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Honors Chemistry

Name Mari Tsunoda Period 8

U n i t 2 : M o l e C o n c e p t

Hydrated Compound Lab

Pre-lab Problem Cobalt (II) Chloride is a hydrated crystal in its solid form. In the lab, you want to determine the formula of this hydrated compound (ie. How many water molecules attach to a formula unit of CoCl2? CoCl2 X H2O?) In the lab, you find the mass of the test-tube to be 12.443g, and the mass of the compound and the test-tube to be 17.122g. After heating and mixing multiple times to drive off the water, you find the mass of the ionic compound (also known as the anhydrous compound) and the test-tube to be 14.992g. The hydrated compounds is always a 1: X ratio. Write a balanced equation: CoCl2 X H2O = CoCl2 6 H2O Create a data table to organize the data: Object Test Tube Hydrated Salt with Test Tube Dehydrated Salt with Test Tube Mass of Hydrated Salt Mass of Dehydrated Salt Mass of H2O Mass 12.433g 17.122g 14.922g 4.679g 2.549g 2.130g

Calculations: Mass of (Hydrated Salt with Test Tube)- Mass of (Test Tube)= Mass of (Hydrated Salt) 4.679g Mass of (Dehydrated Salt with Test Tube)- Mass of (Test Tube)= Mass of (Dehydrated Salt) 2.549g Mass of (Hydrated Salt)- Mass of Dehydrated Salt= Mass of (H2O) 2.130g What is the mass of the ionic compound without water (also called the anhydrous compound)? How many moles is this? Using the Dehydrated Salt Mass (already calculated), 2.549gCoCl2 x 1molCoCl2 =0.0196x10-2molCoCl2 58.93+(35.45x2)gCoCl2 What is the mass of the water heated away? How many moles is this? Using the H2O Mass (already calculated) 2.130gH2O x 1mol H2O =1.182x10-1molH2O (2x1.01)+16.00gH2O What is the mole ratio of the ionic compound to the water? 0.0196x10-2molCoCl2 /0.0196x10-2molCoCl2 =1 1.182x10-1molH2O /0.0196x10-2molCoCl2 6 1:6 What is the formula of the reactant hydrate compound? CoCl2 6 H2O What is the name of this compound? Cobalt (II) Chloride Hexahydrate

Part 2: Hydrate Lab You will be given a hydrated compound by your teacher, however the number of water molecules in the hydrated compound is missing from the label. Your job is to determine the formula of the hydrated compound by determining the number of water molecules that attach to a formula unit. Then state the formula of the hydrated compound and name this compound. Materials: -Crucible -Tongs -Bunsen Burner -Clay Triangle -Heating Stand -Scale -Copper (II) Sulfate Procedure: 1. Mass the empty crucible. 2. Add the Copper (II) Sulfate and mass the crucible again. 3. Place the Crucible with the Hydrated Salt on the clay triangle which is put onto the heating stand over the bunsen burner. 4. Turn the bunsen burner on with a lighter. 5. Heat the Hydrated Salt until the salt turns into an ash white color. 6. Heat once more in order to make sure you have evaporated all the water. (Optional) 7. Use tongs to remove the Crucible from the heating stand and place on a flat surface. 8. After cooled, mass the Crucible with Dehydrated Salt again. 9. Record the masses on a table. 1. Insert your data and calculations as a group. (this can be an image of your lab data and calculations done in class) Object Mass 17.892g 19.273g 1.381g 18.749g 0.857g 0.524g

Before Heating
Crucible Crucible + Hydrated CuSO4 Hydrated CuSO4 After Heating Crucible with Dehydrated CuSO4 Dehydrated CuSO4 Water H2O

Calculations: Mass of (Crucible + Hydrated CuSO4)- Mass of (Crucible)= Mass of (Hydrated CuSO4) 1.381g Mass of (Crucible + Dehydrated CuSO4)- Mass of (Crucible)= Mass of (Dehydrated CuSO4) 0.857g Mass of (Hydrated CuSO4)- Mass of (Dehydrated CuSO4)= Mass of (Water/H2O) 0.524g Molar mass of H2O: 2(1.01 g) + 16.00 g = 18.02 g Moles of water dehydrated: 0.524 g H2O x 1 mol H2O/18.02 g H2O = 0.029 molH2O Molar mass of CuSO4: 63.56 g + 32.06 g + 4(16.00 g) = 159.62 g Moles of CuSO4: 0.857 g CuSO4 x 1 mol CuSO4/ 159.62 g CuSO4 = 0.005

Moles of compounds: 0.029 mol/0.005 mol = 5.800 mol 0.005 mol/ 0.005 mol = 1.000 mol Discussion Questions: Make sure to address the following questions in your discussion section: Would the error cause your ratio to increase or decrease? 1. What was the actual ratio you obtained (with all significant digits)? What was your rounded ratio to whole numbers? Is your actual ratio higher or lower than the rounded ratio? Research what the actual ratio should be. Is your answer too high or too low? What is the percent error? The actual ratio was 1.000:5.800 which is around 1:6. The actual ratio was lower than the rounded rounded ratio for us. The percent error for the ratios was 3.3%. 1. How would your ratio change if you did not dehydrate the compound fully? The left over water would mass the precipitate differently which would greatly change the actual ratio which then would affect the predicted ratio. (the ratio would be much larger) 1. Suppose some of the compound fell out of the test tube before heating but after massing. How would that change your ratio? The ratio would be much smaller with a lower molar mass of the salt. 1. How would your ratio change if the test tube was wet when the hydrated compound was added to it at the beginning of the experiment? The ratio would be much smaller because the original mass would be much higher than the actual mass. Then, the dehydrated compound ratio would also differ due to the mistake. 1. How would your ratio relate to another groups who used the same compound, if you used 2.0 grams and they used 2.5grams? The ratio would have to be the same because the amount of salt to water unless the group made errors in their experiment. 1. Suggest what might happen if you left the anhydrous compound to sit overnight before weighing it for your data? The anhydrous compound may go back to its hydrated state or become more hydrated than when it was right after it was heated. 1. If you could improve this lab, what you do differently and why? Discuss at least three feasible improvements and why with reference to the other discussion questions and errors. (Note: relate this to #1 and the answers for the other questions). 1. The first way to improve this lab is to heat the compound multiple times compared to just once. 2. To put a piece of paper on the scale before massing the compound so the lab results are more accurate. 3. Try the lab several times to make the result accurate. (Use different amounts of compound)

Conclusion Statement: Write a one to two sentence statement to conclude what you did in your lab, what was your

actual and how did it compare to your theoretical. In this lab, we found several errors in our experiments such as not evaporating the compound twice or not placing a piece of paper on the scale. These small details in our experiment created the percent error in the experiment of 3.3%