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Everybody must be having a thought that a thermal power plant is a place where electricity is produced. But do you know how it is produced? The answer as it seems is not so easy. Here we use different fuels i.e. coal, natural gas, uranium (radioactive element . The chemical energy stored is converted to heat energy which forms the input of power plant and electrical energy produced by the generator is the output. !n a convectional power plant the energy is first converted to a mechanical work and then is converted to electrical energy. The first energy conversion takes in what is called a Boiler or "team #enerator, the second in what is called a Turbine and the last conversion takes place in the #enerator. $ow one may imagine how ! know so much. !t%s simple& ! had an opportunity to view all this very closely with one of the biggest power generating utility of world i.e. NTPC. !t is !ndia%s largest power generating utility generating more than '() th of the country%s entire power generation, i.e. $T*+ today lights up every fourth bulb in the country. ,ith an installed capacity of -'.)/ 0, (as on '1.''.-112 from its -2 stations spread all over the country. 3ecently $T*+ was ranked third best employer and the $o. ' *ublic sector undertaking among --1 ma4or companies in !ndia by Business Today 5 Hewitt 6ssociation Best Employers "urvey -112.!t has climbed many stairs of rewards and recognition on $ational and !nternational level. !t also bears the prestigious !"78 /11' and !"78 ')11' certificates for international standards of production and eco friendly drive at all stations. $ational Thermal *ower +orporation has been the power behind !ndia%s sustainable power development since $ovember '/.9. +ontributing -:; of country%s entire power generation, $T*+ today lights every forth bulb in the country. <or this reason it has placed itself in the $av=3atan companies of !ndian government and hence is the public sector company.


'.'. NTPC LTD. AN OVERVIEW: !ndia%s largest power company, $T*+ was set up in '/.9 to accelerate power development in !ndia. $T*+ is emerging as a diversified power ma4or with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. 6part from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, $T*+ has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utili>ation and coal mining. $T*+ ranked 22.th in the ?-1'-, <orbes #lobal -111% ranking of the ,orld%s biggest companies. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. The total installed capacity of the company is )','@) 0, (including ABs with ': coal based and . gas based stations, located across the country. !n addition under ABs, . stations are coal based C another station uses naphtha(D$# as fuel and - renewable energy pro4ects. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of ', -@,111 0, by the year -12-. ..$T*+ has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. 6lthough the company has '...9; of the total national capacity, it contributes -..)1; of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. 1.1.1. PRESENT OPERATING CAPACITY: NTPC Owned +oal #as(DiEuid <uel 3enewable energy pro4ects To"! 7wned By ABs +oal C #as To"! No of p !n"# ': . = -2 . 21 C!p!$%"& 2',@99 2,/99 '1 29,@-1 9,2:) )','@)

Table 1.1: Present operating capacity

1.1.'. DIVERSI(IED GROWTH: 6s per new corporate plan, $T*+ envisages to have an installed capacity of '-@ #, by the year -12- with a well diversified fuel miF comprising 9:; coal, ':; gas, ''; nuclear energy, /; renewable energy and @; hydro power based capacity. By -12-, non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly -@; of $T*+%s portfolio !n terms of operations, $T*+ has always been considerably above the national average.

Fig. 1.1: Operating performance of NTPC vs all India

Fig.1.2: NTPCs contrib tion to Indias total po!er


S. No. 1 '

Con#o %d!"ed P!+"%$, !+# ' !ncome from operations (a $et sales (b 7ther operating income .ne"/ :./9-@/ ')-2/2 :)/9@2/2)/2 3501)'5 Ye!+ 0 ended Ye!+ 1 ended )1.-).'-1) .A,d%"ed/ )1.-).'-1' .A,d%"ed/

To"! %n$o2e f+o2 ope+!"%on# 31)430' E6pen#e# (a <uel cost (c Gepreciation amortisation eFpense (d 7ther eFpenses To"! e6pen#e# 2 P+of%" )@'9-55-1451 ')29/-2 Table 1.2: financial performance )-@-... and 2@-2--

)221-:: 2-:1/: 2'1.1/ 2@//./ 5)54-5'-2--.9

(b Employee benefits eFpense 299'2@

6t $T*+, People before Plant Load

actor is the mantra that guides all H3 related

policies. $T*+ has been awarded $o.', Best ,orkplace in !ndia among large organisations and the best *"H for the year -1'1, by the #reat *laces to ,ork !nstitute, !ndia +hapter in collaboration with The Economic Times. The concept of +orporate "ocial 3esponsibility is

deeply ingrained in $T*+Is culture. Through its eFpansive +"3 initiatives, $T*+ strives to develop mutual trust with the communities that surround its power stations.

1.1.7. REHABILITATION AND RESETTLE*ENT POLICY: $T*+ has been a committed and socially responsible organi>ation since its inception and has formulated specific guidelines for the welfare of *ro4ect 6ffected *ersons (*6*Is . !t is one of the firsts in the corporate sector to formulate comprehensive resettlement and rehabilitation policy for addressing the issue of *6*s. !n line with its social ob4ectives, the company has focused on effective rehabilitation and resettlement (3C3 of *6*s and also community development works in and around the pro4ects.


To contribute to sustainable power development by discharging +orporate "ocial 3esponsibilities. To lead the sector in the area of 3esettlement C 3ehabilitation and *eripheral Gevelopment. To lead the sector in Environment *rotection.

+orporate "ocial responsibility has been synonymous with $T*+%s core business of power generation. $T*+ aspires to provide access to resources needed for a decent standard of living for the people in its vicinity. $T*+ spirit of caring and sharing is embedded in its mission statement.

1.1.3. NTPC ENVIRON*ENT POLICY: "ince its inception $T*+ has been at the forefront of Environment management. !n $ovember '//9, $T*+ brought out a comprehensive document entitled ?$T*+ Environment *olicy and Environment 0anagement "ystem. 6mongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are the companyIs pro=active approach to environment, 9

optimum utili>ation of eEuipment, adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. The policy also envisages efficient utili>ation of resources, thereby minimi>ing waste, maFimi>ing ash utili>ation and ensuring a green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance.

1.1.4. SINGRAULI AT A GLANCE: $T*+ "ingrauli is known as 07THE3 *D6$T of $T*+ as it is the first "uper Thermal *ower *ro4ect of $T*+. !n '/.@ it was a clean state. Hntil the first sketches of an idea were scribed on it. 6nd then, in no time, it seems, what was a dream became a reality. Add+e## App+o8ed $!p!$%"& In#"! ed C!p!$%"& Lo$!"%on Co! So,+$e W!"e+ So,+$e Benef%$%!+& S"!"e# App+o8ed $!p!$%"& *.7. "haktinagar=-2' ---, Gist. "onebhadra, Httar *radesh -1110, -111 0, "onebhadra, Httar *radesh Aayant(Bina 0ines 3ihand 3eservoir Httar *radesh, Httranchal


*un4ab, Haryana, Gelhi and Aammu C Jashmir, Himachal *radesh, +handigarh -1110, "tage=! 5 9K-11 0, "tage=!! 5 -K911 0, Hnit=' -11 0, Hnit=!! -11 0, Hnit=!!! -11 0, Hnit=!B -11 0, Hnit=B -11 0, Hnit=B! 911 0, Hnit= 911 0, B!! <ebruary '/@$ovember '/@0arch '/@2 $ovember '/@2 <ebruary '/@) Gecember '/@: $ovember '/@.

Un%"# $o22%##%oned

In"e+n!"%on! A##%#"!n$e

!G6 , J<,

Table 1.": #ingra li at a glance The "ingrauli region falls in two districts i.e. "idhi in 0adhya *radesh and "onebhadra in

Httar *radesh There are three "uper Thermal *ower "tations(*ro4ects in this region "ingrauli, Bindhyachal and 3ihand. "ingrauli and 3ihand plants are in "onebhadra district of Httar *radesh, whereas the Bindhyachal *lant is in the "ingrauli district of 0adhya *radesh. They are fed by the 3ihand 3eservoir and the $orthern +oalfield +ompany Dimited.


6 typical pulveri>ed coal fueled power plant is based on 3ankine Thermodynamic cycle. L6 3ankine cycle is a vapour cycle that relies on the isentropic eFpansion of high pressure gas to produce workM. Det us see a superheat 3ankine cycle8

Fig 2.1: # per $eat %an&ine cycle ,here, ,t 5 mechanical power produced by turbine This facility first produces steam in a boiler (steam generator . This steam is used to rotate turbine which is connected to a shaft of generator. Hence electricity is produced here. The used steam is then condensed in a condenser, and the condensed liEuid is used again in the steam generator. <or all this we need a fuel. +oal is one of the cheapest and most preferred fossil fuel used as a key to most of the power plants. Hsually delivered by train from 0ines to the +oal Handing *lant (+H* . The +H* unloads this it become more economical to unload the coal. Then the coal stacked, reclaimed, crushed, and conveyed it to the storage silos near the

steam generator. Then it is fed through the <eeder to the *ulveri>er . <rom the <eeder the coal is fed to the *ulveri>er which powders it and then it is carried to the steam generator using pressuri>ed air. The first energy conversion is carried in Boiler or steam generator& the second is carried out in Turbine and the last one carried out in the #enerator.

Fig 2.2: 'nergy conversion flo! diagram. !nitially the superheated steam is fed to High *ressure (H* turbine. !t has a temperature of 9)1N + (approF. and a pressure of about ')1 Jg(cm -. Then the eFhausted steam from it is taken to the reheater so that it can be reheated and fed back to !ntermediate *ressure (!* turbine. Here the temperature is maintained the same as that of superheated steam but pressure is reduced to 29 Jg(cm-. Then the eFhausted steam is directly fed to Dow *ressure (D* turbine having the reduced temperature and pressure of about ' Jg(cm -. Then the eFhausted steam from the D* section is condensed in the condenser. The condensed liEuid is moved from condenser by +ondensate *umps through Dow *ressure 3egenerative <eedwater heaters to a Geaerator. Boiler <eed *umps (B<*s moves the deaerated liEuid through H* heaters to the steam generators. EFtraction steam is supplied to the D* C H* regenerative heaters to improve cycle efficiency. Then comes to the system of fans which keeps the system working by providing the valuable air where reEuired. There are three pairs of fans, namely, <orced Graft (<G fan, !nduced Graft (!G fan, *rimary 6ir (*6 fan. <G fans supplies combustion air to the steam generator and *6 fans transports the coal into the steam generator. !G fans remove the flue gases from the steam generator and eFhaust it through chimney. +ooling water for the condenser is supplied by the circulating water system, which takes the heat removed from the condenser and re4ects it to the cooling towers or other heat sink. Dast but not the least is the switching and transmission methods used here. The generated power cannot be transmitted as such. !t is stepped up to '2- JB6 or )11 JB6 then passed through a series of three switches an isolator, a circuit breaker and

an isolator. Three phase system is used for the power transmission. Each generator has its own switchyard and transmission arrangement.

'.1. PROCEDURE: The basic understanding of the modern thermal power station in terms of ma4or systems involved can be done under three basic heads vi>. generating steam from coal, conversion of thermal energy to mechanical power and generation C load dispatch of electric power. 1. Co! "o S"e!2: The coal is burnt at the rate up to -11 tonnes per hour. <rom coal stores, the fuel is carried on conveyor belts to bunkers. !t then falls in to coal pulveri>ing mill, where it is powdered as fine as flour. 6ir is drawn in to the boiler house by drought fan and passed through *re= heaters. "ome air is passed directly to bunker and rest, through primary air fan, to pulveri>ing mill where it is miFed with powdered coal. The miFture is then carried to bunker of furnace where it miFes with rest of the air and burns to great heat. This heats circulating water and produces steam, which passes to steam drum at very high pressure. The steam is then heated further in the "uperheater and fed to high pressure cylinder of steam turbine. The steam is then passed to other cylinders of turbine through re=heater. The spent steam is sent to condenser, where it turns back to water called condensate. +ondensate is sent to lower part of steam drum through feed heater and economi>er. The flue gases leaving boiler are used for heating purpose in feed heater, economi>er, and air *re=heater. The flue gases are then passed to electro=static precipitator and then, through draught fan, to chimney. +oal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This coal is transported upto the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. +oal is transported to bowl mills by coal feeders. The coal is pulveri>ed in the bowl mill, where it is ground to a powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are three large steel rollers, which are spaced '-1 apart. ,hen there is no coal, these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between the roller and the table and these forces the roller to rotate. +oal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and the rotating table. This crushed coal /

is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air miFture from the primary air (*.6. fan. The *.6. fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to the air pre=heaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. 6tmospheric air from forced draft (<.G.1 fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. ,ater from the boiler feed pump passes through economi>er and reaches the boiler drum. ,ater from the drum passes through down comers and goes to bottom ring header. ,ater from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Gue to heat and the density difference water rises up in the water wall tubes. ,ater is partly converted into steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water miFture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. ,ater follows the same path while steam is sent to the super heaters for superheating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (9)1+ and finally goes to the turbine. <lue gases from the furnace are eFtracted by the induced draft (!.G. fan, which maintains a balanced draft in the furnace with <.G. fan. These flue gases emit their heat energy to various super heaters in the plant house and finally pass through the air pre=heaters and goes to the electrostatic precipitator where the ash particles are eFtracted. Electrostatic precipitators consist of metal plates, which are electrically charged. 6sh particles are attracted to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. 3egular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is miFed with water to form slurry and is pumped to ash dyke. '. S"e!2 "o *e$9!n%$! Powe+: "team first enters the high pressure cylinder of turbine where it passes over a ring of stationary(fiFed blades which acts as no>>le and directs steam onto a ring of moving blades. "team passes to the other cylinders through reheater and the process is repeated again and again. This rotates the turbine shaft up to 2111 rpm. 6t each stage, steam eFpands, pressure decreases and velocity increases. <rom the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut off steam in an emergency and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. "top valves and control valves are located in the steam chest and a governor, driven from the main '1

turbine shaft, operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used (this depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity reEuired from the generator . "team from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine, where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fiFed to the cylindrical wall. These act as no>>les and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of the steam. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a ?stage% of the turbine and in practice many stages are necessary, so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades. <inally, the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of which it enters at the center flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades 5 an arrangement known as double flow 5 to the eFtremities of the cylinder.. +old water from the water source i.e. the 3ihand 3eservoir is circulated through these tubes and as the steam from the turbine passes round them it is rapidly condensed into water condensate. Because water has a much smaller comparative volume than steam, a vacuum is created in the condenser. This allows the steam pressure to reduce down to pressure below that of the normal atmosphere and more energy can be utili>ed. <rom the condenser, the condensate is pumped through low pressure heaters by the eFtraction pump, after which its pressure is raised to boiler pressure by the boiler feed pump. !t is further passed through feed heaters to the economi>er and the boiler for reconversion into steam. The cooling water drawn from the reservoir is returned directly to the source after use. ). *e$9!n%$! "o E e$"+%$! Powe+: The shaft is connected to an alternator%s armature. Thus the armature is rotated and electric current is produced in the stator%s windings. The generated electricity is of order -9,111 volts. The turbine shaft is mechanically coupled to the generator rotor shaft through thrust bearings. The steam rotates the turbine at 2111 rpm thus the rotor of the generator also rotates at 2111 rpm. This speed is necessary to generate electricity at a freEuency of 91 H> with a two pole turbo= generator. The rotor carries the field winding over it. This field


winding is eFcited by a G+ eFcitation system. The supply to the eFcitation system is tapped from the unit auFiliary transformer. The fluF generated by this field current cuts the armature coil. The armature coil is star= star connected and is induced with three phase emf. The emf is tapped with the help of slip rings and brushes. This emf is carried over to the generator transformer through a bus duct. The bus duct is voltage transformer grounded.


Every thermal power plant is based on steam produced on the eFpanse of heat energy produced on combustion of fuel. <uels used are coal and fuel oil. +oal is more important as oil is occasionally used. +oal is categorised as follows depending upon fiFed carbon, volatile matter and moisture content8 6nthracite having @:; fiFed carbon Bituminous having ): to @:; fiFed carbon Dignite having 21; fiFed carbon and *eat having 9 to '1; fiFed carbon

+oal from mines is transported to +H* in railway wagons. !t is unloaded in track hoppers. Each pro4ect reEuires transportation of large Euantity of coal mines to the power station site. Each pro4ect is established near coal mine which meets the coal reEuirements for the span of its entire operational life. <or the purpose each plant has 0erry #o=3ound (0#3 rail transportation system. The loading operation of the coal rake takes place while it is moving under the silo at a present speed of 1.@ Jm(hr. the loading time for each wagon is one minute. <or unloading of coal from the wagons an under ground track hopper is provided at the power station end. +H* then normally follows three coal paths8 1. *ath 6 5 from track hoppers to bunkers. '. *ath B 5 from track hoppers to stockyard. ). *ath + 5 from stockyard to bunkers.


Fig ".1: C$P bloc& diagram *ath 6

*ath B


*ath +

Each of the $T*+ pro4ect reEuires transportation of coal from the coal mine to the power station site of the order of 21111 tones per day, for a typical -111 0, station. This need is fulfilled by the transportation of coal from open cast mines through 0#3 (merry go round transportation system for the span of its entire operational life. ).1. ADVANTAGES O( THIS SYSTE*8 '8 High loading enables loading of train Euickly thus achieving high turnover of wagons and reduction in rolling stock reEuirement. -8 Top open railway wagons are loaded with maFimum possible load constantly and accurately 28 "imple loading arrangement at single point avoids the need for a big marshalling yard with cumbersome operational system. The high speed load outstation consists of one or two loading silos the capacities of silos of the $T*+ pro4ect is -)11()111 tones. The run of mine coal is si>ed to -11mm by the primary crushing arrangement at the min. 6 sampling unit suitable for -1mm si>e coal is provided at the feed point of the loading silo to collect sample for Euality analysis. There is an independent closed circuit of railway system used for carrying coal from plant to +.H.*. and vice versa. The coal handling plant is capable to load 2- wagons in an hour. ).'. PROCEDURE O( COAL HANDLING: The typical schematic procedure of coal handling system is given as follows8 '8 The -11mm coal is received at the track hopper if fed to the crusher house to a series of conveyors. !n the crusher house, ) crushers of 91; capacity are provided and these are preferred two crushers of '11; capacity, because of increased reliability and possible higher availability. ')

-8 6 series of parallel conveyors thereafter are designed either to carry crushed coal directly to the boiler bunkers or to divert it to the stockyard. To feed coal into bunkers mobile trippers have provided over bunkers conveyors. 28 The coal mills and, therefore also, the bunkers conveyors of the -110, units of the earlier pro4ects are provided between boiler and turbo generator building. However, for better mill maintenance, accessibility and to reduce coal dust nuisance in the turbine plant area, coal mills and bunkers conveyors are now being placed between boiler and E"*s. The mills for 911 0, units are located on the both sides of boiler.

).). COAL HANDLING E:UIP*ENTS: There are many coal handling eEuipments in "ingrauli power pro4ect, an independent coal handling system is provided for each stage of the pro4ect having '111 0, capacity. The gross calorific value of typical power grade !ndian Bituminous coal is normally in the range -.11()911 kcal(kg. The various coal handling eEuipments used are given as follows8 !dlers

'8 Troughing idlers. -8 Troughing trainer. 28 3eturn trainer. )8 !mpact idler. 98 3eturn idler *ulleys +onveyers belt Grive unit Take=Hps "kirt board "crapper8

'8 "teel blade scrapper. -8 3ubber blade scrapper. 28 $ylon brush scrapper. )8 +ompressed air blast scrapper. +rusher


Bibrating screen "tacker=cum=re=claimer Gigging wheel 0agnetic separators *lough feeder Bibrating feeder Trippers

'8 0otori>ed tripper. -8 Belt propelled=manually operated tripper. 28 ,inch driven tripper. The detailed description of each component is given as follows8 !dlers8

The idlers are used for keeping the belt conveyers in motion properly and to support the conveyers. Grive unit8

This is used to drive the conveyer belt under all kinds of loading situation. !t comprises of motor coupled to reduction gearboF with the help of fleFible couplings on the high=speed shaft of the gearboF. The provision of the fluid coupling ensures the elimination of starting shock. Take=Hps8

This is used to maintain a slack side tension necessary for the drive to operate the belt. "kirt board8

This is used in con4unction with chutes at the tail end. They guide the materials centrally on the belt while loading until it has settled down on the belt. "crapper8

+onveyers are provided with scrappers at the discharge pulley in order to clean up the carrying side of the belt and avoid the wear of return idlers due to the built up material on idler rolls. +rusher8


The role of crusher is to crush the coal from -11mm to -1mm si>e of coal received from the vibrating screen. The coal enters the top of the crushers and is crushed between rotating granulators and fluid cage path. This crushed coal through a chute falls on belt feeder. Bibrating screen8

This is used to send the coal having si>e less than -1mm to the belt feeder through the bypass chute bypassing the crusher and to send the coal of more than -1mm si>e to crusher. #enerally in each crusher, there are four vibrating screens having capacity of :11 tones(hour. "tacker cum re=claimer8

This is used for stacking and reclaiming the coal from stockyard. #enerally two stacker= cum re claimers have been provided at each of the $T*+ pro4ect. Their normal capacity is -11 tones per hour and maFimum designed capacity is )91 tones per hour. Gigging wheel8

The digging wheel is used for cutting and lifting the coal from the stockyard to the belt used for transferring coal from the yard. The above transfer takes place in case of reclaiming the coal only. 0agnetic separators8

This is an Electro magnet placed above the conveyors to attract the magnetic particles present in the coal during continuous electricity supply. *lough feeder8

The plough feeder is normally installed under slot bunkers or hoppers. !t is imperative that the feeder is fed properly allowing even feed of material to the rotor blade. Bibrating feeder8

!t is used for throwing the coal on the underground conveyor belt from where coal goes to the bunker. +oal from the stockyard, with the help of bulldo>er, is taken to the vibrating feeder via re=claimer hopper and underground conveyor belt. Trippers8

The tripper is provided in the conveyors to stack the material at desired location on either side or along the conveyors with the help of chute(chutes fitted with the tripper itself.


).7. *ILLS: These are basically coal pulveri>ing mills. Thermal power stations use pulveri>ed coal firing system. !n this the coal is reduced to fineness such that .1 to @1; passes through a -11 mesh sieve. This fine powdered coal is called pulveri>ed coal and is carried forward to the burner by air through pipes. ).7.1. ADVANTAGES O( PULVERI;ED COAL (IRING SYSTE*: '. Efficient utili>ation of low grade and cheap coal. -. <leFibility in firing. 2. 6bility to meet fluctuating load. ). Better reaction to automatic control. 9. High efficiency of boiler. :. Easy complete combustion. The only disadvantage being its high initial cost.

Fig ".2: (ills ).7.'. BOWL *ILL: The most widely used mills are bowl mills. Even ""T*" uses these kinds of mills. Bowl mill is a medium speed mill with 21 rpm speed. !t pulveri>es coal to a si>e of -11 microns with a purity of :11 micron. Bowl mills are available in varying capacities ranging from '.. to '11 tons per hour. 6 -11 0, unit uses : mills of 2- tons per hour capacity, out of which )=9 run at a time and one is in stand=by condition for emergency. 6 911 0, unit uses @ mills of :1 tons per hour capacity, out of which :=. run at a time. CONSTRUCTION:<


Bowl mill has a bowl covered with bull rings. !t is mounted on a gear called worm gear and bearings assembly. This assembly is held in a casing filled with lubricating oil along with cooling arrangements. ,orm gear is coupled to helical gear shaft which is in turn coupled to 6+ motors. 6 bowl mill has three grinding rollers each weighing three tons. There is a 2mm clearance between bowl and roller and both are at an angle of --o to each other. 6 spring mechanism with -9 kg(cm- tension is used to maintain the clearance. 3ollers are free to rotate about their aFis. WOR=ING:< +oal is fed into mill through #ravimetric feeder. ,hen the 6.+. supply is switched on the bowl rotate and due to centrifugal force, the coal moves in the outward direction. 6s the coal come between grinder and bowl, it gets pulveri>ed. The unwanted material is removed through scrapers. The pulveri>ed coal is then carried to burners by primary air through outlet openings.

7.1. DRA(T (AN Dike water circulation, air circulation is eEually important in boilers. !t helps in complete combustion of fuel and removal of flue gases and ash from furnace. !t also helps in maintaining furnace%s pressure below atmospheric pressure. Graft fans are used for fulfilling the above reEuirements. There are three types of draft fans used8= 7.1.1. (D (AN .(ORCED DRA(T/ <G fan is located prior to furnace. !t forces air to flow through furnace via pre=heater. This air helps in complete combustion of fuel. <G fan is an aFial fan and has *itch +ontrol i.e. the pressure of forced air is controlled by rotating the blades of fan using oil control.. 6.+. motor used is 2 phases, sEuirrel cage induction motor that takes ::11B, @).96, @11J, supply. !t is /).9; efficient. Spe$%f%$!"%on:< Type C si>e 6Fial 3eaction 6*! '@(''.


7rientation 0edium handled Docation $o. of fans(boiler +apacity Total head Temp of medium

Hori>ontal. 6ir. #round level. '19 m2(sec. 9'1 mmwcl. 91N +.

Table ).1: specifications of forced draft fan

7.1.'. ID (AN .INDUCED DRA(T/ !G fan, as the name reveals, induces a draft that helps in removal of flue gases from the furnace. !t also causes the flue gases to flow through E"* and then out of chimney and E"*. !G fan is an aFial fan made of croton steel. !t is driven by 2 phase sEuirrel cage induction motor at .)) rpm. 0otor uses ::11B, '2@.96, '211J, supply and is /9.9; efficient. !G fan has !nlet #uide Bane control pressure. Spe$%f%$!"%on:< Type C si>e 7rientation 0edium handled Docation $o. of fans(boiler +apacity Total head Temp of medium "pecific weight "peed Type of fan regulation 6Fial !mpulse 6$ -@e:. Hori>ontal. <lue gas. #round level. --9 m2(sec. 29: mmwcl. '2:N +. ./::cm-. .)1m. !nlet #uide Bane.

Table ).2: specifications of ind ced draft fans. 7.1.). PA (AN .PRI*ARY AIR/ -1

*6 fan supplies primary air that carries the pulveri>ed coal from mills to furnace. *rimary air passes to mills through - different ducts. 7ne duct carries air first to pre=heater and then to mills whiles the other carries directly to mills. 6ir through pre=heater is called hot air while other is cold air.. Spe$%f%$!"%on:< Type C si>e 7rientation 0edium handled Docation $o. of fans(boiler +apacity Total head Temp of medium "pecific weight of medium Type of fan regulation . Table )." specifications of primary fan. "ingle suction, 3adial fan. Hori>ontal. 6ir. #round level. .9mO2(sec. ''@. mmwcl. 91N +. '.1'/ Jg(cm-. !nlet #uide Bane

*o"o+ Type = 3ated power = 3ated voltage = 3ated freEuency = Dubricating system = $o. of phases = "peed = 2 = phase, air cooled, "Euirrel +age !nduction motor. '-91 J,. :.: JB. 91 H>. #rease lubrication. 2 ')@1 rpm.


Fig ).1: ind ced draft fan

Fig ).2: forced draft fan

DE(INITION: Boiler can simply defined as the device where any liEuid is boiled or Boiler may be defined as a device that is used to transfer heat energy being produced by burning of fuel to liEuid, generally water, contended in it to cause its vapori>ation. Boiler, in simple terms, can be called L"team #eneratorM. The following are factors essential for the efficient combustion usually referred as LThe three T%sM. !/ Time 5 !t will take a definite time to heat the fuel to its ignition temperature and having ignited, it will also take time to burn. >/ Temperature 5 6 fuel will not burn until it reaches its ignition temperature. $/ Turbulence 5 Turbulence is introduced to achieve a rapid relative motion between the air and fuel particles. 5.1. SPECI(ICATIONS <ollowing are the specifications of the main boiler used at "ingrauli "uper Thermal *ower "tation for (-11 0,8 *AIN BOILER 0anufacturers are BHED. Gesigned fuel is !ndian Bituminous coal.


<urnace type is <usion welded. Grum specifications are8 0aterial which it is made up of is +arbon "teel "6P-//. 7verall length of drum is'9..11 m. Gesigned pressure inside the drum is '.: Jg(cm Gesigned metal temperature is 29)o +.

"et pressure (Jg(cm- 8 !n drum is '9@.-, ':'.1, ':-.)' !n super heater is ')2.21, ')).11 !n electrometric relief valve is ') !n re=heater inlet is 22.)1,22..9,22.11

5.'. CLASSI(ICATION Boilers may be classified under different heads on different basis8= '. Gepending upon LHseM '.'. '.-. "tationary (land boilers 0obile boilers '.-.'. '.-.-. -.'. -.-. 2.'. 2.-. 2.2. ).'. ).-. 9.'. 9.-. 0arine boilers Docomotive boilers

-. Gepending upon LTube contentsM <ire tube boilers ,ater tube boilers "traight tube boilers Bent tube boilers "inuous tube boilers Hori>ontal or Bertical !nclined EFternally fired !nternally fired -2

2. Gepending upon LTube shapeM

). Gepending upon LTube positionM

9. Gepending upon L<urnace positionM

:. Gepending upon LHeat sourceM :.'. :.-. :.2. :.). ..'. ..-. "olid, liEuid or gas ,aste of chemical process Electrical energy $uclear energy $atural circulation *ositive or forced circulation

.. Gepending upon L+irculationM


Fig *." + Flo! diagram of !ater , steam circ lation 5.7. BOILER AU@ILIARIES: <ollowing are the important auFiliaries used8 E$ono2%Ae+: !ts purpose is to preheat feed water before it is introduced into boiler drum by recovering heat from flue gases leaving the furnace. S,pe+ He!"e+: !t increases the temperature of steam to super heated region. Re<9e!"e+: !t is used for heat addition and increase the temperature of steam coming from high pressure turbine to 9)1o. Soo" B owe+: !t blows off the ash deposited on the water wall surface. !t uses steam for blowing purpose. A%+ P+e9e!"e+: !t pre=heats the air entering the furnace by recovering heat from flue gases in order to ease the combustion process.


D+!f" (!n#: They handle the supply of air and the pressure of furnace. W%nd Bo6: !t distributes the eFcess air uniformly throughout furnace.

i! ".#$ boiler in power plant


The -11(-'1 0, turbine in power plant is predominantly of condensing, compound, tandem, three cylinder, hori>ontal, reheat type with no>>le governing C regenerative system of feed water heating C is directly coupled with the 6+ generator. 3.1 CO*PONENTS O( TURBINE CASING:

There are three types of casings provided in the turbine. a. H* +6"!$# b. !* +6"!$# c. D* +6"!$#8 ROTORS:

The rotors are of three types8 a. H* 37T73 b. !* 37T73 c. D* 37T738 BLADES8 -9

Blades are single most costly elements of the turbine. Blades fitted in the stationary parts are called guide blade or no>>les and those fitted in the rotor are called moving or working blades. The followings are three main types of blades8 a. +ylindrical or constant profile blades. b. Tapered cylindrical blades. c. Twisted profile blades. d. Barying profile blades. LINERS AND DIAPHRAG*S:

!n reaction stages, the guide blades are directly carried in the casings and hence liners and diaphragms are generally not used. !n impulse stages, most of the pressure drop of the steam takes place in guide blades, resulting in the deflection in the guide blades. 6dditional bending strength of guide blades is provided by the liners and the diaphragms. ,elded diaphragms are used in the high temperature >one and cast iron blades are used in low temperature >one. - to ) diaphragms are housed in the single liner, which in turn is housed in the turbine casing. SEALING GLANDS:

To eliminate the possibilities of steam leakage to atmosphere from the inlet and eFhaust ends of the cylinder, Dabyrinth glands of radial clearance type are provided which ensure the trouble free, frictionless sealing. Each gland sealing consists of a no. of sealing rings divided into segments. COUPLINGS:

"ince the shaft, rotor are made in the small parts due to forging limitations and other technological and economical reasons, the couplings are reEuired between any two rotors. This coupling permits angular misalignment, transmits aFial thrust and ensures the aFial locations BEARINGS:

The turbine shaft is eEuipped with the 4ournal bearing. Aournal bearings are manufactured in two halves and usually consists bearing bodies, faced with anti 5 friction tin based blabbering to decrease the coefficient of friction. BARRING GEAR:


To eliminate the possibilities of distortion of during shut down, barring gear is used to keep the rotor revolving until the temperature changes have been stopped and casings have become cool 3.'. TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTE* !n order to maintain the synchronous speed under changing load(grid or steam conditions, it is eEuipped with electro=hydraulic governor& fully backed=up by a hydraulic governor. The measuring and processing of electrical signal offer the advantages such as fleFibility, dynamic stability and simple representation of complicated functional systems. The integration of electrical and hydraulic system is an eFcellent combination with following advantages8 EFact load freEuency drop with high sensitivity. 6voids over speeding of turbine during load throw offs. 6d4ustments of drop in fine steps, even during on load operation.

3.). TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTE* Turbine protection system performs to cover the following functions8=

a. *rotection of turbine from inadmissible operating conditions. b. !n case of plant failure, protection against subseEuent damages. c. !t restricts occurring failures to minimum.
"tandard turbine protection system comprises the following8=

0echanical ( hydraulic turbine protection. Electrical turbine protections.

The main elements of the Turbine *rotection system are as follows8= a) Emergency #overnors. b) Emergency #overnor *ilot Balves. c) Emergency stop valve (E"B "ervomotors. d) !nterceptor valve (! B "ervomotors. .


Fig -.1: T rbine


4.1. GENERATORS The -11 0, generators is three phase, hori>ontally mounted two pole cylindrical rotor type, synchronous machine driven by steam turbine. The stator windings are cooled by de= minerali>ed water flowing through the hollow conductor while the rotor winding is cooled by hydrogen gas maintained inside the machine. <ans mounted on the generator rotor facilitate the circulation of the hydrogen inside the machine reEuiring cooling. <our coolers mounted inside the machine cool the hydrogen gas. !t is maintained at a vacuum of about -91mm Hg by using water e4ectors. 6 gas trap is provided in the system to detect any traces of hydrogen gas leaking into the stator water system. To prevent leakage of hydrogen from generator housing, ring type seals are provided at the both ends of the generator. The seal ring is free to ad4ust its position according to shaft position. Gene+!"o+ P+o"e$"%on:


The core of an electrical power system is generator. Guring operating conditions certain components of the generator are sub4ected to increase stress and therefore, could fail, referred to as faults. !t can be internal fault or eFternal fault depending upon whether they are inside or outside of the machine. The machine with fault must be tripped immediately. The corrective measures against generator%s abnormal operation are taken care by stubborn system. T!#B of "9e p+o"e$"%8e #&#"e2: Getect abnormal condition or defect. Dimit its scope by switching to isolate the defect. 6larm the operating staff. Hnload and(or trip the machine immediately. ReC,%+e2en" of p+o"e$"%8e de8%$e#: "electivity8 7nly that part of the installation containing fault should is disconnected. "afety against faulty tripping8 There should be no trip when there is no fault. 3eliability8 The device must act within the reEuired time. "ensitivity8 Dowest signal input value at which the device must act. Tripping time8 There should be a clear a distinction between the tripping time of the device, considering the circumstances such as current and total tripping time for the fault. P+o"e$"%8e De8%$e# The choice of protective eEuipment for the generator should precisely understand the type of fault and do the necessary preventive measures for avoiding it. There are two types of protection namely $ !## A for electrical protection and $ !## B for mechanical protection. E e$"+%$! p+o"e$"%on Gifferential protection8 #enerator differential H6T differential 7verhead line differential #.T. restricted earth fault, 0ain -/

7verall differential

8 Fig ..1: generator



6 static piece of apparatus with two or more windings which, by electromagnetic induction, transformers a system of alternating voltage and current into another system of voltage and current usually of different values and at the same freEuency for the purpose of transmitting electrical power.

T&pe# of "+!n#fo+2e+#8 *ower transformer8

Hsed in transmission network of higher voltages, deployed for step=up and step down transformer application ()11 kB, -11 kB, ''1 kB, :: kB, 22kB, --kB Gistribution transformers:

Hsed for lower voltage distribution networks as a means to end user connectivity. (''kB, :.: kB, 2.2 kB, ))1B, -21B T+!n#fo+2e+ !,6% %!+%e#: Q Q Q Q Q 3adiators cooling fans, oil pumps, oil to water heat eFchangers (+ooling 7$6$ ( 7$6<( 7<6<( 7<,< eFternal coolers Bushings Buchhol> 3elay(7il "urge 3elay Temperature !ndicators= ,T! , 7T! 21

Q Q T&pe#

7il Devel Tank 7il *reservation "ystems8 +onservators (gas sealed, Bellows(membrane sealed

The transformers are of two general types distinguished from each other by the manner in which the primary and secondary coils are placed around the laminated steel core. They are a. "hell type b. +ore type.

Fig ..2: practical transformer

6fter the study % am able to understand the !eneratin! station alon! with &arious ion of power in a power plant and e'uipments used in switchyard their function , maintenance ( testin! . This study definitely will help in my professional life. The motive and ob4ective behind the pro4ect would remain unfulfilled without the mentioning of those who constantly provided us help and support during the course of the pro4ect. ,e would sincerely like to thank the professionals of $T*+ who constantly provided us help and eFtended their hand whenever we needed.



FUTURE CAPACITY ADDITIONS $T*+ has formulated a long term +orporate *lan to become a ',-@,111 0, company upto -12-. !n line with the +orporate *lan, the capacity addition under implementation presently8 S.No. +oal '. -. 2. ). 9. :. .. @. P+oDe$" S"!"e C!p!$%"& .*W/ Bongaigaon Barh=! Barh=!! Dara=! Judgi=! Bindhyachal=B #adarwara=! 0ouda=!! 6ssam Bihar Bihar +hhattisgarh Jarnataka 0adhya *radesh 0adhya *radesh 0aharashtra .91 '/@1 '2-1 ':11 -)11 911 ':11 '2-1 2-

/. '1. ''. '-. '2. '). '9. To"! '. -. 2. ). To"! '. -. 2. To"!

"olapur 3ihand=!!! $abinagar, B3B+D 0u>affarpur EFp., JBH$D $abinagar, $*#+*D Ballur=!!, $TE+D 0e4a, 0H$*D Hydro Joldam HE** ( ) F -11 Tapovan Bishnugad HE** () F '21 "ingrauli +, Gischarge("mall Hydro Data Tapovan 3amagundam *hase=! Talcher Janiha Hnchahar

0aharashtra Httar *radesh Bihar Bihar Bihar Tamil $adu Httar *radesh Himachal *radesh Httarakhand Httar *radesh Httarakhand 6ndhra *radesh 7disha Httar *radesh

'2-1 911 '111 2/1 '/@1 911 '2-1 1070@11 9-1 @ '.' 1711 '1 '1 '1 21 '---1

G+!nd To"! (+oal R Hydro R "olar


'. 0anuals and drawings by 7E0. -. $T*+, *0!= $7!G6 training manuals 2. B.D.Thera4a C 6.J. Thera4a, L6 teFt book of EDE+3!+6D TE+H$7D7#SM ). B.$. 0ittle C 6. 0ittal, LGE"!#$ 7< EDE+T3!+6D 06+H!$E" 22

9. +.D.,6GH,6 L Electrical *ower "ystemsM. :. *re=+ommissioning procedures C formats for )11 JB sub=station bay eEuipments .. 0odern power station practice=volume=b, volume=c @. *ower plant engg. By *.J $6#+ontrol C instrumentation 5 volume ' /. 7peration and maintenance manual (0T*" = volume -. '1. Electrical machinery by *.".Bhimbra ''. http8((home.frognet.net(Te4cov(4wswan.html '-. http8((www.abc.net.au(rn(museums(award(museums(Tamworth*owerstation( '2. http8((www.lrc.rpi.edu(program '). www.photosearch.com '9. www.emadr'c.blogspot.com ':. www.electriciyfourm.com