainments are possible through endeavoring through daily strife and adequately and equally addresses any concerns for laity as well. One can claim that there is a critical-emphasis on adhering to regulations and deepening the understanding of Dhamma at the root of these selections.

How does a scholar try to represent the Buddhist teachings without violating modern copyright regulations? It is widely known that the gift of Dhamma is the highest offering, yet we are told to be vigilant of plagiarism. There is a strong reservation against representing the lessons; however, the suttas must be made available more freely otherwise the student would be conceptually lost without the accompanying lesson, many of which here are in a more condensed form. Some lessons will be periodically interrupted by a chart or commentary to emphasize some perception or intention, where a break can be made. Some footnotes from the original translator remain if the determination suggested the high-value of the material, while some are augmented by personal notes for elaborating the material to suit the objective of the analytical endeavor and offering. Therefore, the footnotes are an integral portion of the academic offering. But where should we start? According to some philosophers: the studying religions must consider not only ritualistic-participation but also intellectualization, a spacial-realm provided for advancing cognitive thoughts and action, of concerned principles into concrete endeavors - since the preservation and promotion of religion seems to be reflective rather than from a reductionistic explanatory manner. Habermas teaches for cognitive-development psychology: cognitive development in the narrow sense, as well as socio-cognitive and moral development, are conceptualized as internally reconstructible sequences of stages of competence.1 This allows for more engagement with religious truths, values and requirements of the system essential in the comprehension of the fundamental questions of truth, value and meaning developed from the scholarly/cognitive form of studying the Buddhist religion.2 There are beneficial Buddhist skills of interpretation as well as structural criteria of interpretation because this endeavor is seeking to empower the intellectual development or competence of the university-student, some important criteria will be examined: Buddhist Interpretive Skills: Theravada Buddhists cannot think that textual interpretations are subjected to the basic interpretation of the gradual training path of the development of greater morality, concentration, and wisdom.3 William Grassie contributes a hermeneutical circle influenced by Paul Riceour: a reading of the texts leads to explanations of the point we may be reading, this leads to an appropriation of the concept, and upon another reading of the same texts, our knowledge may increase and thus this leads to another understanding.4 The hermeneutical circle continues in this way through our adaptive capacities.5 We can see that there are levels-upon-levels or layers of comprehension towards the development of wisdom. This on face-value pertains to the characteristics of a practitioner and not to the modern reader of critiques. Better than the gradual path (towards enlightenment) is the Vibhangas Paisambhidvibhaga this explanation contains an interesting self-system for analytical insight advocating the following four hermeneutical principles for the analyst (vibhajjavadn), discussed in more detail later:
Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 2 2 Donald Wiebe: Introduction The Study of Religion, Religions of the World: a Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Melton, J. Gordon, ed. (ABC-Clio, September 2002), pp. xix-xxv 3 Donald S. Lopez, Jr (ed.): Buddhist Hermeneutics (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1988), p. 5-6: The Theravadan exegetes based their hermeneutical strategy on the idea of a gradual path to enlightenment. 4 William Grassie: The New Sciences of Religion (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), p. 145 5 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 3
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Analytical Insight of Consequence: Everything, internally and externally is capable of being analyzed in terms of it being an outcome of a previous condition. Analytical Insight of Origin: The apparent infinitude or endless process of continuity. Analytical Insight of Philology: Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said or read. Analytical Insight of Knowledge: To develop fully and correctly all that was previously drawn out. As with the gradual-path or adaptive capabilities as the concept, the conclusion of this device leads to the development of wisdom. This may be elaborated as the Buddhas assurance to never permit loose thinking6 where precise terminology with clear definitions as to the meanings and scope of a term was of the greatest importance.7 All of this comprehension is to be undertaken by the student. Precise and accurate understanding is important; one of the factors of the Eightfold Noble Path is Correct Understanding of which should guide intellectual-stimulation towards doctrinal appreciation and liberation. Structural Interpretive Skills: Buddhists often take these proper understandings of teachings and try to superimpose the doctrinal elements upon society. Sometimes this can be ineffective, through an improper understanding. From examining writings of Marx and Engels (Marxism - as one of the most prominent, but secular liberating social philosophies) they offer tools for perfected comprehension and striving with righteous or wholesome thoughts - concerning religion8, this suggests: Relating to structure, secular institutions and religious institutions seem to be at permanent odds. The below illustration is necessary to represent, because if Buddhism is a world-renouncing system (lokuttara-nature), then it becomes beneficial to comprehend the external worlds imposition onto and into Buddhism, subversively and this illuminates the rationality, or in the sense of Habermas: knowledge9, for Buddhists to escape from existing suppressive institutions (lokiya-nature). This adds to proper understandings of doctrines and their applications and utilizations and how knowingpeople must implement ideas whenever possible. External forces have imposed themselves upon Buddhism, through their seeking of legitimacy. Political-elite suggested that monks maintain monasteries these are often gifted to the Sangha to manage as if a temple is some sort of corporate-business. Offering ceremonies utilize time better suited for mediation or doctrinal practices; and the seeking of scientific truths in Buddhism enforce inquires that are: not situated towards the personal liberation from greed, hatred and delusion from the consciousness. The
Pathamakyaw Ashin Thittila (translator): The Book of Analysis Vibhanga (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 2002), from the Introduction by R. E. Iggledon, pp. lx-lxiii the freedom towards a Creative Capacity of interpreting criteria is severely limited in this respect. See the footnote #57, pertaining to the capacities suggested by Prof. Kirti. 7 Ibid., from the Introduction by R. E. Iggledon, pp. lx-lxiii 8 Dion Peoples: The Religious Aspects of Socialistic Viewpoints on Justice and Buddhism; published for the 5th UNDV Celebrations in Hanoi, Vietnam, found online at: http://www.vesakday2008.com/tranghoithao/tieng_anh/subtheme_2/the_religious%20aspects_of_socialistic_viewpoint s_on_justice.html although a check on this website on 26 January 2012, shows that the domain no longer exists. 9 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 8: Habermas, here says: rationality has less to do with the possession of knowledge than with how speaking and acting subjects acquire and use knowledge. persons who have knowledge can be more or less rational, as can symbolic expressions that embody knowledge. (Habermass italics)
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practicing-monastic is often taken away from what should be ones true occupation. Buddhism encourages the awareness of the ability to distinguish between wholesome and unwholesome circumstances; therefore, the work here is justified to take upon mysterious-cognitive processes and utilize them to improve society suggesting that the inspirations cooperate with improving existing social institutions. Furthermore, an expression of the original intentions, of the Buddha needs to be explored; here the reference is to the renunciation concept (lokuttara-nature) and the usefulness of residing in the forests, and the associated influences (lokiya-nature) for later applications available for society:

The insights gained from the tools presented above in this Buddhist research for improving or sharpening the critical analytical skills of Buddhist students can improve the thinking abilities of future Buddhist scholars. Habermas teaches: We can distinguish three aspects of argumentative speech. First, considered as a process, we have to do with a form of communication that is improbable in that it sufficiently approximates ideal conditions Second, as soon as one considered argumentation as a procedure, we have to do with a form of interaction subject to special rules. The discursive process of reaching understanding, in the form of a cooperative division of labor between proponents and opponents, is normally regulated in such a way that participants: thematize a problematic validity claim; relieved of the pressure of action and experience, in a hypothetical attitude; and test with reasons and only with reasons, whether the claim defended by the proponents rightfully stands or not. Finally, argumentation can be viewed from a third standpoint: it has as its aim to produce cogent arguments that are convincing in virtue of their intrinsic properties and with which validity claims can be redeemed or rejected. Arguments are the means by which intersubjective recognition of a proponents hypothetically raised validity claim can be brought about and opinion thereby transformed into knowledge. The three analytical aspects distinguished above can provide the theoretical perspectives from which the familiar disciplines of the Aristotelian canon can be delimited: rhetoric is

concerned with argumentation as a process, dialectic with the pragmatic procedures of argumentation, and logic with its products.10 What Habermas is saying is that in any argument, there are some ideal conditions that should be recognized between the opponent and proponent of the argument. The opponent and the proponent realize that they are both debating some point, and in this sort of procedure there are some basic rules that are perhaps unsaid between the two, but understood nonetheless between them. They have reached some understanding of the contention and have focused their minds upon this comprehended point of contention. Between the back and forth argumentation, some valid point is cognized, and both in the debate strive towards that ideal reality when seeking the truth of the scenario. There can be no winning through false ideals only rationality, as dangerous as that can also be, would win out in the argument if every point is correctly addressed. Once this coherence has been reached, the proponent becomes redeemed or the opponent may win his rejection. The valid point is then elevated as some point of knowledge between the debaters. In this sense, something is illuminated beyond just being pomposity due to the procedural and dialectic rendering of the strife the produce of course is the new-found logic between the individuals or participating groups. From the process of the adaptation experience, someone gains insight of any consequences of something experienced, here we see the beginning of the process set in motion by Habermas; then there is the insight of origin or continuity where the interaction between the protagonist and antagonist occurs where they both think about or comprehend the perspectives; and finally there is the insight of knowledge, where the two opponents argue but recognize each perspective and develop or build upon the previous knowledge. This is a process of the Buddhist adaptation-process with Habermass communicative-action theory both of which build from ignorance towards a more enlightened perspective, developed from such scrutinization afforded through the process of argumentation or investigation. Students must learn to assess where the exertions of power or repression originate and where this can be measured, then someone can apply appropriate perspectives. Where is there something that is imposing an internal or external will upon the conventional or ultimate aim? This is the objective, along with the aspiration that the text will show how these intellectual tools can empower Buddhists (or anyone else) how to liberate themselves from institutionalized or personal oppression - as the diagram presents. Society can be additionally manipulated through regulations or fall under the influence from some charismatic figure, into collective-action. It can be seen that these selections attempt to liberate the reader from worldly oppression. A very good question, could be: Where do we fit in? Using Excerpts of Selected Texts The underappreciated Nettippakaraa, a non-canonical Buddhist text in the majority of Buddhist societies (thus less likely to be read) suggests to readers that the phrasing and meanings of the Buddhas dispensation should be known, as threads to better instruct ones pupils/disciples; and thereby becomes most useful for monks conducting missionary activities. Despite the advantages of the intentionally-designed text, why is its material seldom employed, or rarely applied? The Nettippakaraa, designed for teachers, suggests for teachers to know the temperaments and abilities of
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Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), pp. 25-26

their disciples/students. This would then illuminate that the text should be immediately valued and utilized more often to distinguish, develop, and purify personality-types for students. Attention, therefore, is thus drawn towards the Puggalapaatti an Abhidhamma text that illustrates different personality-characteristics; additional material concerning temperaments can be found in the Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, respectively. Any teacher with this knowledge of temperaments and abilities can better instruct the newer generations of Buddhist - knowing these would greatly benefit Buddhists. George D. Bond writes: Understanding the way in which the terms apply to the different types of persons, the interpreter would be able to make his preaching of the Dhamma more relevant to his contemporary audience.11 This idea runs parallel to the Buddhas suggestion for comprehending the students main personality-characteristic to ensure that a proper meditation technique is prescribed for the student. If attention is now drawn towards teaching-methodology, Dr. Justin McDaniel has expressed three types of sermons or preaching techniques, found in traditional Thai Theravada Buddhist sermons12 - because knowing your audience is important: Nissaya: This supporting-resource is written for sermon preparations and as a guide to understand source texts. Narrative nissaya were for the monastic student with specific triggers to recollect general topics. Although nissaya lean heavily on source texts, only a few phrases are recollected allowing for creative interpretations. Nissaya, as defined by PTS Dictionary, means: leaning on, or nearby. Nmasadda: This is a more literal word for word translations from short textual passages, reserved for private monastic lessons, to learn about the function and origin of the syllables and analyzed against the textual demonstration, perhaps like a glossary. An aspect of the term, derived from the PTS Dictionary, suggests that nmasadda as a term, recollects audible-veneration (sadda = sound). Vohara: This is an idiomatic, common speech (oratory), or mechanical technique that lift words skillfully and perhaps melodically (due to the cadence or pattern to the works) creatively, for oral presentations suited to audience levels. Audiences are mainly serious students sitting in public sermons and cite long passages with longer explanations taken from commentaries or other sources. As defined by PTS Dictionary, vohara means: common use or popular logic. The determination is evident, sermon or lecture-texts have different functionalities due to the authors particular intention due to the nature of the audience. We can see alternative procedures for interpretive or critical measures in the following display through the sixteen hras or modes of conveying a summary of each13, adapted for usage here:

George D. Bond: The Word of the Buddha The Tipitaka and its Interpretation in Theravada Buddhism (Colombo: Gunasena, 1982), p. 58 12 Justin Thomas McDaniel: Gathering Leaves & Lifting Words (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008), various pages 13 Bhikkhu amoli: The Guide - Nettippakaraa (London: Pli Text Society, 1977), pp. xxxvi-xli; also found on p. 5 anyhow, these are my revisions from working with the material for several years, even if I have adopted the existing terminology as suggested by amoli.

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1. Teaching: (desan) a doctrinal, instructive method-teaching from the Pitakas 2. Investigation: (vicaya) how the text was chosen to be inquired into 3. Construing: (yutti) as interpreted or established in connection in groups with other texts 4. Footing: (padahna) is the concept definable or with reference to specific fundamentals from the text 5. Characteristic: (lakkhaa) determining implications by characteristic mark, class or class-member 6. Fourfold array: (catubyha) grammaticalness, purport or speakers intention, circumstance, coherence 7. Conversion: (vatta) a cyclical method, demonstration of relationship, paired with opposites 8. Analysis: (vibhatti) demonstrate its general validity or classification from certain planes 9. Reversal: (parivattana) demonstration with opposites or transformational states in the text 10. Synonyms: (vevacana) the method of using synonyms 11. Description: (paatti) the appropriate understanding or determining signification 12. Ways of entry: (otaraa) what/how many ideas in words and phrases used to inwardly describe 13. Clearing up: (sodhana) the questions must be answered correctly or satisfactory 14. Terms of expression: (adhihna) This is a determined method, much like: birth, aging, sickness, death which would describe suffering 15. Requisites: (parikkhra) specifying the cause/condition 16. Coordination: (samropana) implied attribution by keeping-in-being or abandoned These sixteen tools are useful for argumentation or critical thinking skills which would further suggest that Buddhist societies indeed possess critical thinking-skills inherent in their culture, but equally the suggestion asserts that many people do not look into what their tradition has to offer.14 Bond writes: The hra or phrasing categories are sixteen different ways of analyzing suttas in order to recognize that their meaning is one and only the phrasing is different [looking at things from a different perspective]. The purpose of these categories is to teach the interpreter how to analyze suttas in order to reduce them to their prime factors.15 The various expressions of modes must align or aim themselves to the fundamental intentions or aspects of: the Four Noble Truths; the elimination of greed, hatred and delusion, and dependent origination after which, the elaboration can be considered properly explained, based from the sixteen guidelines, along with the additional burden of knowing how to express the above levels of meaning to the different character-types of individual people. If these are not reducible to the prime factors, they become useless to consider. Its unlikely that these modes of expression were developed and utilized during the time of the Buddha and his immediate disciples16 and there are implications to
14 The reference here is critical to the perspectives contained within: Manusya Journal of Humanities, Cultural Implications of Critical Thinking, Special Issue No. 1-2 2001 (Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, 2001) where most authors assert that Asians in general lack critical thinking skills. My assertion here is that the tools are available within Buddhism, and as such, Buddhists should possess these skills. This book strives to deliver the skills. 15 George D. Bond: Gradual Path as a Hermeneutical Approach, inside: Donald S. Lopez, Jr (ed.): Buddhist Hermeneutics (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1988), p. 41 16 George D. Bond: The Word of the Buddha The Tipitaka and its Interpretation in Theravada Buddhism (Colombo: Gunasena, 1982), p. 97

suggest that there is similarities in the development of doctrinal interpretations: The Nettippakaraa implies that in interpretation of the Dhamma, human freedom has no value because it does not bring one closer to a solution to the problem of interpretation.17 Does the text place any limitation upon our analytical ability? Interpretations of doctrine then might be considered a non-useful, intellectual exercise conceptually becoming a possibility, since practicing dhammas, not thinking about Dhammas, is emphasized in Buddhism. This would encourage the arising of literalism or a fundamentalist approach towards considering the Buddhadhamma as if we could only be like soldiers following orders. We must recall that Prince Siddhatta Gotama was a royal-warrior, so when this connection is made we see that the Buddha is not just telling some story for entertainment. His teachings, or rather the definition of a discourse is a usable, long and serious treatment of some subject or in the sense of Habermas: a critique18 - which places an additional emphasis upon his instruction. Hes guiding wayward-people, through his words and often against the position of others: hes educating others, instructing them in a sense, giving orders, as a royal or noble-warrior might perpetually perform. The Buddhas major disciples performed well through various superior states one should recollect: Maha-Kaccana had his elaborations or interpretations (worldlyrooted mentality); nanda had his memory (non-interpretational and able to distinguish between both realms), and was said to also be unequalled in terms of possessing insight19; Sriputta contributed masterful, organized analysis (and was able to lead the reclusive Buddhas Sangha as one of the preeminent Chief Disciples); and of course: Buddhaghosa is known as the Great Buddhist Commentator. If the commentary-tradition of Theravada Buddhism is as Bonds explains, then writing commentaries has long been a part of the living tradition20, but not necessarily of the supramundane tradition people became curious of the skills of these leading disciples and aimed at emulating them. Likewise - writing a doctoral dissertation in a Buddhist Studies program is unlikely to diverge from this original spirit or intent of propagating Theravada Buddhism. Becoming ever more prominent, is the conception to diminish intellectual activities, and undertake meditative or practical applications as suggested, through the concept of renunciation, or ordination. One could state that an ordination is the final submission; but perhaps a larger battle is remaining in the laity and bringing the Dhamma into the ignorant world. A different type of learned-individual needs to bring the dhamma into the world. Bond nearly concludes with the statement: The Nettippakaraa is not a commentary but teaches a particular method of interpretation for the purpose of safeguarding the interpretation of the Dhamma.21 The Nettippakaraa is written for people who already have a grasp of the Buddhadhamma. As basics, the phrasing and meanings of Dhamma should be known to a Dhamma teacher, as well as the personality dispositions of students, in order to apply the correct teaching or meditation topic to the
Ibid., p. 98 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), pp. 41-42: in the psychoanalytic view, the healing power of dialogue owes something to the convincing force of the arguments employed in it. To begin with take into account of these special circumstances by always speaking of critique instead of discourse when arguments are employed in situations in which participants need not presuppose that the conditions for speech free of external and internal constraints are fulfilled. However, in this work, the term lesson will be used, because a discourse is a bit argumentative. 19 F.L. Woodward: The Book of the Gradual Sayings (Anguttara-Nikaya), Vol. I (London: Pali Text Society, 1970), pp. 204-205 20 George D. Bond: The Word of the Buddha The Tipitaka and its Interpretation in Theravada Buddhism (Colombo: Gunasena, 1982), p. 105 21 Ibid., p. 179
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individual or group of students. After the demonstration of two wrong views through blind faith, the Buddha suggests that people follow the path of the way-farer his path of wisdom. This Buddhist path of wisdom consists of revolutionary practice over traditional/conservative methods therefore, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths is necessary, which could parallel the components of the adaptation-process insights into consequences, continuity, philology, and knowledge. Additionally, eradicating greed, hatred and delusion from ones consciousness improves ones ability (more from the adaptive capacity) to think rationally and deeply into the conditions that arise dependent on each other. Habermas teaches: The close relation between knowledge and rationality suggests that the rationality of an expression depends on the reliability of the knowledge embodied in it.22 Sequential analysis is the suggested Buddhist form of analysis emphasized in dependent origination and in the Nettippakaraa, when discussing the meaning and phrasing of Dhammas all is necessary for the primary concern of the elimination of ignorance. Ignorance of what? Ignorance is our condition of enduring in a state within what we do not know, and the only way we can release ourselves is to learn through investigating, not just from going through practical motions. Habermas teaches: A judgment can be objective if it is undertaken on the basis of a trans-subjective validity claim that has the same meaning for observers and nonparticipants as it has for the acting subject himself. Truth and efficiency are claims of this kind. This assertions and goal-directed actions are the more [rationally-abstract] and the better the claim (to propositional truth or to efficiency) that is connected with them can be defended against criticism.23 This would also bridge our way out from ignorance. We learn what becomes valid through our trials the endeavor or praxis. The examination and result are a paramount consideration towards determining the truth of the circumstance. If, as Bond suggests, Theravada Buddhists have issues or problems with textual interpretation, this is due to the practical nature of the teachings rather than the teachings existing as mental exercises, or from the aspect of praxis: the becoming from a cognitiveinstrumental rationality into self-comprehension and self-maintenance.24 Interpretation is not necessarily important owing to the authority of the Buddha, the Sangha and Buddhist elders though one must be weary of even falling into the traps of authentic traditions. Interpretation, however imposed can be divided into sixteen modes of conveying the Dhamma most of which, again, are just deeper or scientific inquiries for comprehending the Four Noble Truths. We can see later how all of the Dhammas can be contained within the criteria of the Four Noble Truths the Mahhatthipadopama Sutta details this. There are students who are quick at acquiring the pronounced doctrine; those who learn by exposition or analysis; and students who can be led by recitation, questioning and earnest attention by cultivation of the doctrines.25 Additionally: There is the person who, in regard to doctrines he has not heard of before, thoroughly understands by his own effort the truths, puts an end to suffering in this very existence, and attains the perfection of discipleship. Such a one is to be considered a Sriputta and a Moggallna. 26 From this, we can see proper methods or examples for striving - at least in the academic world. Habermas teaches: there are two ways in which knowledge can be used: there is
Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 8 23 Ibid., pp. 9-10 24 Ibid., p. 10 25 Bimala C. Law: Designation of Human Types The Puggala-paatti (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1997), p. 58 26 Ibid., p. 97
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instrumental-mastery and communicative-understanding which is either realistic or phenomenological. We cannot be sure how someone understands something from ones own effort, if someone has not been instructed in analytical or investigative tools. How does someone begin to learn how to think? Habermas asserts: those who behave rationally (goal-directed/feedback-controlled interventions) must themselves presuppose an objective world.27 The proper way for striving in the religious realm can be seen from the following episode, through the primal urge or desire for prayers: One a certain occasion, the Buddha criticized the use of prayer and prescribed this simile (and when social-cooperation from Habermas is considered): suppose a boulder was dropped into a large pond, and then a large group of people gathered together begging, imploring and beseeching, with their extended palms together; wanting the large stone to rise from the deep waters - because of their prayers, would the rock rise up onto dry land? No!28 Habermas teaches: several subjects coordinate their interventions in the objective world through communicative action to separate the cognitiveinstrumental rationality based on the monological employment of descriptive knowledge from communicative rationality.29 Its not very rational to suggest something outside scientific possibilities. The Sayutta-nikya has the same story, thus this should not be a forgotten concept for missionaries, practitioners and ritualistic Buddhists. Likewise, any rationalistic thinking Buddhist should comprehend this advice as well prayers, relying on an external to assist the internal, are ineffective as any member of the prayer-group could determine from the evidence. Habermas asserts: Only responsible persons can behave rationally only those persons count as responsible who, as members of a communications-community, can orient their actions to intersubjectively recognized validity claims.30 There is no outside intervention to justify the aspiration of the prayer. Consider within the earlier analysis: when the Buddha suggests31 that if someone throws a large boulder in a deep pool of water, and a large crowd assembles to reciting prayers and offering reverential salutations, hoping: Rise up Great Boulder Would that boulder rise up, from such a ridiculous, or irresponsible request? No. Prayers, as demonstrated are useless, because most people still break the five Buddhist precepts32, speak harshly or wrongly to others, and have various combinations of greed, hatred or delusions which affect the consciousness and generate incorrect-views. The Buddha stresses corrective action and only then can the plea become evident: by keeping the five moral precepts as replacement for prayers until then, nothing has changed. Habermas teaches: for the susceptibility to criticism and grounding that we require of rational expressions means that the subject to whom they are attributed should, under suitable conditions, himself be able to provide reasons or grounds.33 Habermas teaches: In the contexts of communicative action, we call someone rational not only if he i s able
Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 11 28 Bhikkhu amoli: The Guide - Nettippakaraa (London: Pli Text Society, 1977), pp. 70-71 29 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 14 30 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 14 31 Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Connected Discourses - A New Translation of the Sayutta-nikya, Volume II, pp. 1336-1338 32 Bimala C. Law: Designation of Human Types The Puggala-paatti (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1997), p. 55: these people are considered not a good person, and those that encourage others to break precepts are more not good than the not good person... or more simply states: these are bad people. 33 Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 12
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to put forward an assertion and, when criticized, to provide grounds for it by pointing to appropriate evidence, but also if he is following an established norm and is able, when criticized, to justify his action by explicating the given situation in the light of legitimate expectations. We even call someone rational if he makes known a desire or an intention, etc., and is then able to reassure critics in regard to the revealed experience by drawing practical consequences from it and behaving consistently thereafter. expressions can also go wrong.34 Correct Dhamma practice subordinates any desire or wish; consider as a consequence, people still go to hell for mere prayers and wrong views because they are not pure in their morality. Consider what the headman and warriors - Yodhajva, Hatthroha, and Assroha came to additionally comprehend, in these few words: When, headman, a mercenary (or warrior) is one who strives and exerts himself in battle, his mind is already low, depraved, misdirected by the thought: Let these beings be slain, slaughtered, annihilated, destroyed or exterminated. If others then slay him and finish him off while striving and exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of the battle-slain devas that is wrong view on his part. For a person with wrong view, I say, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal realm.35 Habermas teaches: The world gains objectivity only through counting as one and the same world for a community of speaking and acting subjects. The abstract concept of the world is a necessary condition if communicatively acting subjects are to reach understanding among themselves about what takes place in the world or is to be effective in it.36 For the conventional world, comprehension of endeavors amongst comrades is sought, towards determining whether or not these collective soldiers, as individuals, can help themselves through striving in life. Prayers going to a tree, prayers to a god, prayers to an ancestor all are useless because they dont exist in the manner normal perception constructs: form and thought. Habermas continues: Through this communicative practice, they assure themselves at the same time of their common life relations, of an intersubjectively shared lifeworld. This lifeworld is bounded by the totality of interpretations presupposed by members as background knowledge (mundane reasoning through consensus).37 Spiros Burmese study also illustrates such background knowledge: Pious people pray only for nibbna; they do not pray to be rich or to go to some other abode. If they pray for these, they are not pious. 38 Story tells us: And if it is useless to pray to any gods, it is equally so to pray to the Buddha. He is not a creator, preserver or destroyer of the universe; neither is he a dispenser of favors nor a supreme punitive power. When the Buddha is worshipped it is as a teacher, the greatest Teacher of all beings, and to such devotion is a spiritual exercise; the Great Wisdom, last personified in the Master, is the true object of veneration.39 During an interview with a leading Theravada Buddhist monk, he re-affirmed points on the futility of prayer, as the Buddha suggested, and only added, cut out the word prayer, because it is only reciting, or a recitation, to make point in the mind more clear. 40 Consequently, even
34 35

Ibid., p. 15 Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Connected Discourses - A New Translation of the Sayutta-nikya, Volume II, pp.

1336-1338

Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), pp. 12-13 37 Ibid., p. 13 38 Melford E. Spiro: Buddhism and Society A Great Tradition and its Burmese Vicissitudes. Berkeley: UC Berkeley Press 1982: p. 78 39 Francis Story, Prayer and Worship (Kandy: The Wheel Publication #139, 1980) p. 17 40 Personal communication/interview with Lord Abbot Ven. Phra Dhammavisuddhikavi on 5 October 2005 at

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these mundane meaningful recitations are made to facilitate recollections, that any group member can associate with as common-knowledge. Gods are only something which alludes to a metaphor and therefore open scriptural references towards them are available for hermeneutical scrutiny. As a result how can a metaphor change ones life? Apart from the Abrahamic-religious/metaphoric transformations known throughout the non-Buddhist world, Buddhism suggests: it is only through understanding (eradicating ignorance) and changed views that one is led to different results. Accrued intentions and actions (kamma) can be redirected where greater fruitful benefits become apparent. Prayer is idle chatter. In this regard, King Rama IV of Thailand, instituted reforms in Buddhism to emphasize practice over tradition this is emphasized again, as important to recollect. Reflect back to the idea of the charismatic, noble figure, going against the traditional structure by following the Buddhas advice, someone is considered a revolutionary. From the recognition of the weaknesses in the conservative traditions - moving against this structure, necessary reforms (changes) are illuminated and made. Transformation occurs when someone is actively engaged in improving ones condition. The Buddha said, Now these things, householder, are not to be got either by vows or prayers, I declare; for if they were, why would anyone languish here? To bring about long life, householder, it is of no use for a (noble) disciple, yearning for long life, either to pray for it or to think much of it; the way that leads to long life must be wayfared by the (noble) disciple, and when the way is way-fared by him, it leads to the winning of long life, and he becomes a winner both heavenly life and human life.41 Returning to the Nettippakaraa: teachers of Buddhism must know the way of extreme conditions brought on by gratification and disappointment (happiness and sadness), and liberation from these extremes. For inquiring into sets of Dhamma describing distinctly different Dhammas should be revealed sequentially, through: meanings, phrasing, teaching and demonstrations to re-emphasize this in a sequence: The sequence for conveying a meaning: 1. Explain 2. Display 3. Divulge 4. Analyze 5. Exhibit 6. Describe The sequence for conveying phrases: 1. Letter 2. Term 3. Phrase 4. Mood 5. Language 6. Demonstration

The words for the sequence for conveying a meaning should be defined: Explain: To tell somebody something about something in a way that makes it easy to comprehend. Display: to put out some quality or feeling to people so that people can know or see comprehending the expression. Divulge: to give somebody information that is supposed to be secret. Analyze: to examine the nature or structure separate is into parts.

Wat Somanas Vihara 41 E.M. Hare (translator): The Book of the Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Volume III (London: Pli Text Society, 1973), pp. 39-40 (#43), see also Francis Story, Prayer and Worship (Kandy: The Wheel Publication #139, 1980) p. 1-2

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Exhibit: to show in a public place for people to enjoy or to give information or show clearly the particular quality. Describe: to say to somebody what something is like. The words for the sequence for conveying phrases should be defined: Letter: the exact words, rather than the general meaning. Term: a word or phrase used as the name of something connected with a particular type of language. Phrase: a group of words which have a particular meaning wen used together, or said in a particular way. Mood: any of the sets of verb/forms that show whether what is said or written is certain, possible, or necessary; expressions of facts, orders, questions, wishes or conditions. Language: a particular style of speaking (polite, offensive, poetic, etc.) a way of expressing oneself to communicate with others. Demonstration: an act of showing or explaining how something works or is done an act of giving proof or evidence. There are a few interesting things to illuminate in these two sequences. There are certain qualities which seem repetitive, such as: display and exhibit in the sequence for conveying a meaning; and there is a certain familiarization between terms and phrases with language. Display, exhibit, and demonstration are very similar ideas as well. The Pasadika Sutta has some interesting advice: all you to whom I have taught these truths that I have realized by superknowledge, should come together and recite them [37 Factors of Enlightenment, for the sake of this lesson], setting meaning beside meaning and expression beside expression, without dissension, in order that this holy life may continue and be established for a long time for the profit and happiness of the many out of compassion for the world and for the benefit, profit and happiness of devas and humans.42 The key illumination is the utterance detailing: setting meaning beside meaning and expression beside expression.43 Three other important ideas are also circumstantial
42 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 431-432 43 The entire context of the Pasadika Sutta, is, in my estimation, a fixing of or the establishment of, Buddhism, from the circumstance of the chaotic-aftermath of what ensued after the death of Mahavira. This is expressed in the beginning of the discourse, when we read that there is all the accusations of fighting over who is right/wrong; we read that the remaining Jain doctrine was ill-proclaimed/unedifyingly displayed, etc. This is the condition which set the Pasadika Sutta in motion; and resultantly: for what should be recalled in the dispensation of the Buddha. Another point, (see Walshe, p. 431): "If he were to deduct anything... if he were to add anything..." - this phrase I think is equally important to the research endeavor. The Buddha's 37 Factors towards Enlightenment are the 'truths' that should be recited (at this point in the life/dispensation of the Buddha), although the Sangiti Sutta would be the final approved (re: adjusted) curriculum for recitation. Yes, the phrase: setting meaning beside meaning and expression besides expressing -- is important. Again though, I want to emphasize that this is perhaps an early reaction to Mahavira's death, but the Sangiti Sutta is a much more mature reaction, one with more thought induced, because Buddhists should know much more as a tradition of wisdom. Clearly, Sariputta thought there was more to Buddhism than just the 37 Factors of Enlightenment (recall, he is the recipient of the Buddhas Abhidhamma teachings), and a point to illuminate is again, the Jains fighting over Dhamma and Discipline, but there is not much within the 37 factors that are directly related to discipline (in the sense of Vinaya). The Buddha then goes onward to express other random matters: dealing with pleasure-seeking; dealing with the Tathagata - and goes onward to say something, again, important: "different beings hold different opinions on such matters..., (pp. 437 -438) - but he claims his opinions are superior. He then refuses to tell Cunda about speculative matters pertaining to the future - as they should not be explained. To squash speculative ideas of the past, present, future: the Buddha teaches the four foundations for mindfulness - a root/base teaching, a low level teaching used to establish the mind for a meditator. However, to

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derivatives of the aftermath of Mahaviras death. Buddhists suggest that their ideology was: Ill-proclaimed: this means that if something is ill, it is bad or harmful; and for something to be proclaimed it is announced publically and clearly. Something illproclaimed is harmfully-announced, something that causes damage. Unedifyingly displayed: this means something unpleasant in a way that makes you feel disapproval, but in the sense of its counterpart, edifying which is likely to improve peoples minds or character. Something unedifyingly-displayed would imply mental-degradation or stupidity in the sense of foolishness. Ineffective: not achieving what you aim to accomplish

Buddhist doctrine must be well-proclaimed, edifying and effective towards attaining Nibbana. If someone deviates from this doctrine then they have missed their opportunity to experience true Dhamma. If the holy-life has not become clear and evident to them in the logic of its unfolding then this could be a sad thing. If someone cant proclaim the true Dhamma or refute opposing doctrines then the holy life has not been perfected. If there is any deduction of the Dhamma, then it is not properly comprehended; and if there was anything to add, then the Dhamma has not been properly complete and not fully comprehended a person then has seen but has not seen the True Dhamma. Therefore, meanings should be set against meanings, and expressions should be set against expressions without opposition. There doesnt seem to be any room for interpreting Buddhist doctrine. Now, what do you do with all of this information? A sequence for teaching, can then be simplified into a single statement: disregarding the external, a meditator meditates as a meditator.44 The implication in the demonstration sequence here, that one should not concern oneself with signs, senses, mental states, deities, etc meditating with unsupported cognizance (knowledge/awareness) is profitable so one is not known to the world.45 Further, if someone is supported, determined to illustrate that an outside element is assisting one may become corrupted or defiled to some extent, and this creates the question: can deities defile humans? Furthermore, this stresses that uninfluenced cognition is conducive towards nibbna.46 Through the teachers own comprehension, the disciple can apprehend or grasp the Truth of the Buddhas teachings gaining confidence in the Dhamma from the scrutiny necessary to fathom the deep teachings. This is not blind faith or trust but effective instruction which enables confidence. Towards this goal, an interesting perspective on the Four Noble Truths can be found47, as represented below:

illuminate something else: I see the Pasadika's reference for the three times and the four foundations for mindfulness as illuminating, because the standard teaching of the four foundations just state something to the effect of not fretting over the matters in the world - but no inclination to make you believe that it is for the past/present/future. We can see things from this new perspective. 44 Bhikkhu amoli: The Guide - Nettippakaraa (London: Pli Text Society, 1977), p. 62 45 Ibid., p. 63 46 Ibid., p. 64 47 Ibid., p. 17

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The Four Noble Truths are: Suffering as disappointment and fruit Origin as gratification Cessation as escape Path as means and injunction The Four Noble Truths are, again:

These are also for problem solving. We can be satisfied with knowing the origin of problems - enabling us to more readily or ably solve dilemmas. These truths must be understood to assist interested people wishing to eliminate ignorance in their lives determined as the major underlying factor behind human conflict with the condition of physical or mental suffering as humanitys greatest fear.48 From the condition of ignorance, a person is either certain or uncertain dependent on the level of understanding. It is the confident-understanding of the Four Noble Truths which enables the learner to become conformable with the contents of the Buddhas lessons.49 The seeking-learner is taught to uproot or expel greed, hatred and delusion from their consciousness to see that craving (either the approval or resistance to the urge) and suffering is dependent on conditions that arise; and from this they can establish themselves, mindfully training with the unprofitable characteristic of a self absent.50 Seekers should understand that causes have the characteristic of not being shared in common; and conditions have the characteristics of being shared in common.51 Seekers are further taught to control their senses, because through ignorant external-sensual contact, suffering arises.52 There is a root condition that defiles the training Buddhist, who must work to eradicate unwholesome consciousness factors. Interesting for converted Buddhists to learn, may be: lusts for sensual desires and ill-will are common to the stream-winner (a noble disciple), standing upon the path, and to the ordinary person, but the essential nature of the idea of stream-winning is not common to both.53 Some people tend to believe that Noble Disciples are outright pure in virtue or conduct; but as one can determine, it is the nature of the concept that signifies the lowest level of fruitful attainments.

48 49

Ibid., p. 23 Ibid., p. 39 50 Ibid., p. 52 51 Ibid., p. 110 52 Ibid., pp. 53, 57 53 Ibid., p. 75

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The attainment of mental and physical tranquility is beneficial. The Nettippakaraa states physical pleasure is physical tranquility; having physical pleasure one feels pleasure. When one is pleased, cognizance is concentrated; one concentrated comprehends how things really are as impermanent, subjected to suffering, and not of ones self this leads to dispassion, and the fading of lust towards liberation. The knowledge of liberation arises, and one fully comprehends that what needed to be done has been accomplished.54 Take for instance what the Nettippakaraa states about ignorance: previous ignorance is the cause of subsequent ignorance. Previous ignorance is the underlying tendency to ignorance. The previous underlying tendency to ignorance is the cause, in causality-by-immediate-proximity, of the subsequent obsession by ignorance like the seed and sprout in the growth process; but wherever any fruit of that seed occurs, this seed is then only the cause-in-immediate-proximity, as that of the seed for the sprout, and cause-in-remote-relation, as that of the seed for the fruit. So the case of ignorance is also of two kinds, namely cause-in-immediate-proximity and cause-in-remote relation55; and an interesting examination of causes and conditions complete the section. The Sayutta-Nikya has an interesting brief account of not falling under the spell of ignorance, here suggestive of: nationalistic-militaristic propaganda and since the aims of Buddhism are to have a safe and secure society, the Yodhajva Sutta demonstrates this connection. Below is an abridged and annotated reading, mentioned again56: Yodhajva the Headman (a mercenary or professional warrior) went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: Venerable sir, I have heard that it has been passed down by the ancient teaching lineage of professional warriors (another ancient account of lineages that are never fully comprehended by their adherents), that: When a professional warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of the battle-slain devas (such a realm is not in the standard cosmological classification scheme). What does the Blessed One have to say about that? Enough, headman, put that question aside. Dont ask me that. For a second time... and for a third time Yodhajva the Headman said: Venerable sir, I have heard that it has been passed down by the ancient teaching lineage of professional warriors that When a professional warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of battle-slain devas. What does the Blessed One have to say about that? Apparently, Headman, I havent been able to get through to you by saying, Enough, headman, put that question aside. Dont ask me that. So I will simply answer you (this is a rare episode of reversing his opinion, and take notice later of the omniscient-concept, where the Buddha later does not fully comprehend why Yodhajiva will be crying. This does demonstrate some element of criticism and of compassion by the Buddha, so it is possible that he comprehended his potential for greater attainments). When a professional warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, his mind is already low ( a
Ibid., p. 96 Ibid., p. 111-113 56 Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Connected Discourses - A New Translation of the Sayutta-Nikya, Volume II, p. 1336-1338
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low mind signifies or equates to a low-rebirth position), seized, debased, and misdirected by the thought: May these beings be struck down or slaughtered or annihilated or destroyed. May they be annihilated. If others then strike him down & slay while he is thus striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the hell called the Realm of Battle-Slain Devas. But if he holds such a view as this: When a professional warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of battle-slain devas, that is his wrong view. Now, here I declare only two destinations for a person with such wrong views: either hell or the animal realm. When this was said, Yodhajva the Headman sobbed & burst into tears. (The Blessed One said:) That is what I couldnt get past you by saying, Enough, headman, put that aside. Dont ask me that. Im not crying, venerable sir, because of what the Bless ed One said to me, but simply because I have been deceived, cheated, & fooled for a long time by that ancient teaching lineage of professional warriors (this statement could have potential ramifications for those interested in politics) who said: When a professional warrior strives & exerts himself in battle, if others then strike him down & slay him while he is striving & exerting himself in battle, then with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the company of devas slain in battle. Magnificent, Venerable Sir! Magnificent! Just as if one were to place upright what had been overturned, were to reveal what was hidden, were to show the way to one who was lost, or were to hold up a lamp in the dark so that those with eyes could see shapes, in the same way the Blessed One has - through many lines of reasoning (though there does not seem to be many other modes expressed here within this lesson) - made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life. There are two interesting statements in the above paragraph, which illustrate the manipulation and dissemination of common, public knowledge: upright what had been overturned here, the obvious demonstration is that someone had knocked down, perhaps traditional teachings but the Buddha confronted these corrupted theories and placed them back into their pristine or original form. The world is a wicked place, and the Buddhas teachings restore righteousness. The earlier chart on institutional forces upon religions illustrates this secular conversion of religious ideals, that the Buddha was forces to re-convey during his career. reveal what was hidden here, the obvious demonstration is to secret knowledge which does not exist in Theravada Buddhism; there are no hidden doctrines, no exploitation of disciples through information control or propaganda. There is knowledge available to people of higher moral and meditative attainments but this form of knowledge discrimination, as found later in the section on the Paisambhidvibhaga could be available to those who are trained. Untrained people, perhaps seek the alledged secrets available to practitioners. It is not as if Yodhajva was ignorant he was the headman, perhaps elected to his position; but even he, believed the slogans from former leaders. He could not see through the ideological murk. Could a greater understanding of dhamma help him how does someone acquire a correct interpretive-view?

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One of the most popular tools for Buddhist hermeneutical investigations begins, according to Theravada tradition, with the Kesaputta Sutta.57 Many modern Buddhist scholars and philosophers speak often about the Anguttara Nikyas Kesaputta Sutta better known as the Kalama Sutta - edited, simplified and retyped below (modernizing the language), and provided here for expedience: Thus have I heard: On a certain occasion, the Buddha was going on his rounds, in Kesaputta District of the Kosala kingdom, with a large following of monks. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard that the Buddha and his monks were wandering near Kesaputta a good report, from different directions concerning the Buddha, arrived:
(Yo so tathgato) araha samm-sambuddho, He who has attained the Truth, the Worthy One, Rightly Self-awakened, Vijj-caraa-sampanno sugato lokavid, consummate in knowledge & conduct, one who has gone the good way, knower of the cosmos, Anuttaro purisadamma-srathi satth deva-manussna buddho bhagav; unexcelled trainer of those who can be taught, teacher of human & divine beings; awakened; blessed; Yo ima loka sadevaka samaraka sabrahmaka, Sassamaa-brahmani paja sadeva-manussa saya abhi sacchikatv pavedesi. who made known -- having realized it through direct knowledge -- this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; Yo dhamma desesi di-kalya majjhe-kalya pariyosana-kalya; who explained the Dhamma fine in the beginning, fine in the middle, fine in the end; Sttha sabyajana kevala-paripua parisuddha brahma-cariya paksesi who expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely com plete, surpassingly pure Well indeed for us if we could get the sight of arahants such as these!

Then after the Buddha arrived into Kesaputta, the Kalamas said to the Buddha: many recluses or Brahmins come to them (Here we can wonder why this group was selected for many visits by various groups. Was it because they were different, different from others? Most groups seem to be ascetics and not missionaries.), and preach their different viewpoints or opinions and expound the details in full but when it comes time to discuss matters of other schools, they despise or depreciate their point of views. However, when these religious-instructors come unto them the Kalamas take interest in their viewpoints but have difficulty and doubt about which one speaks the truth and which one speaks falsehoods. The Buddha told the Kalamas that they have every reason to doubt, have difficulties and waver in opinions, but then the Buddha tells the Kalamas:

F.L. Woodward: The Book of the Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Volume I (London: Pli Text Society, 1970), The Book of Threes, pp. 170-175; additionally see - Kirti Bunchua: Buddhist Ethics and Education: A Postmodern Model, a contribution for: Academic Papers Presented at the International Association of Buddhist Universities (IABU) Conference on Buddhism & Ethics (edited by Dion Peoples) (Wangnoi: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University Press, 2008), p. 118: Professor Kirti suggests there are four types of Philosophical Hermeneutics within the Kesaputta Sutta: (a) Creative Capacity; (b) Adaptive Capacity; (c) Inquisitive Capacity; (d) Collaborative Capacity. However, he does not apply his hermeneutical principles to bring out any wisdom from the discourse, nor does he define the principles he suggests. Therefore, I define without any guidelines, my own interpretation of what he could have meant, but never stated: (a) Creative Capacity would suggest that the individual would have the freedom of expressing ones own interpretation in such a way as creativity allows, without structural guidelines testing criteria for oneself (it seems the Vibhanga would like to prohibit creative interpretations); (b) Adaptive Capacity would suggest that one conforms to the structure of the guidelines given in the discourse and develop the interpretations based on the resultant answers, fitting the needs of the determining audience; (c) Inquisitive Capacity would suggest that the questions given might be the only possible structure and this is suggestive of a more literal or even a literary approach in the line of questioning - or that one can see how answers can be determined from the line of questioning; (d) Collaborative Capacity looks into the dialogue developing between the characters and is inclusive of the setting and other aspects which allow for a more holistic interpretation of the information.

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Do not be led by report Do not be led by tradition Do not be led by hearsay Do not be led by the authority of the texts Do not be led by mere logic Do not be led by interference Do not be led by considering appearances Do not be led by the agreement with a considered and approved theory Do not be led by seeming possibilities Do not be led by the idea: This is our Teacher

Certain scholars like to cease the message here - as their justification for authority in disputing Buddhist philosophy and doctrine but they often forget to add the rest of the story, that if: These things are unprofitable These things are blameworthy These things are censured by the intelligent These things when performed and undertaken conduce to loss and sorrow

then indeed, we should reject them. This is the advice.58 The advice is not to disregard the teachings of the Buddha, based on what is inside the most authoritative scriptures the Tipiaka. This lesson teaches those who heed this advice, not to become the intellectual slave of others, even at the highest levels.59 It is interesting that the Kalamas were not intellectual slaves but were asking the Buddha which teacher they should believe, because there are a multitude of different teachers issuing various doctrines.60 Yodhajva had difficulties releasing the wrong view taught by elders in his very own discipline. The Buddha taught the Kalamas a set of tools to use in determining acceptable doctrines. Thus the summary of the Kesaputta Sutta, becomes: Is what one is stating: rooted in greed, hatred or delusion if so, it must be rejected. This analytical ability, on determining whether or not something is conducive to wholesomeness, is only partial knowledge, only a portion of the abhi (supramundane powers or mental magic) the Buddha possessed. Every critique or refutation of others (non-Buddhist) doctrine results in conversion (either as lay-disciple or as a bhikkhu), or death61 - a testament to the supremacy of the Buddhas doctrine, which has lasted more than 2500 years across different civilizations and cultures. Again: Do not be misled by report, tradition, or hearsay. Be not misled by proficiency in the collections (on the authority of the Scriptures, probably not yet written down, but
F.L. Woodward: The Book of the Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Volume I (London: Pli Text Society, 1970), The Book of Threes, pp. 170-175 59 Buddhadasa Bhikkhu: Keys to Natural Truth (Bangkok: Mental Health Publishing 1999), p. 8 60 Elsewhere, in an unpublished paper, I have the Kalamas as being a certain philosophical school interesting in proving the existence of God Kalam philosophy as known in Islam and Judaism. See: http://mcu.academia.edu/DionPeoples/Papers/1293846/Kalam_and_the_Kalama_Sutta 61 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), p. 492: Since the Nigantha Nataputta (leader of the Jains) was unable to bear the loss/conversion of one of his chief supporters to the Buddha (the magic to convert others, another attribute!), hot blood, then and there gushed from his mouth; and page 1257: A heavy sorrow arose in (Nigantha Nataputta) because of the loss of his lay supporter, and this produced a bodily disorder that resulted in the vomiting of hot blood. After vomiting hot blood, few beings can continue to live. Thus they brought him to Pava (of the Mallas? the Buddha died with them as well, a chedi/stupa erected containing reli cts of the Buddha) and shortly after (the Jain) passed away.
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memorized and constantly added to), nor by mere logic or inference, nor after considering reasons, nor after reflecting on and approval of some theory, nor because it fits becoming, nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it). But, Kalamas, when you know for yourselves: These things are unprofitable, these things are blameworthy, these things are censured by the intelligent; these things when performed and undertaken, conduce to loss and sorrow then indeed reject them, Kalamas.62 Then the Buddha asks: if greed, hatred or delusion arises within a person, does this arise for benefits or towards a loss for that person? The Kalamas answer that greed, hatred and delusion all bring about loss in an individual. Then the Buddha asks: if a person becomes greedy, malicious or filled with illusions/delusion are the five precepts likely to become broken? (The five precepts are not kill a living creature, do not take what is not given, do not go after anothers wife, no telling lies, and do not lead another into such an state, causing his loss and sorrow for a long time63 exchanging the prohibition against intoxicants for the later phrase). The Kalamas agreed. Then the Buddha asks, whether or not these things profitable or unprofitable, blameworthy, censured, and if performed and undertaken do they conduce to loss and sorrow or not? The Kalamas agreed with the Buddhas statements. Then the Buddha states that they should reject those theories because of the loss that occurs and such was the reason for the Buddha making those statements. Then the Buddha asks if one gains freedom from greed, freedom from hatred, and freedom from delusions if ones mind is under control - is this a profit or a loss? The Kalamas, in approval, answer that freedom brings profit. Then the Buddha says: Now, Kalamas, he who is an Ariyan disciple freed from coveting and malevolence, who is not bewildered but self controlled and mindful, with a heart possessed by goodwill, by compassion, possessed by sympathy, by equanimity (that is widespread, grown great and boundless, free from enmity and oppression) such a person abides suffusing onequarter of the world therewith, likewise the second, the third, and the fourth-quarter of the world. And in like manner: above, below, across, everywhere, for all sorts and conditions, he abides suffusing the whole world with a heart possessed by the Four Brahmaviharas: loving-kindness/goodwill, compassion, sympathy and equanimity that is widespread, grown great and boundless, free from enmity and oppression. By that Ariyan disciple whose heart is thus free from enmity, free from oppression, untainted and made pure, by such in this very life four comforts (as in quiet breathing) are attained: If (If because it cannot be proven, which really demonstrates an element of critical skepticism), there be a world beyond, if there be fruit and ripening of deeds done well or ill, then, when body breaks up after death, I shall be reborn in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World. This is the first comfort he attains. If (a second confirmation of critical skepticism, but this time offering an alternative hes still seeming doubtful), however, there be no world beyond, no fruit and ripening of deeds done well or ill, yet in this very life do I hold myself free from enmity and oppression, sorrowless and well. This is the second comfort he attains he attains. Through the result of action (whether inadvertently or intentionally) ill be done by me - yet do I plan no ill to anyone; and if I do no ill, how can sorrow touch me? (He remains guilt-free.) This is the third comfort he attains.
F.L. Woodward: The Book of the Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Volume I (London: Pli Text Society, 1970), The Book of Threes, pp. 170-175 63 Ibid., p. 172
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But if, through the results of action, no ill be done by me, then in both ways (either inadvertently or intentionally) do I hold myself utterly pure. This is the fourth comfort he attains. Thus, Kalamas, that Ariyan disciple whose heart is free from enmity, free from oppression, untainted and made pure, in this very life attains these four comforts. So it is, Exalted One! Excellent, Sir! We, here, do go for refuge (a mass approval or testimonial bearing-witness), to the Exalted One, to Dhamma and to the Order of Monks. May the Exalted One accept us as lay followers from this day forth, so long as life shall last (because of the earlier critical-inquiry or skepticism from the demonstrations), who have so taken refuge.64 The purpose of the Kalama Sutta is to remind the person as a listener/reader to have wisdom before one has confidence or faith in a teaching. One may recall the wisdom found in the Kesaputta Sutta, that Buddhadasa and other Thai philosophers regularly invoke; however here, only a quote from the revisionistic and forward thinking monk: Thus in Buddhism there is no dogmatic system, there is no pressure to believe without the right to examine and decide for oneself. This is the greatest special quality of Buddhism... which keeps its practitioners from being the intellectual slaves of anyone Intellectual and spiritual freedom is best. Parents should teach and train their children to know how to understand the words and instructions they receive, to see how reasonable the words are and what kind of results will come from them. When parents teach or tell their children anything, the children should understand and see the benefits or practicing what they are told.65 If a child/student does not understand something, the youth should question adults/teachers. We can see now how the teachings of the Buddha are useful - again recall the benefits of using ones intellect - for ending suffering or pain: first personalizedinternally, before any social-external changes can occur. Understand that the Buddhas many messages were given to eliminate many forms of mental or physical suffering and this is crucial to Buddhist teachings. Historically, kings have supported Buddhism, due to the nature of the social classes in ancient India. Almost three-hundred years after the death of the Buddha, the Emperor Asoka sent Buddhist missionary monks out to the different directions to spread and teach Buddhism. Dependent on kings for material support, and as a result employment for monks Buddhist monks were often tasked with spreading the Dhamma abroad. Today they can be better teachers through grasping the contents of the Nettippakaranam. Monks have been sent to the ancient kingdoms within modern Afghanistan, Iran, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, Tibet and China, and elsewhere. The Elders, Sona and Uttara were sent to the Suwannabhumi/Dvaravati region of modern-day Myanmar and Thailand. When they arrived they witnessed the social conditions of the people living in the golden-land. As a result, they taught the Brahmajla Sutta, from the Dgha-Nikya66 a teaching that concerns itself with 62 wrong views of Brahmans and people who follow brahmanistic teachings, evidently used to discredit the existing system in Suwannabhumi.67 Several
Ibid., pp. 170-175 Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, Keys to Natural Truth (Bangkok: Mental Health Publishing 1999) pp. 5-6 66 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 67-90 67 For information related to this aspect of regional history, see for instance: www.accesstoinsight.org Karuna Kusalasaya: Buddhism in Thailand Its Past and Present; and found in Google Books, the following text: Patit Mishra: The History of Thailand stating: Buddhaghosas Samantapsdik refers to the successful mission of Sona and Uttara and credits them with the authorship of Brahmajala Sutta. A huge stupa known as Pathom Chedi was built...
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times in history monks exchanged Dhamma with other nations and again established their traditions in these foreign lands. It is well understood that Buddhism developed to bring mental, physical and social peace to all people throughout the world for instance, shortly after his Enlightenment, the Buddha dispatched sixty arahants out to the various directions in the world for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, and for the good, benefit and happiness of gods and men.68 Buddhist doctrines emphasize self-development with gradual and virtuous growth. Buddhist doctrines also teach people to eradicate unwholesome tendencies until they can attain the cessation needed to eliminate lifes problems. There are social teachings that encourage people to dwell together harmoniously, or in unity. Theravada Position for Scientific Hermeneutical Methods When the Sagti Sutta is re-examined readers can interpret that Sriputta was influenced by socio-religious factors, inspiring the Sagti Sutta to be a Dhamma textbook that should be implemented into Buddhist Studies a step towards preventing any future schismatic interpretation and formations of dispensation-vehicles. Before Sriputta spoke, he had to have inherited the proper understanding of Buddhist Dhamma, in order to structurally-present the lesson this could not have been done without a firm and critical grasp of the material. Ideally, if one was in the audience, again: One receives the teachings and grasps the spirit and the letter Happiness results and the mind becomes established Applies mind to the Dhamma thinking and pondering, concentrating One is moved to urgency Once the concept-sign is properly grasped/attained one penetrates into wisdom One becomes established in higher morality, ethics, virtues, etc

Those early monks who emulated the attainments of the man becoming the Buddha were among the first to undertake the training in Buddhism. Many of these former Brahmins had numerous disciples all converting to the teachings from their newliving figurehead. In the perceived absence of the written religious-word, these teachings were taught orally, and then put into practice. Practicing these teachings gave spirit to the teachings. Receiving the teaching from a teacher or reading from a text (assuming
there emerged the Mon Kingdom of Dvaravati with its capital in Nakhon Pathom, the largest city of the period. both accessed on 27 September 2010. In: The Light of Dhamma Vol. I, No. 3, 1953, Ma Tin Hla wrote in, An Exposition of the Brahmajala Sutta: It is mentioned in the Sasanavamsa that Sona and Uttara, after driving away an og ress recited the Brahmajala Sutta which caused the conversion of sixty-thousand people to the new faith, while 3500 young men and 1500 girls of noble family entered the order. see: http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/brahmaja.htm - accessed on 27 September 2010. Further: The arahants Sona and Uttara were sent to Suvannabhumi. At that time, the ruler of Suvannabhumi was King Sirimasoka, and the capital was Sudhammavati. On their arrival, these Dhammadutas first taught the Brahmajala Sutta. Impressed by it, many people became established in the true Dhamma and many others left the household life and became monks. The fact that this particular sutta was the first to be preached in Suvannabhumi is highly indicative. Evidently, the Indians who had come to Suvannabhumi before the time of the Buddha had been bound by various philosophical beliefs, and these beliefs had deeply impressed the local people... in S. N. Goenka: All Gratitude to Myanmar, from Vipassana Newsletter, Dhammagiri Edition, Vol. 7, No. 9, 14 December 1997. online at www.vridhamma.org/en1997-10.aspx - accessed on 27 September 2010. Finally, this was most recently examined within: Prapod Assavaviralhakarn: The Ascendancy of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2010), pp. 58-65 he cites three texts: Dpavasa, Mahvasa, and the Samantapsdik. The Mahvasa labels the local inhabitants of Suvannabhumi as demons. 68 A contradictory statement can be found in the Cakkavattishanda Sutta: Keep to your own preserves, monks, to your ancestral haunts. If you do so, then Mara will find no lodgment, no foothold.... See: Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), p. 395

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literacy) would seem simple, but under guidance the spirit and letter would be grasped, and happiness attained. To establish the mind, meditation is required, according to Buddhist instructions: applying the mind to the Dhamma. One must think, ponder and concentrate all individualized efforts enabling one to become overwhelmed with the urgency to continue striving with the signs acquired in meditative states. Buddhism suggests manners of practice that originate from the solitary Siddhattha Gotamas efforts and attainments. There cannot be Buddhism without the significance of renunciation and his attempts to convey the truth of how he attained enlightenment to people of different personality-characteristics. Those who have never renounced may have trouble individually identifying how the spirit of the teachings, and how the literal letter of the teachings operate under the filter of their various personality-behavior characteristics, which could inhibit their ability to ask the proper questions and interfere with scientific inquiry. These are like environmental or social variables. One might suggest that it is not the grasping of the intended spirit of the Dhamma, and not the spirit of the literal letter of the Dhamma but both the spirit and the letter. These are the questions that arise: What is the spirit of the Dhamma; and what is the letter of the Dhamma? How does the spirit of Dhamma occur, and how does this spirit of Dhamma work? How does the letter of Dhamma occur and how does the letter of Dhamma work? How does the spirit and letter of Dhamma occur and how does the spirit and letter of Dhamma work?69 The Nettippakaraa does a great scientific-job of explaining and giving readers the ability to understand this concept. Gombrich citing from the Puggalapaatti, mentions four types of humans: those who understand the teachings as soon as spoken; those who understand from mature reflection; those who understand teachings after contemplating them for a long time alone and with friends; and those who puts words first those who hear much, preaches much, remembers much, and recites much but does not come within this life to understand the teachings.70 One could hardly ask for a clearer condemnation of literalism pointing out that Buddhism provides the best tools for its own exegesis.71 However this does not come from the Sagti Sutta. This research is drawn to support the functional of four supports (apassenani) as an analytical tool: one thing to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed. However, not knowing what the one thing is in terms of the commentarial tradition, it becomes difficult to provide the correct interpretation or fall under the injunction. Using Sriputtas section of ones from the lesson does not provide the answers itself: that beings are maintained by nutriment and conditions. Do beings pursue nutriment, endure nutriment, avoid nutriment, and suppress nutriment? It is quite possible. Do beings pursue conditions, endure conditions, avoid conditions, and suppress conditions? It is quite possible. However this is not enough to provide hermeneutical tools. Ignoring the literal interpretation, and any possible injunction, as in the preceding example, and towards using the spirit of the four supports in terms of wisdom: one should know what to pursue, endure, avoid and suppress. The following can be interpreted from

Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal 2002) p. 1-2: based on his suggested method for asking questions that he borrows from Karl Popper the originator of the previously mentioned theory of falsification. 70 Although Gombrich uses an alternate translation, the verses were tracked to: Bimala C. Law, Designation of Human Types Puggalapaatti (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1997) p. 58 71 Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal 2002) p. 22

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various definitions72: one should consider or discriminate carefully with an open mind: what to indulge in and practice; one should understand how and what to practice in terms of training; one should disregard or avoid sensual-pleasures, desires or phenomena; and one should drive out evil qualities. This does not satisfy the criteria suitable for those who pursue hermeneutics, thus the need to demonstrate that the embodiment of the spirit/intention of the knowledge or wisdom that supports this interpretation of Buddhism is: practice practice for oneself is the injunction leading to the empirical comprehension and confirmation of the Buddhas system. Gombrich wrote: The Buddha then goes on to say that some foolish people memorize his teachings but do not use their intelligence to work out what they mean, so that the teachings afford them no insight.73 Practice, apart from leading one away from non-science - is not included into the former categories of: characteristics, function, manifestation and proximate cause unless one examines the characteristics found during practice; the functions examined during practice, the manifestation of phenomena discovered during practice and where or how the characteristics of consciousness gain footing or what is the proximate cause. However, to examine these categories properly, as contemplative science, one would need to practice and comprehend the intricate details found in these abhidhammic categories. To review the processes again: One receives the teachings and grasps the spirit and the letter Happiness results and the mind becomes established Applies mind to the Dhamma thinking and pondering, concentrating One is moved to urgency Once the concept-sign is properly grasped/attained one penetrates into wisdom One becomes established in higher morality, ethics, virtues, etc

As already mentioned, Sriputta gave future generations the Buddhist textbook in the form of the Sagti Sutta portions of which emphasize meditation. The portion of text that emphasized the necessary practical aspect are the lines that stress the endurance and establishment of the holy life activities that cannot be done without practicing the Dhamma but also turned the once-scientific system into a religious-system. Karunadasas influential text74 suggests there are three kinds of logical apparatuses utilized by Abhidhamma scholars to define dhammas: an agency definition (kattu-sadhana); instrumental definition (karana-sadhana); and definition by nature (bhava-sadhana).75 As the Buddha often redefined brahmanistic terms to demonstrate the superiority of his Dhamma; Theravada commentators must have redefined dhammas against accusations from other Buddhist schools to demonstrate vehicular-superiority, for Karunadasa states: The commentators were not unaware of these implications and they therefore took the necessary steps to forestall such a conclusion whereas the earlier definition is agent-denotation the new definition is object-denotation76

Included within the Pli Text Societys on-line version of their dictionary found on the University of Chicagos website: The Pli Text Societys Pli-English Dictionary - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/Pli/ accessed on 25 December 2007 sourced from Pli Text Society, London-Chipstead, 1921-1925 73 Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal 2002) p. 23 74 Y. Karunadasa: The Dhamma Theory Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1996), Wheel Publication No. 412/413 revisited due to the researchers lectures on Abhidhamma on 27 Feb 2008. 75 Ibid., pp. 13-14 76 Ibid., p. 16

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This would add more depth to investigations using the sixteen hras. The agent, or the one defining the terms can influence the definitions and these can differ according to vehicular or cultural experiences, apart from the already known differences in individual characteristics. Instrumental definition can be functional and manipulated, and the definition by nature might be more straight-forward and unlikely to become corrupt but these three logical apparatuses or devices additionally serve other purposes. Although the favored device is the characteristics, function, manifestation and proximate cause this applies to examining a doctrinal-set of Dhamma. Now, how does this conclusion related towards hermeneutics pick up, after this late discovery of scientificmentality? Buddhism is not a textual religious tradition but now possesses preserved texts as records to maintain the prosperity of Buddhism. Again, Buddhism is a practical/ethical tradition that preserves its texts, for the benefit of future generations and is again, dependent on the ability of the teacher to properly propagate the scientific nature of Buddhist inquiry, demonstrative of a living, practical system. Many Buddhists already know that the first link in dependent origination is ignorance, and if ignorance can be eradicated wisdom develops and subsequently (eventually) liberation can be attained. If ignorance is not eliminated this can give rise to certain kammic-formations, eventually leading to suffering; because Buddhism does address suffering, whether existing or its cessation and the methods away from suffering Buddhism might be the best religion to address the problems in any sort of science. Why though, does religion and science need to be mentioned together for interpreting phenomenon? Part of a scientific investigation would begin with material drawn from Buddhist commentators, utilizing: characteristics, function, manifestation and proximate cause as the investigative tools; however this is just an elaboration on probing deeper into suffering, the existence and cessation of suffering and methods leading away from suffering. These tools definitely afford room for redefinitions to occur. Additionally, conveying meanings and phrases is a threading-skill found in the Nettippakaraa. The sixteen hras or modes of conveying, are certainly tools; but the hras seem more applicable towards a whole text or a lesson, rather than a certain dhamma-term apart from synonyms obviously utilized for a single word. The hras appear to be directed towards a larger effort. From the authority of the Venerable Sriputta, we learn of his four concepts of analysis: grasping the analysis of meanings (here possibly being the above three-fold manipulation); conditions; definitions; and intellect as his tools for investigative inquiry. However, to missionary monks, Venerable Sriputta does not give an exhortation on the Four Noble Truths, but instead delivers a teaching on the temporary nature of the five aggregates and how suffering arises from such clinging closer in line with Karunadasas Dhamma-theory. Throughout Sriputtas teachings, wisdom is learned through application of multiple investigative-meditation techniques during contemplative sessions - clearly, the initial preparation stage serves as the base for scientific-wisdom, enlightenment and later attainment of Nibbna. Again, Buddhism is not designed to be a hermeneutical-textual religious tradition, but a system designed for empirical-practice although now these teachings are available in texts (preserved as Dhamma) to benefit tradition-minded inquisitive-seekers. Consider this hermeneutical work:

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Scientific Method

Different Available Buddhist Hermeneutical Tools


Sriputtas AnguttaraNikya Method Meanings Abhidhamma Method Characteristics nandas Bahitika Sutta Method Investigate Criteria of Body, Speech and Mind Jataka Method Understanding Comprehending Justify/Interpret Karunadasas Criteria Agency Definition Instrumental Definition Vibhangas Paisambhidvibhaga Consequence/Meaning Origin/Law

Observe

Theory

Conditions

Function

Philology/Language Demonstration Definition by Nature

Test Result

Definitions Intellect

Manifestation Proximate Cause Evaluation

Intelligence/Knowledge

Result: multiple methods of analysis! The inclusion of Karunadasas information and the far-right column containing information better suited to Buddhist Hermeneutics apart from previous reckonings and additional readings of the Tipiaka77 - this is included as a demonstration of available interpretive tools. For instance, in the Visuddhimagga, there is an opening verse, as rendered into English: When a wise man, established well in virtue Develops consciousness and understanding Then as a bhikkhu, ardent and sagacious He succeeds in detangling this tangle. The term, understanding, from above is important, and profound, and part of a cognitive process.78 Something like some thread that is knotted or twisted would need to become untangled, in order for it to become functional. The Visuddhimaggas index, rendered into English, suggests the Pli term for understanding is paa79; yet the Visuddhimagga is using the term understanding, to cover both wisdom and discrimination, again, as italicized: understanding. This shows multiple uses for the term, and presents that there are levels or layers of comprehending understanding, certainly while traversing in the mundane and supramundane attainment levels. As the text progresses, the Visuddhimagga attempts to explain understanding: The necessary condition for the
77 This forthcoming section could not have been possible without reading: Bhi kkhu amoli (translator) (revised by L.S. Cousins, Nyanapontika Mahathera, and C. M. M. Shaw): The Dispeller of Delusion Sammohavinodani, Part I & II (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1996) & Pathamakyaw Ashin Thittila (translator): The Book of Analysis Vibhanga (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 2002) & Bhikkhu amoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999) (p. 5 for poetic verse). Also, a note on this section: although the origin of something precedes a condition/cause, in order to analyze the experienced phenomena, we must trace events backwards to find origin. Conditions are listed first to demonstrate or present natural laws so that the origin can be found easier. Furthermore... due to the technical nature of the texts, I attempt to only compile an orderly presentation of this material, of which I have limited knowledge, currently. Also consulted was: Caroline A.F. Rhys Davids: Dhammasangani A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 2004) & Pe Maung Tin: The Expositor Atthasalini (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1999) 78 Bhikkhu amoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999), p. 729 implied here is the noble attainments after the conversion or change-of-lineage. (701.14) 79 Ibid., p. 881-882, and the term for wisdom = veda, as seen on p. 883; and for discrimination we can read on p. 865, the term paisambhid.

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categories of discrimination is shown by understanding. For with the support of perfected understanding one arrives at the four kinds of discrimination, but not for any other reason.80 The Buddha taught that this method of understanding is profound, as broken out into components: of meaning, of law, of teaching, and of penetration.81 The different terms related to understanding are used interchangeably and are intertwined with each other to elaborate on aspects of each. The Atthaslini, suggests82: understanding is that which knows states under various aspects, as impermanence, suffering, and not-self. The term understanding is of more importance, later as Chapter XIV of the Visuddhimagga dwells on overstanding83 the term understanding. The chapter then moves into a self-hermeneutical examination of the term understanding, using the following questions: What is understanding? In what sense, is it: understanding? What are its characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate cause? How many kinds of understanding are there? How is it developed? What are the benefits of developing understanding?

However, the examination of understanding here is limited to only pertain to insight knowledge associated with profitable consciousness.84 Therefore, there is a limitation placed on readings for overstanding understanding. Understanding is the knowing in a particular mode separate (although inclusive) from the lower modes of perceiving and cognizing; but knowing is not the penetration into the characteristics of impermanence, suffering and not-self. Understanding brings about the penetration of the characteristics, and the endeavoring towards the manifestation of the path. The characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate cause of understanding are respectively: penetrating into individual essences of states; to abolish the clouds of delusion; manifested as non-delusion; and concentration is its proximate cause. There are fourteen types of understanding. This may be the term insights, from the Dhammasaga: understanding, search, research, searching the Doctrines of the Four Truths, discernment, discrimination, erudition, proficiency, subtlety, criticism, reflection, analysis, breadth, sagacity or acuteness, a guide, intuition, intelligence, stimulation, wisdom as a faculty, wisdom as power, wisdom as a sword, wisdom as a height, wisdom as light, wisdom as glory, wisdom as splendor, wisdom as a precious stone, the absence of dullness, searching the Truth, right views. This is the wise
Ibid., p. 9 (I-11) Ibid., pp. 601-602 82 Pe Maung Tin: The Expositor Atthasalini (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1999), p. 195 83 Overstanding is an interpretive term used by RasTafarIans for a simple reason: under represents something low, and over represents something higher... standing is ones position; therefore, if one understands, they have a low position on the subject and if one overstands then the position taken is higher, one has overstanding. Rastafarians have redefined the English language to acquire higher tru ths. Here, I borrow the term to place emphasis on the dwelling or elaboration of the term understanding to transform it into overstanding which could parallel wisdom. Information comprehension is transformed into knowledge and wisdom. People shoul d not be suppressed by their language, and RasTafarIans have attempted to break the shackles of not only language but additional cultural oppression brought on by colonization and proceeding years of slavery. Buddhists are often enslaved in a culture of textual-worship... that there can be no venturing away from the tradition of the Elders (Theravada). In my work here, I am trying to open the stagnant tradition from its own forgotten heritage of pursuing attainments and truths. 84 Bhikkhu amoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999), p. 435 (436-Ch. XIV, paragraph 2)
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information85 that could be listed in the Visuddhimagga, but only one type will be mentioned here, the final criteria: as to the four discriminations.86 The Vibhangas Paisambhidvibhaga is built around a systematic self-analysis method for analytical insights advocating the above criteria for understanding - following four principles of discrimination, of which three are the developing-mundane knowledges (improvement - as in the eradicating of defilements a benefit87, but being of none of the seven supramundane path-stages) and the Discrimination of Meaning is (sometimes) developing-mundane and supramundane: Atthapaisambhid & Dhammapaisambhid: Discrimination of Meaning or Analytical Insight of Consequence & Discrimination of Law or Analytical Insight of Origin knowledge related to the meanings and classifications which enables one to discern or explain internal and external consequences of a preceding condition (paccaya) analyzed with infinite continuities with additional states yet to arise which demonstrates a greater understanding of impermanence, suffering, and not-self (knowing the cause and effect of the dhammas). This knowledge is gained from the experiences in the realm of senses, has functionality, and arises based on conditions. Meaning, as rendered from the Visuddhimagga, is: a term for the fruit of a cause. For in accordance with the cause it is served, arrived at, reached, therefore is called meaning (or purpose). But in particular the five things, namely: (1) anything conditionally produced, (2) nibbna, (3) the meaning of what is spoken, (4) kammaresult, and (5) functional consciousness should be understood as meaning. When anyone reviews that meaning, any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned with meaning, is the discrimination of meaning.88 Here are some illustrated differences: Knowledge about suffering is the discrimination of meaning; knowledge about the origin of suffering is the discrimination of law. ...Knowledge about ageing and death is the discrimination of meaning; knowledge about the origin of ageing and death is the discrimination of law...89 Niruttipaisambhid: Discrimination of Language or Analytical Insight of Philology mundane and limited to sound... is reasoned-knowledge concerned with the studying, thinking, and listening to the utterance of the natural enunciated language (the spoken words, the sounds or tones as the object, not the concepts) which enables the capacity of effecting the discerning, the explaining, or clarifying the definition of the language used. When the sound is heard, reasoned-discrimination occurs as to the naturalness of the sound. Paibhapatisambhid: Discrimination of Intelligence or Analytical Insight of Knowledge concerned with development of the illumitive insight or intelligence (perspicuity) which involves the full and correct understanding of the previous categories capable of affecting the discerning, the explaining, the definition of the previously developed knowledge or intelligence. Discrimination of Intelligence has a measureless object when reviewing supramundane profitable and resultant kinds of knowledge. There are two planes to operate from: the plane of the student (sekkhabhmi) and the plane of the teacher (asekkha-bhmi), manifested as:
85

Caroline A.F. Rhys Davids: Dhammasangani A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 2004), p. 16 a Thesaurus would be beneficial here to see the differences in terms. 86 Bhikkhu amoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999), p. 437 87 Ibid., pp. 726-727 88 Ibid., p 440 89 Ibid., p. 440

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o o o o o

Through attainment of Arahantship Through mastery/competency in the Buddhas words/scriptures Through hearing and learning the Dhamma attentively Through being questioned to explain the meaning of the texts learned Through conversion and previous meditation work or devotion to insight

These five criteria are available at the time of reviewing the consciousness, and readily available by a student requiring training and previous knowledge to get to the stage of or stage that the recitation or utterance of these principles occur, and one where the stages or steps can be identified. According to the Visuddhimagga, there is no special meditation subject for improving the discriminations, and all of the above was used in the Visuddhimagga to comprehend the mental aggregates: feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness. It is possible to become liberated by understanding, and another can become liberated through the destruction of defilements brought on through the development and attainments from the categories of discrimination.90 We should, now, examine several lessons in the next three chapters, which will be summarized using the four principles of discrimination.

90

Ibid., p. 739

Chapter II ADHISILA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Morality

Introduction to the Virtuous or Moral Person: What are the virtuous dispositions or characteristics of a virtuous person? They are persons of any sexual manifestation with pure91, mindful motives92 they have tranquilized the six-sense spheres and abandon sensual-quests and are thus highly disciplined people. Our universal university system must instill such higher virtues into genuine, truth-seeking virtuous-graduates. Although people might specialize in certain or various academic-disciplines the future leaders of tomorrow must be ethically disciplined to be true leaders. Virtuous people are of any religion and nationality they can be found in every humane society. In some societies, virtuous people are called rightfully-guided, while others might be determined as an arahant; while in other societies, they look for the heroic/virtuous patriot. People with different social-guidance or philosophical systems of reasoning may disagree upon the value of these things; further we are reminded of wholesome and unwholesome categories of perception, along with many social-regulations which exist to curb greed, hatred or delusion again this is personal restraint or social-discipline; and we can wonder if this fosters creative or critical thinking. Powers are placed into the category of morality to suggest that with such powers one should engage into right practices [discipline] which include proper avenues for producing meritorious or virtuous endeavors. With such views, and striving to attain wholesomeness, one is warned [from a virtuous consciousness] not to engage into unwholesome categories allowing of course for critical feedback and consideration. Karl Popper, in his criticism against Karl Marx, stated: ...the old question Who shall be the rulers? must be superseded by the more real one How can we tame them?93 A verse, translated from a segment of daily chanting-recitations for practicing Buddhists, states that the Buddha is the: Unexcelled Trainer of Those Who Can Be Taught, Teacher of Human & Divine Beings; Awakened; Blessed [Anuttaro PurisaDamma-Sarathi Sattha Deva-Manussanam Buddho Bhagava].94 Bertrand Russell has written: that education should do something to afford a training and not merely to prevent impediments to growth.95 Russell writes: Education has two purposes: on the one hand to form the mind on the other hand to train the
[gone beyond majority-held beliefs of good and evil with deeds only considered as having no ethical value, because their activity and ideology is selfless and directed towards helping others tread the path already trodden by them, individually] 92 [emancipated from greed, hatred and delusion; and maddening religious quests for rebirth and for the holy life thus one does not engage into harming the environment or society] 93 Karl Popper: The Open Society and Its Enemies, Volume II: Hegel and Marx (New York: Routledge, 2006), p.144 94 Dion Peoples: A Study of Morning and Evening Monastic Chanting Ceremony in Thai Buddhist Temples (Master Degree Thesis - ISBN 974-53-2611-9 Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Arts, 2006), p. 89-90 95 Bertrand Russell: Education and the Social Order (New York: Routledge Classics, 2010), p. 1
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citizen.96 He goes on to write how children were taken as groups: those with potential to be the future elite were trained to have scientific power, while others were merely taught to be the common law-abiding tradesman. These common people are to be: docile, industrious, punctual, thoughtless, and contented. Initiative will be discouraged in these children, and insubordination, without being punished, will be scientifically trained out of them. All the best known science will be applied to the simultaneous development of intelligence and will-power. Every youth will thus be subjected to a threefold training: in intelligence, in self-command, and in command over others. Discoveries which upset the official view of fundamentals, if they are made by young men, will incur disfavor, and if rashly published, will lead to degradation.97 This almost follows the Buddhist concept of the threefold-training, which in a sense equates to the following, in this constructed perspective: Sla as morality may be the intelligence one has in doing the correct thing. Samdhi as concentration may be the self-command that one exerts over ones self, being the concentrative employment of a sense of justice. Pa as wisdom may be a sense equating to how methods are disseminated to other people to follow or control other people. Here, I must conclude with a revisitation of my previous work: Great people: kings, queens, Brahmins, warrior/headmen; middle-class people of various trades; and even lesser-class people, particularly slaves, all being human all of those types of people from various social-classes have been trained by the Buddha, as well as the eras selection of deities, because he is awakened and blessed [also in the sense that his titles were not issued via inheritance or political exploitation]. This phrase, translated as, unexcelled trainer of those who can be taught, teacher of human & divine beings; awakened; blessed, implies all undisciplined people, because the rest are still sekhas or trainees including deities. Virtually everyone is in need of greater training and discipline, and deities are no exception [including those in other religious traditions]. We are the alleged disciplined-leaders with the experience to rightfully-guide nations and societies, but most of us have renounced aspects of the secular-worldly life, for other noble-endeavors when we consciously became Buddhists. Why? It may be a matter of teaching, metaphorically, an old-dog a new trick. Karl Popper suggests: The principles of humanity and decency were matters for him that needed no discussion, matters to be taken for granted.98 These principles have been taught since the dawn of agricultural societies; and again, one must plant a seed in order for the next batch of crops to develop. The various crises developing globally are caused by a lack of social discipline yet people and those responsible, are not stupid and ignorant people leaders have skillfully managed (thought critically about) to generate wealth for themselves and their businesses, but they have not tamed their passions. Government mismanagement has led to our global crises. The transformation away from agricultural discipline [ a transformation which led, evidently critically, to the creation of Buddhism] towards a capitalistic-society leading people to forget their true social-responsibilities and lack in the discipline required to secure livelihoods for future generations. Leaders should be
Bertrand Russell: The Scientific Outlook (New York: Routledge Classics, 2009), p. 181 Ibid., p. 181-185 98 Karl Popper: The Open Society and Its Enemies, Volume II: Hegel and Marx (New York: Routledge, 2006), p. 220
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virtuous people assisting to uplift current and future generations of people from various types of suffering. We know about the existence of suffering and the path leading away from suffering, words that are better saved for other occasions by our disciplined and enlightened virtuous-siblings but what if anything are the rest of us doing about improving the world for our children? Conventional Buddhism suggests that there is a gradual training process, beginning with a comprehension and exercise of discipline or the undertaking of moralprecepts as a fundamental platform for such a transformation. This chapter looks at only this segment of the gradual training process using the extracted lessons selected for their intellectual importance, and presented as placed below, pertaining to their relevance to social morality. This section is not an entire look at all of the lessons in the canon that contain social regulations; again, these were lessons chosen for their interesting perspectives. The following lessons are selected for the following reasons: The Gulissni Sutta discusses how forest and city monks should live together in a harmonious coexistence. The Anumna Sutta discusses how a person should be open to admonishments or selfcriticism. Buddhism prefers to start with self-inquiries, so this lesson is presented first. This is a very short lesson and it will be encompassed in a chart. Appended to this lesson is a brief independent study of the Aparagthsagaika, from the Vinayapitaka, which was determined to be thematically relevant when considering how to reprove someone. Excerpts from the Sagti Sutta are presented those Dhamma-sets dealing with social-regulations. The Pohapda Sutta is presented as it contains a suttantic-form of Discipline & States of Consciousness based on the Buddhas practice. The Mahsuata Sutta is presented for its contribution towards comprehending societies and the undoings of the monastic-dweller. The lesson deals with mentaldiscipline. A Chart designed containing all of the 227 monastic rules for the BhikkhuPaimokkha is presented, to finally conclude the chapter. Abridged Version of the Gulissni Sutta99: This lesson was selected because as a former forest-dwelling bhikkhu, I think it is paramount for others to comprehend the value of dwelling alone, and this lesson is very instructive. It should be mandatory for forest-bhikkhus to study, as again, it is thematically relevant. This lesson begins with the entry of a Bhikkhu named Gulissni, a forest-dweller of characteristically-laidback behavior, coming on a visitation and wishing to stay in the midst of the Sangha for some specialized purpose. Venerable Sriputta addresses the bhikkhus - with reference to Bhikkhu Gulissani, suggesting these things should be undertaken and practiced100, by [both] forest & town dwellers: Be respectful and deferential towards his companions in the holy life. Be skilled in good behavior regarding seats, thus, sitting in such a way as to not encroach upon elders and not denying juniors a seat.
Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 572 -576 100 When these are not done, Sangha members may observe and question the visitor so to eliminate an embarrassing situation, these social-behaviors should always be observed, undertaken and practiced or the suspicion arises that these actions were being done at ones previous location damaging the Sanghas reputation.
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Not enter the village too early or return late in the day. Not go before the meal or after the meal to untimely visit families. Not be haughty and personally vain & not be rough-tongued and loose-spoken. Be easy to correct and should associate with good friends. Guard the doors of the sense faculties & be moderate in eating, Be devoted to wakefulness & be energetic. Be established in mindfulness & be concentrated. Be wise & should apply oneself to the higher dhamma and the higher discipline. Should apply oneself to those liberations that are peaceful and immaterial, transcending forms; and should apply oneself to superhuman states.

After all of this was stated, Venerable Mahamoggallna asked Venerable Sriputta: Friend Sriputta, should these things be undertaken and practiced only by a forest-dwelling Bhikkhu or by a town-dwelling Bhikkhu as well? Venerable Sriputta responds by stating: Friend Moggallna, these things should be undertaken and practiced not only by a forest-dwelling Bhikkhu, but by a town dwelling Bhikkhu as well. Gulissni Sutta Summary: The question that is repeatedly asked in the lesson is: What has he gained, either by dwelling alone or in a Sangha? This could be a major question for the ordained-personnel. Where should someone live thinking out the conceivable possibilities and weighing the options it may be a serious, individual decision? Most monks choose to stay in the haven and certainty of city-life; others choose to be brave and decide upon the reclusive forest life. Perhaps the ordained-person chooses the forest. When the lesson above is considered and the issue is pondered critically: eventually the forest-bhikkhu emerges. One faces scrutiny by a larger number of people, so he must demonstrate proper and learned behavior; he must not be rough in his ways, or relevant to any of the matters bulleted above. What is the purpose for living alone if someone cannot perfect oneself, or what is equally important about living in a community if one cannot demonstrate the proper values? Yet, this same forest-bhikkhu enters into a Sangha, thinking that it should be socially harmonious, but is able to nit-pick at every wrong or hypocritical circumstance encountered. We can learn what to truly value in society, and for what purposes should society foster? This sort of criticalthinking has an interesting social value; however in contrast: speaking out from witnessing these matters, does not produce proper fruit and could spoil the engagement. Perhaps people begin to turn a blind eye unto what they see, and corruptions could develop or become the normalized state of society if things continue to remain unchecked. Therefore, the value of being open to corrections is stated and this should be strongly emphasized. Equally important, then, is the transition into the final five categories pertaining to the proper responses, beginning with the sensual-reception of the circumstance, beginning for example with an object of sight. Is the object seen determined to be pleasant or unpleasant, or neutral? Thus, so begins the process of discrimination or comprehension, based on the opening of the visual sense-door, and the resultant examination of the object This is equally applicable to the other senses, of smelling something or hearing something implying proper hygienic practices and social-behaviors, as mentioned above. This is yet another critical discussion featuring the venerable chief disciples: Mahmoggallna and Sriputta discussing self-respect and respect for other people, based from violations of improper behavior. As there is a continuing interaction with society, public scrutiny has always been a heavy burden upon

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Buddhists, and this positive reputation has been important to the survival of the monastic tradition. This lesson has impact and implications for society useful for studying, thinking, and listening - to understand social graces and responsibilities; and with the proper ability, respectfully teaches the proper or intended behaviors amongst a community. When these behaviors are properly developed, observers will find difficulties with finding social faults amongst Buddhists. With that objective in mind, the one influenced by the criteria in this lesson would engage with the world, righteously. Although the lesson mentions higher Dhamma and higher discipline these can be considered as greater philosophy and legal codes; with these conceptions developed, greater ideologies can emerge for humanity. Liberational theories could be developed from this criteria found in the lesson. Some of these higher critical conceptions for civilization follow, in the next sutta. Illustrated and Abridged Version of the Anumna Sutta101: Let the Venerable Ones admonish me: I need admonishment from venerables...
# 16 Qualities that make someone difficult to admonish: 16 Qualities that make someone easy to admonish:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

has evil wishes and is dominated by evil wishes lauds himself and disparages others angry and is overcome by anger angry, and revengeful because of anger angry, and stubborn because of anger angry, and he utters words bordering on anger reproved, and he resists the reprover reproved, and he denigrates the reprover reproved, and he counter-reproves the reprover reproved, and he prevaricates, leads the talk aside, and shows anger, hate, and bitterness reproved, and he fails to account for his conduct contemptuous and domineering envious and avaricious fraudulent and deceitful obstinate and arrogant adheres to own views, holds on to them tenaciously, and relinquishes them with difficulty

no evil wishes and is not dominated by evil wishes does not laud himself nor disparage others not angry nor allows anger to overcome him not angry or revengeful because of anger not angry or stubborn because of anger not angry, and he does not utter words bordering on anger is reproved, and he does not resist the reprover reproved, and he does not denigrate the reprover reproved, and he does not counter-reprove the reprover reproved, and he does not prevaricate, lead the talk aside, and show anger, hate, and bitterness reproved, and he does not fail to account for his conduct is not contemptuous or domineering is not envious or avaricious is not fraudulent or deceitful is not obstinate or arrogant does not adhere to his own views or hold on to them tenaciously, and he relinquishes them easily

Inferring that he himself would find those difficult people disagreeable and reviewing in himself thus: ...if he sees that these evil unwholesome states are not all abandoned in himself, then he should make an effort to abandon them all; but if, when reviewing himself thus, he sees that the states are all abandoned in himself - then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states. 102

Anumna Sutta Summary: What is the point of criticism? Many people dont enjoy any amount of criticism directed towards them. Why then would a Buddhist invite such words? The above Gulissni Sutta suggests that someone should be open to criticism, or rather be easy to correct, when doing something wrong. How do we even know if we
Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 190 -193 102 This can be an early format of the Bhikkhupati-mokkha and thus review the criteria for oneself three times a day, or twice, or at least once for the benefit of strengthening ones morality and mental endeavors. The Paimokkha is listed in the last section of this chapter.
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have offended someone, especially in a tolerant and forgiving culture? Here in the Anumna Sutta, this lesson from Mahmoggallna pertains to admonishable conditions; thus: self-scrutiny, self-criticism or assessment-counseling stemming mainly from external-inquisitions, should be undertaken by everyone. We are under continually review. Perhaps the question someone asks of themselves would be: Did I just do something through greed, hatred or delusion? What can I do to prevent the future arising of such behavior or circumstantial reaction? As the behavior of others created the individuals reaction one must learn composure.103 This can be seen as a system of psychotherapy. A process of continuity could suggest this as another form of mindfulness or the conventional self-awareness towards the elimination of any future blame. One eliminates the possibility of blame through upholding an ethical code of morality a developable process that can end with the attainment of the highest Buddhist concept: the extinguishment of greed, hatred and delusion. The personal reaction to some of these situations is a good test to determine any residual defilements existent within oneself. The Buddha does not factor in this lesson, but the crowd of bhikkhus listening were pleased at what they had heard. The objective of the lesson then seems to be, as already mentioned above, to empower bhikkhus to face scrutiny, constructively. This is where the Aparagthsagaika comes into this construction, as seen below. There are moments in modern Theravada Buddhism, when monks think that they are superior beings over lay people, and exert their will over householders, while in general this can be a fair assumption, it is not universal although this is not endeavoring to criticize monks. Interestingly, this is criteria for the monk to assess themselves. This has individual ramifications again, related to scrutinizing oneself, and also has the potential to be criteria for judging others. Here the lesson takes on social motives as criteria for judging how a Bhikkhu should behave, and thus fulfills a role similar to aspects of the Vinaya, or material that can be considered as worthy for duplicating in the monastic and general householder setting. In this respect, this lesson has the social function of regulating behaviors, which could further influence some political thinking of some individual. Please, continue to consider additional matters pertaining to reproving, below since we not only have responsibilities to ourselves, but for those around us in the community. The Initial Value of the Aparagthsagaika Inside the Vinaya-Pitakas Parivra, there is a short chapter, some 3 pages of interest, that would be best to append to the Anumna Sutta, since the subject-matter is compatible. What is interesting is that the advice contained in these Additional Collection of Stanzas, relates towards how one should behave when interpreting matters of discipline, and how the reproved, or alleged-guilty person should behave: or, how the teacher and student should behave. The Parivra is a very interesting text for its utility in critical or legal matters, or in the case of this scenario: when the teacher needs to admonish the student, or a peer is trying to correct another bhikkhu. In fact, this chapter follows a chapter dealing with a summarization of legal-questions, which is useful to determine how to begin court-proceedings within the Buddhist Sangha. Therefore, the brief section in the Parivra, can be of great usage to more people in any situation where someone attempts to cast judgment.
As suggested in the Pli text Societys Pli-English Dictionary: (anupysa, iriypatha, santipada, or passambhan). See: Rhys Davids: Pli-English Dictionary (London: Pli Text Society, 1925) downloaded electronically from: www.buddhistboards.com words are found using a computerized search function.
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Once there is acknowledgment or the establishment of a possible committed offense, the Sangha should be brought together to determine the severity of the incident. The Aparagthsagaika is useful to determine how to proceed or behave in this court or formal procedure. The chapter after the Aparagthsagaika discusses the actual processes of accusations. In a sense, this portion of text deals with necessary formal behavior, if such activity was conceptually relevant to the Sangha. The Aparagthsagaika, the Parivras tenth-chapter is relatively short and in broken into poetic stanzas which stylistically allows for interpretations; however the determination was made to break up the translated sections into elaborated-upon paragraphs. Below is a sort of elaborative-retranslation to draw out the functional applications of the chapter rather than providing a literal or new translation this should illuminate its better utility. Thus, below is an interpretation of what the translation should suggest though there is a new commentary on top of this fresh translation.104 Elaborative Translation105 of the Aparagthsagaika: Why should somebody be told to recollect their rationality for doing something that is met with disapproval and results in punishment? Exhortations (a dutiful admonishment of a suspects alleged offense) are great for the sake of recollecting hidden pieces of information when there is power within the mind to think in a logical way, a reason, to make somebody recollect known information. What is the role of the Sangha in this? In order to have a Sangha that is united on issues, reasons need to be rationalized for the justification of these individualized mental acts of opinionated understanding, the grasping ideas, or even learning mantras. Reproving106 is for making somebody remember something, for restraining behavior, in the sense that there is the limiting of something because it is necessary. A monk should be reproved - as also mentioned in the Anguttara-Nikayas Yodhjivasuttas: dutifully-admonished107 - for: not seeing his offence, then made to remember it, then accused of it, in order that a formal act of the Sangha might be carried out against him through the acts of making him remember. The beneficent Sangha, demonstrates good judgment through its discrimination or investigations when weighing what is Dhamma and what is not - for finding out what has been well and what has been badly investigated. An act, or doing something for a particular purpose or in order to deal with a particular situation, to better understanding why people behave in a particular way and
104 Two main sources were used for this article, primarily: I.B. Horner: The Book of the Discipline (VinayaPitaka), Volume VI, The Parivra (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1997), pp. 255 -258, including in parenthesis, some of the original slightly-edited footnotes; and also for the original Pali stanzas: definitions: http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/ was instrumental accessed on various days in January and April of 2012. Further, and lastly consulted was Venerable Yuttadhammos Digital Pali Reader which is a program that can be downloaded online, which assists in defining words. Links can be found here: https://www.facebook.com/digitalpalireader - the version I am currently running was last updated on 19 November 2011 C.E., and is DPR version 2.6.6. 105 I retranslated the text nearly word for word using the Digital Pali Reader, then compared what I had with the existing translation and merged the two, maintaining what I thought was best and if improvements where necessary, I changed what I thought was fitting to the determined context. 106 The five mental-planes for reproving are: I will speak at a right time, not at a wrong time; I will speak about fact, not about what is not fact; I will speak gently, not harshly; I will speak about what is connected with the goal; I will speak with a mind of loving-kindness, not with inner-hatred. See: I.B. Horner: The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya-Pitaka) (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1997), p. 260. This criteria is also found in the Digha-Nikyas Sagti Sutta, the topic of my PhD Dissertation. See: Dion Peoples, Chanting the Sagti Sutta (Wangnoi: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University Press, 2012). 107 See (possibly forthcoming submitted for publication): Dion Peoples, The Yodhajiva Suttas, inside perhaps the Chulalongkorn Journal of Buddhist Studies, Vol. ? (Bangkok, Chulalongkorn University Press, 2012?)

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the willingness to forgive them when they do something wrong, is individualistic, in the sense that each person is considered separately, rather than part of a group. Dont speak quickly in anger, dont be quick tempered. Dont create further resentment or unhappiness about something because something may feel unjust or not fair. If you were the examiner in some dispute, or the scrutinizer of legal affairs, dont challenge them in haste: dont forcibly do something too quickly because you may think there is not enough time or invite people to disagree or cause arguments just because you may disagree with them. Certainly dont challenge them on talk pertaining towards their level of comprehension of the Dhamma or the Vinaya. Dont further engage into disputes unconnected, or not related with the meaning, or presentation that is meant to be communicated as drawn from a lesson or monastic-discipline because what has already been laid down or stated officially are from the principle, original Buddhist authorities. Give thought or detailed attention to what you are doing with such particular skill so that nobody is harmed through the proper morals or socially acceptable formal procedures for doing such an exhortation since all of this is amongst people who have strict sets of social rules. Conduct such attention to the problematic detail with the ability to show good judgment about the persons character. The examiner should wisely demonstrate ones perfected knowledge related to what is considered in line with behavior or actions that follow the accepted rules of society. Through this proper attention in matters pertaining to the monastic training codes of discipline, the examiner must not damage these destinational-goals or boundary-limits so severely that they no longer work in other future occurring mental/emotional state or physical condition that a person is in. The examiner and the accused should be concerned over their particular mode of engaged formal speech during the casting of judgment in the sense that both are engaged into their general welfare the health, happiness and safety of themselves or other people. Proper or strong attentive interest should be demonstrated during the time in which there is a link with the aspirational goal, or examination. Particular advice for the examining-reprover suggests that one should think about something carefully before making a decision, never in quick haste, feeling that the resolution or verdict must come in a timely manner. The examiner knows that the reproved does not approve of something that they have done; the reproved is the person who guilty-person doing the wrong action seldom appreciates listening to the casting of blame. If the alleged admits guilt or indeed suggests that he has fallen108, or if the person facing the accusations or wrong-doing says he has not done the action accused of then both the reprover and the reproved proceed to accept appropriate action towards reconciliation as a basis for the decision for accepting what has been determined as truth. Responsive acknowledgment of the verdict, is carried out amongst the consciously careful people, not among the unmindful or unconscientious individuals. Although many of these unconscientious bhikkhus with careless or unmindful behavior suggest that things should be carried out according to what has been previously mentioned what then is a sort of unconscientious, the aforementioned careless-bhikkhu, one for whom acknowledgment is not effective or does not produce the result that is wanted or intended?
Self-confession admits to a wrong doing; perhaps reference the various Yodhajiva-suttas from the Anguttara-nikaya, or my forthcoming article on the Yodhajiva-suttas, submitted for publication in the Chulalongkorn University Journal of Buddhist Studies, during mid-January 2012 (unsure as of now if it was accepted for publication).
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Therefore, the following must be asked: what exactly is the shameless, unconscientious individual, not afraid of sin? He intentionally falls into an illegal or offensive act; but since he deliberately hides the offense thereby telling a lie by saying that no wrong-doing was done and thus goes onward along the wrong path, as one small lie leads to many more lies to cover up the ones previously made. This sort of person is an unconscientious individual. If there is the statement along the lines of: I too know the truth despite his lies, this person is a kind of unconscientious individual. Then, another question must be considered, in order to get information from the other person: What exactly is a conscientious individual? This would be someone who does not fall into a deliberate or intentional illegal act, or offense. He would not hide or keep secret, his offense. He does not engage into or follow wrong courses of behavior or action: this person would be considered as a conscientious individual. If this person states: I too know the truth and this indeed is the truth, then this sort of person may be called a conscientious individual. Here is another question that needs to be considered: What exactly is the sort of person who examines or accuses according to what is not in line with what has been expressed in the Dhamma or Vinaya (adhammacodako), who misconducts himself? He makes the accusation at the wrong time and not in accordance to what is factual. He speaks or considers his response through conditions of unkind cruelty or harshness. He determines through things disconnected or removed from the aims or goal in Buddhism. He accuses or reproves with very strong personalized feeling of dislike, or inner-hatred, for somebody - not with a mind of loving-kindness109 (mettcitto). Such a person is one who would accuse according to what is not the rule. If one was to state: I too know the truth, this person would be one who accuses according to what is not found in the lessons and monastic-regulations. Here then is another question: What exactly is the sort of person who examines or accuses according to what is stated in lessons and the monastic code of discipline (dhammacodako)? He would be one who examines or accuses at the proper time, about factual matters, with gentle-compassion, and remains pertinent to the Buddhist goal. Again, he would investigate or reprove with his mind in the state of loving kindness (mettcitto), not with a mind full of inner-hatred. This type of person would be the type that accuses according to what has been laid down, as the rule, found in the lessons and monastic code of discipline. If such a person would state: I too know the truth then this sort of person would again be determined as one who accuses according to the Dhamma and Vinaya. Here then is another question: What exactly is the sort of person who examines or accuses ignorantly (blacodako), as if he is just some common ignorant person, or is like a fool? He does not know the earlier circumstances and the later consequences, he is unskilled (akovido) in the earlier circumstances and the later consequences. He does not know the sequence of the proper connecting words, he is unskilled (akovido) in the earlier circumstances and the later consequences: this is the kind called one who accuses ignorantly. Then if such a person would state: I too know the truth then this sort of person would again be determined as one who accuses ignorantly, like a fool. Here then is another question: What exactly is the sort of person who examines or accuses wisely (paitacodako), with erudition, cleverness, skill or wisdom? He knows by experience (jnti) the earlier circumstances and the later (pubbparampi)
Loving-kindness of course is an often overused term in Buddhism, that relatively few people can adequately present, which seems close to the feeling of a parent to ones child, or indeed just genuine friendship, where there is a deep concern for the well-being of the other.
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consequences, he is one who is in possession of right or skilled wisdom in the earlier and the later (pubbparassa), he knows by experience (jnti) the sequence of the connecting words (anusandhivacanapatha), is skilled (kovido) in the logical connections and processes between words (anusandhivacanapathassa): this is the kind called one who accuses wisely with erudition, cleverness, skill or wisdom. Then if such a person would state: I too know the truth then this sort of person would be determined as one who accuses wisely with such wisdom. Then there is this final situation: What then is the purpose of this reproving? He accuses somebody for falling away from moral habit (slavipattiy codeti), then from right behavior and view (atho cradihiy), and he additionally accuses those engaged into wrong modes of livelihood (jvenapi codeti). Here then is what is called (tena vuccatti) reproof or an exhortation - reproving (codan). This now concludes the reinterpretation of the translation of the Additional Collection of Stanzas. A Final look at the Aparagthsagaika and the Anumna Sutta: The Aparagthsagaika chapter begins with the basic advice on how to dutifully-admonish or reprove someone for committing some offense against the Buddhist monastic code of discipline. When people meet each other for the first time, often they are judgmental and try to assess the character of the other individual. It is in the conventional-worldly nature of humans to make determinations about the other person. There is elemental attraction or repulsion in the interaction and from that, circumstances evolve. Maybe someone determines that the other person is deficient is some aspect and wishes to criticize the other person. In one sense, perhaps, to admonish someone could be a sort of casual or even formal affair, done to check the behavior of a monastic comrade. If someone is dutifully-admonished, then these seems rather procedural, or formal, like proving to a court or jury that some type of person was guilty or even innocent of the said offense through some examination. There are four pairs of people discussed in the Aparagthsagaika often these people are the same two individuals, the protagonist and the antagonist: Accused & Examiner Unconscientious & Conscientious The Examiner without Dhamma & the Examiner with Dhamma The Ignorant Examiner & the Wise Examiner

To get a better look, we could chart the categories: The Characters Involved in the Aparagthsagaika The Reproved (Accused) Positive Characteristics Conscientious The Reprover (Examiner) Positive Characteristics Examiner with Dhamma Wise Examiner

Negative Characteristics Unconscientious Examiner without Dhamma Ignorant Examiner

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To over-generalize: the positive-person (protagonist) is someone who is conscientious and wise, through interpreting things through the Dhamma; the negativeperson (antagonist) is someone who is unconscientious and ignorant, and does things not in accordance with the Dhamma. This can be said of both the suspect and the examiner. In the Yodhajiva-suttas, we can see that a Bhikkhu has confessed of his lust, or for example, any other defilement, and does one of the following actions110: The lust-filled bhikkhu admits his passion and is dutifully-admonished, but decides to follow his heart, and disrobes. The lust-filled bhikkhu admits his passion and is dutifully-admonished, but decides to strive and remain as a bhikkhu. Here we have a self-confession by the bhikkhu, who is just following his heart, and decides on the issue as a personal matter; but in the Aparagthsagaika, the issue has become public and the matter is up for scrutiny. If the bhikkhu would have hid his offense then he falls under the category of the unsconscientious, and perhaps this leads to his disrobing, either personally or through the verdict handed down by the Sangha. If the Bhikkhu owns up to his offense as a conscientious individual, then perhaps from examination there may be some rationale exposed for him to remain as a bhikkhu, based on the deliberations of the Sangha. Of course, other chapters before and after the Aparagthsagaika would give more insight into the actual proceedings, give additional ideas for questioning, and many other matters but it is here in this chapter where everything is condensed, and available for easier consumption and comprehension for how things may proceed, in the event of dealing with some strife. The Anumna Sutta suggests how to control ones mind in the troublesome situation. There is a firm emphasis on self-examination or self-criticism. A person should control or check themselves before they damage themselves or another person. This is noble or important social advice. Compendium of Contents from the Sagti Suttas Moral Pronouncements: The Sagti Sutta111 is a wide ranging lesson that accounts for a variety of dhammic-criteria. The purpose of this section is to withdraw and only illuminate socialregulatory items (discipline) from the long-lesson and to represent them as a contrived process. There are many possible arrangements for structuring some of the lessons 230 dhamma-components that comprise social settings, but as material was drawn to fulfill two other categories of demonstration - presented below in this section is only the material arranged to shape social situations dependent on the influential factor. Below is how a determination was made to express the criteria. There are predominant influences of the world, of Dhamma, and of ourselves (3:56) and because the world offers us sensual experiences, and the Dhamma offers us well-proclaimed material for battling difficulties our conventional, momentarilyexisting self despairs thus we strive. Regulations for society have been crafted by humanitys various civilizations, and presented here are several aspects of a Buddhist
See: Dion Peoples, The Yodhajiva Suttas: http://mcu.academia.edu/DionPeoples/Papers/1293848/The_Yodhajiva_Suttas 111 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 479-510 & Dion Oliver Peoples: Chanting the Sagti Sutta (Wangnoi: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University Press, 2012)
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method excluding much of what could be found in other lessons. As youths, we have been conditioned by our teachers or predecessors to lead wholesome lives so that we could become successful people, or to earn praise. If, a necessary situation occurs, the following are grounds for commendation (praise) (7:7) - if one is anxious: to undertake the training and wants to persist in this, make a close study of the Dhamma, to get rid of desires, to find solitude, to arouse energy, to develop mindfulness and discrimination, to develop penetrative insight. We could assume that all of life is misery and full of suffering but we can be positive and presume that our situation is beneficial, as being born as a human enables us to study Dhamma. Therefore, in this beneficial state: once situated in a supportive or ideally-benefitting location, someone should know ten things that give protection (10:1) (each lettered phrase (a)-(j) of this set, is italicized for distinction): (a) seeing danger in the slightest fault one keeps to the rules of training, for instance (therefore, setting the tone for this section on social regulations): Refrain from the unwholesome courses of action (5:9 & 10:3/10:4): taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, strong drink and sloth-producing (mentions nothing about stimulants) drugs, lying speech, slander, rude speech (points to be borne in the mind of a monk wishing to rebuke another (5:15): to speak at the proper time not at the wrong time, to state the truth not what is false, to speak gently not roughly, to speak for ones good not for ones harm, to speak with love in the heart not with enmity), idle chatter, greed, malevolence, wrong view through avoidance and wholesome conduct. o For example, when someone is thinking of malice, if (9:1): someone has done me an injury; someone is doing me an injury; someone will do me an injury; someone has done, is doing, will do an injury to someone dear and pleasant to me; someone has done, is doing, will do a favor to someone who is hateful and unpleasant to me the understanding must arise that there are ways of overcoming malice. Malice is overcome with the thought (9:2): someone has done (similar to above) but thinking: What good will it do to harbor malice? o For instance, there are these roots of contention (6:15): (a) a monk is angry and bears ill-will, one is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha and does not finish the training one stirs up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans if one discovers such a root of contention among yourselves or others, strive to get rid of just that root of contention if no root of contention is found then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in the future, (b) if a monk is deceitful and malicious (c) if a monk is envious and mean (d) if a monk is cunning and deceitful (e) if a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views (f) if a monk is opinionated, obstinate and tenacious then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in the future The student should learn the rules for the pacification and settlement of disputed questions that have been raised, through (7:14): proceedings face-to-face, recollection, mental derangement, confession, majority verdict, habitual bad character, covering over with grass

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dangers to the immoral through lapsing from morality (5:13): suffers great loss of property from neglecting ones affairs, bad reputation for immorality and misconduct, whatever assembly one approaches one does diffidently (timidly) and shyly, dies confused, after death at the breaking up of the body one arises in an evil state or bad fate suffering in hell benefits through preserving morality (5:14): being careful in attention to ones affairs gains wealth, good reputation for morality and good conduct, when approaching assemblies one does so with confidence and assurance, dies unconfused, after death at the breaking up of the body one arises in a good place or heavenly world (b) is learned much and retains what has been taught, remembers what has been learned and recites, recites them, reflects on them and penetrates them with wisdom (this, for instance, inspires the section on doctrinal issues) A disciple should be able to differentiate kinds of wisdom (3:42): of the learner, non-learner, and of the one who is neither. Four ways of answering questions (4:28): to be answered directly, requiring an explanation, requiring a counter-question, or to be set aside. skill in knowing offenses and the procedure for rehabilitation from them (2:8) the student should be versed in the Vinaya or Bhikkhu-Pimokkha. Has the four knowledges (4:11): of dhamma, of what is consonant with it, knowledge of others minds (would seem to imply abhis), and conventional knowledge (c) is a friend, associate and intimate of good people things conducive to communal living (6:14): (a) as long as monks in public or private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body, speech and thought, (b) share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift including the contents of their alms-bowls which they do not keep to themselves, (c) keep constantly unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration and (d) persist therein with their fellows in both public and private (e) continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering (f) remaining in such awareness with their fellows in both public and private (d) affable, endowed with gentleness and patience as well as being quick to grasp instruction (demonstrating that there are different types of learners and other abilities or characteristics) (e) in duties one is skillful not lax, uses foresight in carrying them out, and is a good planner: in several ways, this set of criteria is illuminating, as it would assert that someone should use the moral codes for beneficial purposes, and through foresight the implication is the analytical planning or thinking of the many ways in which causes or effects play out along with any other appropriate method of questioning based on what the situation is; and in summary, someone is diligent and thinks of everything towards actualizing the final goal. (f) loves the Dhamma and delights in hearing it, as well as the Abhidhamma and Abhivinaya

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(g) content with the requisites (robes, almsfood, lodging, medicine) (h) strives to arise energy, gets rid of unwholesome states, established wholesome states, untiringly and energetically strives to keep such good states and never shakes off the burden For example, there are occasions of indolence, thinking (8:4-5): there is a job to do but it will make me tired, this work is done but now I am tired, I have to go on a journey but it will make me tired, I have just came back from a journey and now am tired, I have gone for almsfood but it is not enough, I have gone for almsfood and ate too much, through the development of a slight indisposition thinks Id better have a rest, is recuperating from an illness and thinks (for all the preceding occasions of indolence) my body is useless and will take a rest and then lays down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, the unaccomplished, the unrealized. If one is so inclined to strive, there are eight occasions for making an effort (similar to the preceding) but one stirs up the energy instead of sleeping thus can complete the uncompleted, the unaccomplished, and can realize the unrealized

Through five factors of endeavoring (5:16): has faith, trusting in the enlightenment of the Tathgata; is in good health... suitable for exertion; is not fraudulent or deceitful, showing himself as he really is to his teacher or to the wise among his companions in the holy life; keeps his energy constantly stirred up for abandoning unwholesome states and arousing wholesome states, and is steadfast, firm in advancing and persisting in wholesome states; and is a man of wisdom, endowed with wisdom concerning rising and cessation, with the Ariyan penetration that leads to the complete destruction of suffering. (i) is mindful, with a great capacity for clearly recalling things done and said long ago : while there is no sub-category found for this criteria, it is fairly evident from working within the Buddhist tradition that this should be referring to someones profound level of mindful-abilities which would enable this person to recollect deeds in a former life. (j) is wise, with wise perception of arising and passing away, that Ariyan perception leads to the complete destruction of suffering: below is illustrative-criteria for an Arahant and the criteria comprising the Ariyan tradition. Above is one portion of social-regulations with certain subsets incorporated into one larger set things that give protection, to show some relationships with different dhamma-sets. As the last item dealt with the wise discussion moves towards material pertaining to different types of people, and the capabilities of the idealized arahant (for Theravda Buddhism): As we know: there are three types of people (3:36): the learner, the non-learner (the arahant), the one who is neither. The following is also added: for those with such inclinations, the ultimate goal in Theravda Buddhism is to win arahantship and attain nibbna. What is the arahants disposition or characteristics beginning with the ancient personality and lineage: Arahants (3:30) have no need to guard against bodily conduct, in speech and in thought because a Tathgata is perfectly pure, so there is no misdeed which one must conceal lest anyone should get to hear about it. Arahants (10:5) are of pure motive are emancipated and well liberated from the thoughts of greed, hatred and delusion in the

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heart. They are emancipated and well liberated by wisdom (understanding: for me, greed, hatred, delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again). They have gotten rid of and abandoned quests for the five hindering factors of sensuality (possessing six factors of being neither pleased nor displeased and are mindful and clearly aware of the senses: seeing with the eye, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching a tangible object and cognizing a mental object). They are incapable of deliberately taking the life of a living being having no illwill/cruelty. They no longer possess worry and flurry, and doubt. They have tranquillized emotions because they gave up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness and enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, this being the fourth jhna. They are additionally incapable of (5:10): taking what is not given so as to constitute theft, sexual intercourse, telling a deliberate lie, storing up goods for sensual indulgence as one did formerly in the household life; and do not have sloth/torpor these constitute more of the impossibilities of arahants. Furthermore, they are established in one guard of mindfulness and do observe four supports (4:8) of one that is to be pursued, one thing endured, one avoided, and one thing suppressed. Arahants have gotten rid of individual beliefs held by the majority of society and have quite abandoned quest for rebirth and for the holy life so they are known to be beyond training, possessing qualities of the non-learner (asekha) (10:6): the non-learners right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration, right knowledge and right liberation. Not to be confused with Arahants, the lesson also discusses the ancient cultural Ariyans, who had a moral sensibility which was disseminated into the land of where the Buddha was operating. These characteristics were known to or attributes of the Ariyans:

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CHART A - ANCIENT ARIYAN DISPOSITION OR LINEAGE (ARIYAVAMSA):


If one is skillful, not lax, clearly aware with: Content with old robes not improper or unsuitable robes Content with any almsfood offered Content with any lodging place Fond of abandoning, rejoices in developing and lacks conceit (a) has gotten rid of five factors of sensuality, ill-will, sloth and torpor, worry and flurry, and doubt, (b) possesses six factors of being neither pleased nor displeased and is mindful and clearly aware of seeing with the eye, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching a tangible object and cognizing a mental object respectfully, (c) established in one guard of mindfulness, (d) observes the four supports of one that is to be pursued, one thing endured, one avoided, and one thing suppressed, ARIYAN (e) has gotten rid of individual beliefs held by the majority DISPOSITIONS: (f) has quite abandoned quest for sense-desires, for rebirth and for the holy life (10:5) (g) is of pure motive one has abandoned thoughts of sensuality, ill-will and cruelty (h) has tranquillized ones emotions because one has given up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness and enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, this being the fourth jhna, (i) is emancipated and well liberated from the thoughts of greed, hatred and delusion in the heart (j) is emancipated and well liberated by wisdom because one understands for me, greed, hatred, delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again: ARIYAN TREASURES confidence, morality, moral shame, moral dread, learning, renunciation, wisdom (7:1) ARIYAN SPEECH Refrain from Refrain from Refrain from Refrain from OBSERVANCES (4:41-42): Lying Slander Abuse Gossip CHARACTERISTICS OF ANCIENT ARIYAN LINEAGE (4:9): MODES OF ARIYAN SPEECH (4:44): ADDITIONAL MODES OF ARIYAN SPEECH (4:46): NON-ARIYAN MODES OF SPEECH (4:43): ADDITIONAL NONARIYAN MODES OF SPEECH (4:45) stating that one has not seen, heard, sensed or known what one has seen, heard, sensed, or known stating that one has seen, heard, sensed, or known what one has seen, heard, sensed or known claiming to have seen, heard, sensed or known what one has not seen, heard, sensed or known claiming not to have seen, heard, sensed or known when one has so seen, heard, sensed or known

In additional characteristics, from the lesson - how, though, should students behave towards their teachers? We can recall the initial lessons from above, the Anumna and Gulissni suttas. We can progress and build upon with what the Sagti Sutta suggests. Students should not disrespect (6:9): the teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness, of hospitality. Students, obviously should demonstrate the following kinds of respect (6:10): to the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect to earnestness, and hospitality but the student is free to find a proper instructor. More problems, though, may arise: mental blockages for a monk (5:19): doubts and hesitations concerning the teacher and is dissatisfied and cannot settle ones mind and is additionally not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort, likewise for the Dhamma, Sangha, the

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training, and is angry and displeased with his fellows in the holy life feeling depressed and negative towards them mental bondages (5:20) a monk has not gotten rid of the passion, desire, love, thirst, fever, craving for: (a) sense-desires thus his mind is not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort (b) for the body (c) for physical objects (d) having eaten as much as ones belly will hold, one abandons oneself to the pleasure of lying down, of contact, of sloth (e) one practices the holy life for the sake of becoming a member of some body of devas, thinking by means of these rites or discipline, austerities, or this holy life, I shall become one with the devas, great or small ones mind is not inclined towards ardor, devotion, persistence and effort arousals of craving in a monk (4:20): robes, alms, lodging, being and non-being

In the following chart, below, we can see the wholesome and unwholesome aspects of morality and views, dealing also with right and wrong practices and a variety of other dangers.
Chart B Attainment Morality and View (2:26 & 2:28) Kinds Of Respect: Roots Thought: Motivation Perception: Elements: Powers: to the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect to earnestness, and hospitality (6:10) non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion (3:2) of renunciation, non-enmity and non-cruelty: (3:6) through renunciation, non-enmity and non-cruelty: (3:8) of renunciation, non-enmity and non-cruelty: (3:10) renunciation, non-enmity and non-cruelty: (3:12) of confidence, energy, moral shame, moral dread, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom (2:22, 7:9) right conduct: in body, speech and thought: (3:4) has confidence, moral shame, moral dread, much learning, aroused vigor, established mindfulness, and possesses wisdom (2:5, 7:5) being moved by a sense of urgency by what should move one, and the systematic effort of one so moved (2:30) straight forwardness and modesty (2:13) patience and gentleness (2:14) gentle speech and politeness (2:15) non-harming and purity (2:16) exertion and non-distraction (2:25) mindfulness and clear awareness (2:18) gentleness and friendship with good (2:7) that of giving, of morality, of meditation (3:38) being careful in attention to ones affairs gains wealth, good reputation for morality and good conduct, when approaching assemblies one does so with confidence and assurance, dies unconfused, after death at the breaking up of the body one arises in a good place or heavenly world: (5:14)

Wholesome Categories: (2:29) (Purity and Attainment)

Right Practices:

Grounds Based On Merit: Benefits Through Preserving Morality:

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Morality & Views Kinds Of Disrespect: Roots Thought: Motivation Perception: Elements: Latent Proclivities: Unwholesome Categories: (Failure) (2:27) Fetters: Corruptions:

Purity of morality and view, and the effort to attain it (2:28 & 2:29) towards the teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness, of hospitality (6:9) greed, hatred and delusion (3:1) of sensuality, enmity and cruelty: (3:5) through sensuality, enmity and cruelty: (3:7) of sensuality, enmity and cruelty: (3:9) sensuality, enmity and cruelty: (3:11) sensuous greed, resentment, views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming, ignorance (7:12) complaisance, resentment, views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming, ignorance (2:2, 7:13) of sense-desire, of becoming, of ignorance (3:20) wrong conduct: in body, speech and thought: (3:3) Ways of going wrong (4:19): desire, hatred, delusion and fear one lacking confidence, lacks moral shame, lacks moral dread, has little learning, is slack, is unmindful, lacks wisdom (2:4; 7:4) roughness and friendship with evil (2:6) belief in continued existence and belief in non-existence (2:3) lack of mindfulness and of clear awareness (2:17) suffers great loss of property from neglecting ones affairs, bad reputation for immorality and misconduct, whatever assembly one approaches one does diffidently and shyly, dies confused, after death at the breaking up of the body one arises in an evil state or bad fate suffering in hell: (5:13)

Wrong Practices

Dangers To The Immoral Through Lapsing From Morality:

With these troubles, as influences (3:56) predominately arise from contact with the world or society, one may strive to possess qualities of a truly great person, through Dhamma and with the following doctrinal issues, in the next section. To conclude this section with some remarks: this section was important to demonstrate because the Buddhists were attempting to secure their sect away from schism, so to illuminate social regulations and the ideal point of reference, adds to secure the discipline that Buddhists are renown to uphold. Recitations and memorizations of these various social regulations could contribute towards social harmony or higher ethical living. So, to paraphrase Sriputta: these doctrinal-sets relating to social-regulations were put forth by the Buddha so we should all recite them together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be long-lasting and established for a long time to come. Why? For the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.112 Lesson Summary: The section on morality extracted from portions of the lesson were rooted in material that gave the best benefits to the practitioner of morality, furthermore, it is emphasized that the Arahant is the ideal example these ideals are issued as criteria. To summarize, again, these criteria were extracted from the Sagti Sutta, in order to present the issues covered in the lesson pertaining to morality, consisting of what can comprise of wholesome and unwholesome factors largely the section was structured
112 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha Nikya, (Wisdom Publications: Boston, MA 1995) , p. 510

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around ten concepts that build or serve for protection, advice that is good for almost any situation. The objective of issuing the criteria was for the preservation of the Buddhas Dhamma many of these measures would be practical applications of behavior to earn the respect of other people and to remind oneself how to be a better person. Through these endeavors, a person trains further with these aspects of morality leading to the purification of the individual, the highest ideal being that described above, as the Arahant. There are not very many critical issues to propose at this time, and any such comments related to morality will be reserved for the final section dealing with the Bhikkhu-Paimokkha the official or sanctioned code for monastic discipline. Here, though, I will only state that this seems to be a code or section of what was understood, prior to the formulation of the modern recitation. If further analyzed, these become rudimentary possibilities for societys social-legal codes. Selected Portion of the Pohapda Suttas Section on Morality: The Buddha accepted an invitation to discuss matters with Pohapda113. After the Buddha sat down in the prepared seat for him, he asked: Pohapda, what were you wanderers all talking about? What conversation have I interrupted? Pohapda replied: Lord, ...the discussion among these ascetics and Brahmins of various schools, sitting together and meeting in the debating-hall, was concerned with the higher extinction of perception, and how this takes place... In this matter, Pohapda, those ascetics and Brahmins who say ones perceptions arise and cease without cause or condition are totally wrong. Why is that? Ones perceptions arise and cease owing to a cause and conditions.114 Some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.115 What is this training?, the Lord said. Pohapda, a Tathgata arises in this world:
an Arahant fully-enlightened Buddha endowed with wisdom and conduct Well-Farer Knower of the worlds incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed Teacher of gods and humans Enlightened and blessed He, having realized it by his own super-knowledge, proclaims this world with its devas, maras and Brahmas, its princes and people. He preaches the Dhamma which is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, lovely in its ending, in the spirit and in the letter, and displays the fully perfected and purified holy life.

This Dhamma is heard by a householder or a householders son, or one reborn in some family or other.
Having heard this Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathgata. Having gained this faith, he reflects: The household life is close and dusty, the homeless life is free as air. It is not easy, living the household life, to live the fully-perfected holy life, purified and polished like a conchshell. Suppose I were to shave off my hair and beard, don yellow robes and go forth from the household life into homelessness!

Ibid., p. 159-170 Notice here that there are one of two sorts of items that bring about a perception. 115 This means that through training, perceptions arise or cease proper training controls these perceptions from even arising, and once arisen the perceptions can be eliminated.
114

113

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And after some time, he abandons his property, small or great, leaves his circle of relatives, small or great, shaves off his hair and beard, dons yellow robes and goes forth into the homeless life... ...and practices the moralities he dwells restrained by the restraint of the rules, persisting in right behavior, seeing danger in the slightest faults, observing the commitments he has taken on regarding body, deed and word, devoted to the skilled and purified life, perfected in morality, with the sense-doors guarded, skilled in mindful awareness and content. Abandoning the taking of life, he dwells refraining from taking life, without stick or sword, scrupulous, compassionate, trembling for the welfare of all living beings. Thus he is accomplished in morality. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, the ascetic Gotama dwells refraining from taking what is not given, living purely, accepting what is given, awaiting what is given, without stealing. Abandoning unchastity, the ascetic Gotama lives far from it, aloof from the village-practice of sex. Abandoning false speech, the ascetic Gotama dwells refraining from false speech, a truth-speaker, one to be relied on, trustworthy, dependable, not a deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, he does not repeat there what he has heard here to the detriment of these, or repeat here what he has heard there to the detriment of those. Thus he is a reconciler of those at variance and an encourager of those at one, rejoicing in peace, loving it, delighting in it, one who speaks up for peace. Abandoning harsh speech, he refrains from it. He speaks whatever is blameless, pleasing to the ear, agreeable, reaching the heart, urbane, pleasing and attractive to the multitude. Abandoning idle chatter, he speaks at the right time, what is correct and to the point, of Dhamma and discipline. He is a speaker whose words are to be treasured, seasonable, reasoned, well-defined and connected with the goal.

And having gone forth:

And how, Sire, is a monk perfected in morality?

Thus the worldling would praise the Tathgata:


The ascetic Gotama is a refrainer from damaging seeds and crops. He eats once a day and not at night, refraining from eating at improper times. He avoids watching dancing, singing, music and shows. He abstains from using garlands, perfumes, cosmetics, ornaments and adornments. He avoids using high or wide beds. He avoids accepting gold and silver. He avoids accepting raw grain or raw flesh, he does not accept women and young girls, male or female slaves, sheep and goats, cocks and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses and mares, fields and plots; he refrains from running errands, from buying and selling, from cheating with false weights and measures, from bribery and corruption, deception and insincerity, from wounding, killing, imprisoning, highway robbery, and taking food by force.

Thus the worldling would praise the Tathgata. Whereas, gentlemen, some ascetics and Brahmins, feeding on the food of the faithful, are addicted to the destruction of such seeds:
as are propagated from roots, from stems, from joints, from cuttings, from seeds -- the ascetic Gotama refrains from such destruction.

Thus the worldling would praise the Tathgata. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins, feeding on the food of the faithful, remain addicted to:
the enjoyment of stored-up goods such as food, drink, clothing, carriages, beds, perfumes, meat -- the ascetic Gotama refrains from such enjoyment. dancing, singing, music, displays, recitations, hand-music, cymbals and drums, fairy-shows, acrobatic and conjuring tricks combats of elephants, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks and quail, fighting with staves, boxing, wrestling, sham-fights,

Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins ... remain addicted to attending such shows as:

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parades, maneuvers and military reviews

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from attending such displays. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to:
such games and idle pursuits as eight- or ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins, dicing, hitting sticks, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy pipes, playing with toy ploughs, turning somersaults, playing with toy windmills, measures, carriages, and bows, guessing letters, guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities,

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from such idle pursuits. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to:
high and wide beds and long chairs, couches adorned with animal figures, fleecy or variegated [multi-colored] coverlets, coverlets with hair on both sides or one side, silk coverlets, embroidered with gems or without, elephant-, horse- or chariot-rugs, choice spreads of antelope-hide, couches with awnings, or with red cushions at both ends,

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from such high and wide beds. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to such:
forms of self-adornment and embellishment as... rubbing the body with perfumes, massaging, bathing in scented water, shampooing, using mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, unguents, cosmetics, bracelets, headbands, fancy sticks, bottles, swords, sunshades, decorated sandals, turbans, gems, yak-tail fans, long-fringed white robes,

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from such self-adornment. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to such:
unedifying conversation as... about kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, wars, food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, carriages, villages, towns and cities, countries, women, heroes, street- and well-gossip, talk of the departed, desultory chat, speculations about land and sea, talk about being and non-being,

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from such conversation. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to disputation... the ascetic Gotama refrains from such (doctrinal) disputation. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to such things as running errands and messages, such as for kings, ministers, nobles, Brahmins, householders and young men... the ascetic Gotama refrains from such errand-running. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins remain addicted to deception (certainly this can illustrate bhikkhus who have or are running fake Facebook or other social-media profiles), patter, hinting, belittling, and are always on the make for further gains, the ascetic Gotama refrains from such deception. Thus the worldling would praise the Tathgata. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins, feeding on the food of the faithful, make their living by such base arts, from
Palmistry Body-marks, Of husks, From the mouth or of blood, Ghost-lore, Rat-lore, Charms against arrows, Such Wrong Means Of Livelihood As: Divining By Signs Portents Mouse-gnawings, Fire-oblations Rice-powder, Rice-grains Reading the finger-tips, House- and garden-lore Earth-House Lore, Snake-Lore Bird-lore, Crow-lore Knowledge of animals cries... Dreams Oblations from a ladle Ghee or oil Skill in charms Poison-Lore Foretelling a persons life-span

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..the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins make their living by such base arts as:
Gems Arrows/weapons Elephants Goats Bamboo-rats Sticks Women/men Horses Rams Tortoises Judging The Marks Of: Clothes Boys/girls Buffaloes Cocks/quail Deer Swords/spears Male and female slaves Bulls/cows Iguanas

...the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins make their living by such base arts as predicting: (military leaders tactics and results), the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins make their living by such base arts as predicting (any astronomical, atmospheric, geological or meteorological events) - and such will be the outcome of these things, the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins make their living by such base arts as predicting good or bad rainfall; a good or bad harvest; security, danger; disease, health; or accounting, computing, calculating, poetic composition, philosophizing, the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins make their living by such base arts as arranging the giving and taking in marriage, engagements and divorces; (declaring the time for) saving and spending, bringing good or bad luck, procuring abortions. using spells to bind the tongue, binding the jaw, making the hands jerk, causing deafness, getting answers with a mirror, a girl-medium, a deva; worshipping the sun or Great Brahma, breathing fire, invoking the goddess of luck, the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. Whereas some ascetics and Brahmins, feeding on the food of the faithful, make their living by such base arts, such wrong means of livelihood as appeasing the devas and redeeming vows to them, making earth-house spells, causing virility or impotence, preparing and consecrating building-sites, giving ritual rinsings and bathings, making sacrifices, giving emetics, purges, expectorants and phlegmagogues, giving ear-, eye-, nose-medicine, ointments and counter-ointments, eye-surgery, surgery, pediatry, using balms to counter the side-effects of previous remedies, the ascetic Gotama refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. It is, monks, for such elementary, inferior matters of moral practice that the worldling would praise the Tathgata. A monk refrains from such base arts and wrong means of livelihood. Thus he is perfected in morality - that for him is morality. And then, Pohapda, that monk who is perfected in morality sees no danger from any side owing to his being restrained by morality. Just as a duly-anointed Khattiya king, having conquered his enemies, by that very fact sees no danger from any side, so the monk, on account of his morality, sees no danger anywhere. He experiences in himself the blameless bliss that comes from maintaining this Ariyan morality. In this way, Sire, he is perfected in morality.

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Buddha (and monks under His example) should refrain from (the below endeavors) in order to be perfected in morality (another type of vinaya?): Stealing, Unessential, False, Damaging Robbing, Sexual Meals At The Taking Life Malicious, Harsh, Agriculture: Seeds Taking Food Misconduct Improper Time Disputive Speech And Crops By Force Silver And Gold; Military Tactics, Cosmetics, Forms Of Buying, Selling; Games, Combat, Ointments, Adorned Or Various False Weights, Raw Grain And Joking, And NonHigh Furniture, Servants: Measurements; Raw Flesh (Needs Entertainment Essential Rugs And Human Or Accounting, Cooking) And Hygiene Clothing Animals And Computing, Performances Products Land Calculating Storing Up Prediction Of Meteorological, Running Errands, Food, Drinks, Wrong Judging Bodily Or Individuals Astronomical, Bribery And Clothing, Livelihoods; Physical Marks For Welfare: Astrological, Corruption; Furniture, Poetic Auspicious Or Health, Geographic And Deception And Vehicles, Composition; Inauspicious Security, Agricultural Insincerity Perfumes, Philosophizing Characteristics Danger, Phenomena Meats Disease

Lesson Summary: this concludes the presentation of the Pohapda Suttas section on morality. Most of the criteria within is self-explanatory and needs no explanation. After the arising of a Buddha, a fortunate person hears or learns the Dhamma as taught by the Buddha, and decides to ordain in his school yearning to improve his morality, following wholesome endeavors and the personal example of his Buddha the teacher. The personal example of the Buddha, like any religious messenger, is inspirational for many religious adherents, and Buddhism is no exception many strive towards similar successes. What remains are moral-codes or examples of regulations which further suggest that any engagement into the base-arts are prohibited or not performed by the Buddha. While such lessons do not explicitly express the mandatory employment of these regulations for the ordained, certainly one could determine that they should be employed, as prohibited engagements or practices. The final chart pertaining to proper employment illuminates social-prohibitions, many of them can be determined to be modern scientific occupations these cannot be done by Buddhist monks. Any further or deeper inquiry into these fields can upset the established ways of modern bhikkhus who have strayed from the Buddhas righteous example expressions of these prohibitions being violated can be seen daily, and even justified, in Buddhist Thailand and other nations. Abridged Version of the Mahsuta Sutta: On this occasion116, the Blessed One, dwelling in his Sakyan tribal-homeland, around Kapilavatthu, in Nigrodhas Park one morning, dressed himself, and after taking his bowl and outer robe, went into the city for alms. When he had returned from wandering for alms in Kapilavatthu, he ate his meal, and later went for his daytimeabiding to the dwelling of Kakhemaka the Sakyan. Now on that occasion there were many resting places prepared in Kakhemaka the Sakyans dwelling. When the Blessed

116 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 971 -978

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One saw this, he thought: There are many resting places prepared in Kakhemaka the Sakyans dwelling. Do many bhikkhus live there?117 Now on that occasion the venerable nanda, along with many bhikkhus, was busy making robes at Gh the Sakyans dwelling. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from retreat and went to Gh the Sakyans dwelling. There he sat down on a seat made ready and asked the venerable nanda: nanda, there are many resting places prepared in Kakhemaka the Sakyans dwelling. Do many bhikkhus live there? Venerable sir, many resting places have been prepared in Kakhemaka the Sakyans dwelling. Many bhikkhus are living there. This is our time for making robes, venerable sir.118 nanda, a Bhikkhu does not shine by delighting in company, by taking delight in company, by devoting himself to delight in company; by delighting in society, by taking delight in society, by rejoicing in society.119 Indeed, nanda, it is not possible that a Bhikkhu who delights in company, takes delight in company, and devotes himself to delight in company, who delights in society, takes delight in society, and rejoices in society, will ever obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the bliss of renunciation, the bliss of seclusion, the bliss of peace, the bliss of enlightenment. But it can be expected that when a Bhikkhu lives alone, withdrawn from society, he will obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the bliss of renunciation, the bliss of seclusion, the bliss of peace, the bliss of enlightenment.120 Indeed, nanda, it is not possible that a Bhikkhu who delights in company, takes delight in company, and devotes himself to delight in company, who delights in society, takes delight in society, and rejoices in society, will ever enter upon and abide in either the deliverance of mind that is temporary and delectable or in (the deliverance of mind) that is perpetual and unshakeable. But it can be expected that when a bhikkhu lives alone, withdrawn from society, he will enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind that is temporary and delectable or in (the deliverance of mind) that is perpetual and unshakeable.121
What kind of impression would a resident like to leave upon a visitor? Maintaining the proper appearances of residences are important. This situation unraveled as if the Buddha entered a large monastic dwelling or a pavilion of some sorts, and saw many rows of beds together like an open-bay type of situation where people had little privacy. The Buddha could see the beds, but because monastic regulations insist that the beds be made after sleeping, no one could really tell the number of occupants. 118 Take very keen interest in this passage. This is a very odd conversation, further illuminated by a concluding remark by the Buddha at the end of the discourse. When the suggestion is raised that Ananda may have spoken with hostility, and we return to the words at the beginning of the discourse, we learn more about how this event really took place. The two comments from the commentaries suggest the Buddha, with his direct knowledge, asked a rhetorical question; because as he thought: if these bhikkhus form into a delightful society, eventually they will act improperly. The emphasis should be on the term live, which implies a level of permanence, rather than taki ng up temporary shelter. Therefore, He thought: in order to be properly trained to prevent such circumstance - the Great Practice of Voidness should be expounded. Venerable Ananda really meant to suggest that this was only a temporary living situation as the monks were in their robe-making period, and very busy doing this... thus in a not dwelling delightfully. The robe-making period would soon be over, and the bhikkhus would disperse again. It should also be known and recollected that a monk must be content with any old-lodging received. 119 At this point we must continue to reflect upon the Gulissni Sutta, discussed in the beginning of this chapter. 120 At this point we must again continue to reflect more deeply upon the Gulissni Sutta, discussed in th e beginning of this chapter. 121 The opposite of dwelling or delighting in distractive company is living alone. By enjoying other things besides contemplation on the workings of the mind, true bliss becomes too difficult thus, liberative attainments seldom achievable. A man living in society cannot be termed a monk, as this term is reserved for those people removed from society for higher spiritual attainments. The dweller in society is just exactly that: someone residing in society without the luster of knowing true peace. Shine by delighting, is in reference to a metaphorically positive reputation. Shine is also in reference to the aura achieved through concentrative meditation. Shine, is also in reference to frequency vibrations radiating from ones persona. In a sense, the Buddha is saying: living alone, free of distractions, is
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I do not see even a single kind of form, nanda, from the change and alteration of which there would not arise sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who lusts for it and takes delight in it.122 However, nanda, there is this abiding discovered by the Tathgata: to enter and abide in voidness internally by giving no attention to all signs.123 If, while the Tathgata is abiding thus, he is visited by bhikkhus or bhikkhunis, by men or women lay followers, by kings or kings ministers, by other sectarians or their disciples, then with a mind leaning to seclusion, tending and inclining to seclusion, withdrawn, delighting in renunciation, and altogether done with things that are the basis for taints, he invariably talks to them in a way concerned with dismissing them.124 Therefore, nanda, if a bhikkhu should wish: May I enter upon and abide in voidness internally, he should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it. And how does he steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it? Here, nanda, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhna the second jhna the third jhna the fourth jhna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. That is how a bhikkhu steadies his mind internally, quiets it, brings it to singleness, and concentrates it. Then he gives attention to voidness internally. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind does not enter into voidness internally or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind does not enter into voidness internally or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. In this way he has full awareness of that.125
best for the highest spiritual attainments. Living alone, and striving: one will attain what is otherwise impossible in solitude, the highest nibbanic experience. Living in society is not conducive with living spiritually. 122 Single is one; kind is any grouping of matter formed - a kalapa, referring to different conglomerations of the elements into something sensible from the responsible and respective sense-organ triggering the perception from such contact and resultant perception. Such conglomerations are subjected to impermanence, and if these attractions lose desirability suffering, etc., results. 123 The Buddha discovered the abiding in voidness an experience of total mental extinguishment. He advocates this concentrative-system. The Buddha begins this representing a current, rather than another present form of abiding. This suggests, to avoid the hypocritical perception of telling his discipl es to live in solitude, while he is often surrounded by a large retinue. Is there some contradiction? It must be recalled that the Sangha resides under strict regulations and recall the positioning of the beds: obviously, this recollects the improper, although howeverso temporary, living-arrangements. Voidness here is the fruition attainment of voidness suatavihra or suataphala-sampatti, the fruition attainment of arahantship that is entered by focusing upon the void aspect of Nibbna. Important to note: this term suatavihra is seldomly mentioned in the Tipitaka: seven times it is mentioned in the Khuddaka-Nikaya, once in the Vinaya, once in the Abdhidhamma, and twice in the Visuddhimagga. Its very likely that the term arose after the death of the Buddha. The term refers to the fruition attainment of arahantship, as: there are four deliverances, one in meaning: the immeasurable, nothingness, voidness, and the signless - are all names for Nibbna, which is the object of the fruition attainment of arahantship. On signs, these are: anything perceivable, in this sense. Voidness, again, is the absence of external factors perceivable and internally pondered upon constructions or thoughts. The advice is to avoid or ignore potentially disruptive circumstances. The emphasis again is: give no attention for giving attention to something signifies residual defiling characteristics of greed, hatred or delusion. 124 I think this is a very profound statement. The Buddha does not want to be imposed upon, disturbed or interrupted by tainted people if so, the perception arises that the Buddha has little time for trivialities because he would rather be alone. If meeting the Buddha, it is likely the didnt give much attention to common people or their social problems since he has moved beyond these conventional problems 125 Commentaries suggest voidness internally as that connected with ones own five aggregates, voidness externally as that connected with the aggregates of others. But this is an inadequate definition. Previously, voidness was related to the meditative extinguishment of thought as in the jhnas, which leads to an understanding of Nibbna. It would be easier to just make the connection that a thought is related to ones consc ious aggregates towards the body, feelings, perceptions mental formations and consciousness as not being of or existing as self, thus non-self. The commentary continues: The voidness spoken of here thus must be the temporary deliverance of mind reached through the insight contemplation of non-self (agreed), and as explained above: And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind

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He gives attention to voidness externally He gives attention to voidness internally and externally He gives attention to imperturbability.126 While he is giving attention to imperturbability, his mind does not enter into imperturbability or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: While I am giving attention to imperturbability, my mind does not enter into imperturbability or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. In this way he has full awareness of that.127 Then that bhikkhu should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before. 128 Then he gives attention to voidness internally. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. In this way he has full awareness of that. He gives attention to voidness externally He gives attention to voidness internally and externally He gives attention to imperturbability. While he is giving attention to imperturbability, his mind enters into imperturbability and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: While I am giving attention to imperturbability, my mind enters into imperturbability and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. In this way he has full awareness of that.129 When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to walking, he walks, thinking: While I am walking thus, no evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief will beset mind inclines to standing, he stands If his mind inclines to sitting, he sits If his mind inclines to lying down, he lies down, thinking: While I am lying down thus, no evil unwholesome states will beset me. In this way he has full awareness of that.130 When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to talking, he resolves: Such talk that is low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble, unbeneficial, and which does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbna, that is: talk of kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothing, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, countries, women, heroes, streets, wells, the dead, trivialities, the origin of the world, the origin of
through voidness? The commentary alludes to an insightful action: Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: This is void of a self or of what belongs to a self. This is called the deliverance of mind through voidness. This is just one aspect of insight into impermanence, suffering and not-self. The commentary further identifies this suata-cetovimutti with insight into the voidness of selfhood in persons and things but this is liberation through voidness is only an aspect, along with liberation through the signless or liberation through dispositionlessness. Because my mediation experience has not fully explored the fourth-jhna, I cannot verify: when the insight into non-self is brought to the level of the path, it issues in the fruition experiencing Nibbna by way of its aspect of voidness. Because the term further illustrates mental liberational concepts the standard jhnic equanimity could apply, and the commentaries are just trying to make Buddhism more difficult, when in fact the Buddhas previously mentioned system is clear enough. Yet this system is not enough and there is only the awareness that complete voidness has not been attained, as in the below instances relating to calm or samatha-samadhi: 126 An immaterial meditative attainment. 127 The mind is still not calm. 128 Commentary is referring to the above initial jhna that was used as the basis for insight. If, after emerging from the basic jhna, his mind does not enter into voidness through insight contemplation on his own aggregates or those of others, and he also cannot attain the imperturbable immaterial attainment, he should return to the same basic jhna that he originally developed and attend to it again and again. 129 The above advice for samatha-samadhi, as imperturbability is a synonym for calm. The equanimity of the final jhna is a good measuring apparatus to determine voidness: anything that arises would imply an imbalance between calm and chaos, between wholesome and unwholesome. 130 It is not necessary to remain in the same posture of meditation for hours upon hours just to prove ones endurance powers... when the time is to walk, one may walk, and likewise, either stand, sit or lay as long as one is not entertaining unwholesome mental states.

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the sea, whether things are so or are not so - such talk I shall not utter.131 In this way he has full awareness of that.132 But he resolves: Such talk as deals with effacement, as favors the minds release, and which leads to complete disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbna, that is, talk on wanting little, on contentment, seclusion, aloofness from society, arousing energy, virtue, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance: such talk I shall utter. In this way he has full awareness of that. When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to thinking, he resolves: Such thoughts as are low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble, unbeneficial, and which do not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbna, that is, thoughts of sensual desire, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of cruelty: such thoughts I shall not think. In this way he has full awareness of that. But he resolves: Such thoughts as are noble and emancipating, and lead the one who practices in accordance with them to the complete destruction of suffering, that is, thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-ill will, and thoughts of non-cruelty: such thoughts I shall think. In this way he has full awareness of that.133 nanda, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear Odors cognizable by the nose Flavors cognizable by the tongue Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure. Herein a bhikkhu should constantly review his own mind thus: Does any mental excitement concerning these five cords of sensual pleasure ever arise in me on any occasion? If, on reviewing his mind, the bhikkhu understands: Mental excitement concerning these five cords of sensual pleasure does arise in me on certain occasions, then he understands: Desire and lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure are unabandoned in me. In this way he has full awareness of that. But if, on reviewing his mind, the bhikkhu understands: No mental excitement concerning these five cords of sensual pleasure arises in me on any occasion, then he understands: Desire and lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure are abandoned in me. In this way he has full awareness of that.134 nanda, there are these five aggregates affected by clinging, in regard to which a bhikkhu should abide contemplating rise and fall thus: Such is material form, such its arising, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its arising, such its disappearance; such is perception, such its arising, such its disappearance; such are formations, such their arising, such their disappearance; such is consciousness, such its arising, such its disappearance.
Not talking about these issues would silence many modern monastic-dwellers. Therefore, he seems as if he cannot talk about anything pertaining to society, and must work on eliminating his own personalized defiling mental characteristics as the following paragraph, in the discourse, does suggest. 133 Cultural suggestions promote: If you cant say something nice, dont say anything at all, or, When silence is better, dont speak. Other forms of low-domestic or divisive forms of speech should be avoided as well for the happiness of the household. In Buddhism, for instance as the above mentions: Buddhists are to strive to keep their minds filled with wholesome thoughts, and to refrain from unwholesome, harsh, false and other forms of negative or unbeneficial speech. Talking should only be productive and uplifting, towards Nibbna. 134 Restated: Do I possess any craving that is leading me from the Holy Life? Am I doing something other than what is conducive for living as a Buddhist monk?
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When he abides contemplating rise and fall in these five aggregates affected by clinging, the conceit I am based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is abandoned in him. When that is so, that bhikkhu understands: the conceit I am based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is abandoned in me. In that way he has full awareness of that.135 These states have an entirely wholesome basis; they are noble, supramundane, and inaccessible to the Evil One.136 What do you think, nanda? What good does a disciple see that he should seek the Teachers company even if he is told to go away?137 Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their resort. It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it. nanda, a disciple should not seek the Teachers company for the sake of lessons, stanzas, and expositions. Why is that? For a long time, nanda, you have learned the teachings, remembered them, recited them verbally, examined them with the mind, and penetrated them well by view; but such talk as deals with effacement, as favors the minds release, and which leads to complete disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbna, that is: talk on wanting little, on contentment, seclusion, aloofness from society, arousing energy, virtue, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance - for the sake of such talk a disciple should seek the Teachers company even if he is told to go away.

135 From complete awareness of these concepts arising, their presence, and their fading away the commentaries suggest this leads to arahantship. 136 The awareness of a state rising and fading is wholesome, as observational and is not a distractive condition. 137 Why should a disciple seek out a teacher if the teacher is only going to turn the disciple away? We shall see the rationality below:

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Since this is so, nanda, a teachers undoing may come about, a pupils undoing may come about, and the undoing of one who lives the holy life may come about. And how does a teachers undoing come about? Here some teacher resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This teacher is said to be undone by the teachers undoing. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. This is how the teachers undoing comes about. And how does a pupils undoing come about? A pupil of that teacher, emulating the teachers seclusion, resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This pupil is said to be undone by the pupils undoing. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. This is how the pupils undoing comes about. And how does the undoing of one who lives the holy life come about? Here a Tathgata appears in the world, accomplished and fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, yet he does not go astray, or become filled with desire, succumb to craving, and revert to luxury. However, a disciple of this teacher, emulating his teachers seclusion, resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This one who lives the holy life is said to be undone by the undoing of one who lives the holy life. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. Thus there comes to be the undoing of one who leads the holy life.138 And herein, nanda, the undoing of one who leads the holy life has a more painful result, a more bitter result, than the teachers undoing or the pupils undoing, and it even leads to perdition.139 Therefore, nanda, behave towards me with friendliness, not with hostility. That will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. And how do disciples behave towards the Teacher with hostility, not with friendliness? Here, nanda, compassionate and seeking their welfare, the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the disciples out of
Buddhist teachers, holy disciples and pupils are all susceptible to going astray and falling away from the Buddhist study-system: from desirable materialistic corruptions, or brought into being from those in different social classes, and can revert back into the unwholesome trappings of society. 139 Leaving the monkhood sends the former monastic holy-lifer into hell, as the metaphoric return to society places one back into the cyclic round of suffering. It is the personal experience of the analyst to have suffered for four consecutive days of headaches and tinnitus the sounds of the city were an assault upon the ears, along with no desire to consume food. The yearning to return to the solitude of a forested cave-temple has never faded, despite gaining in worldly, rather than spiritual status. It is an unequal trade-off, and could possibly be worse for other people with higher attainments.
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compassion: This is for your welfare, this is for your happiness. His disciples do not want to hear or give ear or exert their minds to understand; they err and turn aside from the Teachers Dispensation. Thus do disciples behave towards the Teacher with hostility, not with friendliness. And how do disciples behave towards the Teacher with friendliness, not with hostility? Here, nanda, compassionate and seeking their welfare, the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the disciples out of compassion: This is for your welfare, this is for your happiness. His disciples want to hear and give ear and exert their minds to understand; they do not err and turn aside from the Teachers Dispensation. Thus do disciples behave towards the Teacher with friendliness, not with hostility. Therefore, nanda, behave towards me with friendliness, not with hostility. That will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.140 I shall not treat you as the potter treats the raw damp clay. Repeatedly restraining you, I shall speak to you, nanda. Repeatedly admonishing you, I shall speak to you, nanda. The sound core will stand (the test). That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable nanda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed Ones words.141 Lessons Summary: This lesson is largely about dwelling away from sensual-experience. There are a few things that are calling out for further attention. In the beginning of the lesson, the Buddha asks nanda about the dwelling places of the bhikkhus, around the residences of some Sakyans. However, attention is drawn to the statement that the Buddha talks to other people in a way concerned with dismissing them. This has the appearance of negativity the householder not knowing why the Buddha does not welcome these encounters. These encounters are conducive for acquiring taints. The Buddha does not want to meet people who will possibly taint him, and one of the duties of the main-attendant is to keep unauthorized people away from him. The Buddha even asks nanda about why a disciple would even seek to question the Buddha, knowing that he is practically inaccessible, to the extent of being told to go away. This attempt to be as secluded as possible, hermit-like, is to protect the undoing of not only the teacher, but students and others that live the monastic life. The major point of interest here though is near the conclusion of the lesson when nanda is told to act with friendliness and not with hostility. Now, one must return and reread the introduction to the lesson where nanda and the Buddha begin to talk over who is staying in the dwellings. It is likely that nanda spoke to the Buddha in a less than pleasant voice, and this was the Buddhas attempt to reprimand his cousin. Seclusion is also necessary for the Buddhas favorite
140 Monastic disciples are considered hostile if they dont listen to the teachings and leave the ordained holylife. With this perspective it could be insultive to leave the monkhood, or in contrast those without proper abilities can freely leave although, listening to the true advice for seeking a teacher is enough to eliminate any doubts, in a wise person. Respect or friendliness towards the Buddha or Lord Abbot (perhaps?), would mean listening to any doctrinallyproductive advice leading towards liberation. Disrespect means not heeding the advice and the eventual return to the unholy householder life this is a hostile act that does not lead to real happiness. 141 Sure, the Buddha must have been beyond unwholesome frustrations, but the language retained within this sutta contains many instances to illuminate disappointment with the Sangha: accusations of the delightment of society was just one admonishment, another being the venture into hellish realms the result from leaving the holy-life. But what is the main, summarized advice? Voidness, as described in the sutta, would be: the temporary deliverance of mind reached through the insightful contemplation of the voidness of impermanence, suffering and non-self... additionally the four-jhnas seem to be conducive to similar states of the imperturbable or calmed mind. The equanimity of the final jhna is a good measuring apparatus to determine voidness: anything that arises would imply an imbalance between calm and chaos, between wholesome and unwholesome. And, just as one may wish the experience can be done in any meditative posture - as long as one is not entertaining unwholesome mental states.

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type of meditation. The Jhnas are shown below, as a step-by-step process, to perhaps greatly illuminate each stage:
Jhna Stages: Quite secluded from sensual pleasures certainly appears to stress abiding alone, removed from distractions and again, the Four Jhnas (read numerically): 1. detached (living in peaceful solitude) from all sense-desires 3. which is 2. enters and (distractions), detached from with thinking 4. born of 5. filled with remains in the first unwholesome mental states and detachment, delight and joy. jhna, (without greed, hatred or pondering, delusion), 8. he enters 9. which is without 7. by gaining inner 6. And with the subsiding of 10. filled with and remains in thinking and tranquility and thinking and pondering, pondering born of delight and joy. the second oneness of mind, concentration, jhna, 12. remaining 13. he experiences in himself that joy 14. he enters and 11. And with the fading away imperturbable, of which the Noble Ones say: remains in the of delight, mindful and clearly Happy is he who dwells with third jhna. aware, equanimity and mindfulness, 16. and with the 17. he enters 19. and purified 15. And, having given up disappearance of and remains in 18. which is beyond by equanimity pleasure and pain, former gladness and the fourth pleasure and pain, and mindfulness. sadness, jhna

It was determined to look at the nineteen aspects of the jhna-stages in brief segments, as above, to trace the long processes that becomes necessary. Seclusion is the necessary stage. Seclusion, as demonstrated in the lesson, is anti-social behavior, further evident in the statement that urges conversations to end quickly, driving the other conversant away before mental taints enter the mind. This lesson, apart from the desire to be alone for the sake of better attainments, is mainly about proper training methods: beginning with a proper training location and proper mental state, to explore states of mind that are impossible to experience when distracted; additionally, the lesson gets into reasons why someone should not distract the teacher but what ever is said during instruction should be remembered, respectfully. The logical consequence suggests that the Buddha was probably interrupted previously by questions or topics he already discussed. This lesson could casually illustrate occurrences that annoyed the Buddha or, how he felt disrespected by Sangha-members. The lesson was mentioned to end the continuation of such behaviors amongst the Sangha-group dwelling with the Buddha, if even the situation seems temporary mindfulness should still be present within individuals to resist the decay of the holy life, or the monastic tradition popularized by Buddhism. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said or read here, from the Mahasuta Sutta it is a lesson on voidness in the sense of being able to strive alone, to work out the details of the aggregate constituents of the conventional individual. If there is a void of distractions, physically and mentally, one can attain liberation, peacefully. Abridged Version of the Vinaya/Paimokkha: There are many rules above that are followed by the Buddha which have not been adapted by the monastic community for some reason, although upholding the tradition of the Buddha and his perfect example should be worth emulating. Many of the emulatiblesuggestions have been included above. However, despite what tradition has preserved,

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the Theravada Elders have established different criteria: there are 227 rules of monastic discipline that Theravada Buddhist monks must follow, covering the governance of social, environmental and material concerns. To break any of these rules, sometimes, has a serious consequence.142 Many rules of monastic discipline were formed because certain lay people questioned the Buddha on the proper behavior of monks because often monks were seen doing something questionable. Sometimes, if the monk was the first to commit an offense, he was not punished but if there was any future occurrence by anyone, a violation occurred. Monks in the Sangha, are to recite the rules of monastic discipline twice a month, about every two weeks. As individuals, monks are supposed to study the below rules, every day.
Paimokkha - Rules for Buddhist Monks: Rule # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Type of Violation: Four Defeats Can no longer live as a Buddhist monk. Thirteen Rules Entailing Initial and Subsequent Meeting of the Sangha a meeting to determine the severity of the offense and proper punishment banishment or lives under probation and would later have to be reinstated as a monk again (after the sixnight penance and reduction to a novice losing monastic seniority) Two Indefinite Rules the woman can accuse the monk of breaking one of the above rules. Regulation: No Sexual Intercourse No Stealing No Killing No Claiming Higher Human States Emission of Semen except in a dream Cannot touch a woman if possessed with lustful thoughts Cannot talk to a woman if possessed with lustful thoughts Cannot praise or invite ones sexual strength to a woman Cannot be a middle-man or arrange for a man and woman to marry A kuti must be built within the proper area (by other monks) and with proper measurements Can only build a vihara within an approved (by other monks) area If angry cannot groundlessly accuse another monk of one of the Defeats If angry cannot use legal processes connected with other rules to accuse a monk of a Defeat Cannot cause a schism (break-up) of the Sangha One cannot side with a monk who causes a schism One should be open to admonishments (criticism) Cannot become a corrupter of families and of bad behavior Cannot privately sit alone with a woman Cannot speak naughty words to a woman alone If all stored cloth has been utilized a monk can only wear an extra robe for only 10 days A monk cannot live apart from his triple robe even for a single night A monk can accept extra robes outside the proper time, but must give them up as soon as possible. If there is not enough cloth for a complete robe, then he can keep the cloth for a month Cannot have a nun clean or dye a robe unless she is related to him Cannot accept, only exchange, a robe with a nun unless she is related to him A monk can only ask for cloth from unrelated laypeople outside the proper offering times if his robes were lost or stolen If unrelated householders offer the monk to accept cloth sufficient enough for under and upper robes he can accept, but any more must be forfeited. A monk cannot ask a non-related person to purchase robes for him A monk cannot ask many non-related people to purchase individual robes for him If someone sends money to a monk to purchase a robe, only the lay-steward can accept the money, and when the proper time comes for the monk in need of a new robe to ask the steward (up to six times) and the steward never presents the robe at the proper time the monk can go or send someone to the person supplying the

Thirty Rules entailing Expiation with Forfeiture

142 Venerable amoli Thera [translator]: The Paimokkha The Rule for Buddhist Monks (Bangkok: Mahamakutarajavidyalaya, 1992), various pages. The chart is my own.

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money that the robe never came to the monk, and the person should become concerned for the potential loss. A monk must forfeit a rug mixed with silk. A monk must forfeit a rug made of pure black goats wool. A monk can only get a rug made from 2 parts pure black goats wool, 1 part white and the final part ruddy-brown otherwise it must be forfeited. A monk should keep his rug for six-years or forfeit a new one. Part of an old rug must be incorporated into the new rug, to make it unsightly or forfeit the new one. A monk may accept wool while traveling, but unless there is someone to carry it for him after some length, he would have to forfeit the wool. A monk cannot have a non-related nun clean his wool rug. A monk cannot receive, cause to be received or be glad at money kept for him A monk cannot engage in various forms of trafficking money A monk cannot engage in various forms of buying and selling An extra alms-bowl can only be kept for ten days A monk cannot exchange his old bowl for a new one until five repairs have occurred. The new bowl should be forfeited to a gathering of monks. The Senior monk may accept the bowl or passed downward until the last monk and then the bowl is finally offered to the monk who needs it and should keep it until it is broken Ghee, Fresh Butter, Oil, Honey, Molasses as medicine can only be stored for seven days or become forfeited A monk can accept robe-materials at the final fortnight of the Hot Season otherwise if worn, should be forfeited If a monk gives his own robes to another monk, and if angry decides to take back the robes he should apologize and forfeit the robes A monk cannot ask for thread and then have weavers make him a new robe If unrelated people are getting weavers to make a robe for a monk the monk cannot bribe weavers to make the robe better If a monk received a robe offered in haste ten days before the Rains retreat, he can store it until Kathina privileges are used up for only four months A forest monk can deposit his robes in a house for up to six nights at the most. If the monk thinks a gift for the Sangha was for himself, it is to be forfeited Cannot speak falsely if fully aware No abusive speech No Slander Cannot study/rehearse Dhamma together with one not fully accepted into the Sangha Cannot sleep for more than 2-3 nights with one not fully accepted Cannot sleep under the same roof with a woman Cannot teach more than 5-6 sentences of Dhamma to a woman without a knowing male present Cannot announce his true superhuman state to one not fully accepted Cannot reveal to one not fully accepted another monks faults unless he has that monks permission Cannot dig or have others dig the earth Cannot cause plants to be damaged Cannot reply evasively or give trouble by remaining silent Cannot ridicule openly and criticize privately Cannot spread out in the open - a bed, mattress, chair, etc., belonging to the Sangha and then depart without putting it away and without taking leave Cannot spread out bedding belonging to the Sangha and not having put it away, and go without taking leave Cannot lay down in a dwelling belonging to the Sangha in such a way to make a monk who has arrived before to go away Any monk cannot be try to drive out another monk in anger out of a dwelling belonging to the Sangha Cannot sit/lay suddenly on a bed/bench with detachable legs on a loft with an incompletely planked floor on a dwelling belonging to the Sangha When having a vihara built: a monk cannot put material on for roofing or plastering in more than 2-3 layers in an area without green crops

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 92 RULES entailing expiation or an Apology

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69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 Cannot cause water with living things inside to be poured out on grass or earth Cannot exhort nuns without permission Even with permission, a monk should not exhort nuns after sundown Unless she is sick a monk cannot go to a nuns quarters to exhort unless it is the proper occasion A monk cannot tell another monk to exhort nuns for material gains A monk cannot give a robe to a nun not related to him, unless it is in exchange A monk cannot sew a robe for a nun not related to him A monk cannot, by appointment, set out to travel on the same journey as a nun, even to one village, unless it is the proper occasion the proper occasion here is a caravan needed because the journey is too dangerous to go alone because of robbers A monk cannot go by appointment upstream or downstream with a nun by boat he can merely only cross to the other bank Unless intended by householders, a monk cannot eat alms-food procured by nuns A monk cannot sit together alone with a nun one man and one woman alone A monk who is not sick can only eat one meal at a public food-distribution center Cannot eat in groups with families, unless it is the proper occasion (a holiday, a journey, on a boat, or giving/making-up robes, or other extra-ordinary gatherings, or a meal supplied by samanas) If a monk has already accepted a meal to be taken, he cannot substitute a later meal unless it is the proper occasion (sickness, giving/making-up robes) Should a family invite a monk who has arrived to accept cakes/biscuits, 2-3 bowlfuls can be accepted to be taken back to share with other monks Having already eaten, then refused further offered food, the monk cannot even chew or consume harder or softer foods that are not left over from that meal that was accepted. A monk cannot invite a monk to eat after he has refused foods, to accept foods not left over and wish to find fault in the monk after telling him to eat Cannot eat hard or soft foods from noon to the following dawn. Cannot chew or eat stored food after noon Unless sick, a monk cannot ask for and consume the fine foods: ghee, butter, oil, honey, molasses, fish, meat, milk, curd A monk can only put unoffered, into his mouth, pure water or tooth-sticks no food unless offered Cannot give food from his own had to a naked ascetic or a wanderer Cannot suggest to another monk to go on alms-round together then later dismiss the monk because one thinks that it is not convenient to have another around, wanting to sit by oneself Cannot intrude upon and sit down with a family having food Cannot sit together with a female on a screened seat Cannot sit together with a woman one man and one woman privately If invited for a meal, a monk cannot go visit families before or after the meal without informing a monk in his Sangha, unless it is for the proper occasion of giving robes or making-up robes. If a monk is not sick, he can accept an invitation to be supported with requisites for up to four months, if he accepts one for longer, it has to be a repetition of invitation or for a permanent invitation. Cannot see an army in battle array, unless there is a suitable reason If for some reason the monk goes to visit the army, he can only stay with them for 2-3 nights If while staying for those 2-3 nights with the army, he should not go to the battlefield or to a camp or to a battle-array or a regimental review Cannot drink/consume distilled and fermented liquors. Cannot tickle someone Cannot play about and laugh in the water Cannot be disrespectful Cannot scare or frighten another monk Cannot light a fire, expecting to get warmed, unless one is sick, or there is a suitable reason Can only bathe every two weeks in the Middle-Country (High and Dry), unless it is for the proper occasion (an illness, after physical work, going on a journey, or an occasion of a storm)

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107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 15 116 117 118 119 120 If a monk as accepted a new robe, one of the three discolorations must be applied green, mud, or dark brown Cannot share an extra robe with someone can only relinquish it Cannot hide another monks bowl, robes, sitting mat, needle-case, waist-band, etc., even for a joke Cannot purposely deprive a living being of life Cannot knowingly use water containing living beings Knowingly and according to righteousness, after a legal process, a monk cannot agitate reasons for the action to occur again Cannot conceal another monks major faults Cannot give the full acceptance to someone under age 20, other monks in the ceremony are also faulted Cannot knowingly and by appointment set out to travel on the same journey with a caravan of thieves even to go through one village Cannot knowingly and by appointment set out to travel on the same journey with a woman even to go through one village Should not understand the Dhamma as being obstructions and misrepresent the Buddha a meeting with the Sangha may be called to re-educate the monk A monk cannot knowingly eat, live or sleep with another monk who has a case against him that has not yet been settled or relinquished that view If a novice has obstructions and misrepresents the Buddha, a monk can expel the novice for holding onto wrong views, if after this, the monk continues to live with that man, he can no longer look after the man, eat with, or live/sleep with that man If a monk is being admonished and will not take up a training rule, he should seek a Vinaya expert to explain it, as the proper course of action the monk should try to ask and inquire about the rule until he thoroughly understands it When the Paimokkha is being recited, if the monk states: Why are these lesser and minor training rules recited leading only to worry, bother and confusion then because he has disparaged the training rules, he must apologize If after several sittings of the Paimokkha, a monk finally utters that he understands a training rule, then on a later occasion breaks that training rule he should be dealt with appropriately, because he did not heed or give wise and proper attention to errors A monk, even if angry or displeased, cannot hit another monk A monk, even if angry or displeased, cannot raise his hand against another monk A monk cannot groundlessly accuse another monk of a fault entailing a meeting of the Sangha A monk cannot purposely provoke worry in another monk wishing to make him uncomfortable A monk cannot ease-drop on other quarrelling monks hoping to overhear After giving his consent for legal acts of the Sangha, a monk cannot later engage in activity decrying that activity Should any monk not give his consent and get up from his seat and depart while investigatory discussion is still proceeding in the Sangha needs to explain/apologize After forming part of a Sangha living in concord that has given a robe to a monk, should not later decry the activity as if the Sangha was acting on its own whims A monk cannot give a possession of the Sangha to a regular person as a gift Not having permission, a monk should not pass into the bed-chamber of a king who has not yet exited while the Queen is still inside. A monk cannot pick up anything determined to be a treasure unless it is inside his own monastery or dwelling. But if a monk picks up a treasure in his temple or dwelling he should think whoever it belongs to will take it away as the proper course of action. A monk cannot enter into a village outside the proper time without taking leave of a monk present within the boundary markers of that temple, unless there is something urgent to be done. A monk cannot make a needle-case from bone, ivory, or horn he faces expiation and the item broken-up A monk cannot have a bed or bench made higher than eight-sugata (?) fingers high, excluding the frame the object faces cutting done to size. A monk cannot have and bed or bench upholstered with kapok (a cotton-type tree fiber), it must be stripped out

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122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

134 135 136 137

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138 A sitting cloth must be made in the proper measurement Two spans of the sugata, one a half across, and the border a span it is exceeds this it must be trimmed down. A skin-eruption cloth can be made with the correct measurements, of four spans in length, two and a half across any amount in excess must be trimmed off. A rains-cloth can be made correctly six spans in length, two and a half across any excess must be trimmed off. Should a monk have a sugata-robe made nine spans in length, six spans across any excess must be trimmed off. If a monk receives food from a non-related nun and later goes into the forest with this food to eat it, that should be confessed. If monks have been invited by families and a nun is directing householders to put rice and curries in certain places, then the nun must be asked to stop directing food-service. If no monk should speak, they must all confess. Some families have been declared Initiate where both the husband and wife are stream-enterers but are in poor circumstances if a monk accepts and chews food from them it should be confessed. Sometimes a monk might live inside a dangerous forest if he does not first announce this fact to his supporters and then later accepts food in his dangerous monastery, and if not sick, and consumes the food (endangering the supporters) he must confess. The monk should wear the under-robe even all around The monk should put on the upper-robe even all around The monk should go well-covered in inhabited areas The monk shall sit well-covered in inhabited areas The monk shall go well-restrained in inhabited areas The monk shall sit well-restrained in inhabited areas The monk shall go with downcast eyes in inhabited areas The monk shall sit with downcast eyes in inhabited areas The monk shall not go with robes hitched up in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit with robes hitched up in inhabited areas The monk shall not go about laughing loudly in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit about laughing loudly in inhabited areas The monk shall go with little sound in inhabited areas The monk shall sit with little sound in inhabited areas The monk shall not go fidgeting or swagger the body in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit fidgeting or swaying the body in inhabited areas The monk shall not go fidgeting or swinging the arms in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit fidgeting or making gestures with the arms in inhabited areas The monk shall not go fidgeting or shaking his head in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit fidgeting or drooping his head in inhabited areas The monk shall not go with arms akimbo in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit with arms akimbo in inhabited areas The monk shall not go with the head covered in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit with the head covered in inhabited areas The monk shall not go walking on toes or heels in inhabited areas The monk shall not sit clasping the knees in inhabited areas The monk shall accept almsfood appreciatingly The monk shall accept almsfood with attention on the bowl The monk shall accept almsfood with other foods in proportion (one-to-four parts to the rice) The monk shall accept almsfood level with the edge of the bowl The monk shall eat the almsfood appreciatingly The monk shall eat the almsfood with attention on the bowl The monk shall eat the almsfood evenly The monk shall eat the almsfood with curries in proportion The monk shall not eat the almsfood working down from the top The monk shall not hide curries and other foods with rice out of the desire to get more The monk, unless sick. Should not ask for curry or rice for his own benefit and eat

139 140 141 142 143 144 Four Rules that must be Confessed before the Paimokkha recitation

145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 Rules of Training

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183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 it The monk should not find fault in another monks bowl The monk shall not make up large-mouthfuls The monk should make up a round mouthful The monk should not open the mouth unless a mouthful is brought to it The monk shall not put all the fingers into his mouth when eating The monk shall not speak when his mouth is full The monk shall not eat his food by tossing food into the air The monk shall not eat biting upon a lump of rice The monk shall not eat by stuffing his cheeks The monk shall not eat shaking the hand about The monk shall not eat scattering rice about The monk shall not eat putting the tongue out The monk shall not eat making a champing sound The monk shall not eat making sucking sounds The monk shall not eat cleaning or licking his hands The monk shall not eat cleaning or scraping his bowl with his fingers The monk shall not eat cleaning or licking his lips with the tongue The monk should not accept a drinking-pot of water with a hand soiled by food In an inhabited area, a monk should not through away bowl-washing water which has rice grains in it A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person with an umbrella in the hand who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person with a staff in the hand who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person with a knife in the hand who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person with a weapon in the hand who is not sick The monk should not teach Dhamma to a person wearing wooden sandals who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person wearing footwear who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person in a vehicle who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person on a couch who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person who sits grasping the knees who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person wearing a head-wrapping who is not sick A monk should not teach Dhamma to a person with a head-covering who is not sick While sitting on the ground, a monk should not teach Dhamma to a person sitting on a seat who is not sick While on a low seat, a monk should not teach Dhamma to a person sitting on a higher seat who is not sick While standing, a monk should not teach Dhamma to a person sitting who is not sick While walking behind someone, a monk should not teach Dhamma to a person walking in front who is not sick While walking besides a path, a monk should not teach Dhamma to a person walking on the path who is not sick A monk, when not sick, stool or make water while standing up A monk, when not sick, stool, make water, or spit on green plants A monk, when not sick, stool, make water, or spit into water The procedure to be done in the presence of, may be given The procedure setting up mindfulness as the main point, may be given The procedure of announcing no-longer-insane may be given Doing according to what is admitted By the words of a majority By giving a penalty to one who has done evil By covering over with grass

Seven Rules for Settlement of Legal Processes for the settlement, for the stilling of legal processes whenever they may arise, there are:

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Paimokkha Summarization and Chapter Summary: We cannot even be certain that the Paimokkha as demonstrated above is the exact Paimokkha that was approved by the Buddha. It seems evident that when the Buddha had issued something of an ethical or moral nature, the monks should have taken better notice and incorporated the utterance as a regulation to be remembered. However, any behavior of the Buddha may not be binding on other bhikkhus, in the direct sense that when Devadatta had requested five strict moralities to impose upon the Sangha, the Buddha denied the principles, suggesting that they are only voluntary and not compulsory upon society. What was good for the Buddha or another disciple to practice might not be good for implementing upon the entire Sangha. However, and very importantly, there are suggestions to have rightlivelihood. From being open to admonishment and being respectful around other people upholding morality also protects the practitioner, or the one who endeavors becomes noble. Evident also in the collection of moral episodes above are wholesome and unwholesome aspects for the common worldling, and moving beyond these elevates someone to nobler attainments.

Chapter III ADHICITTA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Mentality

Introduction: The Aitareya Upaniad:


Who is he? We worship him as the self. Which one is the self? The one by whom one sees, By whom one hears, By whom one smells smells By whom one utters speech, By whom one discriminates what is sweet and not sweet. Who is the heart, the mind: consciousness, perception, discrimination, knowledge, intelligence, vision, steadfastness, thought, consideration, swiftness, memory, resolve, intention, life, desire, will. All these are names for knowledge. He is Brahma, he is Indra, he is Prajapati and all the gods; the five elements, earth, air, space, the waters, light; those which are, as it were, finely mixed; the various other kinds of seeds, the egg-born, the womb-born, the sweat-born, the shoot-born; horses, cattle, human-beings, elephants. All that has breath, both walking and flying, and all that is still, is lead by knowledge, based on knowledge. The world is led by knowledge. Knowledge is the basis. Knowledge is brahman. By the wise self, he rose upward; he won in that heavenly world all desires; and he became immortal, became immortal. So it is. Om. Om: My speech stands firm on mind: My mind stands firm on speech. Appear, appear to me. Be to me a nail for the Veda. Do not harm my learning. With this study I hold days and nights together. I will speak law: I will speak truth. May that protect me: may that protect the speaker. May it protect me: may it protect the speaker, may it protect the speaker. Om. Peace, Peace, Peace.

It may be very odd to include this Aitareya Upaniad143, in a Buddhist text. We should think, however that the ascetic Gotama was trained in the knowledge of the vedicliterature. As such a student, he was likely trained in the above aspects. Being thus trained, and through his training towards supreme-enlightenment, the above criteria were things that he likely contemplated. Having won victory, and being victorious over ignorance, he would later teach Dhamma, which explains or defines much of the above
143 Valerie J. Roebuck (trans.): The Upaniads (London: Penguin Classics, 2003), pp. 234-235, and the associated footnotes on pp. 432-433

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criteria that there is no permanence in such substantially-contrived ideals. Below is some of this criteria that the Buddha taught. Training in Higher Mentality: This chapter uses lessons extracted for their intellectual importance, and placed below to demonstrate some structure towards their relevance to higher mentality. The following lessons are selected for the following reasons: The Cahatthipadopama Sutta discusses, apart from its own section on the morality of the Buddha as the Tathgata and Arahant, social classes and their conversions to Buddhism, along with detailing meditative attainments. For the reason of this lessons conversion power, it is listed first. The Vitakkasahna Sutta discusses wholesome and unwholesome thoughts and how to have a higher-mind the title of this chapter. The Mahhatthipadopama Sutta discusses the Four Noble Truths and how other aspects of Dhamma can be categorized inside the framework. The Mahvedalla Sutta discusses factors of the mind, meditations and deliverance. The Cakkavattishanda Sutta discusses taking no other refuge except for ones conventional self, and discusses meditations. The excerpt of the Pohapda Sutta included here, discusses states of consciousness (Abhidhamma material). To conclude the chapter, a section of material gathered from the Sagti Sutta, pertaining to the Dhamma-sets related to meditations is presented as a manufactured system that could be implemented by interested meditators.

Abridged Version of the Cahatthipadopama Sutta144 What reasons does Master Vacchayana see that he has such confidence in the recluse Gotama? Sir, suppose a wise elephant woodsman were to enter an elephant wood and were to see in the elephant wood a big elephants footprint, long in extent and broad across. He would come to the conclusion: Indeed, this is a big bull elephant. So too, when I saw four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. What are the four? Sir, I have seen here certain learned nobles who were clever, knowledgeable about the doctrines of others, as sharp as hairsplitting marksmen; they wander about, as it were, demolishing the views of others with their sharp wits. When they hear: The recluse Gotama will visit such and such a village or town, they formulate a question thus: We will go to the recluse Gotama and ask him this question. If he is asked like this, he will answer like this, and so we will refute his doctrine in this way; and if he is asked like that, he will answer like that, and so we will refute his doctrine in that way. 145 They
Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 269-277. This was the first sutta preached by Mahinda Thera following his arrival in Sri Lanka and was thus wisely utilized to convert the king to Buddhism. Ancient stone inscriptions around Southeast Asia (Thailand) suggest that the discourse was also used for converting the royal families in this region, by Venerables Sona and Uttara. 145 Certainly these people are thinking critically, because they have the foresight to think out the situation before it arrives.
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hear: The recluse Gotama has come to visit such and such a village or town. They go to the recluse Gotama, and the recluse Gotama instructs, urges, rouses, and encourages them with a talk on the Dhamma. After they have been instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the recluse Gotama with a talk on the Dhamma, they do not so much as ask him the question, so how should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they become his disciples. When I saw this first footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. Again, I have seen certain learned Brahmins [and from this point, repeat the identical portion of the above paragraph, until this point]. When I saw this second footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. Again, I have seen certain learned householders [and from this point, repeat the identical portion of the above paragraph, until this point]. When I saw this third footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. Again, I have seen certain learned recluses146 who were clever, knowledgeable about the doctrines of others, as sharp as hairsplitting marksmen; they wander about, as it were, demolishing the views of others with their sharp wits. When they hear: The recluse Gotama will visit such and such a village or town, they formulate a question thus: We will go to the recluse Gotama and ask him this question. If he is asked like this, he will answer like this, and so we will refute his doctrine in this way; and if he is asked like that, he will answer like that, and so we will refute his doctrine in that way. They hear: The recluse Gotama has come to visit such and such a village or town. They go to the recluse Gotama, and the recluse Gotama instructs, urges, rouses, and encourages them with a talk on the Dhamma. After they have been instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the recluse Gotama with a talk on the Dhamma, they do not so much as ask him the question, so how should they refute his doctrine? They do not so much as ask him the question, so how should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they ask the recluse Gotama to allow them to go forth from the home life into homelessness, and he gives them the going forth. Not long after they have gone forth, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, by realizing for themselves with direct knowledge they, here and now, enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. They say thus: We were very nearly lost, we very nearly perished, for formerly we claimed that we were recluses though we were not really recluses; we claimed that we were brahmins through we were not really brahmins; we claimed that we were arahants though we were not really arahants. But now we are recluses, now we are brahmins, now we are arahants. When I saw this fourth footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. When I saw these four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way.
146 Notice the changes in the paragraph for recluses, rather than a similar paragraph for nobles, brahmins and householders they become just disciples; however the recluses ask for ordination.

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When this was said, the brahmin Jussoi got down from his all-white chariot drawn by white mares, and arranging his upper robe on one shoulder, he extended his hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and uttered this exclamation three times: Honor to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honor to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honor to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Perhaps some time or other we might meet Master Gotama and have some conversation with him. Then the brahmin Jussoi went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and related to the Blessed One his entire conversation with the wanderer Pilotika. Thereupon the Blessed One told him: At this point, brahmin, the simile of the elephants footprint has not yet been completed in detail. As to how it is completed in detail, listen and attend carefully to what I shall say. - Yes, sir, the brahmin Jussoi replied. The Blessed One said this: Brahmin, suppose an elephant woodsman were to enter the elephant woods and were to see in the elephant woods a big elephants footprint, long in extent and broad across. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: Indeed, this is a big bull elephant. Why is that? In the elephant woods there are small she-elephants that leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it and sees in the elephant woods a big elephants footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: Indeed, this is a big bull elephant. Why is that? In the elephant woods there are tall she-elephants that have prominent teeth and leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it further and sees in the elephant woods a big elephants footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up, and marks made by tusks. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: Indeed, this is a big bull elephant. Why is that? In the elephant woods there are tall sheelephants that have tusks and leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it further and sees in the elephant woods a big elephants footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up, and marks made by tusks, and broken-off branches; and he sees that bull elephant at the root of a tree or in the open, walking about, sitting, or lying down. He comes to the conclusion: This is that big bull elephant.147 So too, brahmin, here a Tathgata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realized with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure. A householder or householders son or one born in some other clan hears that Dhamma.148 On hearing the Dhamma he acquires faith in the Tathgata. Possessing that faith, he considers thus: Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure

147 148

The mental-image has finally become a physical-reality, the proof is right before the senses. Now the process begins.

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as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard149, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness. On a later occasion, abandoning a small or a large fortune, abandoning a small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from the home life into homelessness. Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhus training and way of life, abandoning the killing of living beings, he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expecting only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity. Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide (those people) from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide (these people) from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial.150 He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practices eating only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time. He abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with unguents. He abstains from high and large couches. He abstains from accepting gold and silver. He abstains from accepting raw grain. He abstains from accepting raw meat. He abstains from accepting women and girls. He abstains from accepting men and women slaves. He abstains from accepting goats and sheep. He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs. He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He abstains from accepting fields and land. He abstains from going on errands and running messages. He abstains from buying and selling. He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false measures. He abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery. He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence. He becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too the Bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.
149 Signs that suggest if someone has these then they are living the householder life, possessing such physical traits, as a beard & longer hair. 150 There seems to be five criteria here: first the decision needs to be made to speak, before something uttered is considered to be timely. So the criteria is: (1): Timely; (2): Worth recording; (3): Reasonable; (4): Moderate; (5): Beneficial. This demonstrates, not necessarily right-speech, from my perspective, but rather that someone needs to be continually considering what one is saying - being mindful of his/her speech. There is a tactical difference.

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On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practices the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear On smelling an odor with the nose On tasting a flavor with the tongue On touching a tangible with the body On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practices the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied.151 He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent. Possessing this aggregate152 of noble virtue, and this noble restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, or a heap of straw. On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and establishing mindfulness before him.153 Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt. Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom154, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata, something scraped by the Tathgata, something marked by the Tathgata, but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a Bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without
151 This is a foundational, or simple, fundamental-meditation technique using one of the sense-doors. The next paragraph suggests that mindfulness should be extended into other daily-life endeavors engaged into. 152 So you can see that the preceeding material pertains to aspects of noble discipline and a comparison to the Vinaya or Patimokkha would be interesting. 153 To emphasize: What is this mindfulness? Is this against all that was previously mentioned or just towards that which opposes the hindrances? 154 The hindrances seem to be defined here, as mental imperfections. Then, being unhindered, jhanas can be attained.

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applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened... Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a Bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhna, on account of which noble ones announce: He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened... Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a Bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here. Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened When his concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings pass on according to their actions thus: These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world. Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: This is suffering; This is the origin of suffering; This is the cessation of suffering;

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This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering; These are the taints; This is the origin of the taints; This is the cessation of the taints; This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata, something scraped by the Tathgata, something marked by the Tathgata, but a noble disciple still has not yet come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. Rather, he is in the process of coming to this conclusion. When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: It is liberated. He understands: Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathgata, something scraped by the Tathgata, something marked by the Tathgata. It is at this point that a noble disciple h as come to the conclusion: The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practicing the good way. And it is at this point, brahmin, that the simile of the elephants footprint has been completed in detail. When this was said, the brahmin Jussoi said to the Blessed One: Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.

Lesson Summary: This lesson pertains to Buddhist conversion. Conversion implies that someone has heard or read the teachings, and has made an assessment or value-judgment of the teachings, and then has made a determination that they should adopt these teachings into ones life leaving behind ones former ways, to tread a new forged path

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with the Buddhadhamma. The circumstances perhaps should be ripe for a lesson to be delivered. There seems to be five criteria from this lesson that are present in this sutta, here: first the decision needs to be made to speak, before something uttered is considered to be timely. So the criteria is: (1): Timely; (2): Worth recording; (3): Reasonable; (4): Moderate; (5): Beneficial. This demonstrates, not necessarily right-speech, from my perspective, but rather that someone needs to be continually considering what one is saying - being mindful of his/her speech. If you are trying to convert someone to Buddhism, this is an important consideration that missionary Buddhists must have been trained in or have comprehended. The Brahmin in the story converted to Buddhism. Likewise, this lesson was used by the Venerable Mahinda son of the Emperor of Asoka - and according to archeological evidence, by Sona and Uttara to convert the many people of South and Southeast Asia after they were sent out by Emperor Asoka. The previous condition of the tribal areas here were non-Buddhist in nature, but with enough understanding of the views of brahminism to understand; as a consequence of hearing the teaching - people of all social classes converted (meaning: the social-philosophy is for anyone), and through the development of sensual restraint and morality; and through the development of the ability to suppress and eliminate defiling hindrances, noble attainments were taught to be soon achieved. Without such effort, one may become trapped in an ignorant cycle of suffering. Notice though, the lesson is only emphasizing the learned members of society; but what about the rest of humanity? Is Buddhism only for the learned, or is Buddhism suitable for application into any strata of humanity? There is a tactical difference. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was mentioned in the lesson would point to the achievement of the highest Buddhist ideals. After these methods are developed and can be duplicated, the highest realization is reached. The graphic depiction above illustrates how powerful people make powerful decisions to attain powerful achievements. The impact of this lesson is philosophical with of course sociological and political implications. The ideology is that once a system of perfected morality is given, one is considered at a loss, and the way forward is a movement away from where one currently is there would be structural change. Transformations must take place and the next step is renunciation and ordination. The step beyond this achievement is great calm and other powerful mental abilities. Abridged Version of the Vitakkasahna Sutta155 The Blessed One said: Bhikkhus, when a Bhikkhu is pursuing the higher 156 mind , from time to time157 he should give attention to five signs.158 What are the five? Here, bhikkhus, when a Bhikkhu is giving attention to some sign, and owing to that
155 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 211 -214. Also, this sutta and commentary is available in translation by Soma Thera, as The Removal of Distracting Thoughts, see: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soma/wheel021.html. accessed on 8 July 2009. Additionally, some excellent footnotes from Walshe will be maintained for this discourse, with slight editing. 156 The eight-jhnas of higher insight: supramundane, consciousness as distinguished from mere wholesome consciousness - and this might not be performed by everyone... just by those with the intention 157 Whenever the imperfections arise 158 Walshe: The higher mind (adhicitta) is the mind of the eight meditative attainments used as a basis for insight; it is called higher mind because it is higher than the ordinary (wholesome) mind of the ten wholesome courses of action. The five signs (nimitta) may be understood as practical methods of removing the distracting thoughts. They should be resorted to only when the distractions become persistent or obtrusive; at other times the meditator should remain with his primary subject of meditation.

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sign there arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should give attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome.159 When he gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a skilled carpenter or his apprentice might knock out, remove, and extract a coarse peg by means of a fine one, so too when a Bhikkhu gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. If, while he is giving attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should examine the danger in those thoughts thus: These thoughts are unwholesome, they are reprehensible, they result in suffering. When he examines the danger in those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man or a woman, young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, would be horrified, humiliated, and disgusted if the carcass of a snake or a dog or a human being were hung around his or her neck, so too when a Bhikkhu examines the danger in those thoughts his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. If, while he is examining the danger in those thoughts, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should try to forget those thoughts and should not give attention to them. When he tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man with good eyes who did not want to see forms that had come within range of sight would either shut his eyes or look away, so too when a Bhikkhu tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. If, while he is trying to forget those thoughts and is not giving attention to them, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should give attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts. When he gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man walking fast might consider: Why am I walking fast? What if I walk slowly? and he would walk slowly; then he might consider: Why am I walking slowly? What if I stand? and he would stand; then he might consider: Why am I standing? What if I sit? and he would
159 Walshe: When thoughts of sensual desire arise directed towards living beings, the other sign is the meditation on foulness; when the thoughts are directed to inanimate things, the other sign is attention to impermanence. When thoughts of hate arise directed towards living beings, the other sign is the meditation on loving-kindness; when they are directed to inanimate things, the other sign is attention to the elements. The remedy for thoughts connected with delusion is living under a teacher, studying the Dhamma, inquiring into its meaning, listening to the Dhamma, and inquiring into causes.

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sit; then he might consider: Why am I sitting? What if I lie down? and he would lie down. By doing so he would substitute for each grosser posture one that was subtler. So too when a Bhikkhu gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. If, while he is giving attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he should beat down, constrain, and crush mind with mind. When, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so too when, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, a Bhikkhu beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Bhikkhus, when a Bhikkhu is giving attention to some sign, and owing to that sign there arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then when he gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him and subside, and with the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. When he examines the danger in those thoughts When he tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them When he gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts When, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him and his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. This Bhikkhu is then called a master of the courses of thought160 (original phrase: vas-vitakkapariyyapathesu). He will think whatever thought he wishes to think and he will not think any thought that he does not wish to think. He has severed craving, flung off the fetters, and with the complete penetration of conceit he has made an end of suffering. That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed Ones words. Lesson Summary: This lesson pertains to the removal of distracting thoughts (signs), and it is fitting that this sutta follows shortly after the lesson on the existence of distractions. However, the claim is that this lesson really pertains to signs the recognition of such concept or object. When a sign is analyzed, there should exist a previous condition based on the conception that a sign was mentally-recognized or located to warn of an impending circumstance or mental hazard. Here is that ten-step process: 1. Give attention to some sign 2. Owing to that sign: evil unwholesome thoughts may arise - connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion
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This would seem to be a ten-step process.

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3. Gives attention to some other (opposite) sign connected with what is wholesome, so that any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him and subside 4. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally - quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. 5. When he examines the danger in those unwholesome thoughts 6. When he tries to forget those unwholesome thoughts 7. Does not give attention to them 8. When he gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts 9. When, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him 10. Mind finally becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. The Vas-vitakkapariyyapathesu or, the Master of the courses of thought, scrutinizes with this ten-step process. This may be an instance of consciousness absorbing, registering, and investigating the concept in order to determine the proper reaction. There is another sort of five-fold process-diagram for the workings of this scenario the hindrances are the outcome of some defiling or unwholesome situation; however the demonstrated procedures lead to eliminate the distracted mind (if one is willing to undergo this aggressive mental-training). Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning pertaining to signs from what was said or read assists in detailing and illuminating exactly what a meditative sign is, and with this recognition, one can proceed and develop properly to attain the previously unattainable. See the chart on the next page, to conclude this lesson.

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Towards Supramundane Jhnas

If all else fails: clench the teeth, press down the tongue, beat down and constrain or crush the mind with the mind! Or: Change Meditation-Posture!

Abandon unwholesome states mind becomes steady, quieted, single-pointed, and concentrated

Recognition of Problem

If greed, hatred, and delusion arise through the examination of signs, recognize the phenomena, replace/eliminate with wholesome, thoughts, examine the dangers of the unwholesome thoughts, forget or ignore them, and try to cease the formation of thoughts through various exertions

Pursuing the Higher Supramundane Mind give attention to the five signs when unwholesome thoughts arise - exert through: wholesome thoughts, examine dangers, forget/ignore, and immobilize thought formations

So, again, to summarize: when some thought of whatever nature (social, political, or any other ideological construction) arises people should use this lesson as an information filter, as they consider thoughts or read a book.

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Abridged Version of the Mahhatthipadopama Sutta161: Venerable Sriputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: ...Friends, just as the footprint of any living being that walks can be placed within an elephants footprint, and so the elephants footprint is declared the chief of them because of its great size; so too, all wholesome states can be included in the Four Noble Truths. In what four? First Noble Truth Truth of Suffering:
One who sees dependent origination sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origination. In the noble truth of suffering, And what is the noble truth of suffering? Birth, again, and death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are suffering; not to obtain what one wants is suffering; in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering. And what are the five aggregates affected by clinging?

SECOND TRUTH Origin of Suffering


And these five aggregates affected by clinging are dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclination, and holding based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is the origin of suffering. They are the material form aggregate affected by clinging... And what is the material form aggregate affected by clinging? It is the four great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements. And what are the four great elements?

EARTH, WATER, FIRE, AIR Element: --- INTERNAL and EXTERNAL


Interpreting the aspects or components within the many parts of the body as they are often grasped as mine, perceived to be a self.... with prop er wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the earth element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the four element as impermanent... experiences contact... and abuse --and knows suffering arises here, a the origin of suffering. From contemplation on Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha equanimity and a sense of urgency arises to eliminate suffering

Eventually, the specific elements will be disturbed to some extent, thereby the external element is altered or vanishes. Indian cosmology suggests the cyclical destruction of the world may be due to: either water, fire, or wind.

161 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 278-285

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THIRD TRUTH Cessation of Suffering (Suffering is a manifestation162 of the consciousness)


The removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggregates affected by clinging is the cessation of suffering. (when one of the senses is implied, respectively substitute terms for the other related aspects)

If, internally the mind is intact

but no external mindobjects come into its range, and external mindobjects come into its range, and external mindobjects come into its range

and there is no corresponding (conscious) engagement,

then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness.163 then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness.164 then there is the manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness.

But when internally the mind is intact

and there is the corresponding (conscious) engagement,

The material form in what has thus come to be is included in the material form aggregate affected by clinging. The feeling in what has thus come to be is included in the feeling aggregate affected by clinging. The perception in what has thus come to be is included in the perception aggregate affected by clinging. The formations in what has thus come to be are included in the formations aggregate affected by clinging. The consciousness in what has thus come to be is included in the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. He understands thus: This, indeed, is how there comes to be the inclusion, gathering, and amassing of things into these five aggregates affected by clinging.

Now this has been said by the Blessed One: One who sees dependent origination sees th e Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origination. And these five aggregates affected by clinging are dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclination, and holding based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is the origin of suffering. The removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggregates affected by clinging is the cessation of suffering. (same with the respective other senses and respective object entering the sense-door) --- At that point too, friends, much has been done by that Bhikkhu.165

Lesson Summary: The criteria for hermeneutical comprehension is taken from perceiving these four noble truths, as mentioned previously and taken from the Nettippakaraa. More evident here is that every internal and external construction can be analyzed, and found to be sourced in some previous circumstance, if properly perceived and known. If there is no cessation of suffering, the endless cycle of suffering is evident, as the origin of problems. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of suffering and the presentation of the aspects of dependent origination the importance of not clinging to any constructed concepts, from the lesson, when correctly developed will liberate humans from forms of personal, social or some ideological suffering.
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I have asked myself in a draft reading: What has manifested? What has come to be? What has thus come

to be?

Identified with the life-continuum consciousness (bhavangacitta). This is the minds preoccupation with a familiar object when it does not notice the familiar details of that object. The corresponding class of consciousness here is mind -consciousness (manovinnana), which takes nonsensuous objects as its sphere of cognition. 165 Though only three of the Four Noble Truths are shown in the discourse, the fourth truth is implied from the penetration of these three truths by the development of the eight factors of the path.
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163

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Abridged Version of the Mahvedalla Sutta166: On one occasion167... when it was evening, the Venerable Mah Kohita (mostskillful with analytical knowledge) rose from meditation, went to the Venerable Sriputta, and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the venerable Sriputta:
Wisdom - The Wise and Unwise: One who is unwise, doesnt wisely understand: This is suffering; one does not wisely understand: This is the origin of suffering; one does not wisely understand: This is the cessation of suffering; one does not wisely understand: This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering. One does not wisely understand; that is why it is said, one who is unwise. One who is wise, does wisely understand: This is suffering; one wisely understands: This is the origin of suffering; one wisely understands: This is the cessation of suffering; one wisely understands: This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering. One wisely understands, friend; that is why it is said, one who is wise.

Consciousness Cognizes: as pleasant, painful, neither-painful-nor-pleasant Wisdom and Consciousness Conjoined, no difference When the wise understand they cognize; one who cognizes understands Wisdom is developed Difference: Consciousness is to be understood What is feeling? It feels, it feels, friend; that is why feeling is said. What does it feel? It feels pleasure, it feels pain, it feels neither pain-nor-pleasure. It feels, it feels, friend, that is why feeling is said. What is perception: It perceives, it perceives, friend; that is why perception is said. What does it perceive? It perceives blue, it perceives yellow, it perceives red, and it perceives white. It perceives, it perceives, friend; that is why perception is said. Feeling, perception, and consciousness: Are these states conjoined or Is it possible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe disjoined? the difference between them? Feeling, perception, and consciousness, friend - these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them. For what one feels, that one perceives; and what one perceives, that one cognizes. That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them. Knowable by Mind Alone: What can be known by purified mind-consciousness released from the five faculties? the base of infinite space can be known thus: Space is infinite the base of infinite consciousness can be known thus: Consciousness is infinite and the base of nothingness can be known thus: There is nothing.
One understands a state that can be known168 with the eye of wisdom.

The purpose of wisdom is direct knowledge;

its purpose is full understanding,

its purpose is abandoning.

166 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 387 -395 this lesson is concerned with subtle points of knowledge, listen to the beginning of Bhikkhu Bodhis talk: http://bodhimonastery.org/a-systematicstudy-of-the-majjhima-nikaya.html - accessed on 28 June 2012 167 This discourse is discussing the principles within the category of nama as opposed to rupa discussing mind, rather than body. This presentation has broken the discourse into charted components, to be considered slowly or individually. A greater depth of understanding can occur at this level, for the students comprehension. 168 As suggested by Bodhi: for the distinction between direct knowledge (abhi) and full understanding (pari): The disciple in higher training is urged by the Buddha to refrain from conceiving and delight because the dispositions to these mental processes still remain within him. With his attainment of stream-entry he eradicated the fetter of personality view and thus can no longer conceive in terms of wrong views. But the defilements of craving and conceit are only uprooted by the path of arahantship, and thus the sekha remains vulnerable to the conceivings to which they are capable of giving rise. Whereas direct knowledge (abhi) is the province of both the sekha and the arahant, full understanding (pari) is the province exclusively of the arahant, as it involves the full abandoning of all defilements.

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How many conditions are there for the arising of right view? the voice of another169 wise attention How many factors is right view assisted: when it has deliverance of mind for its fruit deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit right view is assisted by five factors: virtue learning discussion

serenity insight Being - How many kinds of being are there? Three kinds of being: sense-sphere being fine-material being immaterial being How is renewal of being in the future generated? Renewal of being in the future is generated through the delighting in this and that on the part of beings who are hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving. How is renewal of being in the future not generated? With the fading away of ignorance, with the arising of true knowledge, Renewal of being in the future is not generated and with the cessation of craving: What is the first jhna170? when entering The first jhna upon the first has five factors: jhna: and there Quite secluded which is When entering occur: from sensual accompanied by upon the first How many sensual desire is pleasures, secluded applied and jhna, there factors are abandoned, applied from unwholesome sustained occur: abandoned in ill will is thought, states... thought... the first jhna abandoned, sustained applied thought, and how many sloth and torpor are thought, a Bhikkhu enters with rapture and sustained factors are abandoned, rapture, upon and abides in pleasure born of thought, rapture, possessed? restlessness and pleasure, and the first jhna: seclusion: pleasure, and remorse are unification of unification of abandoned, mind mind. and doubt is abandoned These five faculties each have a separate field, a separate domain, and do not experience each others field and domain eye faculty ear faculty nose faculty tongue faculty body faculty Now these five faculties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing each others field and domain, have mind as their resort, and mind experiences their fields and domains. These five faculties stand in dependence on vitality Vitality stands in dependence on heat - Heat stands in dependence on vitality Just as when an oil-lamp is burning, its radiance is seen in dependence on its flame and its flame is seen in dependence on its radiance; so too, vitality stands in dependence on heat and heat stands in dependence on vitality.

Bodhi: The voice of another (parato ghosa) is the teaching of beneficial Dhamma. These two conditions are necessary for disciples to arrive at the right view of insight and the right view of the supramundane path. But paccekabuddhas arrive at their enlightenment fully enlightened Buddhas at omniscience solely in dependence on wise attention without the voice of another. Researchers comment: it is perhaps, no coincidence that a bird that is known to talk like a human is called a parrot a linguistic link? Further, and more critically, echoing what someone says may not be genuine knowledge or wisdom. 170 It is interesting to see that in this lesson, there doesnt seem to be much details pertaining to the other jhanas in this sutta-lesson, although later there is a token mention of the state of nothingness, which alludes to the fourth jhana.

169

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Are vital formations states of feeling or Are vital formations one thing and states of feeling another Vital formations, friend, are not states of feeling. If vital formations were states of feeling, then when a Bhikkhu has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he would not be seen to emerge from it. Because vital formations are one thing and states of feeling another, when a Bhikkhu has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he can be seen to emerge from it. When this body is bereft of how many states is it then: discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log? when this body is bereft of three states: - vitality, heat, and consciousness it is then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log. What is the difference between: one who is dead - who has completed his time, and a Bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling? Friend, in the case of one who is dead, who has completed his time, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations have ceased and subsided, his vitality is exhausted, his heat has been dissipated, and his faculties are fully broken up. In the case of a Bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations have ceased and subsided, but his vitality is not exhausted, his heat has not been dissipated, and his faculties become exceptionally clear. There are four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind: with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a Bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. there are two conditions for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs and attention to the signless element. there are three conditions for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs, attention to the signless element, and the prior determination (of its duration). there are two conditions for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind: attention to all signs and non-attention to the signless element.

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Are these states different in meaning and different in name, or are they one in meaning and different only in name? The immeasurable deliverance of mind, The deliverance of mind through nothingness, The deliverance of mind through voidness, And the signless deliverance of mind... There is a way in which these states are There is a way in which they are different in meaning and different in name one in meaning and different in name Here a Bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a Lust, hate and delusion are makers of measurement. In a mind imbued with (loving-kindness, compassion, Bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut appreciative joy, and equanimity) likewise the off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as immeasurable deliverance of mind, the unshakeable to himself, he abides pervading the alldeliverance of mind is pronounced the best. Now that encompassing world with a mind imbued with unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, (loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and void of delusion. equanimity), abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. This is called Lust, hate, and delusion are something. In a Bhikkhu whose the immeasurable deliverance of mind. taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, With the complete surmounting of the base of made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no infinite consciousness, aware that there is nothing, longer subject to future arising. Of all the (nine) kinds of a Bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of deliverance of mind through nothingness, the unshakeable nothingness. This is called the deliverance of mind deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. Now that through nothingness. unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion. A Bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: This is void of a Lust, hate, and delusion are makers of signs. In a Bhikkhu self or of what belongs to a self. This is called the whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the deliverance of mind through voidness. root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of signless Here, with non-attention to all signs, a Bhikkhu deliverance of mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is enters upon and abides in the signless concentration pronounced the best. Now that unshakeable deliverance of of mind. This is called the signless deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion. mind.

Lesson Summary: This lesson is difficult to summarize in a single term due to the complexity of the material all of which is suitable to be examined internally and externally the previous condition of the presented material is largely the interpretation of the stimulus received through the sense-organs. The continuity of the sensual assault occurs with the pre-jhnic environment, when one is not removed from such situations; as expressed, one should be: quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states. If one is not in relative seclusion, they should be comfortably away from distractions. If one undertakes the studying, thinking, and time to listen towards understanding sense-reception, then with the proper ability someone can gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was received. The majority of details covered in the sutta comprise various aspects of Abhidhamma material when the Abhidhamma material is fully developed, all of these processes can be illustrated in greater expressions and detail. The lesson teaches us about the nature of life vitality vitality, being of course: the characteristics distinguishing life from the dead (the capacity to live and develop, before death). The lesson is summarized by suggesting that two of the major disciples of analytical matters met and discussed these criteria of mentality. This material was discussed by two bhikkhus whose mentality was higher than the average or common worldling, so their concerns are different from even the most ordinary Bhikkhu. For instance: distinguishing between wisdom and consciousness is a topic most people do not

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discern; likewise the lesson teaches elements that comprise the consciousness, in order for someone to be possessed with the knowledge to develop wisdom and deliverance or liberation of the mind. This lesson provides a lot of material for psychologists to ponder, as it contains the Buddhist aspects of the operations of the mind. If this lesson was taught more in public, the standards of comprehending oneself or anothers mentality could raise. Abridged Version of the Cakkavattishanda Sutta171: ...Monks, be islands unto yourselves, be a refuge unto yourselves with no other refuge. Let the Dhamma be your island, let the Dhamma be your refuge, with no other refuge. And how does a monk dwell as an island unto himself, as a refuge unto himself with no other refuge, with the Dhamma as his island, with the Dhamma as his refuge, with no other refuge?172 Here, a monk abides contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world, he abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ...he abides contemplating mind as mind, ...he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world. Keep to your own preserves (pastures), monks, to your ancestral haunts (range of your fathers).173 If you do so, then Mara will find no lodgment, no foothold. It is just by the building-up of wholesome states that this merit increases. (or, for instance: Keep to your own preserves, monks, to your ancestral haunts. If you do so, your life-span will increase, your beauty will increase, your happiness will increase, your wealth will increase, your power will increase.) And what is length of life for a monk? Here, a monk develops the road to power which is concentration of intention accompanied by effort of will, the road to power which is concentration of energy..., the road to power which is concentration of consciousness..., the road to power which is concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will. By frequently practicing these four roads to power he can, if he wishes, live for a full century, or the remaining part of a century. That is what I call length of life for a monk. And what is beauty for a monk? Here, a monk practices right conduct, is restrained according to the discipline, is perfect in behavior and habits, sees danger in the slightest fault, and trains in the rules of training he has undertaken. That is beauty for a monk. And what is happiness for a monk? Here, a monk, detached from sense-desires... enters the first jhna, which is with thinking and pondering, born of detachment, filled with delight and joy. And with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner
Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 395-405 172 Notice: this does not include the Buddha or the Sangha, ancestors, socio-political or other charismatic personalities, or deities. 173 Compare this to the before mentioned contradictory statement: Walk monks, on tour for the blessing, the happiness of devas and (people). Let not two (of you) go by one (way). Monks, teach Dhamma which is lovely at the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending. Explain with the spirit and the letter the Brahma-faring completely fulfilled, wholly pure. There are beings with little dust in their eyes, who, not hearing Dhamma, are decaying, (but) if they are learners of Dhamma, they will grow. I.B. Horner (transl.): The Book of the Discipline, Volume IV Mahvagga (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1996), p. 28 the early advice to Yasa to be rather homeless and austere is quite different from this later suggestion to be more stationary. So, again there are these recommended locations for Buddhists: as an island unto oneself secluded; in ones own preserves, in ancestral locations or on walking tours, no two going the same way. This of course is for better contemplation; store of merit; and the increase of life-span, beauty, happiness, wealth, and power and to benefit others.
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tranquility and oneness of mind, he enters and remains in the second jhna, which is without thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and joy. And with the fading away of delight, remaining imperturbable, mindful and clearly aware, he experiences in himself the joy of which the Noble Ones say: Happy is he who dwells with equanimity and mindfulness, he enters the third jhna. And, having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters and remains in the fourth jhna, which is beyond pleasure and pain, and purified by equanimity and mindfulness. That is happiness for a monk. And what is wealth for a monk? Here, a monk, with his heart filled with lovingkindness, dwells suffusing one quarter, the second, the third, the fourth. Thus he dwells suffusing the whole world, upwards, downwards, across - everywhere, always with a mind filled with loving-kindness, abundant, unbounded, without hate or ill-will. Then, with his heart filled with compassion, ...with his heart filled with sympathetic joy, with his heart filled with equanimity, ...he dwells suffusing the whole world, upwards, downwards, across, everywhere, always with a mind filled with equanimity, abundant, unbounded, without hate or ill-will. That is wealth for a monk. And what is power for a monk? Here, a monk, by the destruction of the corruptions.., enters into and abides in that corruptionless liberation of heart and liberation by wisdom which he has attained, in this very life, by his own super-knowledge and realization. That is power for a monk. Monks, I do not consider any power so hard to conquer as the power of Mara. It is just by this building-up of wholesome states that this merit increases. Thus the Lord spoke, and the monks were delighted and rejoiced at his words. Lesson Summary: This excerpt from the lesson is primarily concerned with distractions (and their eventual eradication). A distraction is the individual attraction to an external stimulus. An external stimulus or internal condition (such as weariness) pulls the mind away from the object of focus, can bring about absent-mindness, seduction, diverging lesson, and sectarianism to the extreme consequence. The origin of distraction is nonequanimity and non-calmness stimulus and agitation are forms of distraction. According to the Pli Text Societys Pli-English Dictionary174 - distraction is defined differently: kahana, uddhacca, ummda, ej, osaraa, nnatta, and vaggatta. However, the Visuddhimagga175 suggests: vikkhepa, but according to the Pli-English Dictionary, the search suggests this is the term for an eel-wriggler or a person who sits on the fence perhaps during philosophical debates. The Pli language is full of terms for distractions but from what was also philogically-gathered, one can gleam the width that the term implies. To overcome distractions, one takes on a goal or position, and proceeds methodically towards that respective aim. These positions in the lesson are also likening to the anumodana-passages: yu vao sukha bala which are: long life and beauty, happiness and strength.176 There are the categories of life, beauty and happiness; however instead of strength, there are the additional categories of wealth and power. Wealth is the brahmaviharas, and power is the destruction of corruptions along with having superknowledges perhaps wealth and power could be a type of expanded concept from strength. The four blessings of: yu
Rhys Davids: Pli-English Dictionary (London: Pli Text Society, 1925) downloaded electronically from: www.buddhistboards.com words are found using a computerized search function. 175 Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999), p. 865 176 Pli Chanting with Translations (Nakorn Pathom: Mahmaku Rjavidylaya Press, 2001), p. 31
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vao sukha bala - are used as part of a chain of phrases used by monks to give blessings upon the laity, for instance when they are giving morning alms, the monks recite a blessing containing this phrase. All of these five: long life, beauty, happiness, wealth and power are directed towards monks, and it may be inferred that the blessing is also directed towards the self-speaking monk.177 Abridged Version of the Pohapda Suttas States of Perception178 ...He guards the sense-doors... And how, Sire, is he a guardian of the sense-doors? Here a monk, on seeing a visible object with the eye, does not grasp at its major signs or secondary characteristics. Because greed and sorrow, evil unskilled states, would overwhelm him if he dwelt leaving this eye-faculty unguarded, so he practices guarding it, he protects the eye-faculty, develops restraint of the eye-faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear, ...on smelling an odor with the nose, ...on tasting a flavor with the tongue, ...on feeling an object with the body, ...on thinking a thought with the mind, he does not grasp at its major signs or secondary characteristics, ...he develops restraint of the mindfaculty. He experiences within himself the blameless bliss that comes from maintaining this Ariyan guarding of the faculties. In this way, Sire, a monk is a guardian of the sensedoors. [To depart from the sutta-lesson - it could be reconceived as such: Guard the senses to experience within the blameless Ariyan bliss that comes from maintaining this faculty-guarding.
A Guardian Of The SenseDoors Receives an object with the respective sense, does not grasp at its major signs or secondary characteristics Because greed and sorrow, evil unskilled states, would be overwhelming if dwelling in or leaving this respective-faculty unguarded, so one should practice guarding it, or protecting the respective-faculty, developing restraint of the respective-faculty.

and now to return to the sutta-lesson]: And how, Sire, is a monk accomplished in mindfulness and clear awareness? Here a monk acts with clear awareness in going forth and back, in looking ahead or behind him, in bending and stretching, in wearing his outer and inner robe and carrying his bowl, in eating, drinking, chewing and swallowing, in evacuating and urinating, in walking, standing, sitting, lying down, in waking, in speaking and in keeping silent he acts with clear awareness. In this way, a monk is accomplished in mindfulness and clear awareness. And how is a monk contented? Here, a monk is satisfied with a robe to protect his body, with alms to satisfy his stomach, and having accepted sufficient, he goes on his way. Just as a bird with wings flies hither and thither, burdened by nothing but its wings, so he is satisfied ...In this way, Sire, a monk is contented. Then he, equipped with this Ariyan morality, with this Ariyan restraint of the senses, with this Ariyan contentment, finds a solitary lodging, at the root of a forest tree, in a mountain cave or gorge, a charnel-ground, a jungle-thicket, or in the open air on a heap of straw. Then, having eaten after his return from the alms-round, he sits down
The chant is as follows: Abhivdanaslissa nicca vuhpacyayino, cattro Dhamm vahanti, yu vao sukha bala translated as: He of respectful nature who ever the elders honoring, four qualities for him increase: long life and beauty, happiness and strength. See: Pli Chanting with Translations (Nakorn Pathom: Mahmaku Rjavidylaya Press, 2001), p. 31. The only criticism that can be offered is that this seems a bit self indulgent and not directed towards improving the condition of the giver. 178 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 159-170
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cross-legged, holding his body erect, and concentrates on having firmly established mindfulness before him. Abandoning worldly desires, he dwells with a mind freed from worldly desires, and his mind is purified of them. Abandoning ill-will and hatred, ...and by compassionate love for the welfare of all living beings, his mind is purified of ill-will and hatred. Abandoning sloth-and-torpor, ...perceiving light, mindful and clearly aware, his mind is purified of sloth-and-torpor. Abandoning worry-and-flurry ...and with an inwardly calmed mind his heart is purified of worry-and-flurry. Abandoning doubt, he dwells with doubt left behind, without uncertainty as to what things are wholesome, his mind is purified of doubt. Just as a man who had taken a loan to develop his business, and whose business had prospered, might pay off his old debts, and with what was left over could support a wife, might think: Before this I developed my business by borrowing, but now it has prospered..., and he would rejoice and be glad about that. Just as a man who was ill, suffering, terribly sick, with no appetite and weak in body, might after a time recover, and regain his appetite and bodily strength, and he might think: Before this I was and he would rejoice and be glad about that. Just as a man might be bound in prison, and after a time he might be freed from his bonds without any loss, with no deduction from his possessions. He might think: Before this I was in prison, and he would rejoice and be glad about that. Just as a man might be a slave, not his own master, dependent on another, unable to go where he liked, and after some time he might be freed from slavery, able to go where he liked, might think: Before this I was a slave And he would rejoice and be glad about that. Just as a man, laden with goods and wealth, might go on a long journey through the desert where food was scarce and danger abounded, and after a time he would get through the desert and arrive safe and sound at the edge of a village, might think: Before this I was in danger, now I am safe at the edge of a village, and he would rejoice and be glad about that. As long, Sire, as a monk does not perceive the disappearance of the five hindrances in himself, he feels as if in debt, in sickness, in bonds, in slavery, on a desert journey. But when he perceives the disappearance of the five hindrances in himself, it is as if he were freed from debt, from sickness, from bonds, from slavery, from the perils of the desert. And when he knows that these five hindrances have left him, gladness arises in him, from gladness comes delight, from the delight in his mind his body is tranquillized, with a tranquil body he feels joy, and with joy his mind is concentrated. Being thus detached from sense-desires, detached from unwholesome states, he enters and remains in the first jhna, which is with thinking and pondering, born of detachment, filled with delight and joy; and with this delight and joy born of detachment, he so suffuses, drenches, fills and irradiates his body that there is no spot in his entire body that is untouched by this delight and joy born of detachment.

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[In a departure from the sutta, such a circumstance could be expressed as such:
Simile Used Business Health Prison Slavery Danger Overcoming or Recovering from Hindrances = Related Related Hindrance Niyma Explanation Aggregate Sensual Desire Physical Laws = Material Sensual-cravings fuels materialism Ill-will may impact health/biological Ill-will Biological Laws = Sensation system Sloth & Torpor Psychic Laws = Perception Mental bondage and burdens Distraction & = Mental Must become liberated from servitude of Law of Kamma Remorse Formation senses Doubt General Laws = Consciousness Free the weight on the consciousness

now to return to the lesson]: Having reached the first jhna, he remains in it; and whatever sensations of lust that he previously had disappear. At that time there is present a true but subtle perception of delight and happiness, born of detachment, and he becomes one who is conscious of this delight and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. And this is that training, said the Lord. Again, a monk, with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner tranquility and unity of mind, reaches and remains in the second jhna, which is free from thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and happiness. His former true but subtle perception of delight and happiness born of detachment vanishes. At that time there arises a true but subtle perception of delight and happiness born of concentration, and he becomes one who is conscious of this delight and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. Again, after the fading away of delight he dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly aware, and he experiences in his body that pleasant feeling of which the Noble Ones say: Happy dwells the man of equanimity and mindfulness, and he reaches and remains in the third jhna. His former true but subtle sense of delight and happiness born of concentration vanishes, and there arises at that time a true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. Again, with the abandonment of pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he reaches and remains in the fourth jhna, a state beyond pleasure and pain, purified by equanimity and mindfulness. His former true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness vanishes, and there arises a true but subtle sense of neither happiness nor unhappiness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle sense of neither happiness nor unhappiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. Again, by passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, by the disappearance of all sense of resistance and by non-attraction to the perception of diversity, seeing that space is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Space. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. Again, by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Space, seeing that consciousness is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

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Again, by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, seeing that there is no thing, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of No-Thingness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle perception of the Sphere of NoThingness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. And this is that training, said the Lord. Pohapda, from the moment when a monk has gained this controlled perception he proceeds from stage to stage till he reaches the limit of perception. When he has reached the limit of perception it occurs to him: Mental activity is worse for me, lack of mental activity is better. If I were to think and imagine, these perceptions (that I have attained would cease, and coarser perceptions would arise in me). Suppose I were not to think or imagine? So he neither thinks nor imagines. And then, in him, just these perceptions arise, but other, coarser perceptions do not arise. He attains cessation. And that, Pohapda, is the way in which the cessation of perception is brought about by successive steps. What do you think, Pohapda? Have you heard of this before? No, Lord. As I understand it, the Lord has said: Pohapda, from the moment when a monk has gained this controlled perception, he proceeds from stage to stage until he reaches the limit of perception... He attains cessation... and that is the way in which the cessation of perception is brought about by successive steps. That is right, Pohapda.

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Perceptive Training
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Lord, do you teach that the summit of perception is just one, or that it is many? I teach it as both one and many. Lord, how is it one, and how is it many? According as he attains successively to the cessation of each perception, so I teach the summit of that perception: thus I teach both one summit of perception, and I also teach many. Lord, does perception arise before knowledge, or knowledge arise before perception, or do both arise simultaneously? Perception arises first, Pohapda, then knowledge, and from the arising of perception comes the arising of knowledge; and one knows: Thus conditioned,

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knowledge arises. In this way you can see how perception arises first, and then knowledge, and that from the arising of perception comes the arising of knowledge.179 Lord, is perception a persons self, or is perception one thing, and self another? Well, Pohapda, do you postulate a self? Lord, I postulate a gross self, material, composed of the four elements, and feeding on solid food. But with such a gross self, Pohapda, perception would be one thing, and the self another. You can see that in this way. Given such a gross self, certain perceptions would arise in a person, and others pass away. In this way you can see that perception must be one thing, the self another. Lord, I postulate a mind-made self complete with all its parts, not defective in any sense-organ. But with such a mind-made self, perception would be one thing, and the self another... Lord, I assume a formless self, made up of perception. But with such a formless self, perception would be one thing, and self another... But Lord, is it possible for me to know whether perception is a persons self, or whether perception is one thing, and self another? Pohapda, it is difficult for one of different views, a different faith, under different influences, with different pursuits and a different training to know whether these are two different things or not. Well, Lord, if this question of self and perceptions is difficult for one like me tell me: Is the world eternal? Is only this true and the opposite false? Pohapda, I have not declared that the world is eternal and that the opposite view is false. Well, Lord, is the world not eternal? I have not declared that the world is not eternal... Well, Lord, is the world infinite, ...not infinite? I have not declared that the world is not infinite and that the opposite view is false. Well, Lord, is the soul the same as the body, ...is the soul one thing and the body another? I have not declared that the soul is one thing and the body another. Well, Lord, does the Tathgata exist after death? Is only this true and all else false? I have not declared that the Tathgata exists after death. Well, Lord, does the Tathgata not exist after death, ...both exist and not exist after death? ...neither exist nor not exist after death? I have not declared that the Tathgata neither exists nor does not exist after death, and that all else is false. But, Lord, why has the Lord not declared these things? Pohapda, that is not conducive to the purpose, not conducive to Dhamma, not the way to embark on the holy life; it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to
Maintained, from Walshe: The commentary to the Dgha-Nikya offers alternative explanations: 1. Perception = jhna-perception, Knowledge = insight-knowledge (vipassan-a); 2. Perception = insightperception, Knowledge = path-knowledge; 3. Perception = path-perception, Knowledge = fruition-knowledge (phalaa). He then quotes an authority as saying: Perception is the perception of the fruition of Arahantshi p, and Knowledge the immediately following reviewing knowledge (paccavekkhaa-a): But in fact reviewingknowledge is said also to occur at lower stages on the enlightenment path. It is, however, this reviewing -knowledge which best seems to explain just how one is supposed to know that perception arises first and then knowledge.
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cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbna. That is why I have not declared it. But, Lord, what has the Lord declared? Pohapda, I have declared: This is suffering, this is the origin of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, and this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering. But, Lord, why has the Lord declared this? Because, Pohapda, this is conducive to the purpose, conducive to Dhamma, the way to embark on the holy life; it leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbna. That is why I have declared it. So it is, Lord, so it is, Well-Farer. And now is the time for the Blessed Lord to do as he sees fit. Then the Lord rose from his seat and went away. Then the wanderers, as soon as the Lord had left, reproached, sneered and jeered at Pohapda from all sides, saying: Whatever the ascetic Gotama says, Pohapda agrees with him: So it is, Lord, so it is, Well-Farer! We dont understand a word of the ascetic Gotamas whole lesson: Is the world eternal or not? - Is it finite or infinite? - Is the soul the same as the body or different? - Does the Tathgata exist after death or not, or both, or neither? Pohapda replied: I dont understand either about whether the world is eternal or not... or whether the Tathgata exists after death or not, or both, or neither; but the ascetic Gotama teaches a true and real way of practice which is consonant with Dhamma and grounded in Dhamma - and why should not a man like me express approval of such a true and real practice, so well taught by the ascetic Gotama?180 Two or three days later, Citta, the son of the elephant-trainer, went with Pohapda to see the Lord. Citta prostrated himself before the Lord and sat down to one side. Pohapda exchanged courtesies with the Lord, sat down to one side, and told him what had happened. Pohapda, all those wanderers are blind and sightless, you alone among them are sighted. Some things I have taught and pointed out, Pohapda, as being certain, others as being uncertain. Which are the things I have pointed out as uncertain? The world is eternal I have declared to be uncertain...181 The Tathgata exists after death... Why? Because they are not conducive... to Nibbna. That is why I have declared them as uncertain. But what things have I pointed out as certain? This is suffering, this is the origin of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering. Why? Because they are conducive to the purpose, conducive to Dhamma, the way to embark on the holy life; they lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbna. That is why I have declared them as certain. //Deleted irrelevant section of the discursive lesson//

But if he doesnt understand, how does he determine that it is true or real? The Buddha was not involved with such academic-disciplines as geology or astronomy and the various sciences were in primitive stages during the time of his teaching career of course, he could not have such knowledge that we possess today.
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Pohapda, there are three kinds of acquired self182: the gross acquired self, the mind-made acquired self, the formless acquired self. What is the gross acquired self? It has form, is composed of the four great elements, nourished by material food. What is the mind-made self? It has form, complete with all its parts, not defective in any senseorgan. What is the formless acquired self? It is without form, and made up of perception. But I teach a doctrine for getting rid of the gross acquired self, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and perfection of wisdom here and now, having realized and attained it by ones own superknowledge. Now, Pohapda, you might think: Perhaps these defiling mental states might disappear..., and one might still be unhappy. 183 That is not how it should be regarded. If defiling states disappear..., nothing but happiness and delight develops, tranquility, mindfulness and clear awareness - and that is a happy state. I also teach a doctrine for getting rid of the mind-made acquired self, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and perfection of wisdom here and now, having realized and attained it by ones own superknowledge. Now, Pohapda, you might think: Perhaps these defiling mental states might disappear..., and one might still be unhappy. That is not how it should be regarded. If defiling states disappear..., nothing but happiness and delight develops, tranquility, mindfulness and clear awareness - and that is a happy state. I also teach a doctrine for getting rid of the formless acquired self, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and perfection of wisdom here and now, having realized and attained it by ones own superknowledge. Now, Pohapda, you might think: Perhaps these defiling mental states might disappear..., and one might still be unhappy. That is not how it should be regarded. If defiling states disappear..., nothing but happiness and delight develops, tranquility, mindfulness and clear awareness - and that is a happy state. Pohapda, if others ask us: What, friend, is this gross acquired self whose abandonment you preach...? being so asked, we should reply: This is that gross acquired self (the physical-one you can see) for the getting rid of which we teach a doctrine... If others ask us: What is this mind-made acquired self? (as above). If others ask us: What is this formless acquired self? (as above). What do you think, Pohapda? Does not that statement turn out to be well-founded? Certainly, Lord. //deleted irrelevant paragraph// In just the same way, Pohapda, if others ask us: What is this gross acquired self...? What is this mind-made acquired self...? What is this formless acquired self...?, we reply: This is this (gross, mind-made, formless) acquired self for the getting rid of which we teach a doctrine, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and
K.N. Jayatilleke: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (Delhi: Motilal Bandarsidass Publishers, 2004), p. 317 this book also recognizes this material. He asserts that these are trance-states, and correspond to the Taittiriya Upanisad (2.2-5) where there are five-selves stated. 183 Doubtlessly alluding to the well-known fact that higher states tend to appear very boring to the worldling who has not experienced them. This phrase is mentioned three times on this section.
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perfection of wisdom here and now, having realized and attained it by ones own super knowledge. Dont you think that statement is well-founded? Certainly, Lord. At this, Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, said to the Lord: Lord, whenever the gross acquired self is present, would it be wrong to assume the existence of the mindmade acquired self, or of the formless acquired self? Does only the gross acquired self truly exist then? And similarly with the mind-made acquired self, and the formless acquired self? Citta, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not at that time speak of a mind-made acquired self, we do not speak of a formless acquired self. We speak only of a gross acquired self. Whenever the mind-made acquired self is present, we speak only of a mind-made acquired self, and whenever the formless acquired self is present, we speak only of a formless acquired self. Citta, suppose they were to ask you: Did you exist in the past or didnt you, will you exist in the future or wont you, do you exist now or dont you? How would you answer? Lord, if I were asked such a question, I would say: I did exist in the past, I did not not-exist; I shall exist in the future, I shall not not-exist; I do exist now, I do not not-exist. That, Lord, would be my answer. But, Citta, if they asked: The past acquired self that you had, is that your only true acquired self, and are the future and present ones false? Or is the one you will have in the future the only true one, and are the past and present ones false? Or is your present acquired self the only true one, and are the past and future ones false? How would you reply? Lord, if they asked me these things, I would reply: My past acquired self was at the time my only true one, the future and present ones were false. My future acquired self will then be the only true one, the past and present ones will be false. My present acquired self is now the only true one, the past and future ones are false. That is how I would reply. In just the same way, Citta, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not at that time speak of a mind-made acquired self... (or) of a formless acquired self. In just the same way, Citta, from the cow we get milk, from the milk curds, from the curds butter, from the butter ghee, and from the ghee cream of ghee. And when there is milk we dont speak of curds, of butter, of ghee or of cream of ghee, we speak of milk; when there are curds we dont speak of butter...; when there is cream of ghee... we speak of cream of ghee. So too, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not speak of the mindmade or formless acquired self; whenever the mind-made acquired self is present, we do not speak of the gross or formless acquired self; whenever the formless acquired self is present, we do not speak of the gross acquired self or the mind-made acquired self, we speak of the formless acquired self. But, Citta, these are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world, which the Tathgata uses without misapprehending them.184
184 Definitely a reference to the two types of truths: conventional speech (sammuti -katha) and ultimate speech (paramattha-katha), as well as being perhaps one of the most important comments in the lesson. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the level of truth at which any statement is made. Also maintained from Walshe (source unknown): Two truths the Buddha, best of all who speak, declared: Conventional and ultimate - no third can be. Terms agreed are true by usage of the world; Words of ultimate significance are true... In terms of dhammas. Thus the Lord, a Teacher, he -whos skilled in this worlds speech, can use it, and not lie.

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And at these words Pohapda the wanderer said to the Lord: Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Blessed Lord has expounded the Dhamma in various ways. Lord, I go for refuge to the Lord, the Dhamma and the Sangha. May the Lord accept me as a lay-follower who has taken refuge in him from this day forth as long as life shall last! But Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, said to the Lord: Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Blessed Lord has expounded the Dhamma in various ways. Lord, I go for refuge to the Lord, the Dhamma and the Sangha. May I, Lord, receive the going-forth at the Lords hands, may I receive ordination! And Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, received the going-forth at the Lords hands, and the ordination. And the newly-ordained Venerable Citta, alone, secluded, unwearying, zealous and resolute, in a short time attained to that for the sake of which young men of good birth go forth from the household life into homelessness, that unexcelled culmination of the holy life, having realized it here and now by his own superknowledge and dwelt therein, knowing: Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further here. And the Venerable Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, became another of the Arahants. Lesson Summary: The lesson covers the extinction of consciousness and unravels as a prime endeavor, an exemplary Suttanta-Piaka code of morality; sensual experience; the overcoming of hindrances; the training of perceptions and the worldly momentarilyexisting self. Habermas teaches: Anyone who systematically deceives himself about himself behaves irrationally. But one who is capable of letting himself be enlightened about his irrationality possesses not only the rationality of a subject who is competent to judge facts and who acts in a purposive-rational way, who is morally judicious and practically reliable, who evaluates with sensitivity and is aesthetically open-minded; he also posseses the power to behave reflectively in relation to his subjectivity and to see through the irrational limitations to which his cognitive, moral-practicl, and aestheticpractical expressions are subject. In such a process of self-reflection, reasons and grounds also play a role.185 Ones morality serves as causes or conditions for perceptions. It is note-worthy to illustrate the error written by Maurice Walshe: The discussion moves to various kinds of possible self, all of which the Buddha refutes...186 We see from the above the Buddha affirms the conventional self: when Citta proposes at the time my only true one thus momentarily, the Buddha affirms, through his mundane reasoning: In just the same way... but, Citta, these are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world, which the Tathgata uses without misapprehending them...187 For it was also written in the Mahnidna Sutta: In what ways, nanda, do people explain the nature of the self? ...all we need say about the view that the self is material and limited, and the same applies to the other theories. So much,

Jrgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action Vol. I, Reason and Realization of Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1984), p. 21 186 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), Introduction, p. 57 187 Ibid., p. 169

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nanda, for those who proffer an explanation of the self.188 Thus, Buddhism should affirm the conventional self, as a mode of speech as the Buddha confirmed here. This lesson is mainly about restraint (mentality overpowering physicality) of the body through the undertaking of wholesome training activities. The restraint is the internal control of ones body as the consequence of external perceptions of the proper conceived activities for a religious renunciate. This necessary control arose from abuses observed from various members of the external society. Whether in isolation or in public, these activities, however useful for the mind, are nothing but: distractions from pursuing the noble life of the meditating homeless world-renouncing Bhikkhu and determined to be socially unacceptable. A Bhikkhu, dwelling in relative-material poverty, should have a developed intellect and moral code quite the opposite from what is expected from civil-society. Moreover, this lesson pertains to the personal discipline of the Buddha. In Abrahamic religious traditions, adherants strive towards following the righteous examples of their prime messagers, like Jesus and the Prophet Mohammad. Buddhists may take on the personal-livelihood of the Buddha as well, although it seldom appears to be a conscious decision; rather some monastics live with the 227 rules of monastic discipline, others follow 10 principles. Radical indeed, it could be, for interested practitioners to adopt and follow this lessons code of behavior. Additionally, lay people need to be aware of these regulations, in order to protect, guide and properly engage with monastics towards benefiting monastics righteously and not contributing to their corruption and potential to become criminal. Many of the actions that the Buddha prohibits would directly impact the financially lucrative endeavors that some wayward monastics currently engage in for themselves or as fund-raising activities for their temple or temple restorations. A deeper discussion on these matters would directly challenge the socialculture of some nations inspired by Buddhism. The proper understanding of the self, as perhaps only in its conventional understanding or origin, would illustrate how the mind should be directed or guided towards the respective aggregates composition or elimination of greed, hatred and delusion, ultimately. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said or what can be gathered from reading about worldly renunciation would sharpen ones perceptions and would better guide future endeavors. When morality is fully developed, the highest goals of Buddhism become easier to attain. Restraint, of the body, speech and mind, is a major factor to lead one towards the highest goals of Buddhism. Contriving a Meditative System from the Sagti Sutta189: Below is material withdrawn from the Sagti Sutta that pertains to the meditative components found within the teaching of Venerable Sriputta, and confirmed by the Buddha. If the material is arranged thematically, and presented as such a diagram, one can gain a glipse of a contrived meditation routine that may be possible to implement in Buddhist meditation activities. Within this paragraph will be an explanation of the 12 criteria detailed in the below chart. Beginning with a simple Dhamma teaching as the basis for deliverance (5:25), this is ground-zero, metaphorically speaking; and thus this has no number, and the listener may be ready to begin to practice aspects of Buddhist teachings. The first step then should be to prepare oneself or be possessed with
188 189

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knowledge that will assist the practice - these are preliminary stages prior to undertaking meditation training; and this is also the first preparatory meditation lesson towards the powers of: energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom (4:26). This is all prepatory or basic root/foundational level information, to begin with in Buddhist trainings. Second are the powers of reflection & mindfulness (2:21-22), because once one is prepared, they need to become established or capable with the stages here. Third, in order to know that one is established mindfully, one needs to understand the sensuality-experience; therefore, an understanding of what one is experiencing is important (6:11-13). Fourth, some image or object may be established or present in the mind these kasias (2:24/10:2) can be explored. Further, fifthly, are the different concentrations (3:50-51); which can lead towards calm (2:23) as the sixth stage and insight (2:23) - (as kinds of wisdom), as a seventh stage. The eighth stage depicted here is the powers of concentration & mental development (2:21-22) which are the concentrative experiences of the Eightfold Noble Path that are requisites of the final stage of the path, being concentration which needs developed and expanded as expressed in the criteria set. The ninth stage expressed in this Sagti-system is what is termed as spanning techniques, as a brigde into higher mental realms these contain the brahmavihras. The tenth stage is skill in entering and returning from jhna, also listed as successive abiding (2:9). Then, beyond these are the higher spheres or realms, as the eleventh expressed stage; then, finally as the twelth stage the brahmavihras are listed again, because they are expressed to lead towards deliverance. This contrived system aims at giving someone all or many of the various meditation suggestions gained from the Tipiaka, rather than what is gained in meditation retreats: extensive practice in a singular technique that may not be adequate for ones personality characteristics. The chart is depicted below:

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Contriving a Meditative System from the Sagti Sutta


0. Bases for deliverance (5:25): Receiving the dhamma experiences joy and is calmed, has not heard but in the course of teaching learns it by heart, while chanting the Dhamma, while applying the mind to the dhamma concentrates, while grasping at a concentration -sign considers it with wisdom joy arises when the senses are calm and happiness arises when ones mind becomes established in the method Roads To Power, developing: concentration of intention accompanied by effort of will, concentration of energy, concentration of consciousness, and concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will Four Supports: that which is pursued, endured, avoided, and suppressed great efforts (4:2, these lead to 4:26) four efforts (4:10): (a) of restraint does not rousing the will, making an effort, stirring grasp wholes or details via the senses so that up energy, exerts the mind, and strives to evil, unwholesome states do not flood in one prevent: the arising of the unarisen evil (b) abandoning lust, hatred, and cruelty that unwholesome mental states, to overcome the has arisen, dispels it, destroys it, and makes it evil unwholesome mental states that have disappear (c) development of the arisen, to produce unarisen wholesome enlightenment factor of mindfulness, based on mental states, and to maintain wholesome solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to the mental states that have arisen not letting maturity of surrender (d) preservation them fade away, to bring them to greater keeping firmly in the mind a favorable object of growth, to the full perfection of development concentration which has arisen such as a these lead to energy, mindfulness, skeleton or corpse in various stages of decay concentration, and wisdom respectfully. factors of enlightenment (7:2): mindfulness, investigation of phenomena, energy, delight, tranquility, concentration, equanimity stages of mastery (8:10): perceiving (and not perceiving) forms internally one sees external forms - limited (and unlimited) and beautiful and ugly, not perceiving, not perceiving forms internally - one perceives forms that are blue, yellow, red and white one is aware that one knows and sees them subjects of recollection (6:19): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas Three types of sense investigations: when seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing with the ear, smelling with the nose, tasting with the tongue, touching with the body, knowing a mind-object with the mind one investigates a corresponding object productive of either pleasure, unpleasurable, or indifference ten objects for the attainment of absorption (appan) perceiving: the Earth Kasia, Water Kasia, Fire Kasia, Wind Kasia, Blue Kasia, Yellow Kasia, Red Kasia, White Kasia, Space Kasia, and Consciousness Kasia above, below, on all sides undivided and unbounded with thinking and pondering, with pondering without thinking, with neither; Other types of concentrations: on emptiness, the signless, desireless the sign of calm and the prolonging of the sign Foundations of mindfulness, contemplating (4:1): the body as body, feelings as feelings, mind as mind, mindobjects as mind-objects being ardent, clearly aware and mindful putting away hankering and fretting for the world based on thought, on learning/hearing, on mental development/meditation (3:43) Requisites of concentration (7:3): right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness. Concentrative meditation, or Samdhi-bhavana, when developed and expanded leads (4:5) to (a) happiness here and now being led by the four jhnas (b) gaining knowledge and vision led by the percep tion of light fixing perception of day, by night as day, by day as night in order to develop a mind that is clear and unclouded and full of brightness (c) mindfulness and clear awareness led by knowing the feelings as they arise, remain and vanish knowing ones thoughts as they arise, remain and vanish (d) the destruction of the corruptions led by contemplating the rise and fall of the five aggregates (this is the arising and cessation of material form, feelings, perception, mental formations, and consciousness)

1. Preparation orAssisting Knowledge These are preliminary stages prior to undertaking meditation training and first preparatory meditation lesson towards the powers of: energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom (4:26):

2. Powers of Reflection & Mindfulness (2:21-22)

3. Senses (6:11-13) 4. Kasia (2:24/10:2) 5. (3:50-51) Concentrations: 6. Calm (2:23): 7. Insight (2:23) (as kinds of wisdom): 8. Powers of Concentration & Mental Development (2:21-22)

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9. Spanning Techniques Abiding (3:59): deva-abiding (celestial detached from sensual desires, calm and into the four jhnastages), Brahma-abiding (sublime - meditations on loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity), Ariyan-abiding (best awareness of the elimination of greed, hatred and delusion during the four postures of meditation) formless jhnas (4:7): (a) passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, Jhnas (4:4): (a) one being detached from all sense-desires, disappearance of all sense of unwholesome mental states enters and remains in the first resistance, and by non-attraction to jhna which is with thinking and pondering, born of the perception of diversity, seeing that detachment, filled with delight and joy (b) putting the first space is infinite, reaches and remains jhna aside and gaining inner tranquility and oneness of in the Sphere of Infinite Space (b) by mind one remains in the second jhna which is without passing entirely beyond, seeing thinking and pondering (c) with the fading away of delight consciousness as infinite reaches and and remaining imperturbable, mindful and clearly aware remains in the Sphere of Infinite experiences an additional delight that of dwelling in Consciousness (c) by passing entirely equanimity and mindfulness as the third jhna (d) and after beyond, and seeing that there is no giving up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of thing, one reaches the Sphere of Nothe former gladness and sadness, the fourth jhna is attained Thingness (d) and then by passing which is beyond pleasure and pain, purified by equanimity entirely beyond one reaches and and mindfulness remains in the Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non Perception Successive cessations (9:5-6): (a) by the attainment of the first jhna perceptions of sensuality cease (b) by the attainment of the second jhna thinking and pondering cease (c) by the attainment of the third jhna delight ceases (d) by the attainment of the fourth jhna in and out breathing ceases (becomes so subtle as to be imperceptible) (e) by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Space the perception of materiality ceases, by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite-Consciousness the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Space ceases, by the attainment of Sphere of No-Thingness the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness ceases, by the attainment of the Sphere of NeitherPerception-Nor-Non-Perception the perception of the Sphere of No-Thingness ceases, by the attainment of the Cessation of Perception and Feeling perception and feelings cease Liberations (8:11): possessing form one sees forms, not perceiving material forms in oneself one sees them outside, thinking it is beautiful one becomes intent on it and enters the Sphere of Infinite Space, Sphere of Infinite-Consciousness, Sphere of No-Thingness, Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-NonPerception, the Cessation of Perception and Feeling six elements for making for deliverance (6:17): boundless states (4:6) pervading the emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for illfour quarters and above, below, across will; emancipation of the heart through compassion is the and everywhere abundant, magnified, cure for cruelty; emancipation of the heart through unbounded, without hatred or ill-will sympathetic joy is the cure for aversion; emancipation of through: the heart through equanimity is the cure for lust; the (a) loving-kindness signless emancipation of the heart is the cure for (b) compassion hankering after signs or the idea of: I am, is a repellant; (c) sympathetic joy and pays no idea to: I am this, that is the cure for doubt, (d) equanimity uncertainty and problems that still may grip the heart

10. Skill in entering and returning from jhna (Also as successive abiding) (2:9)

11. Spheres or Realms

12. Brahmaviharas

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Lesson Summarization: This seems to be a comprehensive presentation of various meditation techniques that cover many of the topics inside the Tipiaka and what is contained inside the Visuddhimagga. The Visuddhimagga expresses: ten kasias, ten kinds of foulness, ten recollections, four divine abiding, four immaterial states, one perception, one defining. Are the materials in the Sagti Sutta and the Visuddhimagga the same as the above chart depicts? Below is a chart of comparison, between the Sagti Sutta and the Visuddhimagga:

Comparing the Available Meditations


Visuddhimagga Sagti Sutta Present or Absent? Ten Kasias in both texts Yes Ten Repulsions No but, may be expressed in the preparation foulness stage No - mindfulness of death, mindfulness of breath are not Ten Recollections explicitly expressed Four Divine Abidings in both texts Yes Four Immaterial States on both texts Yes No - expressed as nutriment, but absent in the Sagti Sutta, One Perception unless one places the context of nutriment into the section dealing with the four supports No - these are expressed as the four great elements which are One Defining not explicitly presented here in the contrived meditation chart. Defending the Sangit Sutta: These criteria that appear to be absent could be implemented into other areas within the contrived chart. One could easily or skillfully weave any appearently absent criteria into the Sagti Sutta. Nutriment could be expressed in the stage dealing with the four supports; and the the great-elements could be inserted into the stages of mastery and therefore, any of the Visuddhimaggas criteria can easily be expressed as the contrived meditation chart illustrates. The purpose of creating the chart was to allow for a singular presentation of all of the Buddhist meditation material available for a practitioner in a compacted presentation. Perhaps the chart can be cut out from the pages and lamentated preserved in ones monk-bag, and easily refered to during times of forgetfulness. The impact of this chart is to have everything available at a moments notice as a remedy for some confliction.

Chapter IV ADHIPA-SIKKHA: Training in Higher Wisdom This chapter is uses the extracted lessons selected for their intellectual importance, and rearranged as placed below, pertaining to their relevance to social wisdom. The following lessons are selected for the following reasons: The Cak Sutta discusses seeking truthful validations. The Dasuttara Sutta and comments on the Sagti Sutta and their potentiality for thematic, rather than numerical, arrangements. To conclude the lessons, the Kaakatthala Sutta is presented to discuss that the Buddha is not omniscient190 and where gods are positioned in Buddhism. Abridged Version of the Cak Sutta191 ...Then the brahmin student Kpahika thought: When the recluse Gotama catches my eye, I shall ask him a question. Then, knowing with his own mind the thought in the brahmin student Kpahikas mind, the Blessed One turned his eye towards him. Then the brahmin student Kpahika thought: The recluse Gotama has turned towards me. Suppose I ask him a question. Then he said to the Blessed One: Master Gotama, in regard to the ancient brahmanic-hymns that have come down through oral transmission and in the scriptural collections, the brahmins come to the definite conclusion: Only this is true, anything else is wrong. What does Master Gotama say about this? How then, Kpahika, among the Brahmins, is there even a single brahmin who says thus: I know this, I see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong? No, Master Gotama. How then, Kpahika, among the Brahmins, is there even a single teacher or a single teachers teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers who says thus: I know this, I see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong? No, Master Gotama. How then, Kpahika, the ancient brahmin seers, the creators of the hymns, the composers of the hymns, whose ancient hymns that were formerly chanted, uttered, and compiled, the brahmins nowadays still chant and repeat, repeating what was spoken and
190 There is a demonstration from the Samyutta-Nikayas Yodhajiva Sutta that suggests he is not omniscient because he does not know the real reason why he is crying. 191 Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 775 -785. Introductory note: The excerpt of this discourse suggests: Education is often the quest for truth, education is a very necessary function for the improvement of society. Buddhism was created out of Siddhattha Gotamas quest to know what was unknown to him. The Cak Sutta is presented before all others in this chapter, to initiate thi s quest for all truths. The discourse begins with expressing the setting for the teaching: in a grove dedicated as an offering-place for Brahmins. The Buddha was dwelling in this location, demonstrating his tolerance for other religions. There were five-hundred Brahmins from various states, and all listening to the Buddhas instructions, illustrative of a common language being used. This first portion of the discourse is deleted and the conversation towards discovering truth remains, showing only the material that is left for consumption and interpretation. The discourse is sometimes interrupted by necessary charts that illustrate important parts of the material.

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reciting what was recited - that is: Ahaka, Vmaka, Vmadeva, Vessmitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bhradvja (Kpahika), Vasettha, Kassapa, and Bhagu - did even these ancient Brahmin seers say thus: We know this, we see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong? No, Master Gotama. So, Kpahika, it seems that among the brahmins there is not even a single brahmin who says thus: I know this, I see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong. ...among the brahmins there is not even a single teacher or a single teachers teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers, who says thus: I know this, I see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong. ...the ancient brahmin seers, the creators of the hymns, the composers of the hymns even these ancient brahmin seers did not say thus: We know this, we see this: only this is true, anything else is wrong. Suppose there were a file of blind men each in touch with the next: the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see. So too, Kpahika, in regard to their statement the brahmins seem to be like a file of blind men: the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see. What do you think, Kpahika, that being so, does not the faith of the brahmins turn out to be groundless? The brahmins honor this not only out of faith, Master Gotama. They also honor it as oral tradition. Kpahika, first you took your stand on faith, now you speak of oral tradition. There are five things, Kpahika, that may turn out in two different ways here and now. What five? Faith, approval, oral tradition, reasoned cognition, and reflective acceptance of a view. These five things may turn out in two different ways here and now. Now something may be fully accepted out of faith, yet it may be empty, hollow, and false; but something else may not be fully accepted out of faith, yet it may be factual, true, and unmistaken. Again, something may be fully approved of may be well cognated may be well reflected upon, yet it may be empty, hollow, and false; but something else may not be well reflected upon, yet it may be factual, true, and unmistaken. Under these conditions it is not proper for a wise man who preserves truth to come to the definite conclusion: Only this is true, anything else is wrong.

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But, Master Gotama, in what way is there the preservation of truth? How does one preserve truth? We ask Master Gotama about the preservation of truth. If a person has faith, Kpahika, he preserves truth when he says: My faith is thus; but he does not yet come to the definite conclusion: Only this is true, anything else is wrong. In this way, Kpahika, there is the preservation of truth; in this way he preserves truth; in this way we describe the preservation of truth; but as yet there is no discovery of truth. If a person approves of something, if he receives an oral tradition, if he reaches a conclusion based on reasoned cogitation, ...if he gains a reflective acceptance of a view, he preserves truth when he says: My reflective acceptance of a view is thus; but he does not yet come to the definite conclusion: Only this is true, anything else is wrong. In this way too, Kpahika, there is the preservation of truth; in this way he preserves truth; in this way we describe the preservation of truth; but as yet there is no discovery of truth. In that way, Master Gotama, there is the preservation of truth; in that way one preserves truth; in that way we recognize the preservation of truth. But in what way, Master Gotama, is there the discovery of truth? In what way does one discover truth? We ask Master Gotama about the discovery of truth. Here, Kpahika, a bhikkhu may be living in dependence on some village or town. Then a householder or a householders son goes to him and investigates him in regard to three kinds of states: in regard to states based on greed, in regard to states based on hate, and in regard to states based on delusion: Are there in this venerable one any states based on greed such that, with his mind obsessed by those states, while not knowing he might say, I know, or while not seeing he might say, I see, or he might urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time? As he investigates him he comes to know: There are no such states based on greed in this venerable one. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by greed; and the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere

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reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the wise. This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by greed. When he has investigated him and has seen that he is purified from states based on greed, he next investigates him in regard to states based on hate: Are there in this venerable one any states based on hate such that, with his mind obsessed by those states he might urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time? As he investigates him, he comes to know: There are no such states based on hate in this venerable one. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by hate; and the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound... to be experienced by the wise. This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by hate.

Behavioral-analysis or Psychoanalysis of another person Buddhism teaches this ability For judging patients.

When he has investigated him and has seen that he is purified from states based on hate, he next investigates him in regard to states based on delusion: Are there in this venerable one any states based on delusion such that, with his mind obsessed by those states he might urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time? As he investigates him, he comes to know: There are no such states based on delusion in this venerable one. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by delusion; and the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound to be experienced by the wise. This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by delusion. When he has investigated him and has seen that he is purified from states based on delusion, then he places faith in him; filled with faith he visits him and pays respect to him; having paid respect to him, he gives ear; when he gives ear, he hears the Dhamma; having heard the Dhamma, he memorizes it and examines the meaning of the teachings he has memorized; when he examines their meaning, he gains a reflective acceptance of those teachings; when he has gained a reflective acceptance of those teachings, zeal springs up; when zeal has sprung up, he applies his will; having applied his will, he scrutinizes; having scrutinized, he strives; resolutely striving, he realizes with the body

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the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrating it with wisdom. In this way, Kpahika, there is the discovery of truth; in this way one discovers truth; in this way we describe the discovery of truth; but as yet there is no final arrival at truth. In that way, Master Gotama, there is the discovery of truth; in that way one discovers truth; in that way we recognize the discovery of truth; but in what way, Master Gotama, is there the final arrival at truth? In what way does one finally arrive at truth? We ask Master Gotama about the final arrival at truth. The final arrival at truth, Kpahika, lies in the repetition, development, and cultivation of those same things. In this way, Kpahika, there is the final arrival at truth; in this way one finally arrives at truth; in this way we describe the final arrival at truth. In that way, Master Gotama, there is the final arrival at truth; in that way one finally arrives at truth; in that way we recognize the final arrival at truth; but what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for the final arrival at truth? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth. Striving is most helpful for the final arrival at truth, Kpahika. If one does not strive, one will not finally arrive at truth; but because one strives, one does finally arrive at truth. That is why striving is most helpful for the final arrival at truth. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for striving? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for striving. Scrutiny is most helpful for striving, Kpahika. If one does not scrutinize, one will not strive; but because one scrutinizes, one strives. That is why scrutiny is most helpful for striving. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for scrutiny? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for scrutiny. Application of the will is most helpful for scrutiny, Kpahika. If one does not apply ones will, one will not scrutinize; but because one applies ones will, one scrutinizes. That is why application of the will is most helpful for scrutiny. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for application of the will? We ask the Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for application of the will. Zeal is most helpful for application of the will, Kpahika. If one does not arouse zeal, one will not apply ones will; but because one arouses zeal, one applies ones will. That is why zeal is most helpful for application of the will. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for zeal? We ask Maste r Gotama about the thing most helpful for zeal. A reflective acceptance of the teachings is most helpful for zeal, Kpahika. If one does not gain a reflective acceptance of the teachings, zeal will not spring up; but because one gains a reflective acceptance of the teachings, zeal springs up. That is why a reflective acceptance of the teachings is most helpful for zeal. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings. Examination of the meaning is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings, Kpahika. If one does not examine their meaning, one will not gain a reflective acceptance of the teachings; but because one examines their meaning, one gains a reflective acceptance of the teachings. That is why examination of the meaning is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for examination of the meaning? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for examination of meaning.

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Memorizing the teachings is most helpful for examining the meaning, Kpahika. If one does not memorize a teaching, one will not examine its meaning; but because one memorizes a teaching, one examines its meaning. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for memorizing the teachings? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for memorizing the teachings. Hearing the Dhamma is most helpful for memorizing the teachings, Kpahika. If one does not hear the Dhamma, one will not memorize the teachings; but because one hears the Dhamma, one memorizes the teachings. That is why hearing the Dhamma is most helpful for memorizing the teachings. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for hearing the Dhamma. Giving ear is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma, Kpahika. If one does not give ear, one will not hear the Dhamma; but because one gives ear, one hears the Dhamma. That is why giving ear is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for giving ear? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for giving ear. Paying respect is most helpful for giving ear, Kpahika. If one does not pay respect, one will not give ear; but because one pays respect, one gives ear. That is why paying respect is most helpful for giving ear. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for paying respect? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for paying respect. Visiting is most helpful for paying respect, Kpahika. If one does not visit (a teacher), one will not pay respect to him; but because one visits (a teacher), one pays respect to him. That is why visiting is most helpful for paying respect. But what, Master Gotama, is most helpful for visiting? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for visiting. Faith is most helpful for visiting, Kpahika. If faith (in a teacher) does not arise, one will not visit him; but because faith (in a teacher) arises, one visits him. That is why faith is most helpful for visiting.

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Most Helpful Things Towards the Preservation of the Truth Faith Visiting Paying Respects Giving Ear Hearing the Dhamma Memorization Examination of the Meaning Reflective Acceptance Zeal Application of the Will Scrutiny Striving We asked Master Gotama about the preservation of truth, and Master Gotama answered about the preservation of truth; we approve of and accept that answer, and so we are satisfied. We asked Master Gotama about the discovery of truth, and Master Gotama answered about the discovery of truth; we approve of and accept that answer, and so we are satisfied. We asked Master Gotama about the final arrival at truth, and Master Gotama answered about the final arrival at truth; we approve of and accept that answer, and so we are satisfied. We asked Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth, and Master Gotama answered about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth; we approve of and accept that answer, and so we are satisfied. Whatever we asked Master Gotama about, that he has answered us; we approve of and accept that answer, and so we are satisfied. Formerly, Master Gotama, we used to think: Who are these bald-pated recluses, these swarthy menial offspring of the Kinsmans feet, that they would understand the Dhamma? But Master Gotama has indeed inspired in me love for recluses, confidence in recluses, and reverence for recluses. Then he said to the Blessed One: Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the

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way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus... From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life. Lesson Summarization: The sutta is basically about how to validate teachings for oneself in stages towards truth-realization for oneself. We saw that Kpahika was youthfully eager to seek truths, and the Buddha, as one of the greatest teachers for the world, instructs him beautifully. These teachings are examined, now. People should not boast about their at-hand knowledge, as conceptions are often subjected to the impermanence principle claiming an ideological truth may become falsified. This educational lesson can be important politically, when circumstances leading to one position last year, could be different for this year and equally different for future considerations, there is no uniform validation. Beyond the political-sphere, the lesson illustrates that any convincing faith can turn out to be false, as perfectly logical systems of reasoning can become overturned.192 The Buddha himself, claimed here, that there can never be any final arrival at truth. We would constantly search and never entertain the highest circumstantial aim. Any claim of truth can be rendered inadequate, but to actually test truth scientifically may be an impossibility as this is a qualitative construction. Respected boundaries and preferences, however influential, cannot arrive at the noun of Truth, but are rather the adjective of truth. Even in meditations, any realization may be mere replication or manipulations of doctrine or counter-doctrine even at the deepest levels. So again, what is: truth? Who is qualified to give the accurate representation? From the below illustration, the concept of going to a teacher, approving of the teacher and subsequently becoming a disciple of the teacher, from approving and accepting the teachings this becomes apparent, also as a systematic expression of religious conversion. Towards a quest for truth:

Bhikkhu Bodhi: Dhamma-talk on MN 95: downloaded and accessed on 15 May 2009. http://www.bodhimonastery.net/bm/about-buddhism/audio/15-a-systematic-study-of-the-majjhimanikya.html?showall=1 Bhikkhu Bodhi suggested Karl Marxs endeavors overturned the historical philosophies of Hegel as is well-enough agreed by anyone who has studied their works. Today, there are some who refute the position of Karl Marx as obsolete or things did not quite work out the way that Marx had intended or predicted.

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What is Truth? A verified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle; ideal or fundamental reality apart from and transcending perceived experience

Cak Sutta Determination of Conventional Truths:


Criteria: Faith Method for Preservation or Safeguarding Truth May not be fully accepted By saying: My faith is thus but May be fully accepted from out of faith, yet it may be does not come to the definite faith yet may be empty, factual, true and conclusion Only this is true hollow, and false unmistaken anything else is wrong May not be fully accepted By saying: My approval is thus May be fully accepted from out of approval, yet it may but does not come to the definite approval yet may be be factual, true and conclusion Only this is true empty, hollow, and false unmistaken anything else is wrong May not be fully accepted By saying: My oral tradition is thus May be fully accepted from out of oral tradition, yet it but does not come to the definite oral tradition yet may be may be factual, true and conclusion Only this is true empty, hollow, and false unmistaken anything else is wrong May be fully accepted from May not be fully accepted By saying: My reasoned cognition is reasoned cognition yet out of reasoned cognition, thus but does not come to the may be empty, hollow, and yet it may be factual, true definite conclusion Only this is false and unmistaken true anything else is wrong May be fully accepted from May not be fully accepted By saying: My reflective acceptance reflective acceptance yet out of reflective acceptance, is thus but does not come to the may be empty, hollow, and yet it may be factual, true definite conclusion Only this is false and unmistaken true anything else is wrong Under these conditions it is not proper for a wise person who preserves truth to come to the definite conclusion: only this is true, anything else is wrong. It is not proper for a person to come to a conclusion because one has not personally ascertained the truth of the conviction but only accepts it on the grounds that one is not capable of yielding certainty. Does greed, hatred and delusion states exist in and affect ones behavior: bodily gestures or verbal-inclinations? Is one able to teach and preach Dhamma that is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere reason, subtle to be experienced by the wise... thus one should be purified away from any defiling state and would not urge others to be defiled or towards harm or suffering. Preferential Concept Misconception Concept

Approval

Oral Tradition

Reasoned Cognition Reflective Acceptance

Thus:

Therefore:

The lesson is mainly about truth. What is the consequence of truth? To limit the analysis to manageability, truth is: the genuine broadcast and understanding of the disseminated information or the validity of the circumstance. The Saccavibhaga Sutta of the Majjhima-Nikya193 announces several aspects of truth: the announcing, teaching, describing, establishing, revealing, expounding, and exhibiting the different aspects of the Four Noble Truths. If there are these seven criteria and four truths, twenty-eight circumstances could be elaborated. Thus, here, only resides the reference below to the lesson. The Nettippakaraa establishes six criteria: gratification, disappointment, escape, fruit, means, and the Buddhas commands to devotees (injunctions).194 However, there should be no confusion over the concept of truth (As mentioned previously: A verified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle; ideal or fundamental reality apart from and transcending perceived experience) and the Four Noble Truths; Buddhism further entertains conventional-worldly truths and ultimate-universal truths. The truth

Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 1097 -1101 (a discourse by Venerable Chief Disciple Sriputta.) 194 Bhikkhu Nanamoli (translator): The Guide - Nettippakaraa (London: Pli Text Society, 1977), p. lxix & 13

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becomes secured from the predominant influences of oneself (internal-perceptions or mental formations) and externally through the larger community/society. From the lesson, truth is not absolute, as tradition asserts previous generations have differing perspectives. Again, even the Kesaputta & Yodhajva Suttas illuminate misconceptions and fallacies. But there is continuity from the past, and this is generally present in our education system and social laws Buddhism suggests not taking up these regulations merely through blind-faith or ignorant allegiance to another predominating influence: elders; and if one must break from traditions to pursue truth, this can be advocated and justified. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said by elders or read through the preserved texts is a method to determine the truth looking through the language. Buddhist scholars might seek the elimination of residual greed, hatred, and delusion towards developing wholesome social-systems. Buddhists would draw out and develop beneficial truths. Furthermore, see the following chart:

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Ultimately, this excerpt from the lesson again discusses the truth. The seeking of truth is multi-faceted, as demonstrated above in the graphics. Any type of truth: social, political, ideological, etc., can be sought after using the perspectives of the lesson. Representation of the Dasuttara Sutta195,196: (1) These Greatly Help197: These factors or conditions will greatly help a person, particularly if they associate with good people, where they can hear good and true Dhamma, and even take upon the practice of Dhamma or take upon the practice of incorporating Dhamma into their daily life. Having a favorable place of residence is greatly helpful to establish ones self or to practice the Dhamma perhaps secluded from distractions in order to perfectly develop ones personality. Of course it is beneficial to have undertaken past meritorious actions to dispel future unwholesomeness. A favorable place to live may be a monastic community. In a temple, one can dwell near a venerable teacher keeping in mind that in such an atmosphere, one needs to be conscious of other people around, and those who might be observing. Those who are interested in practicing the Dhamma need to be strongly established with moral shame and moral dread fearing the slightest wrongdoing and live with morality. With mindfulness and clear awareness of the Dhamma-Vinaya, one can train with persistence keeping the rules of training. The practitioner of Dhamma, in public (where everyone can see) and in private (while no one is watching) should observe and keep the rules and demonstrate a friendly attitude (metta loving-kindness) though bodily acts, speech and with their minds. Sharing what has been properly received is such an activity that is additionally beneficial and conducive to communal living. One might even renounce the lay life and become ordained, and become content with the four requisites: food, robes, shelter and medicine to strive with higher Dhammas and higher Discipline. The practitioner should not be lax in the duties expected of one thus gone forth. While being firmly established in life of practicing Dhamma, one should continually strive towards the elimination of suffering towards liberation, persist in concentration and be able to remain with such awareness. While living with or near a respected, loving or venerable teacher one should seek to interrogate this experienced teacher, concerning the meaning of things, or things hidden (not known), and after hearing much and inquiring/contemplating on such advice withdraws the body and mind to reflect on what was mentioned. With trust/faith in the Enlightenment of the Buddha, persisting with restrained living, and with health suitable for exertion one endeavors to undertake the cultivation
Consulted for this representation were Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp 479-510; T.W. Rhys Davids (ed.): Sacred Books of the Buddhists Volume IV (Oxford: Pli Text Society, 1991), pp. 198-247; W. Stede (ed.): Sumagala-Vilsin, Buddhaghosas Commentary on the Dgha-Nikya (Sagti-Sutta-Vaan) (London: Pli Text Society, 1971), pp. 971 1052 --- I have primarily relied on the Maurice Walshe version, presented only to illustrate how material was grouped and elaborated. As for the electronic file it was cross-referenced by myself in the editions above, including my own insertion of the Pli diacritic markings... thus I take responsibility for any remaining, unintended mistakes at duplicating the sutta abridged slightly for contextualization or intended usage. 196 This discourse, in its original form is an extensive discourse; but, is presented and arranged thematically, here. This is done so that a person can read and ponder the other benefits of issuing the same discourse thematically, rather than numerically. The wisest of the Buddhas disciples: the Venerable Sriputta, gave a discourse organizing aspects of Dhamma into ten distinct numerical groupings; however, the subject matter is quite random. Perhaps he left the reorganization up to the practitioner allowing the person greater growth in learning Dhamma. The reinterpretation/representation of the Dasuttara Sutta is below (certainly, the discourse could be expanded upon in greater detail by thematic characteristics rather than the traditional numerical arrangement): 197 Additional aspects can be seen in the Cak Sutta
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of and persist in and with wholesome states and furthermore, to penetrate these states with wisdom destroys suffering. This builds up the treasures of faith, morality, learning, and wisdom (knowing though experience). When one becomes much learned and can reflect upon the teachings able to recite and deeply penetrate the teachings, and is quick to grasp other instruction the striving to eradicate or dispelling of unwholesomeness towards establishing wholesomeness, are some past meritorious actions that can additionally serve to assist the practitioner. Contemplating on the rise and fall of the Five Aggregates is beneficial and comprises the concepts within vipassana-meditation: the body, feelings, perceptions, mental-formations and feelings. Then, additionally mindful of what was said long ago with wise perception, the practitioner becomes concentrated. Rooted in such deep concentration: joy arises; being joyful, delight arises; delighted, the senses are calmed; calm, happiness arises; happy, the mind becomes concentrated; concentrated, s/he knows and sees things as they really are; thus knowing and seeing, disenchantment arises; disenchanted, dispassion arises; through dispassion one becomes liberated completely from suffering. (2) The following should be developed: One should be aware that there are several forms of meditation most of which can be found in the Visuddhimagga and texts inside the Tipitaka. However, most Buddhists lack access to their sacred texts, because they have been taught that they are too difficult to comprehend as if people are too stupid to read a book; or the voluminous collection is too expensive to purchase. Now there are efforts to make the lessons freely available online. Most meditation is concerned with either calm or insight development sometimes both; additionally, there are the objects for attaining the jhna meditations. These objects are kasia meditations and there are ten objects for the attainment of absorption: Earth Kasia Water-Kasia Fire-Kasia Wind-Kasia Blue-Kasia Yellow-Kasia Red-Kasia White-Kasia Space-Kasia Consciousness-Kasia

Oversimplified, these objects are to be stared at, meditatively, until a counter-sign is developed these objects are to be penetrated through meditation, as it is stated: above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded. The object should pervade in the mind, even with the eyes closed. This method of meditation is not entirely Buddhist, and can be found in other contemplative-traditions. There are additional subjects for meditation, such as: The Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, morality, renunciation, and also devas surprisingly for Buddhists. There are three types of concentration, simply: thinking and pondering; with pondering without thinking; with neither. However, to establish the four foundations of mindfulness or true awareness, one should contemplate on the body, feelings, the mind

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and mind-objects as they truly are: impermanent, suffering, and not-self; and if there is any greed, hatred or delusion rooted behind any of the feelings or perceptions. With such mindfulness and the investigation of phenomena, the practitioner can continue to strive towards enlightenment with energy, delight, tranquility, concentration and equanimity factors that drop away with higher jhna-level meditations. Calming-meditations and insight-meditations are additionally useful with the establishment of mindfulness, with regards to the body and sense-pleasures. Factors of effort for perfect purity, are: the factor of effort for purity of morality; for purity of mind; for purity of view; of purification by overcoming doubt; by knowledge and vision of path and not-path; knowledge and vision of progress; by knowledge and vision; of purity of wisdom; of purity of deliverance. Perfect concentration entails suffusion with: delight; happiness; will; lightness; the reviewing sign (emerging from jhnas). Perfect, or correct/right concentration is part of the Eightfold Noble Path, which is an additional matter to be developed, namely: Right View Right Thought Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration

(3) These are to be thoroughly known: It is well known that in Buddhism, practitioners should develop mindfulness and awareness of their body and mind. Concerning the physical body beings are different in body and perception; different in body and alike in perception; alike in body and different in perception; alike in body and alike in perception; there are some that have escaped materiality having attained to the realms or spheres of Infinite Space; Infinite Consciousness or Unconscious Beings; the Realm of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception or No-Thingness. For some beings, the above serve as mental or contemplative realms from the mind. However, with the body, there are the six internal sense-spheres: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind-sense-sphere and the resulting ten sense-spheres, of: eye and sightobject; ear and sound; nose and smell; tongue and taste; body and tactile object. Through the sense-organs, contact and feelings arise, that are either: pleasant; painful, or neither. Through this contact, people can become corrupted through cravings or grasping for more contact. There are five aggregates from which grasping through: body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness - occurs. Practitioners can become stimulated through such contact, which serves as additional forms of nourishment, along with material-food, mental volition and consciousness. Practitioners should be well aware of the need to balance sensual-contacts and maintain a sort of equilibrium with the eight worldly conditions: gain and loss; fame and shame; blame and praise; happiness and misery. This is what should be known to practitioners. (4) These are to be abandoned: in order to eradicate imbalance or extremes Buddhism advocates the middle-path away from the extremes of over-indulgence and austerity and the concept of ego-conceit. The toughest aspect of life for humanity is

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how one can control cravings developed from the senses: sights; sounds; smells; tastes; touches; and mind-objects. Sensuous greed, resentment, views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming, and ignorance are tendencies that develop from sense-reception. There are floods that overcome our minds sensuality, becoming, views, and ignorance, even craving for extinction of defilements these can become hindrances to the meditative path. Again, hindrances like sensuality, ill-will, sloth-torpor, worry-flurry, and skeptical doubt arise based on our sensual experiences and can impact our capacity for insightful or calming meditations. If we take things as ours, or as mine enlarging a self one craves more and more. Consider the following relationships through craving: craving conditions searching; seeking conditions acquisition; acquisition conditions decision-making; decision-making conditions lustful desires; lustful desires conditions attachment; attachment conditions appropriation; appropriation conditions avarice; avarice conditions guarding of possessions; and because of guarding possessions there arises the taking up of the stick and sword, quarrels, disputes, arguments, strife, abuse, lying and other evil unskilled states. This is why there are proper courses of action, or a middle-way apart from extremes is necessary. Extremes are to be abandoned. Now it can be easier to understand how the ten wrong factors, such as the wrong: view; thought; speech; action; livelihood; effort; mindfulness; concentration; plus wrong knowledge and wrong liberation all impact equilibrium and should be abandoned for their opposites: correct or right factors. (5) These conduce to diminution: Furthermore, in connection to the above wrong factors, much of this section consists of factors that inhibit fruitful attainments. The very root conditions to unwholesomeness are greed, hatred and delusion. Much Buddhist practice involves the elimination of these factors from the personality. From these unwholesome roots of consciousness, one can become bound or yoked to worldly sufferings stimulated from sensuality, becoming, views and ignorance. So what can a person do to escape from diminishment towards productivity? For example: Consider the past, present and future: if someone has done harm; is doing an injury, or has done an injury to us or someone dear and pleasant or someone has done, is doing, or will do a favor for someone who is hateful and unpleasant to us then we often feel malice. This malice or hatred diminished the skillful-productivity of our meditation. For productive training - one should not doubt or be hesitant towards the Buddhist Teacher; the Dhamma-teachings; or the Sangha of monks and other disciples because the received training and fellow practitioners are spiritual friends designated to help the suffering practitioner still possessing an unsettled mind unable to devote oneself to the Teacher and training. One might be too depressed or has negative feelings, or is bound up with unwise attention, roughness and other friendships with evil this inhibits Buddhist training. However, there are people who can help often known as spiritual friends - earnestly devoted to providing hospitality and the practitioner needs to be respectful towards them as well as to oneself. Certainly, wrong practices diminish ones spiritual capacities someone who is lacking in: faith; moral shame; moral dread; has little learning; is slack; is unmindful; lacks wisdom suffers in the holy life. Additionally, those who participate in unwholesome courses of action: taking life; taking what is not giving; sexual misconduct; lying speech; slander; rude speech; idle chatter; greed; malevolence; wrong view they too suffer or are suffering. Daily tasks like working, going on a journey, going for alms-round, or even recovering from an illness are often converted into excuses to escape from taking

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advantage of meditative work. This meditative or contemplative work enables the practitioner to accomplish the unaccomplished. While undertaking ones daily tasks, tiredness should not prevail. Taking a rest delays accomplishment and turns into occasions for indolence or laziness. Step by step, project by project one can accomplish the respective duty and when finally settling down for mediation, valuable insights may arise. (6) These conduce to distinction: Quite respectively, this section is should be virtually the opposite of the above section the above section on badness, thus this section pertains to goodness. Like most religious founders, the Buddha taught to do good and avoid evil and that is the summarization of this segment of text however, a different approach might be beneficial. There are actions which conduce to wholesomeness, such as: avoid taking life; avoid taking what is not giving; avoid sexual misconduct; avoid lying speech; avoid slander; avoid rude speech; avoid idle chatter; avoid greed; avoid malevolence; avoid wrong views. With wise attention, gentleness and the cultivation of friendship with good people, one can emphasize non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion with their faculties: of Buddhist faith, of energy, of mindfulness, of concentration and of wisdom. For example, to overcome malice, if one is having those thoughts that someone has done, is doing or will do harm to them to ask what good would it do to harbor malice is the method to overcome the defilement. Concerning laziness, when one can stir up enough energy to complete his task, then one can stir up even more attention to listen to the Buddhadhamma the practitioner begins to realize the unrealized. Once this effort has been made, the practitioner can begin to unyoke from the bonds of sensuality, becoming, views and ignorance. Having established oneself in the Dhamma-Vinaya the correct or right practices become illuminated: through faith; moral shame, moral dread; is one with much learning; has aroused vigor; established in mindfulness; and possesses wisdom. Then, when the practitioner demonstrates the different kinds of respect: towards the Teacher; Dhamma; Sangha; the training; in respect of earnestness; of hospitality certainly he practices with distinction or with emulatable wholesome features. (7) These are hard to penetrate: One cannot with certainty predict the time of their physical birth, therefore the category arises where someone faces an inopportune time for leading the holy-life, when: born in a hell-state when a Tathagata has arisen; born among animals; petas; in a long-lived groups of devas; born in a border region with no access to monks or disciples; born in the region of a Buddha but holds wrong views; born in the region of the Buddha but is stupid, deaf or dumb; or no Tathagata has arisen but one is intelligent and well-able to tell whether something has been well-said or not. The intelligent person, or our practitioner of example, therefore should strive to acquire the qualities of a true man to take advantage of his inopportune birth becoming: a knower of Dhamma, of meanings, of self, of moderation, of the right time, of groups, and of persons. Particularly, the practitioner should know the differences: of element, there is difference with contact; contact-feeling; feeling-perception; perception-thought; thought-intention; intention-obsession; obsession-quest; and with different quests, there arises a difference in what is gained. Additionally difficult to earn is an uninterrupted mental concentration usually there is something to distract the practitioner so to become delivered from sensuality renunciation is best; material forms - immaterial forms is suggested; whatever has become, is compounded, is conditionally arisen - deliverance from that is cessation is the remedy. From different types of concentration conducing to: decline; stasis (opposing

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forces causing an equilibrium); distinction; penetration and being well-freed from corruptions and feelings that arise: sense-desires; ill-will; cruelty; forms; personality (sakkya) a proper concentration develops. If one is still having difficulty there are some elements that make deliverance possible: the development of loving-kindness eliminates ill-will; compassion eliminates cruelty; sympathetic joy eliminates aversion; equanimity eliminates lust; signless emancipation of the heart eliminates hankering over signs; paying no head to I eliminated doubts. Having established oneself towards penetrating the difficult aspects of humanity, one can launch into noble dispositions: rid oneself of five factors (sensuality; ill-will; sloth-torpor; worry-flurry; doubt); possess six factors (is neither pleased nor displeased equable, mindful, clearly aware with contacts through the senses); become established with one guard (guarding the mind with mindfulness); observe four supports (judges what is to be pursued; one thing endured; one thing avoided; one thing suppressed the bases of conduct); to rid oneself of individual beliefs (abandons beliefs of other sects); quite abandoned quests (quest for sense-desires, for rebirth, for the holy-life); is of pure motive (abandoned thoughts of sensuality,, ill-will, cruelty); has tranquillized emotions (enters into 4th Jhna level); is well liberated in heart (liberated from greed, hatred, delusion); is well liberated in mind (greed, hatred, delusion have been cut off at the root). This enables us to greatly understand the roots of the condition of defilements in beings and the roots of the condition of purification of beings enabling penetrative deliverance to become possible. (8) These should be made to arise: Before he became a noble disciple, Anuruddha was taught the following, by Sriputta, known as eight thoughts of a great man: the Dhamma is for one who wants little, not for one who wants much; The Dhamma is for the contented, not for the discontented; The Dhamma is for the secluded, not for one fond of society; The Dhamma is for the energetic, not for the lazy; The Dhamma is for the mindful, not for the unmindful; The Dhamma is for the composed, not for the uncomposed; The Dhamma is for the wise, not for the unwise; The Dhamma is for one free of impediments, not for one who delights in impediments. Those thoughts should arise in a practitioner. Additionally, one should have unshakable knowledge this knowledge should include the destruction of defilements; and their non-recurrences; the knowledge of Dhamma; of what is consonant with it; knowledge of others minds; and conventional knowledge of the past, future and present although the preceding includes many of the superknowledges one can gain through concentrative calm-meditation. Through right or proper concentration: this concentration is both present happiness and productive of future resultant happiness; is noble and free from worldliness; this concentration is not practiced by the unworthy; is calm and perfect, has attained tranquilization, unification, and is not instigated; I myself attain this concentration with mindfulness and emerge from it with mindfulness. This correct concentration produces stabilized states the practitioner - being neither pleased nor displeased but remaining equable, mindful and clearly aware, with experiencing the six-senses. These experiences or perceptions: of not-self; of danger; of the foul; of death; of the loathsomeness of food; of distaste for the whole world; of impermanence; of impersonality in suffering; of relinquishment or abandonment; of dispassion; of consciousness; and of cessation should be made to arise in a practitioner. (9) These are to be thoroughly learned: The practitioner having developed, penetrated and made known various aspects of Dhamma, should thoroughly learn, to a deeper level the characteristics of Dhammas. This activity would be considered as

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grounds for commendation, the practitioner being anxious to: undertake the training; makes a close study of the Dhamma; get rid of desires; to find solitude; to arouse energy; to develop mindfulness and discrimination; to develop penetrative insight. The fact that all beings must be maintained by nutriment - this alone illustrates that beings are impermanent and subjected to suffering. As such, they need to be maintained physically, by nutriment and by default, through the very essence of the lifeconcept, there is no self to be seen. The necessary circumstance of nutriment establishes that the conditioned (its rising is apparent, its passing away is apparent and while persisting change is evident) and unconditioned (no arising appears, no passing away appears, and while persisting no change is evident) elements. These elements have the following forms: of form; the formless element; the element of cessation. The practitioner can master the states of form: perceiving forms internally one sees external forms limited and beautiful or ugly; (same) but unlimited; not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited; (same) but unlimited; not perceiving forms internally but sees forms that are blue; yellow; red; and or white. There are certain unsurpassed things that stimulate ones training: certain sights; things heard; gains; trainings; forms of service; objects of recollection. To assist in the mastery of subjects and things unsurpassed contributing to deliverance are: after a respected teacher teaches Dhamma: the student gains the spirit and the letter of the teaching joy arises; having never heard it before, one has now learned it by heart; when chanting the Dhamma; when the mind is applied to Dhamma, ponders it over and concentrates on it; when a concentration sign has been properly grasped then the mind has been properly established, and higher mental-meditative states can become ones haven: (the Four Jhnas) and Spheres of Infinite Space; Infinite Consciousness; No-thingness; NeitherPerception-Nor-Non-Perception; and Cessation of Perception and Feeling. By comprehending and thoroughly knowing the Dhamma, one wears away the unwholesome: right view wears away wrong view; (and etc, accordingly right wears away wrong) -thought; speech; action; livelihood; effort; mindfulness; concentration; knowledge liberation. This is an aspect of the Third and Fourth Noble Truth the Four Noble Truths being: the knowledge of suffering; its origin; its cessation; and the Eightfold (expanded to ten, above) Noble Path. (10) These are to be realized: that there are five branches of Dhamma that should be realized: morality; concentration; wisdom; liberation; and knowledge and the vision of liberation. The Dhamma is knowledge and if well-established in Dhamma then the practitioner is lead to liberation, or certainly to one of the four fruits of ascetic life: Stream-entry; Once-returner; Non-returner; Arahantship. Some of these ascetics have trained to high and difficult levels, where superknowledges (abhi) have been developed, such as: being one, becomes many; the divine ear can hear sounds divine and human; knows and can distinguish the minds of other beings; remembers ones past lifeexistences, of the decease and rebirth of other beings and the destruction of the corruptions; with the divine-eye can see beings passing away and arising; abides in this life with superknowledges and realizations of attainment of the corruptionless liberation of heart through wisdom. For the powers of an Arahant a monk with corruptions destroyed has realized: all compounded things are impermanent; sense-desires are like a pit of embers; is inclined towards detachment and renunciation; four foundations of mindfulness are developed; five faculties are developed; seven factors of enlightenment; development of the Eightfold Noble Path - powers to recognize that corruptions have been destroyed

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Once liberation has been attained the Noble Disciple: possessing forms, sees forms; not perceiving material forms in oneself, one sees them outside; thinking: it is beautiful and becomes intent to enters; entering the Sphere of Infinite Space; the Sphere of infinite Consciousness; the Sphere of no-Thingness; the Sphere of Neither-Perception Nor Non-Perception; the Cessation of Perception and Feeling. Liberation results from the successive cessations: by the attainment of 1st Jhna, perceptions of sensuality cease; by the attainment of 2nd Jhna, thinking and pondering cease; with 3rd Jhna, delight ceases; with the 4th Jhna in-and-out-breathing becomes unperceivable; Spheres of Infinite Space, perception of materiality ceases; Infinite Consciousness, previous sphere ceases; Nothingness, previous sphere ceases; Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, previous sphere ceases; Cessation of Perception and Feeling, perception and feeling ceases and liberation occurs. The Arahant, thus, has ten qualities as the non-learner, having: the right view; thought; speech; action; livelihood; effort; mindfulness; concentration; knowledge; liberation. Conclusion: this attempt at coherently re-arranging Sriputtas Dasuttara Sutta, is based on topic headings rather than numerical associations. However, allowing for differences in interpretations, this work can stand as one understanding of what was mentioned in the Dgha-Nikaya. There was no attempt at expounding the doctrines taking away from the intent of merely re-organizing the dhamma but the occasional detail needed defined. It greatly helps a person to be in an environment conducive to practicing Dhamma, suitable for practicing and developing different types of meditations. The bodily-senses and mind-states should thoroughly become known; and unwholesome, cravings and sensual excesses should be abandoned. Unwholesome states and laziness diminish the practitioners attainments; while wholesome actions and striving energetically will draw one nearer to the Buddhas teachings. During this time-period of unfortunate birth, without the presence of a Buddha a practitioner with intelligence should take on the noble qualities of a true person and develop deep mental concentration. Through calm and insight meditations, one begins to have unshakeable Dhamma knowledge including the necessity of bodily-nutriment and the arising of conditions along with following the factors within the Four Noble Truths. Once the branches of Dhamma are known and one becomes established in noble-attainments then liberation occurs, as stated above. The Dasuttara Sutta may seem like a difficult endeavor to undertake as a complete methodology for practicing Buddhism but all the important Dhamma-components found in the Tipitaka are present. Undertaking a deeper applied study of the Dasuttara Sutta would only benefit any practitioner interested in the Buddhadhamma. Certainly after repeated readings and editing, this work has come closer to a practitioners heart and mind and greater efforts will occur to ensure less distraction are around to undertake this suitable training method. Selected Aspects of the Sagti Sutta198 in Charts: The sister-lessons, the Sagti Sutta and Dasuttara Sutta, promote the accurate dissemination of doctrine and their perspectives are useful to consider when rearranged thematically. The consequence or meaning of these lessons is primarily for the education of the Sangha this is clear from the statements that these teachings are to be learned and recalled. The origin of these lessons arose from the social-strife of other religious sects,
198 Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Dgha-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 479-510

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and thus, the two arrangements as lessons were presented primarily to become the Buddhist remedy for any future ignorance pertaining to main Buddhist teachings. From the utilizing and applying these dhammas, someone becomes empowered to investigate situations internally and externally and make appropriate corrections to the original conflicting position. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of the disseminated material enables the construction of a developed and perfected doctrine as Sriputta insisted or issued on these occasions. The Sagti Sutta, though, is mainly about recollecting the Dhamma as taught during the lifetime of the Buddha thus remaining for recollection purposes. The consequence of this lesson remains as a historical record for the foundations of many later Abhidhamma systems. The lessons primary function is an official doctrinal stamp of the Buddhas teachings. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said or read here, from the lesson leaves the reader with a mass of numerically collected dhammas that are conceptually difficult to assemble thematically. Below is some of the material that has been withdrawn from the Sagti Sutta and presented in a chart-format for visualizations of the contained perspectives:

Six-Senses derived from the Sagti Sutta


Criteria of Body and Mind (2:1): Five Faculties 5:21): Three Eyes (3:46): fleshy-eye, divine-eye, eye of wisdom Ear Nose Tongue Body Mind

Guarded sense doors and restraint in eating (2:20)/unguarded sense-doors and non-restraint in eating (2:19) As Internal Sense Spheres (6:1) SENSE FIELDS (2:11) THE INTERNAL SENSE-FIELDS: THE EXTERNAL SENSE-FIELDS: The eye form, visible objects The ear sound The nose smell, odor The tongue taste The body touch, tangible objects The mind mind-objects

As External Sense Spheres (6:2) Object stimulates respective sense

As Groups of Consciousness (6:3) Related to Contacts (6:4) Skill in knowing Feelings based on Contact (3:26, 6:5): (pleasant, painful and Dependent Origination neither) (2:11) Perception of the Objects (6:6) Volition - Based on respective sense (6:7) Craving - Based from respective sense (6:8) six unsurpassed things (6:18): certain sights, things heard, gains, trainings, form of service, objects of recollection (as 6:19): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas. Stable states (6:20) (on experiencing with respective sense) - one is neither pleased nor displeased but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware strands of sense-desires (5:3): (on experiencing with respective sense) - as being desirable, attractive, nice, charming, associated with lust and arousing passion Skillfully knowing and pay attention to the Eighteen Elements (2:10): The Organ Receives The Object and Awareness occurs the eye element the visible form element the eye-consciousness element the ear element the sound element the ear-consciousness element the nose element the smell element the nose-consciousness element the tongue element the taste element the tongue consciousness element the body element the tangible element the body-consciousness element the mind element the mental-object element the mind-consciousness element

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All Beings Maintained By Nutriment (1:1) & Conditions (1:2): (8:7) the mental aspiration of a moral person is effective: o through its purity and liberation from passion, o of a moral person not an immoral person; o one freed from passion not still swayed by passion Nutriment can be material food - gross or subtle, contact, mental volition and consciousness (4:17)

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Buddhist Cosmological Realms - (3:21/40-41, 5:4, 8:7-8, 9:3-6) Plane


Additional Becomings/Cravings (3:17): craving for the World of Sense-Desires, for the World of Form and for the Formless World:

Buddhist Cosmological-Realm
31. Neither Perception nor Non-perception 30. Nothingness 29. Infinite Consciousness 28. Infinite Space 27. Akanih: Highest/Peerless Pure Abode 26. Sudasss: Clear-sighted Pure Abode 25. Sudass: Clearly Visible/Beautiful Pure Abode 24. Atappa: Unworried/Serene Pure Abode 23. Avih: Durable Pure Abode 22. Unconscious/Non-percipient Realm 21. Great Reward 20. Steady Aura (Subhakia) 19. Infinite Aura 18. Minor Aura 17. Radiant Luster (bhassar) 16. Infinite Luster 15. Minor Luster 14. Maha Brahma 13. Brahmas Ministers

In Sagti Sutta:

4 Immaterial Sphere Planes


5th Jhna Plane (Abhidhamma System) (#23-27 are Pure Abodes) (5:17) for an Angmis later attainment of Nibbna (Suddhvs) Sukhupapattiyo Three Happy Rebirths 4th Jhna Plane (Lustrous Devas) 2nd & 3rd Jhna Planes

Yes

More Craving (3:18): for the World of Form, for the Formless World and for Cessation:

16 Fine-material Sphere Planes

Not Evident Yes Not Evident Yes Not Evident


Knowing and generous people prepare for their next life through offerings, hoping for rebirth (8:7)

11 Sense-Sphere Planes

1st Jhna Plane different in body but alike in 12. Brahmas Retinue perception Sensuous-Blissful Plane 11. Paranimmitavasavatt Controlling Creations (rebirth here due to 10. Nimmnarat Gods with Creation Power generosity)- (8:7) 9. Tusita Delightful Realm of Bodhisatta three kinds of rebirth in the 8. Yma Realm of Great Happiness Yes Realm of Sense-Desire: 7. Tavatimsa Realm of 33 Gods (Indra) beings who desire what 6. Catummaharajika Four Great Kings presents itself to them and are in the grip of that desire, beings who desire what they 5. Human have created, and beings that rejoice in the creations of others (3:41) Kinds of Gain (5:11): gain of relatives, wealth, health morality and right view no beings arise in a happy state after death because of relatives, wealth and health, only reborn into such a state from gains in morality and right view Three Happy Rebirths: beings who continually produce happiness now dwell in happiness; beings who are overflowing/drenched/full with happiness immersed in it and proclaim Oh, what bliss; beings immersed in supreme happiness experiencing only perfect happiness (3:41) Kinds of Loss (5:12): loss of relatives, wealth, health, morality, right view no beings pass into hell by losing relatives, wealth and health, only pass into hell from losing morality and right view

Woeful Plane (apya state of loss)

4. Asura (due to torments) 3. Peta (due to greed) 2. Animal (due to negative kamma) 1. Hell (due to evil deeds)

Yes

Seven stations of consciousness (7:10): different in body and different in perception; different in body and alike in perception; alike in body and different in perception; alike in body and alike in perception; who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space; who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness; who have attained to the Sphere of No-Thingness; Note: Not Evident means not specifically listed by name in the Sagti Sutta, but the exact details can be found in Maurice Walshe: The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dgha -Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications 1995), p. 38-42 Four Things To Be Realized By Seeing (4:30): former lives by recollection, passing away and re-arising realized via the divine eye, eight deliverances realized with the mental body, the destruction of the corruptions realized by wisdom

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The preceding three graphics depict only a small number of items presented in the Sagti Sutta. Above were simple arrangements of thematic material pertaining to the six-senses, rebirth, and cosmological details. These were presented because the next lesson to be examined contains some of the same considerations, and thus someone can make a comparison of material. Abridged Version of the Kannakatthala Sutta199: ...On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Ujunna, in the Kannakatthala Deer Park... Major Utterances from the Kannakatthala Sutta:
Venerable sir, I have heard this: The recluse Gotama says: There is no recluse or brahmin who is omniscient and all-seeing, who can claim to have complete knowledge and vision; that is not possible. Venerable sir, do those who speak thus say what has been said by the Blessed One, and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? Do they explain in accordance with the Dhamma in such a way that nothing that provides a ground for censure can be legitimately deduced from their assertions? Great King, those who speak thus do not say what has been said by me, but misrepresent me with what is untrue and contrary to fact. ...I recall having actually made the utterance in this way, great king: There is no recluse or brahmin who knows all, who sees all, simultaneously; that is not possible.200 What the Blessed One has said appears reasonable, what the Blessed One has said appears to be supported by reason...

These are the five factors of striving:


Faith in the Tathgatas enlightenment thus: The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. Free from illness and affliction, possessing a good digestion that is neither too cool nor too warm but medium and able to bear the strain of striving. Honest and sincere, and shows himself as he actually is to his teacher and his companions in the holy life. Energetic in abandoning unwholesome states and in undertaking wholesome states, steadfast, launching his effort with firmness and persevering in cultivating wholesome states. Possesses wisdom regarding rise and disappearance that is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

Bhikkhu amoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), pp. 734 -740. The section pertaining to the extra-matters of the discourse have been removed and summarized, here: This appears to be an instance when the Buddha blesses or wished something auspicious upon another person this occurrence is quite rare. However, another look at the story is interesting: the King arrives and decides to send out a messenger, from standard protocol to greet the Buddha. However, later, the Kings wives hear of the news and wish to send their salutations the king feels the guiltridden compulsion to go for himself to perform the request from the wives, as their messenger but never for himself. The Buddha taunts the King, as the royal servant and wished happiness upon the sisters never wishing happiness upon the King! This demonstrates, perhaps the insincere nature of the king merely performing professional duties, rather than actions from respectful-discipleship. This may set the tone for the rest of the conversation which is rather direct, and to the point. Later the Kings General and Court Brahmin appear to argue over who told the king a false statement pertaining to what the Buddha might have said. This was rather embarrassing for the King, and another court member called for the immediate departure of the entourage back to the palace to handle this episode of misrepresentation, away from the presence of the Blessed One. The king appears to not have the complete respect of his court or his wives are the true strength of the family. 200 Clearly here, the Buddha asserts he is not omniscient. Bodhi states that the commentary claims: there is no one who can know and see all - past, present, and future - with one act of mental adverting, with one act of consciousness; thus this problem is discussed in terms of a single act of consciousness (ekacitta).

199

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Four castes201: the nobles, the brahmins, the merchants, and the workers. Now if they possessed these five factors of striving, ...would there be any difference among them here in that respect?
It is not possible that what can be achieved by one who has Five Factors of Striving, can be achieved by one who has no faith, who has much illness, who is fraudulent and deceitful, who is lazy, and who is not wise. The difference among them would lie If they possessed these five factors of striving, it would lead to in the diversity of their striving. their welfare and happiness for a long time. In this respect I say that among them there is no difference, that is, between the deliverance of one and the deliverance of the others.

What the Blessed One has said appears reasonable, what the Blessed One has said appears to be supported by reason. But, venerable sir, how is it: are there gods? Cosmological Utterance:
Are there gods? Do those gods come back to this (human) state or not. Gods who are still subject to Do gods who are still subject to affliction and affliction come back to this (human) who come back to this (human) state topple state; those gods who are no longer or banish from that place those gods who are subject to affliction do not come back no longer subject to affliction and who do not to this (human) state. come back to this (human) state? Lower-realm beings/deities cannot topple or even see the beings or deities of the upper realms as they are still in an afflicted state.

Summary:

The Buddha is not asking about their social status but their abilities for spiritual progress and attainment. This illustrates that the Buddha is not omniscient because be Buddha answered not towards the intention of the Kings question here, the Buddha could not read the mind of the King.

201

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Lesson Summary: The lesson pertains to reverence to the legitimacy of a proper religious authority. The reign is subjected to discontinuity depending on the level of affliction possessed by the deity. Studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability enables someone to gain the proper or intended meaning out a true authority. In the lesson the Buddha tells his audience not to misrepresent him; every member of the society can strive towards perfection; and when one strives there is little difference amongst people. In this sense, the actual language used by the Buddha becomes important, against other canonical passages suggesting that the Dhamma can be spoken in the general languages of different people. This does not suggest any superiority of the Pli language over other languages we cannot get confused here; the intent is to pull out the proper meanings of terms to fully develop knowledge and wisdom. There is also material pertaining to deities, which then could present a cosmological perspective. The Buddha affirms that there are gods, but that they those suffering from affliction would never descend back into the human realm. In the case of the Buddhas enlightenment this does not refer to him being omniscient. The Buddha claims that this is an impossibility, and later texts errantly make assertions for this desire. Beings in lower realms cannot perceive what the deities in upper-realms are doing just as Gods would not return to lower realms to experience human suffering again. The objective of the lesson is though, to move away from the contemplation of the happenings of deities, and to become more concerned with the effort necessary to strive away from illness and affliction, to be ethically-moral, and cultivate wisdom this will lead to the welfare or happiness, or the complete liberation or deliverance of the practitioner.

Chapter V Analytical Conclusion The first chapter teaches us that there are several intellectual tools of analysis available for learners of the Buddhist system of intelligence or interpretation of phenomena. These interpretations ask observers to recognize phenomena internally and externally to determine the circumstantial truths behind continuing processes. True insight develops once all of the process-aggregates are drawn from conditional-ignorance towards fully developed wisdom. The first chapter continues to teach us that religions do not hold the monopoly on knowledge, thus illustrating a spiritual and worldly dialectic two opposing factors at continual odds, which is determined through the Pli terms: lokiya and lokuttara. The Nettippakaraa is useful to draw out the distinctions in worldly-unwholesome information and supramundane-wholesome wisdom. The sixteen hras are useful for drawing out supramundane truths, not worldly-interpretations. As the Four Noble Truths illustrate: knowing that problems cease is the catalyst to determine the way to escape from any form of suffering. People cannot rely on the words of their worldly and spiritual masters, as the Yodhajva and Kesaputta suttas demonstrate. There is often a hidden agenda or motivation to manipulate the mentality of unsuspecting citizenry; therefore, Buddhism escapes from these mundane religious and secular (both under the spells of greed, hatred and delusion) affairs. Although one grasps the intentions and literal interpretations of a discourse, becomes happy and is moved to a sense of urgency when a sign is visualized and finally one is able to attain wisdom, there is more work to be done along the higher lokuttara stages of Buddhism. These higher stages are illuminated in the third chapter on meditations, and are available to people of any personality type. The advice mentioned by Professor Gombrich is amazing, because often this is seen when reviewing and editing academic papers pertaining to Buddhism for international Buddhist conferences: people rarely move beyond literal interpretations. Rarely does presented work move beyond showing a list of Dhammas: Buddhist teachings beg to be worked out to determine what can be revealed. There are many ways to interpret Buddhist ideals: each individual agent delivering the message would or could state something differently, from the established definition or definition by its inherent characteristics, function, manifestation or proximate cause. The meanings chosen have their own consequence, so these origins and laws must be clearly defined in order to attain clear knowledge on the criteria to be interpreted. Often these investigations are better performed in the lokuttara-realms actualized in meditations. This is why true-comprehension, rather than insightful-understanding is important. So, again, being able to determine the internal (personal) and external (social) consequences (mundane and supramundane) and conditions is the primary concern for Buddhist analytical-discernment, in order for greater insightful knowledge to be developed into supramundane-profitable wisdom.

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The second chapter teaches us that people should be open to admonishments and self-scrutiny, which leads to a more harmonious coexistence with others in the society. From the development of mental discipline, a greater social discipline develops evident from the Buddhas righteous example and progressing to the development of the Bhikkhu Paimokkha. Self-scrutiny is a form of internal-worldly discipline. This is an assessment of someones wholesome or unwholesome characteristics and aspects of consciousness: someone is able to determine amounts of residual greed, hatred or delusion in their personal minds. This ability influences the external-social sphere because there must be a balance of personality in order to have a harmonious coexistence between the conventional-self and others in the community. Social discipline and justice becomes important in societies aspiring towards any idealized community. The Buddha is the idealized character in Buddhism, and we can learn much from his personal disciplined example. There are many aspects of discipline undertaken by the Buddha that have not been maintained in the monastic code of discipline, which suggests that the Buddha was held to greater standards, apart from the men that became his successors in the upholding and maintaining of doctrine and social regulations that seem to have changed over time. Again, there must be personal and social discipline beneficial for cultivating a righteous or wholesome mentality. The third chapter teaches us that from meditations, greater awareness of consciousness develops. This elevation of consciousness surpasses the level of heightened awareness that may develop from adhering to and contemplating the rationale behind following a strict moral code. With the heightened awareness, one becomes more sensitized to the Dhamma and how thought-progressions develop in the mind this is the wholesome mentality that is developed and matured by the wise. Once the fading away and extinguishment of mentally-defiling characteristics is obtained, the final aim of Buddhist practice is revealed: Nibbna. The fourth chapter teaches us to validate truths from experiencing these other sets of dhammas that might not be so apparent from only the meditative experience; then we can see that the Buddha is not omniscient as traditions dictate, and that even deities can only see and determine criteria in their own realms. This analytical conclusion can venture in many directions, but following the reviews of the material above, some academic literature will be exposed. Consider the following published remark: Suttas dealing with morality do not provide instruction about the higher stages of the path but have to do with virtue as restraint and the rewards of good kamma.202 The Pohapda Sutta, from the Dgha-Nikya is one discourse to refute George Bonds published opinion in fact, the Pohapda Sutta has an extensive system of moral-components that the Buddha adheres to, but these are overlooked if one glances at the abridged material and neglects repetitions or material from previous suttas removed for brevity. The Pohapda Sutta contains many of the same components of morality that exist in the Smaaphala Sutta. The Pohapda Sutta progresses to address the jhna-meditations and further traces perceptions to the statement of cessation, otherwise known as Nibbna. Ive spent some considerable time contemplating what these discourses are trying to convey, and Ive come up with the word: progress. For the remaining portion of this

202 George D. Bond: Gradual Path as a Hermeneutical Approach, inside: Donald S. Lopez, Jr (ed.): Buddhist Hermeneutics (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1988), p. 36

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concluding chapter, I will explore the progress in these discourses and work out any determinations that the Nettippakaraa can allow. Examining Progress from the Guide: Starting from the computer that I am typing on, if I right-click and review the offered synonyms for progress, the following results are generated: development, growth, advancement, improvement, evolution, steps forward, and movement. The antonym offered is retreat. What is the Pli term for progress? What shall the hras tell us of progress, in response to the discourses previously explored in this endeavor? 1. Progress Teaching: If progress is to be examined as a doctrinal, instructive method-teaching from the Pitakas (desan), this becomes difficult because there are no major expositions on the concept of progress; rather progress is used as a subset in a couple of teachings (neglecting the use from minor mentionings). The teaching of progress has many aspects and should include some transformative evidence. It is useful to determine progress from the Dasuttara Sutta, the Kgiri Sutta and the Gaakamoggallna Sutta. The Dasuttara Sutta mentions: Which nine things are to be developed? These are the nine factors of effort for perfect purity203: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. the factor of effort for purity of morality (discipline) the factor of effort for purity of mind (meditations) the factor of effort for purity of view (dhammas) the factor of effort of purification by overcoming doubt (religious path) the factor of effort of purification by knowledge and vision of path and not-path (higher stages) the factor of effort of purification by knowledge and vision of progress (paipad-a-dassana-visuddhi) (on the path) the factor of effort of purification by knowledge and vision (path development) the factor of effort of purity of wisdom (path development) the factor of effort of purity of deliverance (path development)

From the Kgiri Sutta: the reference to progress relates to final-knowledge; there is the gradual training, gradual practice, gradual progress: And how does there come to be gradual training, gradual practice, gradual progress? Here one who has faith in a teacher visits him; when he visits him, he pays respects to him; when he pays respects to him, he gives ear; one who gives ear hears the Dhamma; having heard the Dhamma, he memorizes it; he examines the meaning of the teachings he has memorized; when he examines their meaning, he gains a reflective acceptance of those teachings; when he has gained a reflective acceptance of those teachings, zeal springs up in him; when zeal has sprung up, he applies his will; having applied his will, he scrutinizes; having scrutinized, he strives; resolutely striving, he realizes with the body the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrating it with wisdom. (Commentary: With the mental body he realizes Nibbna, the ultimate truth, and he penetrates it with the wisdom pertaining to the supramundane path).
203 The first seven of these criteria are derived from the Rathavinta Sutta (#82) of the Majjhima -Nikya: seven stages to develop consecutively, which also provide the chapter-structure for the Visuddhimagga.

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From the GaakaMoggallna Sutta, there is the following reference, again to gradual training, gradual practice, gradual progress, but here a bit more disguised: But there are clansmen who have gone forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, who are not fraudulent, deceitful, treacherous, haughty, hollow, personally vain, rough-tongued, and loose-spoken; who are guarded in their sense faculties, moderate in eating, devoted to wakefulness, concerned with recluseship, greatly respectful of training, not luxurious or careless, who are keen to avoid backsliding, leaders in seclusion, energetic, resolute, established in mindfulness, fully aware, concentrated, with unified minds, possessing wisdom, not drivellers. Master Gotama dwells together with these. From the Sampasdanya Sutta, there is the following: Also unsurpassed in the Blessed Lord's way of teaching Dhamma in regard to the modes of progress, which are four: painful progress with slow comprehension, painful progress with quick comprehension, pleasant progress with slow comprehension, pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In the case of painful progress with slow comprehension, progress is considered poor on account of both painfulness and slowness. In the case of painful progress with quick comprehension, progress is considered poor on account of painfulness. In the case of pleasant progress with slow comprehension, progress is considered poor on account of slowness. In the case of pleasant progress with quick comprehension, progress is considered excellent on account of both pleasantness and quick comprehension. This is the unsurpassed teaching in regard to the modes of progress. Thus, there exists these instructive step-by-step procedures for progress. 2. Progress Investigation: How the text was chosen to be inquired into - vicaya progress represents what, the movement to a higher, purified or better stages? How is progress taught? How is progress apprehended? It is taught thorough the cognition of transitioning. Progress in terms of these collective discourses was gathered from determining which discourses offer the most profound levels of information pertaining to the development of the intellect as the foundation for the entire investigation. Secondly, the determination was made to summarize the discourses into a one-word expression: progress; thirdly, following the one-word expression, the various texts were then interpreted under their conceptual offerings pertaining to progress; and finally, here is the expounding of progress in terms of the Nettippakaraas sixteen hras. 3. Progress Construing: as interpreted or established in connection in groups with other texts yutti. Its not that I am using another text in the strict concept of using another book, but here, due to the nature of the teachings, we can see a relation to the term with different aspects of Dhamma, or how progress is construed in Buddhism. Progress is a special word with obvious limitations. The idea of progress should be comprehended with greater details. People appreciate the idea of development. To see proper development, all of the variables need to be scrutinized to see if any transformation truly occurred. In this sense, investigating something should be comprehended in some particular way, at some place or time, or as being subjected to some condition that would illustrate some change, according to such variables. Then inquiries occur to determine or report the evidence of the transformation. There is some construing found within the Visuddhimagga, which could show the transformative progress of a worldling to a noble-one: a. II 86: For whom the cultivation of ascetic practices is suitable (they are suitable) for one of greedy temperament and for one of deluded temperament. Why?

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b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Because the cultivation of ascetic practices is both a difficult progress and an abiding in effacement; and greed subsides with the difficult progress, while delusion is got rid of in those diligent by effacement. Or the cultivation of the forest-dwellers practice and the tree-root-dwellers practice here are suitable for one of hating temperament; for hate too subsides in one who dwells there without coming into conflict. III 5, 14-19: How many kinds of concentration are there? ...of four kinds: ...herein, the development of concentration that occurs from the first conscious reaction up to the arising of the access of a given jhna is called progress. And the understanding that occurs from the time of access until absorption is called direct knowledge. That progress is difficult for some, being troublesome owing to the tenacious resistance of the inimical states beginning with the hindrances. The meaning is that it is cultivated without ease. It is easy for others because of the absence of those difficulties. Also the direct knowledge is sluggish in some and occurs slowly, not quickly. In others it is swift and occurs rapidly, not slowly. Herein, we shall comment below upon the suitable and unsuitable, the preparatory tasks consisting in the severing of impediments and skill in absorption. When a man cultivates what is unsuitable, his progress is difficult and his directknowledge sluggish. When he cultivates what is suitable, his progress is easy and his direct knowledge is swift. But if he cultivates the unsuitable in the earlier stage and the suitable in the later stage, or if he cultivates the suitable in the earlier stage and the unsuitable in the later stage, then it should be understood as mixed in his case. Likewise if he devotes himself to development without carrying out the preparatory tasks of severing impediments, etc., his progress is difficult. It is easy in the opposite case. And if he is not accomplished in skill in absorption, his direct knowledge is sluggish. It is swift if he is so accomplished. Besides, they should be understood as classed according to craving and ignorance, and according to whether one has had practice in serenity and insight. For if a man is overwhelmed by craving, his progress is difficult. If not, it is easy. And if he is overwhelmed by ignorance, his direct-knowledge is sluggish. If not, it is swift. And if he has had no practice in serenity, his progress is difficult. If he has, it is easy. And if he has had no practice in insight, his direct knowledge is sluggish. If he has, it is swift. Also they should be understood as classed according to defilements and faculties. For if a mans defilements are sharp and his faculties dull, then his progress is difficult and his direct knowledge sluggish; but if his faculties are keen, his direct knowledge is swift. And if his defilements are blunt and his faculties dull, then his progress is easy and his direct knowledge sluggish; but if his faculties are keen, his direct knowledge is swift. So as regards this progress and this direct knowledge, when a person reaches concentration with difficult progress and sluggish direct knowledge, his concentration is called concentration of difficult progress and sluggish direct knowledge, similarly in the cases of the remaining three. XXI 117: (Progress): But if insight has from the start only been able to suppress defilements with difficulty, with effort and with prompting, then it is called of difficult progress. The opposite kind is called of easy progress. And when the manifestation of the path, the goal of insight is slowly effected after defilements have been suppressed, then it is called of sluggish direct knowledge. The opposite kind is called of swift direct knowledge. This equanimity about

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formations stands at the arrival point and gives its own name to the path in each case, and so the path has four names (according to the kind of progress). h. For one Bhikkhu this progress is different in the four paths, while for another it is the same. For Buddhas, however, the four paths are of easy progress and swift direct-knowledge. Likewise in the case of the General of the Dhamma (the elder Sriputta). But in the Elder Maha-Moggallnas case the first path was of easy progress and swift knowledge, but the others were of difficult progress and sluggish direct knowledge. 4. Progress Footing: is the concept definable or with reference to specific fundamentals from the text - padahna. If there was a base for some progress, the initial concept or structure should be available as evidence of the prime stage, then since discussing the issue, there would be later stages to see such development. The best example of progress may come in the presentation of the jhna-meditations. This is better expressed in the Cahatthipadopama Sutta, the researchers constructed diagram to demonstrate the process of progression towards the higher attainments, and the diagram related to the Pohapda Suttas perceptive training. Rather than reproduce the material in this small portion of text, one should return to the examples of those discourses stated here, above. 5. Progress Characteristic: determining implications by characteristic mark, class or class-member - lakkhaa. This may determine that there was some adaptation or quantifiable measurements. Progress is a progressive term which discusses aspects of a state affected by time and any observable changes. The past, present, and future all need to be considered, which could lead to some predictable result. The implications of the characteristics are determined to mean the successive stages of jhna or the characteristics of noble discipleship. With each stage in each respective group, criteria are shed away, as one advances to the higher stage of purification. The implications of this are that one moves away from the mundane concerns of the worldling and will tend to participate more and more into the meditative realms, where an advanced stage of happiness can be found. 6. Progress Fourfold array: grammaticalness, purport or speakers intention, circumstance, coherence catubyha. Progress is always used in an active way (as a thing, a noun), in this sense: a movement toward a goal or to a further or high stage any advancement, in general. As a verb, progress means: to grow, or develop as in complexity, scope or severity. The Latin prefix: pro, means an indication of favor or priority; and the root word gradi means to step. This root word is similar to the English word grade, which means: a degree or step in scale, as a rank, advancement, quality or value. The antonym of progress is regression. In this respect: a worldling is quiet different from a streamwinner, which is vastly inferior to an arahant. Perhaps this transition is not evident on purely physical characteristics, and could only be determined through scrutiny pertaining to topics of Dhamma-related issues. The intentions of the transitioning-being can be determined through the residual defilements in the transitional-beings conventional-personality and their location in the gradual path towards attaining any of the stages of noble discipleship: a streamwinner, once-returner, a non-returner, or the highest ideal of being an Arahant. Within the dhammas that should be developed from the Dasuttara Sutta, is the phrase: knowledge and vision of progess. In this sense, one truly must comprehend the process of transitioning. The Mahvedalla Sutta suggests that if someone wishes to be wise, then the quest towards self-examination should begin this demonstrates an intention of becoming wise. The Cak Sutta issues criteria for judging a personality

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based on the residual amounts of greed, hatred and delusion residing in someones actions through their body, speech or mind. This offers insight into someones intentions when facing interactive circumstances with any other being. How is this clear? The Cak Sutta states: When he has investigated him and has seen that he is purified from states based on (greed, hatred or delusion), then he places faith in him... In this sense, one can further perceive the ability to develop the abhis powers of the mind, one of which is the ability to know what someone else is thinking. Collectively this material presented here determines that progress through the four-fold array is suggestive of knowing the holistic intentions of the other person or ones conventional self towards these higher states, leaving behind defiling characteristics to become a purified person. 7. Progress Conversion: a cyclical method, demonstration of relationship, paired with opposites vatta. Discussing progress against the criteria would be like looking at different people at two different points in their life. For example, taking a look at yourself (perhaps by using your memory), at age ten, and then your later self at around age 30: what has changed mentally or physically with yourself. What made these adaptations in life possible. This could be transformed into a conversation of dialectics of a self, under the current example. The Mahvedalla Sutta offers a cyclical relationship between the person who is wise verses the unwise person. These individuals are distinguished through their levels of understanding suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering and that there is a method or way away from suffering the unwise cannot comprehend these criteria. The discourse progresses to demonstrate the development necessary to reach the purified stages of the mind, through jhna meditation and the supramundance advances: comprehending the different stages of mental deliverance beyond nothingness, voidness, and the signlessness towards the unshakeable deliverance of the mind: void of lust, hate and delusion. When a person is no longer hindered, as mentioned in the Pohapda Suttas section on states of perception, hindered by sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, distractions and remorse, and finally doubt then one may strive towards the highest spheres of consciousness or finally reaching the cessation of perception brought about by successive steps. The very mentioning of successive steps here, illustrates the achievement of progress and through the diagram illustrating the perceptive training, the progressions can be seen. The wise can see and engage in these aspects for themselves, the foolish are unable to implement the progressive efforts. 8. Progress Analysis: demonstrate its general validity or classification from certain planes vibhatti. Progress analysis may examine the disctinctions at the poles of the dialectic, and illustrates those differences or similarities. It may predict the afvanced stages involved in the circumstance. The Vitakkasahna Sutta demonstrates the criteria for this hra pertaining to analysis. Readers are referred back to that discussion pertaining to: when a Bhikkhu is pursuing the higher mind this is the knowledge that one has more work to do to progress or advance beyond their subordinate position towards a superior position. With each stage mentioned in the discourse, there is a review of criteria of any residual thoughts pertaining to desire, greed or delusion (inclusive of the awareness and training in moral endeavors illustrated in the second chapter) culminating in the mastery of the courses of thought and conquering suffering. 9. Progress Reversal: demonstration with opposites or transformational states in the text parivattana. This may not be regression, working with the antonym, but if the

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primary stage is still evident or is resurrected, conceptually then someone could contemplate or argue for backsliding or that the true transformation never fully occurred. An opposite state can be demonstrated through the term stagnation, because nothing is moving progress is a movement. Further: regression or back-sliding is a greater opposing force of progress. It is important to mention the higher forms of noble discipleship: the first is stream-entry, because the lesser-three nobles still must train further (shedding: thinking and pondering; giving up pain and pleasure; and moved beyond gladness and sadness to a purified state), to be an arahant. The lesser-trainees should refrain from conceiving and delight, although delight is a factor of jhnic attainments - because dispositions to mental processes still remain within.204 With stream-entry attainment, the fetter of personality view is eradicated and thus one is unable to conceive in terms of wrong views, despite still having defilements of craving and conceit that are only uprooted, signaling arahantship, otherwise the sekha remains vulnerable to the conceivings still capable of rising. Because, as demonstrated, the stream-enterer is still in training and still not fully perfected there is a lack of complete mindfulness in guarding the sense-doors, which opens the five aggregates and poor virtue enabling a decline from the entered-stream, which would result in more (seven?) rebirths. Helpful in understanding is the Anguttara-Nikya205, which states that the five conditions of: delighting in business (note mentions kamma); delight in gossip; delight in sleeping; delight in company (See the Mahsuata Suttas considerations of society and other sources 206); and not reflecting with a freed-mind leads a monk to decline in training. Therefore, there is the implication of potential kammic influences to back-sliding: the stream-enterer is still subjected to sense-sphere consciousness.207 A stream-enterer can back-slide to the status of an average worldling - this position holds. The Kathvatthu only suggests that the Arahant cannot back-slide, except in jhnas.208 Furthermore, to add to the perception of back-sliding: few admit that a stream-winner can fall away, and that only of those falling away from arahantship revert to the state of a never-returner. Important to this claim is that they do not admit that a stream-winner can fall anywhere.209 But we can see previously how likely it is indeed for the stream-winner to back-slide, as one is still subjected to sensuality. The debate controversy lacked adequate questioning, and according to a reason: a disciple [ordained and lay] can revert back to lokiya-status: These seven things lead to the decline of a monk when training delight in action, delight in talk, delight in sleeping, delight in company, unguardedness of the sense-doors, no moderation in eating; and when there is business of the Order in chapter, a monk undergoing training reflects not: There are in the Order elders of experience, long gone forth, office-bearers, they will be known for that! but makes no effort on his own account.
Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), p. 1166 -1167 205 E.M. Hare (translator): The Book of the Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Volume III (London: Pli Text Society, 1973), p. 91 206 Shwe Zan Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, Points of Controversy or Subjects of Discourse: being A Translation of the Katha-Vatthu from the Abhidhamma-Pitika, (London: Pali Text Society, 1969), 70 207 Bhikkhu Bodhi: Abhidhammattha-Sangaha A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (originally edited & translated by Mahthera Nrada; with suggestions by U Rewata Dhamma, but later revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi,) (Seattle: Buddhist Publication Society Pariyatti Editions 1999), p. 46 208 Ibid., p. 68 209 Bimala Churn Law [trs.], The Debates Commentary: Kathavatthuppakarana-Atthakathu (London: Pali Text Soc. 1969) p. 45
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Also, for a lay-disciples decline: He fails to see the monks; neglects to hear [Dhamma]; trains not in more-virtue; puts little trust in elder, novice or mid-term monks; with critical mind, seeking faults, hears Dhamma; seeks a gift-worthy outside the Order and there first serves. Verily these seven things lead to a lay-disciples decline.210 Suggestively, The Guide211 tells the reader, Lusts for sensual desires and ill will are common to the ordinary man and to the Stream-Enterer. Noble ordained and laydisciples back-slide from attainments when the senses are unguarded and virtue is not purified. Lack of mindfulness in guarding the sense-doors open the five aggregates, poor virtue furthers decline, resulting in backsliding from the entered-stream, and thus subject to rebirth. Incidentally, the stream-enterer is subject to rebirth anyhow so perhaps this matter is pertinent to a small percentage of Buddhists. It is through the unsuccessful guarding of the sense-doors, that a stream-enterer falls away from the path. Furthermore, as previously cited/mentioned in the Sagti Sutta: the disciple enters upon the first supramundane path either as a Dhamma-follower (dhammnusrn) or as a faith-follower (saddhnusrn); the former is one in whom wisdom is the dominant faculty, the latter is one who progresses by the impetus of faith. This path, the path of stream-entry, has the task of eradicating the grossest three fetters: [1] personality view, i.e., the view of a self among the five aggregates; [2] doubt in the Buddha and his teachings [3] adherence to external rules and observances, either ritualistic or ascetic, in the belief that they can bring purification. When the disciple realizes the fruit of this path, he becomes a stream-enterer (sotpanna), who has entered the stream of the Noble Eight-fold Path that will carry him irreversibly to Nibbna. The only advantage given to the back -slider is that the former stream-enterer is bound to reach final liberation in a maximum of seven more births, which all occur either in the human world or in the heavenly realms. The fetters are again, found in the Sagti Sutta. Analysis suggests: back-sliding or path-regression may occur but since pathentry occurred, the life-force still has several more attempts to be completely extinguished. Interestingly, stream-entry is simple enough for people to attain on their deathbeds.212 Concluding this segment, it is interesting that the sotpanna has practiced well in past-tense which may allow for an ultimate truth, if indeed, the stream-enterer fell from lokuttara-spheres in that case, s/he did not practice well. A once-returner has practiced straightforwardly, surpassing being well-practiced. A non-returner has practiced methodically, surpassing straight-forwardness, through: the elimination of sensual desires and ill-will. Therefore, his/her sense-doors are wellguarded. Nibbna will be obtained in a heavenly realm. The Arahant has practiced masterfully; and has already been described above. In the above phrases for analysis, one is praising the four noble types of disciples, determined fortune enough to hear and practice the teachings from the Buddha. In this sense, back-sliding and regression
210

E. M. Hare: The Book of Gradual Sayings Anguttara-Nikya Vol. IV (London: Pli Text Society, 1965),

p. 15

211 Bhikkhu Nanamoli [trans], The Guide: Netti-PPakaranam, According to Kaccana Thera, (London: Pali Text Soc. 1977) p. 75 212 Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Connected Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Sayutta-Nikya, Vol. II (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 2000), pp. 1788-1837

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has been illustrated as being opposite to forward progress. Progress would imply positive or wholesome (kusala) activities (example: treading along the eightfold noble path), whereas regression would imply unwholesome (akusala) activities 10. Progress Synonyms: the method of using synonyms- vevacana. Consider the chart, designed to express the synonyms:

What is the contextualized meaning of progress in English?


The process of gradually improving or getting nearer to achieving or completing something

What is the Pli terms for progress?


Abhivuddhi Progress Increase Rise Advance Development Prosperity Unnati Progress Increase Rise Improvement Prominence Abhikkanta Progress Proceed Gone Forth Advance Abhivahati Progress Augment Develop Flourish Prosper Thrive Abhuhna Progress Paipad Progress Practice Way

Source: www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/dict-ep/dictep-p.htm - accessed on 29 November 2009 Other terms: yakosalla = proficiency as to gain or progress (P.A. Payuttos DoB #70)

A few other words could be added upon further review: adaptation, align, conform, or even transform all of these and others that illuminate the continuation process that progress implies or suggests. 11. Progress Description: the appropriate understanding or determining signification paatti. A description of progress also suggests the maturation processes as if chronicling the transformation of a seed into its fruit. The nature of progress and this collection of discourses is to demonstrate a transition towards purification. The nature of progress can be additionally expressed as the non-decay (not impermanence in the negative sense; but impermanence in the positive sense: an improvement, in contrast to decay. There is not a static or regressing condition with progress. The opening verse of the Visuddhimagga, mentioned previously, suggests that a lack of progress is a binding situation; being bound is not conducive towards liberation the knots must be undone. Impediments to progress are known as ignorance, because this anchors a person in the rounds of suffering and someone cant unwind themselves from whatever it is that is tying them down; and the hindrances in meditations: sensuality, ill-will and apathy, sloth and torpor, worry and flurry, and skeptical doubt these all inhibit progress. Progress unroots these conditions through striving. Five forms of striving can be found in the Kaakatthala Sutta, and in the charted right practices and kinds of progress within the Sagti Sutta. 12. Progress Ways of entry: what/how many ideas in words and phrases used to inwardly describe - otaraa. Other ways of entering into the concept of progress are through the concepts of gradual training, which implies an incremental process in stages. If entering the conversation through the synonyms, perhaps different outcomes are attained when tracing the words along, or that the evidence avails itself: that there are multiple paths towards the final result. Would these various synonyms express the same fruit of another conceptual species? Ultimately we could be

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speaking of different ideals. Forms of progress can be seen in the following sets of Dhammas, as referenced collectively or thematically within the Sagti Sutta: dhammas related to the development of mindfulness, the development of insight; all of the criteria pertaining to the qualifications of an Arahant are demonstrative of progress; and again there are many systems of progression in the Tipiaka, particularly those mentioned in the Pohapda Sutta a discourse illustrating several forms of progressive training (moral and doctrinal). Another entry into the concept of progress is the awareness of a lack of perfection and the need or perception to strive towards a better ideal. The Dasuttara Sutta illustrates this very clearly, under the theme of items that greatly help: one endeavors to undertake the cultivation of and persist in and with wholesome states, and furthermore penetrating into thee states with wisdom to destroy suffering this quite clearly demonstrates entry into progress. 13. Progress Clearing up: the questions must be answered correctly or satisfactory sodhana. Of all of the details discussed above, some concepts should be better explained. There may be some variables that need to be discussed, adding or improving upon the project. The Kaakatthala Sutta has the Buddha stating: There is no recluse or Brahmin who knows all, who sees all, simultaneously; that is not possible. The Brahmin supported this reasonable statement that the Buddha was not omniscient, suggestive of the progress still needing to be completed by the Buddha. However, such an extreme pursuit of wisdom may not fall within the endeavors of being liberated from suffering. The Buddha has detailed all of the progress that needs to be made for pursing the liberative path from suffering. The fact that there are restrictions placed upon monastics also demonstrates where progression must lead, and which practices to engage in, there is thus: proper progress or amongst the Eightfold Noble Path - right livelihood in Buddhist doctrine. Proper progression is the type of progress that the Buddha and his doctrine recommends. These have been mentioned previously. 14. Progress Terms of expression (a determined method): - as birth, aging, sickness, death describes suffering - adhihna. This is referring to recognizable steps along the way, from start to finish, under some conceptual framework. Progress is quite similar: from a measurable situation, a concept is born and developed. There is the process of implementation and growth. Like all concepts, there is the condition when nothing more can be done within the same framework or levels, and thus the process of impermanence further illustrates itself into the stages of decay or death. The world has seen many stages of progress, and even the most progressive of these systems have expressions of limitations. A truly determined method of progress would allow for the continual progressive development but with Buddhist doctrine, its aim is a temporal concept. There is suffering and its cessation through a process this is a form of progress, leading to the extinction of conditions that inspire suffering. There is no more progress to be made after the conditions of extinction are met. The Buddha often states this at the conclusion of several discourses (see, for example, the Cahatthipadopama Sutta, the Pohapda Sutta): When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: It is liberated. He understands: Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being. The important phrase expressing progress is again: what had to be done has been done demonstrative of progress and its limitation or terminal point.

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15. Progress Requisites: specifying the cause/condition parikkhra. What is needed to progress? What is necessary to transform or adapt? These need to be considered aw well, and may be external factors that were previously not considered by the analyst. If there was no conditional problem, there would be no need for certain types of progress; progress then, suggests there is a negative condition and the necessity to remedy that situation into a positive circumstance. As mentioned previously, there can be regression (a decaying situation) and a stagnation (no change) which pressurizes or alienates possibilities in an unchanging society (if we may discuss social events or even the persons consciousness) therefore a change is conceived: the deficient condition is the cause of the necessity to have progress. Progress is born from the desire to create better circumstances, from previously existing conditions; conditions of: ignorance, greed, hatred and delusion. Progress, then, could be demonstrated as a path away from these defiling situations. One prominent path away from these unwholesome aspects within the consciousness is comprehending or progressing along the links of dependent-origination. Were can progress be made? In this conclusion, we could include the Bahudhtuka Sutta, from the Majjhima-Nikya, its inclusion answers many of the questions raised in the Sagti Sutta about being skilled in various forms of Dhamma, as can be seen from below213: THUS HAVE I HEARD: ...The Blessed One said this: Bhikkhus, whatever fears arise, all arise because of the fool, not because of the wise man; whatever troubles arise, all arise because of the fool, not because of the wise man; whatever calamities arise, all arise because of the fool, not because of the wise man. Just as a fire that starts in a shed made of rushes or grass burns down even a house with a peaked roof, with walls plastered inside and outside, shut off, secured by bars, with shuttered windows; so too, bhikkhus, whatever fears arise all arise because of the fool, not because of the wise man. Thus the fool brings fear, the wise man brings no fear; the fool brings trouble, the wise man brings no trouble; the fool brings calamity, the wise man brings no calamity. No fear comes from the wise man, no trouble comes from the wise man, no calamity comes from the wise man. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train thus: We shall be wise men, we shall be inquirers. When this was said, the venerable nanda asked the Blessed One: In what way, venerable sir, can a bhikkhu be called a wise man and an inquirer? When, nanda, a bhikkhu is skilled in the elements, skilled in the bases, skilled in dependent origination, skilled in what is possible and what is impossible, in that way he can be called a wise man and an inquirer. But, venerable sir, in what way can a bhikkhu be called skilled in the elements? There are, nanda, these eighteen elements: the eye element, the form. element, the eye-consciousness element; the ear element, the sound element, the earconsciousness element; the nose element, the odor element, the nose-consciousness element; the tongue element, the flavor element, the tongue consciousness element; the body element, the tangible element, the body-consciousness element; the mind element, the mind object element, the mind-consciousness element. When he knows and sees these eighteen elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements.

213 Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha A New Translation of the Majjhima-Nikya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995), p. 925-930

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But, venerable sir, might there be another way in which a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements? There might be, nanda. There are, nanda, these six elements: the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the air element, the space element, and the consciousness element. When he knows and sees these six elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements. But, venerable sir, might there be another way in which a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements? There might be, nanda. There are, nanda, these six elements: the pleasure element, the pain element, the joy element, the grief element, the equanimity element, and the ignorance element. When he knows and sees these six elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements. But, venerable sir, might there be another way in which a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements? There might be, nanda. There are, nanda, these six elements: the sensual desire element, the renunciation element, the ill will element, the non-ill will element, the cruelty element, and the non-cruelty element. When he knows and sees these six elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements. But, venerable sir, might there be another way in which a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements? There might be, nanda. There are, nanda, these three elements (pertaining to respective aggregates): the sense-sphere element, the fine-material element, and the immaterial element. When he knows and sees these three elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements. But, venerable sir, might there be another way in which a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements? There might be, nanda. There are, nanda, these two elements: the conditioned element and the unconditioned element. When he knows and sees these two elements, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the elements. But, venerable sir, in what way can a bhikkhu be called skilled in the bases? There are, nanda, these six internal and external bases: the eye and forms, the ear and sounds, the nose and odors, the tongue and flavors, the body and tangibles, the mind and mind-objects. When he knows and sees these six internal and external bases, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in the bases. But, venerable sir, in what way can a bhikkhu be called skilled in dependent origination? Here, nanda, a bhikkhu knows thus: When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases. That is, with ignorance as condition, formations (come to be); with formations as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality materiality as condition, the six-fold base; with the six-fold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of formations; with the cessation of formations, cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality; with the cessation of mentality-

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materiality, cessation of the six-fold base; with the cessation of the six-fold base, cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation of feeling, cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. In this way, nanda, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in dependent origination. But, venerable sir, in what way can a bhikkhu be called skilled in what is possible and what is impossible? Here, nanda, a bhikkhu understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could treat any (conditioned) formation as permanent there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might treat some formation as permanent - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could treat any formation as pleasurable - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might treat some formation as pleasurable - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could treat anything as self - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might treat something as self - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could deprive his mother of life - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might deprive his mother of life there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could deprive his father of life could deprive an arahant of life - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might deprive his father of life might deprive an arahant of life - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could, with a mind of hate, shed a Tathgatas blood there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might, with a mind of hate, shed a Tathgatas blood - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person possessing right view could cause a schism in the Sangha could acknowledge another teacher (other than the Buddha as the supreme spiritual teacher) - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that an ordinary person might cause a schism in the Sangha might acknowledge another teacher - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that two Accomplished Ones, Fully Enlightened Ones, could arise contemporaneously in one world-system - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that one Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One, might arise in one world-system - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that two Wheel turning Monarchs could arise contemporaneously in one world-system It is possible that one Wheel-turning Monarch might arise in one world-system - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a woman could be an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that a man might be an Accomplished One, a Ful ly

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Enlightened One - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a woman could be a Wheel-turning Monarch that a woman could occupy the position of Sakka that a woman could occupy the position of Mara that a woman could occupy the position of Brahma - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that a man might be a Wheel -turning Monarch that a man might occupy the position of Sakka that a man might occupy the position of Mara that a man might occupy the position of Brahma there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that an unwished for, undesired, disagreeable result could be produced from good bodily conduct from good verbal conduct from good mental conduct - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that a wished for, desired, agreeable result might be produced from good bodily conduct from good verbal conduct... from good mental conduct - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person engaging in bodily misconduct engaging in verbal misconduct engaging in mental misconduct could on that account, for that reason, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that a person engaging in bodily misconduct engaging in verbal misconduct engaging in mental misconduct might on that account, for that reason, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell - there is such a possibility. He understands: It is impossible, it cannot happen that a person engaging i n good bodily conduct engaging in good verbal conduct engaging in good mental conduct could on that account, for that reason, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell - there is no such possibility. And he understands: It is possible that a person engaging in good bodily conduct engaging in good verbal conduct engaging in good mental conduct might on that account, for that reason, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. In this way, nanda, a bhikkhu can be called skilled in what is possible and what is impossible... Bahudhtuka Sutta and Section Summary: The consequence of this discourse is everything, internally and externally is capable of being analyzed in terms of it being an outcome of a previous condition. There can be the apparent infinitude or endless process of continuity as no one can truly limit external influences upon ones sel f unless the secluded-isolation precluding the attainment of the jhnas is obtained. When studying, thinking, and listening to understand with the proper ability to gain the proper or intended meaning out of what was said or read one can easily escape from the links tying one into the cycle of suffering. From this cycle of suffering, and binding principles, one can see where conditions rely on other conditions and where the origination of the conditions are; and someone can then, more readily, uproot or break the tie that binds freeing oneself from another round of suffering. When someone used this insightful knowledge to develop fully and correctly all that was previously drawn out one understands what is possible and impossible if they chose to be reborn in a positive situation. The discourse shows how from the deep

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considerations of Dhamma that a greater system of morality can develop. This is quite different from other discourses in the collections that usually start with morality leading to concentration and wisdom. In the Bahudhtuka Sutta: an elaborate understanding of the elements, bases, and dependent origination preclude the section on morality which enables higher realms of attainment. To conclude this section on the fifteenth hra: without knowing all of this - one has not become a wise inquirer, skillful in knowing the origins of problems and the necessary progress that is required to be freed from the situations or conditions that restricts development. Right view is the requisite criteria to ensure a positive mindful-maturity. 16. Progress Coordination: implied attribution by keeping-in-being or abandoned samropana. Coordination implies bringing various aggregate parts together ton form some unified function. There are four criteria for this section: footing, synonym, keeping in being, and abandoning. The footing of progress, as its genuine intention, is a positive or wholesome endeavor if properly undertaken. This progress is through the thoughts of the mind, spoken word, and bodily deeds. There is virtue bound with progress, in this respect. Because progress is determined to be wished for out of a lack of something, progress can be rooted in greed (the desire to change), hatred (not wanting to remain in the same or deteriorating situation), and delusion (for thinking that something might be wrong). Many societies or cultures globally resist change. Conservatives and Progressives operationally, are not within the same ideological camps. Maintaining the status-quo is against progress progress that is often seen as liberal in endeavors. Progress is an improvement rather than a restriction. Other instances of synonyms has been expressed and coordinated above. When increasing steps or gradual improvements are made progress is fulfilled. The fulfillment of progress is noble discipleship, enlightenment and liberative Nibbna. In order to progress, one must develop efficiency, or the roads to power: concentrative intention to progress accompanied by effort of will, have the endurance to see the endeavor to completion, have an activated progressive-consciousness, and have a progressively inquisitive and analytical will-power; thereby giving up the fetters and hindrances of: personality-belief, skeptical doubt, attachment to rite and ritual, sensuality, and illwill; sloth and torpor, worry and flurry. Progress of any sort does not occur productively when indulging in these distractive and potentially damaging engagements. One must abandon these collective negativities, in order to progress towards the highest ideals. Collective Conclusion: Buddhism suggests we all have some progression to make in our lives, and largely these changes occur in our intellect our perceptions from our level of analytical ability. We can gradually progress in higher morality, higher mentality and higher levels of wisdom towards the supreme goal of liberation from the binding principles of ignorance, greed, hatred, and delusion. Buddhists interested in striving towards the highest ideal, would benefit from engaging in this collection of discourses aimed at conquering ignorance, hindrances and fetters - aspiring towards Nibbna. The chapters of this text cover a wide variety of material and perspectives however limited that Theravada Buddhism can be. It is well known that the teachings of Buddhism are useful for ending suffering or pain: first personalized-internally, before any social-external changes can occur. From understanding that the Buddhas many messages

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were given to eliminate many forms of mental or physical suffering and this is crucial to Buddhist teachings we then can bring about the peace that we all desire in the world. This peace is the hope for a better society through increasing the level of morality, political practices through better understanding of the operations of the mind, and any other ideological perspectives which can be better accentuated through meditations and the development of wisdom. It is well understood that Buddhism developed to bring mental, physical and social peace to all people throughout the world. This sort of missionary activity was important in the early stages of Buddhism, but later, monks were taught to remain in their homelands perhaps as a sort of social example for their tribal relatives. If Buddhism was taught by familiar people, it was likely to become more attractive. Buddhist doctrine also emphasizes self-development, with gradual and virtuous growth. instructing people to eradicate unwholesome tendencies until they can attain the cessation needed to eliminate lifes problems. There are social teachings that encourage people to dwell together harmoniously, or in unity. In the perceived absence of the written religious-word, these teachings were taught orally, and then put into practice. Practicing these teachings gave spirit to the teachings this is a hermeneutics of a form of text being transformed into practice, or philosophy into praxis. Receiving the teaching from a teacher or reading from a text (assuming literacy) would seem simple, but under guidance (assuming wisdom) the spirit and letter would be grasped, and happiness attained. Buddhism was never supposed to be a static-textual religious tradition. Now, gratefully, there are preserved texts as records to maintain the prosperity of Buddhism. Again, Buddhism is a practical/ethical tradition that preserves its texts, for the benefit of future generations and is again, dependent on the ability of the teacher to properly propagate the scientific nature of Buddhist inquiry.
Scientific Method Sriputtas AnguttaraNikya Method

Different Available Buddhist Hermeneutical Tools


Abhidhamma Method nandas Bhitik Sutta Method Jataka Method Karunadasas Criteria Vibhangas Paisambhidvibhaga

Observe

Meanings

Characteristics

Investigate Criteria of Body, Speech and Mind Evaluation

Understanding Comprehending Justify/Interpret

Agency Definition Instrumental Definition

Consequence/Meaning Origin/Law

Theory

Conditions

Function

Philology/Language Demonstration Definition by Nature

Test Result

Definitions Intellect

Manifestation Proximate Cause

Intelligence/Knowledge

Result: multiple methods of analysis! The Vibhangas Paisambhidvibhaga offers four principles of discrimination, of which three are mentioned for improving or developing-mundane knowledges eradicating defilements a benefit214, but being of none of the seven supramundane pathstages) and the Discrimination of Meaning is (sometimes) developing-mundane and supramundane. One may have noticed that each discourse was summarized or interpreted
214 Bhikkhu amoli (translator): Visuddhimagga The Path of Purification (Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions, 1999), pp. 726-727

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to include insights using the below criteria with varying results of success or ability to provide more insight, again: Atthapaisambhid: Discrimination of Meaning or Analytical Insight of Consequence Dhammapaisambhid: Discrimination of Law or Analytical Insight of Origin Niruttipaisambhid: Discrimination of Language or Analytical Insight of Philology Paibhapatisambhid: Discrimination of Intelligence or Analytical Insight of Knowledge

Each discourse in this collection of material presented within this text has undergone the scrutiny necessary by these four principles of discrimination. The Anumna Sutta suggests that without a form of self-scrutiny or by peer-examination, and through such a humble experience one must maintain or develop composure: the ability to maintain ones mindfulness during such analysis. This will assist in the purification of ones virtues and morality. A person becomes blameworthy and is able to asses his or her own character. This discourse serves as a socially-beneficial discourse. The Gulissni Sutta discusses self-respect and respect for other people, based from violations of improper behavior. It was important to start with the Anumna Sutta to learn how to examine oneself, before learning the advice from the Gulissni Sutta. Since there is a continuing interaction with society, therefore, public scrutiny has always been a heavy burden upon Buddhists, and this positive reputation has been important to the survival of the monastic tradition. Remaining humble and operating within ethical regulations, one maintains his or her composure when interacting with the community. Codes of discipline could further be developed therefore, this discourse serves as a sort of foundation for legal issues or liberational criteria, useful for society. The criteria extracted from the Sagti Sutta pertained to morality, comprising wholesome and unwholesome factors, and largely built around ten concepts that build or serve for protection advice that is suitable for any situation. The Pohapda Sutta demonstrates that the Arahant is the ideal example for people to emulate. This is seen through the discourses sections on morality and to restate, if the criteria within this discourse was mandated or implemented upon Buddhist monks today, there could be a purging of bhikkhus expelling those engaged in wrong livelihoods, living in contrast to the Buddhas righteous example. Stating the preceding was necessary to comprehend why the Mahsuata Sutta was presented. The Mahsuata Sutta was issued within to illustrate that the world provides us with multiple distractions which usually are accompanied by suffering. Dwelling away from sensual distractions is the foundation for attaining the happiness discoverable in trance-like jhna-realms. Seclusion is the recommendation away from situations that could defile the mind; greater attainments are possible in stages as the mind becomes incrementally more purified. Through a void of distractions, and if performing concentrative-exercises: someone can ascertain liberation, temporarily. Finally, in the second chapter, the rules of monastic discipline are to be followed and memorized. There can be nothing said beyond that a monk should take these rules as his livelihood. Bhikkhunis should take their training rules as their livelihood. Mindful lay-persons should take their precepts more seriously, to encompass their livelihoods and society towards a better civilization and planet. Upholding morality shall protect humanity and thus the planet from senseless-destruction. The third chapter begins with the Cahatthipadopama Sutta, which discusses conversion to Buddhism and we must take notice that this discourse discusses that the

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wisest people of the four classes of people convert to Buddhism highly suggestive of assuming that the rest of humanity may be foolish or unprivileged to know or listen to the Dhamma. Powerful people make powerful decisions to attain powerful achievements thus the discourse can have philosophical ramifications along with of course sociological and political implications. The measures beyond this stage include a great calm and other powerful mental abilities. The Vitakkasahna Sutta discusses the removal of distracting thoughts. When some thought of whatever nature arises people may use the criteria within the discourse as an information-filter, while considering ideas or principles from reading. The Mahhatthipadopama Sutta takes things beyond information, by suggesting that there can be criteria for hermeneutical comprehension such is possible from deeply comprehending the four noble truths. This discourse manifests this possibility through subsuming the various Dhamma-criteria under certain portions of the Truth. The Mahvedalla Sutta initially discusses the possibility for wisdom or consciousness to be divisible or united; and further engages into the factors of the mind, meditations and deliverance this is vitality, and our understanding of vital aspects of our daily actions should be analyzed and considered at the depths that the wisest disciples deliberate upon raising our mentality. The Cakkavattishanda Sutta is primarily concerned with distractions and their eventual eradication. The minds perception of the body illuminates distractions; further, an external stimulus is another catalyst for the consciousness to comprehend. The Pohapda Sutta initially unravels an exemplary Suttanta-Piaka code of morality, and then covers the extinction of consciousness; sensual experience; the overcoming of hindrances; the training of perceptions and the worldly momentarilyexisting self. Ones morality serves as causes or conditions for perceptions. We could take the entire material related to mentality from the Sagti Sutta; but what is presented instead is the contrived meditative system exploited from this gathering of indexed items. The material is presented in an educational format, classified into a process. The fourth chapter of the text handles material useful for training in higher wisdom. The Cak Sutta is an educative discourse mainly about the self-validation or learning of the changing of ideas incremental stages are suggested for this truth-seeking process. Something convincing, like a theory, can easily be determined to be false; perfectly logical ideas can become overturned, perhaps in different circumstances according to the Buddha there can never be any final arrival at truth. Preferential or misconceived concepts do not arrive at, preserve or safeguard the truth and different criteria are used to demonstrate the discrepancies and results towards seeking the truth. The re-arrangement of the Dasuttara Sutta illustrates topographical things: that greatly help, that need developed, that should be thoroughly known, that need abandoned, that are conducive for reduction, that should be distinctive, that is difficult to penetrate, that should be made to arise, that should be thoroughly learned, and finally to be realized. There are ten sets of criteria inside each section: ten sets of ten. The Dasuttara Sutta may seem like a difficult endeavor to undertake as a complete methodology for practicing Buddhism but all the important Dhamma-components found in the Tipiaka are present. Likewise, the Sagti Sutta, if thoroughly examined, would only benefit any practitioner interested in the Buddhadhamma. Both the Dasuttara and Sagti Suttas are arranged numerically, and so one may wonder what the perspectives would look like if the material was arranged thematically. The consequence of this discourse was the creation of Abhidhamma material: books or treatises that developed as Buddhism became formalized. The next discourse, the Kaakatthala Sutta, consequentially covers similar cosmological material - pertaining to the legitimacy of a proper religious authority. The

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learning audience should never misrepresent him; every member of the society can strive towards perfection; and when one strives: people learn that there is little difference amongst people. In this respect, these discourses have universal appeal, and cover aspects that aim at empowering society, can improve political processes, and could correct any other ideological premises towards the benefit of humanity and our planet. We can become purified of defilements and live in a better realm. Concluding Message: It is well understood that Buddhism developed to bring mental, physical and social peace to all people throughout the world better Buddhist education or missionary activity can still be important today, in this vital transformative era in our later stages of Buddhism. Buddhist teachings are socio-political enough in nature that they can be implemented into any ideological system for eliminating conflict. Buddhism was never intended to be a mere scriptural tradition instead it must be activated as a practical/ethical system. Buddhism teaches to look at everything according to, consequences, origination, the roots of descriptive nature, and to deeply comprehend knowledge. These four principles of discrimination enable: forms of necessary internal and external scrutiny, moral codes to regulate our behaviors, the discrimination to avoid troublesome situations all for the intention of saving ourselves and the planet from senseless destruction. Furthermore: we learn that Buddhism distinguishes different classes of people the wise and foolish. The wise actualize the possible transformations philosophically, socially and even politically. Great peace may envelop society and this is not written light-heartedly, but as a hardcore truth that must be considered. With this increase in wisdom or mentality, disruptive elements are easily recognized and can be transformed and cultivated into beneficial aspects, or useful members of society. Meditations are suitable to renovate individuals. Moreover, and building upon the previous structure: higher wisdom can be incrementally developed or streamlined into categorized possibilities that have greater universal appeal, and cover aspects that aim at empowering society, can improve political processes, and could correct any other ideological premises towards the benefit of humanity and our planet. We can become purified of defilements and live in a better realm. The better word is: progress.

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