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SAP' ABAP

Handbook
Kogent Learning Solutions,
Inc.

JONES AND BARTLETT PUBLISHERS

Sudbury, Massachusetts
BOSTON

TORONTO

LONDON

SINUAPORI:

Table

of

Contents

Introduction About This Book


How to Use This Book Conventions

xxi xxi xxii

xxii
xxiv

Other Resources

Chapter

Gateway

to SAP

Systems

1 2 4
6 8 9

Explaining the Concept of an ERP System


History
of SAP

Systems

Need for ABAP

Exploring The Logical View

the Architecture of SAP R/3

The Software-Oriented View The User-Oriented View

10
13

Explaining Application Server Dispatching Dialog Steps Describing the User Context and Roll Area in the SAP System The Client-Dependency Feature Summary

the Architecture of the

14 22 24 26 26 27 28 31
31

Chapter 2

The

Logon Process of the

SAP

System

Starting the SAP System Maintaining the SAP Logon Screen Adding a New Entry Modifying the Entry Deleting the Entry Creating and Using SAP Shortcuts Creating SAP Shortcuts

35 36 37 37 47

Configuring

the SAP

Logon

ix

Table

of

Contents

Changing the Password


Logging Off of the SAP System Summary

50 52 53 55 56 60 60 67 70 72 75 76 78
80 82 82 84

Chapter 3

SAP

Easy Access

Explaining the SAP Easy Access Screen Exploring the GUI of the SAP System
The Screen Header The Screen

Body

Customizing Managing Favorites

the SAP GUI

Adding an Item
Inserting Moving Favorites and Folders Renaming Favorites and Folders Deleting Favorites and Folders Adding a Web Address Handling SAP Sessions Creating a New Session Displaying a List of All Sessions Ending a Session Summary Chapter 4 Understanding Exploring
ABAP ABAP ABAP

Folders

84 86 87 88 89 90 91 92
94

Workbench

Overview of ABAP Workbench the ABAP Workbench Tools

Dictionary
Editor

Front-End Editor (New) Front-End Editor (Old) Back-End Editor Class Builder
Function Builder Screen Painter Menu Painter

95 96
98

99 101 102 103

Table

of

Contents

xi

Object Navigator
Message
Maintenance ABAP Text Elements M aintain Transaction

105 109 110 111 112 113 114


114 115

Describing Package
of

Builder

Types Packages Testing Tools in ABAP Workbench ABAP Debugger ABAP Runtime Analysis
Performance

Analysis
ITS BSP

116 117 118 119


120

Describing
Web

Web S ervices

Application Builder for Application Builder for Describing XSLT Editor


Web

Summary

121

Chapter 5

ABAP

Dictionary Dictionary

123 124 125 126 127 128 133 138 138 138 144 144 145 146 148 152 154 158 174

Overview of ABAP

Exploring Domains Describing Fixed Values for Domains Exploring Conversion Routines for Domains
Creating Deleting
a

Domain Domain

Modifying the Existing Domain


a

Exploring

Data Types

Data Elements Structures

Table Types

Exploring Type Groups Exploring Database Tables Types of Tables Types of Table Fields Technical Settings of a Table Creating Tables Relating Tables by Using Foreign Keys

xii

Table

of

Contents

Exploring Views
Relating Using Relational Operators Creating Different Types of Views
Database Tables

180
181 184 211 212 212

Deleting Views Exploring Search Helps Elementary Search Help Collective Search Help Append Search Help Exploring Lock Objects Describing Lock Argu m ents Exploring the Lock Mode and the Lock Table Describing the Lock Mechanism Creating Lock Objects
Summary

213 214 215 217 218 220 222 226

Chapter 6

ABAP

Programming

in ABAP

Editor

227
228

Structure of an ABAP

Program
Part

Introductory Program

229

Declaration Part for Global Data, Class and Selection Screens

Definitions,
229
230 231

Processing Blocks
ABAP Editor

Types
ABAP

of ABAP

Programs

236 238 239 241 242 245 246 248 248 252 256 258

Syntax

Inserting Comments into ABAP Programs Exploring Types and Objects Data Types Object Types Objects in ABAP
Variables in ABAP The
DATA

Statement
in ABAP

The PARAMETERS Statement

Constants The The The

TABLES Statement

Assignment Statements
MOVE Statement MOVE
-

259 259 Statement


263

CORRESPONDING

Table

of

Contents

xiii

The The The

WRITE CLEAR

TO

Statement

265 266 268 268 271 278 278 279 280 289 294 297 299 300 303 303 304 304 305 305 Data Data

Statement Statement

Formatting Options
WRITE

The

FORMAT

Statement

Exploring Dynamic Assignment Describing Flow Control


The
IF.
. .

System Variables
Statements

ENDIF

Control Statement

Looping Terminating Loops Summary

Chapter 7

Internal Tables
Overview of Internal Tables Data Types of an Internal Table

Types

of Internal Tables

Standard Tables
Sorted Tables

Hashed Tables

Creating Creating Internal Tables as Creating Internal Tables as

Internal Tables

Types

306 313 316 316 319 320 320 322 325 333 335 337 346 348 356 364

Objects

Performing Operations on an Entire Internal Table Moving and Assigning Internal Tables

Initializing Internal Tables Refreshing Internal Tables Releasing the Memory of Internal Tables
Comparing
Internal Tables
Sort Operation in Internal Tables Determining the Attributes of Internal Tables Operations on Individual Lines Inserting Lines in Internal Tables Inserting Summarized Lines in Internal Tables

Performing the

Appending Lines to Internal Tables Reading the Lines of Internal Tables Modifying the Lines of Internal Tables

xiv

Table

of

Contents

Deleting Lines Searching Table


Control Break The The The
AT AT

373 Entries 386 390 392


392

Maintaining Internal Tables Processing


FIRST and AT LAST Statements
NEW

and AT

END

OF Statements

395 401 403 410

SUM ON

Statement
CHANGE OF

The

Statement

Summary

Chapter 8

Accessing Data in

the SAP

System

411 412 413 416 417 428 437


446

Accessing Database Tables Open SQL Reading Data Using the SELECT
The The
SELECT INTO

Statement

Clause

Clause

The FROM Clause The WHERE Clause

The The

GROUP BY HAVING

Clause Clause

459 462 463 465


467

Clause
BY

The ORDER

Subqueries Examples of Subqueries Inserting Data into a Database Table

471 472 477 479 483 485 488 490 491


491 494 495

Examples of Data Insertion Updating Data in a Database Table Examples of Updating Data in Tables
Deleting the Data from a Database Table Examples of Deleting Data Modifying the Lines of Database Tables
Using
Cursors
to

Read Data

Opening

and Closing Cursors Data

Retrieving Committing Database Changes Summary

Ta8le of Contents

xv

Chapter

Modularization

Techniques

497 498 503 505 510 513 518 524 526 528 540 543 544 545 548

Working with Subroutines Working with Formal and Actual Parameters Handling Data in Subroutines
Using
Local Field

Symbols
to

Making

Internal and External Calls Parameters

Subroutines Passing Terminating Subroutines by Using EXIT and


CHECK

Statements

Function Modules

Modules Creating Calling Function Modules from ABAP Programs


Function

Source Code Modules


Macros

Include

Programs

Summary

Chapter

10

ABAP

User

Dialogs

549 550
552
555

Introducing Dialog Program ming


Screen Painter

Learning Flow Logic Learning About the Layout Editor The Tabstrip Control in Graphical
Layout Editor

About Attributes

559

561
568

Creating a Layout Editor


Menu Painter

Table Control

by Using Graphical
590 599 600 620 620 638 643 643

Working with Menu Painter Working with Selection Screens Defining a Selection Screen Calling a Selection Screen
Processing Selection Summary
Screens

xvi

Table

of

Contents

Chapter

11

The BDC and LSMW Tools


The Data Transfer The Batch The The

645

Techniques Input Technique Direct Input Technique BAPI Technique Input


Method

646
646 649
649

Data Transfer Methods

649 650 650 651 652 653

The Direct The Batch


Data

The Call Transaction Method

Input with Session Method


BDCDATA Structure

Transfer

by Using the
a

The BDC Tool

Creating

BDC

Program by Using the Call


653

Transaction Method

Transferring
The LSMW Tool

Data by Using the Batch

Input
675
697

with Session Method of BDC

Updating Records by Using the Batch Input Recording Method


Summary Chapter 12
Forms in

698 733

mySAP

ERP:

SAPscript and SAP

Smart Forms

735 736 738 739 743 747 751 762 763 771 787 789

Exploring the SAPscript Tool


Components
of the Structure of an

SAPscript Tool SAPscript Form


Painter Tool

Managing Tools Accessing the Form


Form

Subobjects

The

SAPscript Runtime Environment Print Program SAPscript Function Modules Controlling the SAPscript Forms SAPscript Control Commands SAPscript Symbols
The SAP Smart Forms Tool
Overview of the SAP Smart Forms Tool SAP Smart Form

791
793

794 795

Components

Table

of Contents

xvii

Explaining the Smart

Form Process

798 800 800 801 806 808 810 811 812 814 816 817 818 820 827 829

Advantages of Smart Forms Important Objects for Form Development Creating and Maintaining Smart Forms

Style Builder
Comparing SAPscript Migrating SAPscript Forms Individual Migration Mass Migration Converting a Style Summary Chapter
13

and Smart Forms


to Smart Forms

Reports Working with Classical Reports Creating a Classical Report


Interactive

Reports
an

Creating

Interactive

Report Reports

Comparing ALV Reports


Creating
an

Classical and Interactive


ALV

839 839 840 846

Report

Summary

Chapter

14

Business Add-Ins

(BADIs)

847 848 849 851 854 854 856 858 860

Concept

of BADIs

Enhancement Framework
Overview of Enhancement

The Enhancement Builder Tool Enhancement

Techniques

in

Enhancement Framework

Structure of a BADI

Definition of BADIs

Defining Displaying, Changing, Implementation of BADIs Calling BADIs


a

BADI

or

Deleting a

BADI Definition

869

870
875 875

Differences Between Classic and New BADIs

Filter-Dependent

BADIs

876

xviii

Table

of

Contents

Function Code Enhancements

878

Screen Enhancements

879
880
881 882

Summary Appendix A

Object

Orientation in ABAP

Overview of ABAP

Objects
Concepts
of OOP in ABAP

Explaining Objects
Classes

the Basic

883 884 885 885 885 886 887 887 889


892 893

Interfaces

Encapsulation
Inheritance

Polymorphism

Defining and Implementing a Class Exploring the Components of a Class Visibility Sections in a Class Handling the Objects Declaring and Implementing Interfaces Declaring and Calling Methods Declaring and Calling Constructors Working with Events in ABAP Objects
Triggering Handling an
an

895 898
901

902 903 904 907 908 909 909 910 910 910 911 911 911 912 912

Event

Event

Appendix B Introducing Cross-Application Technologies


Introducing IDoc Exploring the Uses of IDoc EDI Technique
ALE

Technique

Legacy System Integration

Third-Party Product Integration


Workflow Integration SAP R/2 OCR ICR

System

Internet and XML

Integration

Integration Integration

Table

of

Contents

xix

Benefits of the IDoe Interface Describing the IDoc Structure


IDoc Runtime

912 913
917

Components

Control Record Data Records Status Records ALE ALE Architecture RFC RFC Interface of RFC

917 918
918 919
920

924 924

Types

926
927 943

Glossary
Index