Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

LIFS4301

Conservation Biology
Field Trip Presentation
19/11/2013
Elle Yuen (20183652) Felix Lau (20034291) George Tsang (20032853) Kason Chi (10143082) Ken Leung (20037190) Vico Pat (20036782)

Catalog
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Abstract Introduction Environmental factors impact on butterfly population Species Identification Problems and improvements Conclusion Reference

1. Abstract
To study the ecological & cultural value of Pak Sha O To discuss the human impact on biodiversity To appreciate the biodiversity in Pak Sha O

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O:
Pak Sha O: 33.27 hectares, surrounded by the Sai Kung West Country Park Composed of fallow agricultural land, low-lying marsh, shrubs and woodland --- Ecologically important habitats Forming part of the well-established vegetation in SKW country park

Picture from TPB Paper No. 9240, Plan 4e & 4f, 30/11/2012, Town Planning Board

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O:
Pak Sha O: High biodiversity: 75 butterfly species (~30% of the total butterfly species recorded in HK) 11 freshwater fish species 38 bird species, 8 amphibian and 23 reptile species (Woo, 2013) Some are of local or global conservation concern

Source: Preliminary results of butterfly survey at Pak Sha O and Lai Chi Chong in Sai Kung, and Lok Ma Chau Frontier Closed Area (6 June 2013), Table 1 & 2, Green Power

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O:
Pak Sha O: DPA development permission area Plan established: ~1.38 hectares zoned as Village Type Development Remaining 31.89 hectares designated Unspecified Used Any demolition of or addition, alteration and/or modification to or replacement/redevelopment of an existing building requires planning permission from the Town Planning Board. (18 October 2013)
--- Existing recognized villages ---statutory protected

Picture from TPB Paper No. 9240, Plan 2e, 30/11/2012, Town Planning Board

Picture from TPB Paper No. 9240, Plan 2c, 30/11/2012, Town Planning Board

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O (Cont.): Partly developed:
Agriculture Tourism Established village

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O (Cont.): Partially preserved vegetation structure :
Habitat for butterfly & other native species Ecological services (production, prevent flooding, climate regulation etc.)

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O (Cont.): Partially preserved wetland:
Habitat for butterfly & other native species Ecological services (water supply & purification, habitat & biodiversity, food, soil & sediment regulation)

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O (Cont.): Partially preserved freshwater habitat :
Freshwater supply Important for both crops and native species to survive Habitat of aquatic organisms

Potential threat
Development:

The wetland in Pak Sha O has been excavated and destroyed (photo taken in October 2012), Green Power

Picture from TPB Paper No. 9240 For Consideration by The Town Planning Board on 30/11/2012, Plan 4k

Potential threat
DPA helps prevent further damage to the wetland and stream ecology of Pak Sha O. But more stringent regulation and monitoring will be needed for effective and long term protection of the area's natural environment. As in general, a draft DPA plan will be replaced by an Outline Zoning Plan within 3 years:

It is important for Government to designate the area as Country Park (or even as a Site of Special Scientific Interest) for long-term conservation when making the Outline Zoning Plan. Or the species and the habitat would lost the protection from law, and easily be destroyed by development.

3. Environmental factors
Stable temperature -Latitudes High plant diversity and richness - Host plants Attract migratory species -ex. japan

Decrease in migratory Butterflies


Come from semi-arid places Butterflies that migrate to Pak Sha O after development occurs will be met with no resources.

Change in ecological make-up


Loss of canopy Temperature fluctuation Increased edge effect -Changes the type of flora that can survive there -Invasive species Butterflies are prey to certain endemic birds

Vital Plants and biodiversity destroyed


Positive feedback loop Those that remain will be scarce and competition will be fierce Both endemic and migratory species affected

Possible solution:
Integrate into Sai Kungs West country park Creates a corridor between two environments

4. Species identification
Butterflies Plants Animals (other than butterfly)

Butterfly species found in PSO:


(Danaidae) Euploea midamus Danaus genutia Parantica aglea melanoides Tirumala limniace (Pieridae) Catopsilia pomona Eurema blanda

15 spp. in total
From 6 family

Butterfly species found in PSO (cont.):


(Nymphalidae) Neptis hylas Cyrestis thyodamas chinensis (Papilionidae) larva of Papilio polytes Papilio helenus Graphium doson postianum Papilio paris

Butterfly species found in PSO (cont.):


(Lycaenidae) Pseudozizeeria maha Spindasis lohita (Satyridae) Mycalesis mineus

Long-banded Silverline
Scientific Name: Spindasis lohita Common Name: Long-banded Silverline Chinese Name: Family: Lycaenidae Food: Nectar Description: Long Silvery Band Extended Tail as false head on hindwing

Dark-brand Bush Brown


Scientific Name: Mycalesis mineus Common Name: Dark-brand Bush Brown Chinese Name: Family: Satyridae Food: Nectar, Tree sap Description: Eyespot on wings Dark and White brand

Blue-spotted Crow
Scientific Name: Euploea midanmus Common Name: Blue-spotted Crow Chinese Name: Family: Danaidae Food: Nectar Description: Purplish-Blue color on forewing Toxic species to birds Caterpillars consume toxic goat plant ( )

Common Tiger
Scientific Name: Danaus genutia Common Name: Common Tiger Chinese Name: Family: Danaidae Description: Orange interspaces The margins of the wings are black with two rows of white spots Toxic to predators Batesian Mimicry Food: Nectar

Glassy Tiger
Scientific Name: Parantica aglea Common Name: Glassy Tiger Chinese Name: Family: Danaidae Food: Nectar Description: Toxic to predators White interspaces

Similar Morphology!!!

Ceylon Blue Glassy Tiger

Glassy Tiger

Blue Tiger

Mullerian Mimicry Intensify predator's memory Avoid eating that species Each population lost less individual

Plant species found in PSO:


Herbaceous plants Polygonum barbatum Linn. Impatiens chinensis Colocasia esculenta Shrubs: Psychotria asiatica Citrofortunella microcarpa Agave tequilana Melastoma candidum Plumeria obtuse

11 spp. in total

Trees: Bougainvillea Bauhinia variegata

Others: - Winding plant Ipomoea cairica

Freshwater indicator species


A. Knotgrass B. Chinese balsam C. Taro

Identified special plants


Common name Chinese name
Wild Coffee Chinese orange Coast Morning glory Maguey

Special feature
Common birds food

Butterflies larval host plant

Invasive species

Tequila making

1. Psychotria asiatica
Scientific name: Psychotria asiatica Common name: Wild Coffee / Red Psychotria Chinese name : Features Very common in Hong Kong Evergreen shrub Usually 1 to 2 meters tall Fruit turns from green to red (food for birds)

Function Fruit : birds food !!! Seeds dispersed by birds

2. Citrofortunella microcarpa
Scientific name: Citrofortunella microcarpa Common name: Chinese orange Chinese name : Features Evergreen shrub Originated from Philippines Rutaceae () Dense leaves and orange fruits Usually used for gardening and celebration Snacks Food for butterflies larvae

Function

3. Ipomoea cairica
Scientific name: Ipomoea cairica Common name: Coast Morning glory Chinese name: Features Herbaceous twining plants Originated from North America Looks like morning glory () Perennial, with large palmate leaves Positive phototropic Strong, tough seeds and reproductive

Function Act as a weed...invasive species

4. Agave tequilana

Scientific name: Agave tequilana Common name: Maguey Chinese name : Features Tequila Originated from Mexico Perennial, evergreen Strong and long leaves, with short stem Only flowering at least after 10 years - > die Small spikes at the edge of leaves

Physical defence :

Chemical defence : Calcium oxalate raphides

Other animals found in PSO:


Insects: Opiliones (Harvestman) Pyrops candelarius Grasshoppers Orthetrum luzonicum (blue dragonfly) Crocothemis servilia servilia Abraxas illuminata

Other animals found in PSO (cont.):


Fish: Parazacco spilurus

Birds: Aethopyga Pycnonotus sinensis

Photo & Description


Crocothemis servilia servilia

Orthetrum luzonicum

Pyrops candelarius

Abraxas illuminata

Opiliones (Harvestman) vs. Araneae (Spiders) Opiliones


Generally, legs are exceptionally long compared to their own bodies and slender Body regions are fused

Araneae
Generally, legs are relatively shorter and thicker Abdomen is separated from cephalothorax by a constriction 3 to 4 pairs of eyes Possess venom glands Possess silk glands for building webs Can only swallow liquid

Single pair of eyes No venom gland No silk glands so do not build webs Can swallow solid food

Parazacco spilurus
Endemic to HK Dominant fish species in freshwater streams which are well-oxygenated and unpolluted or mildly polluted Taken as indicator species because it is sensitive to pollutants. Ecologically important: 1. Effectively control no. of small animals as they eat a lot 2. As a food source to kingfishers and other water birds

5. Problems and improvements


Good: An experienced guide providing comprehensive knowledge on the wildlife Interesting, beautiful and amazing butterflies

5. Problems and improvements


Improvements: Should have had a briefing lecture of identifying butterflies beforehand
We lack knowledge about butterflies

We look for a field trip applying more concepts we learnt from class

5. Problems and improvements


Improvements: Shouldve done a more proper survey with
a more precise transect line longer time smaller groups a better camera

6. Conclusion
Pak Sha O
1. Has great biodiversity of species 2. Provides important ecological services 3. Nurtures many beautiful butterflies Should thus be designated as a country park ASAP

7. Reference
TPB Paper No. 9240 For Consideration by The Town Planning Board on 30/11/2012, Consideration of the Draft Pak Sha O Development permission area plan No. DPA/NE-PSO/B, Town Planning Board Draft Pak Sha O Development Permission Area Plan No. DPA/NE-PSO/1, Town Planning Board SCHEDULE OF AMENDMENT TO THE DRAFT PAK SHA O DEVELOPMENT PERMISSION AREA PLAN NO. DPA/NE-PSO/1 MADE BY THE TOWN PLANNING BOARD UNDER SECTION 6F(8) OF THE TOWN PLANNING ORDINANCE (Chapter 131) ON 4.10.2013, 18 October 2013, Town Planning Board Wetland ecosystem services, 15/08/2011, Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat Planning Department Preliminary results of butterfly survey at Pak Sha O and Lai Chi Chong in Sai Kung, and Lok Ma Chau Frontier Closed Area, 6 June 2013, Green Power Dr Karen Woo, Letter to Town Planning Board: Draft Pak Sha O Development Permission Area Plan No. DPA/NE-PSO/1, 28 January 2013, Green power Wetland ecosystem service Factsheet 1 to 10, 15/08/2011, Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-pubs-info-ecosystem-services/main/ramsar/1-30-103% 5E24258_4000_0__

7. Reference
Update on Pak Sha O wetland, Sai Kung, Green Power Hong Kong Live eco-map, Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department http://www.hkecomap.net/?lang=cht The Information Services Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, June 2013, HONG KONG : THE FACTS Opiliones: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opiliones Parazacco spilurus: http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%95%B0%E9%B1%B2 , http://www.hkis. hk/contents/Publications/Press/FishWeekly/20090712_c.php Photos:

Opiliones: http://cerebraldump.com/insects/IMG_1637b.jpg Spider: http://holmes.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/SPIDER/Copy%20of%20spider%20(5).jpg Parazacco spirulus: http://www.hkis.hk/contents/Publications/Press/FishWeekly/20090712/Parazacco_spilurus-01.jpg

The End
Please feel free to ask if you have any question

Backup sources for Q&A


Species with conservation concern: Three-lines Bagrid Fish (Pseudobagrus trilineatus): Vulnerable according to China Species Red List Reeve's Turtle (Chinemys reevesii): Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

2. Introduction
Background informations about Pak sha O:
Pak Sha O: Historical heritage, well preserved Hakkavillage

Historical heritages

Picture from TPB Paper No. 9240, Plan 4g, 30/11/2012, Town Planning Board

Potential threat
Development:
(From Town Planning Department --- Gist of Representations for Draft Pak Sha O Development Permission Area Plan No. DPA/NE-PSO/1:)

5 out of 41 comments suggest that the land area zoned as Village Type Development (V) is not enough for the present and future needs of the villagers:
TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-1: Area of Village Type Development (V) is not enough for the present and future needs of the villagers. [Request the Town Planning Board to withdraw the plan] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-2: Developable area is too small; Villagers oppose the incorporation of the villages into the Sai Kung Country Park [Expand V] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-5:Object to the extensive Unspecified Use designation [Rezoned from Unspecified Use to Agriculture (AGR), rezoned from Unspecified Use to Recreation to provide land for potential compatible recreational uses]

Potential threat
Development:
(From Town Planning Department --- Gist of Representations for Draft Pak Sha O Development Permission Area Plan No. DPA/NE-PSO/1:)

Other opinions:
TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-6: The incorporation of the V zone into the plan is objected have extremely high heritage value and lie in areas of ecological significance. [complete ban on demolition, building activities and change of land use; replace V zone with an appropriate conservation zoning] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-7: Planning applications would not ensure preservation; Object the large extent of the V zone. [Designate the entire area as Unspecified Use until surveys and assessments completed; Establish at least 30m buffer zone around the watercourses to prevent pollution from domestic sewage.] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-8: V zone did not take into account the unique historical, cultural, and rural landscape value of the villages [Riparian areas zone as Site of Special Scientific Interest or Conservation Area or other conservation zonings; Enhance protection of historic buildings, the natural landscape and ecology of the area.] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-20: [The entire village should be made part of the Sai Kung Country Park and protected from profit-seeking development; Until the OZP is finally published, there should be a complete ban on demolition, building activities and change of land use within the entire Development Permission Area. ] TPB/R/DPA/NE-PSO/1-21: Unspecified Use designation may not completely safeguard the stream and wetland in Pak Sha O; government public works will impose lead to pollution [Include Pak Sha O into the Country Park or designate the area as a Site of Special Scientific Interest as soon as possible to prevent further damage; Strictly control the Government public works]