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Response ID:113 Data

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1. Your name Barbara Ransom 2. Your email address bransom@nsf.gov 3. Your affiliation govermnent 4. Your discipline marine geology and geophysics 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. The deep biosphere, who's there, where is it, can we predict the distribution and composition of microbial consortia, what is their impact, and can we learn things about these microbes that will be important to natural products research, the origin of life, the global carbon cycle, or life in extreme envionments in temperature, pressure, and time. Modeling the record of paleoclimate studies coming from seafloor sediments and integrating those records and creating models to mesh with Global Climate and Earth System Models so we can look backward as well as forward in time to be better be able to think about what we may be facing in the realm of climate change. Understanding subseafloor carbon fluid and reservoirs and their impact on global carbon and geochemical cycles, subduction zone processes, including implications for island arc volcanism, seeps, earthquakes, and hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction in the subsurface.

6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. Themes are 1. The nature, extent, and longevity of the Deep Biosphere. 2. Chemical cycling through subduction zones and quantitative means to assess the impact of dehydration on convergent marging hazards (volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis. 3. Coastal Processes and Adaptation - 50% of the global population is on the coast. Sealevel rise, changes in climate and weather paterns, eutrophication, degradation of marine ecosystems, and sediment transport and erosion will be huge. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? AUVs and other robotic untethered vehicles outfitted with more and better geochemical and optical/motion sensors will be essential. Static and fixed assets will decline in importance. A program to help to accelerate technological and sensor development in this area is desperately needed. Changing the structure of OCE to reflect interdisciplinary themes, as opposed to disciplines as it is now. For example

biogeochemical cycles would combine programs, scientists and ideas from all of the OCE science programs (CO, PO, BO, and MGG) removing barriers between disciplines. Another example might be ocean chemical evolution which would involve the CO and MGG programs seamlessly, or perhaps Deep Biosphere which woud combine BO, MGG, and CO; coastal ocean processes could be another in which PO,CO, BO, and MGG would all be components. Interagency collaboration with NOAA Ocean Exploration and the USGS Marine Geology group would strenghen all parties and expand use of federal faciliteis. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. OCE has two science sections - one that deals with the water column and its biological inhabitants and the other with the solid earth beneath the water column where many processes that affect the water column occur. The present make up of the committee does not appear to reflect a balance of the representative disciplines involved (i.e., mostly water column scientists). Also don't see much representation from ocean engineering, the third OCE section where many advances in tools and increased capabilities required for us to make new discoveries are included. If this commmittee is mainly focused on the water column, as it appears to be in terms of its composition, I fear that the important contributions from solid earth processes and ocean engineering will not be addressed and this committee may not be able to adequately guide all parts of the NSF Division of Ocean Science in potential priority areas for the future.

Response ID:114 Data

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1. Your name Henry Dick 2. Your email address hdick@whoi.edu 3. Your affiliation Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 4. Your discipline Marine geology and geophysics, Igneous petrology, tectonics 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. Nature and composition of the ocean crust Mechanisms of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics Climate 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. Slow spreading ocean ridge tectonics and crustal structure processes of mantle convection Composition of the ocean crust 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? #1) Ocean drilling both ultradeep (>1 km) and shallow (< 1 km).

#2) Automous underwater vehicles for mapping and sampling both within the oceans and on its floor. #3) Remotely operated vehicles such as Jason or Roopos. # Last) The worst expenditure of funds are instrumented cabled observatories (OOI) You can no more understand ocean dynamics and ocean crust evolution from 7 (?) seafloor cabled observatories, than you can atmosphere circulation and weather with 7 weather stations. This compared to other priorities in a vast ocean - is an absurdity. Moreover, servicing these facilities will monopolize ship time, limit vessel schedules to restricted areas of the oceans, and cripple US marine global research at the same time that our global competitors are expanding their reach to a truly global scale. The US needs to stop this retreat from global science!

8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. This committee is unrepresentative of the field of ocean science, totally lacking representation from the petrology and geochemistry communities studying the ocean crust and mantle, marine ridge tectonics, seamounts, etc. This omission is so utterly astounding that it would have to be deliberate. Second: repeating from above: The worst expenditure of funds are instrumented cabled observatories (OOI) You can no more understand ocean dynamics and ocean crust evolution from 7 (?) seafloor cabled observatories, than you can atmosphere circulation and weather with 7 weather stations. This compared to other priorities in a vast ocean - is an absurdity. Moreover, servicing these facilities will monopolize ship time, limit vessel schedules to restricted areas of the oceans, and cripple US marine global research at the same time that our global competitors are expanding their reach to a truly global scale. The US needs to stop this retreat from global science!

Response ID:115 Data

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1. Your name Allison Miller 2. Your email address amiller@schmidtocean.org 3. Your affiliation Schmidt Ocean Institute 4. Your discipline Oceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. Ocean Acidification 2. Overfishing/Availability of Seafood 3. Deep sea research

6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1. Ocean Acidification 2. Technology innovation - innovative sensors, monitoring, technology development etc. 3. Heat Budget/global warming of the oceans - how much heat can the ocean absorb? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 1. Research Funding beyond the Federal Government - Schmidt Ocean Institute, Gordon Betty Moore Foundation. They have funds and also set their own investment agendas beyond the scope of the Federal Government's interest in Oceanography. 2. Access to cheaper/more distributed technologies. With decreasing budgets, free ship time (for example aboard the R/V Falkor) and increased use of AUVs, ROVs, etc. that don't necessarily require large ships for research will become more widespread. 3. More Ocean Infrastructure, while OOI will be a great initiative for ocean observing once complete, scientists do not know much about what is being built and how they can be involved i.e. collect their data using the established infrastructure. From this data management will also play a larger role has collecting large amounts of data become the standard. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. I urge the Committee to look beyond what is available or invested in by the Federal Government. The Schmidt Ocean Institute operates its own research vessel that researchers can use free of charge, the Marine Science and Technology Foundation awards contracts to new and emerging technology development, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funds research focused on deep sea microbiology, The X Prize has an Ocean Health Initiative, etc. etc. These initiatives and foundations will become the standard they can invest in more risky research and development than the Federal Government would take on and can often shape their own agendas.

Response ID:116 Data

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1. Your name Dennis Hansell 2. Your email address dhansell@rsmas.miami.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Miami 4. Your discipline Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. What are the most important anthropogenic impacts on the ocean, how do they act, and how can they be ameliorated? When (and to what) will the ocean change from its current role as a reservoir for anthropogenic heat and carbon? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. What is the role of organic matter as a long term reservoir of carbon, and how has that role varied in relation to climatic variations.

What controls the shifts in productivity seen in ocean time-series observations; we see the shifts but we still do not understand the underlying mechanisms. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? We require great improvements in data management/access/visualization software to maximize and broaden the value of our massive collections of ocean data; we should benefit from advances made in molecular biology data handling. The software must continue to be easily accessible and friendly for use in education. Ocean observing systems having a global relevance must grow. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:117 Data

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1. Your name Galen McKinley 2. Your email address gamckinley@wisc.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Wisconsin - Madison 4. Your discipline Ocean carbon and biogeochemistry 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. What are the fundamental mechanisms and the rates at which the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets melt and drive sea level rise? What is the role of ocean physics and ocean biogeochemistry in natural climate change (glacial/interglacial cycles) and in the climate response to anthropogenic CO2 forcing? What is the impact of ocean acidification on organisms and ecosystems? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. What is the impact of ocean acidification on organisms and ecosystems? How is the ocean sink of anthropogenic CO2 responding to changing climate (climate-carbon feedbacks)? What mechanisms couple ocean physics and biogeochemistry on interannual timescales - are these largely modifications of mechanisms of the seasonal cycle? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)?

Programs - Antarctic Science needs to focus on Antartica - ice sheets and climate in particular. Polar program money should not be funding Astronomy / Dark Matter research with Ice Cube. Autonomous platforms need to continue to have investment. But ships are also needed and will always be. Ice breakers for Antartic and Arctic Science. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:118 Data

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1. Your name Kevin Trenberth 2. Your email address trenbert@ucar.edu 3. Your affiliation NCAR 4. Your discipline climate 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. Can we maintain and even improve the ocean observing system? How can we greatly improve data assimilation and resulting ocean products? How can we improve ocean models? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. How is the ocean heat content changing, especially in space (including with depth) and time? How are ocean currents changing and varying, and why? How can we improve the surface energy and water budgets, and associated fluxes? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? TOGA/TAO array is is in major disarray and not being adequately maintained. The observing system has changed since it was implemented (mainly in 1993) with Argo. So what is an optimal observing strategy within resource limits? How can much better use be made of multivariate observations, especially from space? How can the huge discrepancies among results from different groups be narrowed and best practices for analysis be developed? Groups need to be confronted with the disparities and they should be reduced, perhaps with targeted field programs. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Oceanography is important and exciting because of Argo, with a lot of new information, but it is not being properly used.

Response ID:119 Data

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1. Your name Joel Curtis 2. Your email address joel.curtis@noaa.gov 3. Your affiliation NWS Juneau Alaska 4. Your discipline Operational Meteorology 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1) Ocean heat transport and feedback mechanisms including biological. 2) Ocean acidification and impacts. 3) sea level rise (fall in my local case) and impacts. 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1) additional heat input from the ocean into all developing weather systems, both tropical and extratropical. Be sure to capture feedback mechanisms and be alert to unexpected consequences of the extra heat. 2) refinement of storm surge forecasting. 3) effects of open water in the arctic. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Regarding US national efforts: 1) calibration of tide gauges to flooding. improved inundation mapping. 2) Lobby to have the US sign "The law of the Sea" to secure our waters for commerce and science out to and beyond the continental shelf. 3) Build and deploy icebreakers combined with science equipment. Base these assets on or near arctic waters. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:120 Data

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1. Your name Avery Sen 2. Your email address avery.sen@noaa.gov 3. Your affiliation DoC/NOAA/OAR/PPE

4. Your discipline Public Administration 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. In what ways, and to what degrees, do people value the ocean? What are the social consequences of predicted changes in the ocean? How do people access, interpret, and act on environmental information? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. What are the comparative advantages (and relative roles) of the multitude of public, private, and academic institutions involved in ocean science? Is the integration of ocean science systems (technologies and institutions) performed with respect to public values or scientific interests? Are students of ocean science acquiring the trans-disciplinary skills necessary to work effectively on teams with counterparts in other professions. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Only have time for one: Conduct high-risk, high-return research on decision support w.r.t. environmental information, possibly via a Cooperative Institute between NOAA and leading design departments (e.g., MIT Media Lab, Stanford Persuasive Tech Lab,) or via a CRADA with private firms (e.g., IDEO). 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Pomponi and Titley? What a team! I look forward to the results.

Response ID:121 Data

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1. Your name David Kadko 2. Your email address dkadko@rsmas.miami.edu 3. Your affiliation Univ Miami 4. Your discipline marine geochemistry

5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. Accelerated Arctic change (sea ice, ocean chemistry, ecosystem. 2. Expanding oxygen minimum zones 3. Ocean acidifcation 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. The biochemistry and ecology of the rapidly evolving Arctic needs to be better studied. This will provide a baseline with which to compare the Arctic of the next decades, provide data to verify models of the Arctic system, and provide data and elucidate processes that will inform us of the trajectory of change. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? There is a dearth of icebreakers and other platforms required for high latitude studies. Consideration of the rapidly evolving Arctic lends a certain urgency to this situation. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:122 Data

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1. Your name Rhian Waller 2. Your email address rhian.waller@maine.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Maine 4. Your discipline Marine Biology, Biological Oceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. - Taxonomy - what are the species that live in our oceans? Taxonomic expertise is the poorest it has been in decades - getting species identified and described for most groups is almost impossible, yet vital to our true understanding of ocean processes and function. - Functional Ecology - How do organisms adapt to change? Basic ecological principles for most species are unstudied, and in many cases unfundable to be studied, so are done as side projects. A real focus on researching basic ecological principles is essential to understanding, and putting into context, more complex species interactions and wider ocean scale biological processes. - Ecosystem Ecology - How to marine ecosystems function both individually and as complex connected habitats? Understanding

how ecosystems function and are connected provides insights for the overall sustainability of the ocean. This is necessary information in a time of increasing anthropogenic impacts and willingness to preserve small ecosystems. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:124 Data

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1. Your name Emmanuel Boss 2. Your email address emmanuel.boss@maine.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Maine 4. Your discipline Oceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Please read the national academy of sciences: An Ocean Infrastructure Strategy for U.S. Ocean Research in 2030. It includes answers to all the questions you have asked. Many (me included) have invested a lot of time working on this report which contains the material pertinent for yours as well. It seems that the powers-to-be have elected to ignore this report. I wish you will not waste your precious time. All the best, Emmanuel

Response ID:125 Data

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1. Your name Martin Jutzeler 2. Your email address

2. Your email address jutzeler@gmail.com 3. Your affiliation National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK 4. Your discipline Volcanology, sedimentology and marine geoscience 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. - Climatic record - Origin and spread of volcanic ash beds - Debris avalanche deposits/landslides 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. What are the products of submarine explosive volcanism? How to differentiate marine ash beds/products from subaerial vs. submarine volcanism? How to recognize pumice rafts deposits? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Cores from IODP and ROVs ROV surveys 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:126 Data

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1. Your name Gregory Johnson 2. Your email address gregory.c.johnson@noaa.gov 3. Your affiliation NOAA/PMEL & UW/Oceanography 4. Your discipline Oceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research

over the decade. 1. What is the ocean storage, uptake, and transport of heat? Answering these questions are vital to understanding how much and how fast the climate will warm, how much and how fast sea level will rise, and how regional climate will change. 2. What is the change in ocean acidification and how does it affect ecosystems? 3. How and why are ocean oxygen levels changing, and how do these changes relate to changes in ecosystems? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1. How much heat is the global ocean absorbing, and how is ocean transport of heat changing? The oceans take up over 90% of the current planetary energy imbalance, and are the flywheel of the climate system. The flywheel is spinning now, and we need to know how fast. 2. How are changing ocean salinity patterns linked to changes in the global hydrological cycle? The oceans play a huge role in the global hydrological cycle, and ocean salinity is a very sensitive indicator and integrator of changes in that cycle for over the 70% of the planet's surface. 3. What is the role of ocean temperature changes in determining the rate marine ice sheet melting and its contribution to sea level? Ice sheets melt appears to be accelerating, and changing ocean temperatures may be a part of that. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 1. We must expand our observing system to allow global full-depth analyses of the ocean's changing heat and salt patterns, and hence sea-level. This means implementing programs along the lines of "Deep Argo", and "Under-Ice Argo". The ocean is storing most of the heat taken up by the climate system, and 2. We must also expand our global-scale observations of oxygen and carbon system parameters beyond the current repeat hydrography program (http://www.go-ship.org/). This means developing and deploying stable, small-scale, low-cost, low-energy use sensors on platforms like Argo. This will be a challenge, and quite relevant to society, but we must raise new funding for this expansion of the observing system, and not cannibalize the existing observing system by expanding it without this new funding. 3. We must figure out how to measure the ocean temperature under ice sheets, a very challenging problem, but one of vital importance, as water can carry at lot of heat, melting ice fast. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

Response ID:127 Data

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1. Your name Matt Gilligan 2. Your email address gilliganm@savannahstate.edu 3. Your affiliation Professor Emeritus Savannah State University 4. Your discipline undergraduate and graduate marine sciences education/degrees 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade.

6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Human resource development is a critical ocean science infrastructure element. If the drivers of ocean science programs at NSF are the research questions posed and material infrastructure needed to address them by majority rule (e.g. survey tally), there is an unintentional risk of asking traditional questions, neglecting new perspectives, and perpetuating a traditional workforce. At risk, quite frankly, is the relevancy and vitality of ocean sciences in a demographically-diverse nation. Despite decades of concern, the ocean science community has not successfully in attracted and retained underrepresented minorities. The numbers entering advanced degree programs in the ocean geosciences have not increased beyond a trickle. Ocean science research planning/programs should not be distinct from from education research/planning. Integrating them will help tap high-achieving STEM students from beyond traditional backgrounds and groups. The issue needs to be a priority.

Response ID:128 Data

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1. Your name William Sager 2. Your email address wwsager@uh.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Houston 4. Your discipline Marine Geology & Geophysics 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. Effects and contributions of the oceans to climate change. 2. Understanding and management of ecosystems and ocean life. 3. High-resolution exploration and understanding of the hidden ocean realm. 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1. Distribution and abundance of ocean energy and material resources. 2. High-resolution mapping of ocean geology and structure. 3. Understanding the limits of plate tectonics. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 1. Next generation satellite altimetry mapping.

2. Development of autonomous vehicles for mapping or recording marine geophysical data. 3. Widespread multi beam & side-scan sonar mapping of the seafloor. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. The current funding environment is not conducive to advances in marine geology and geophysics owing to the expense of ocean operations and the declining funding stream for ships and scientific projects.

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1. Your name joern thiede 2. Your email address jthiede@geomar.de 3. Your affiliation St. Petersburg (RF) State University 4. Your discipline Paleoceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. Paleoenvironmental History of the Arctic Ocean 2. Nature and age of Arctic Ocean basement 3. Potential for the regular access to the Arctic Ocean 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. See above 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? The US Marine Polar Research Community has been fragemented, uncourageous and undecisive for future activitie. We urgently need a novel novel research ice breaker with features like: All season capability for operations in the central Arctic Ocean and in the Southern oceans, autonomous operations in ice-covered oceans, dynamic positioning against the drifiting sea-ice cover, moon pool for the deployment of sensitive instrumentation, deep-sea drilling). To try to be in the forefront of international polar marine science requires to be able to do things which nobody has been able to do before. A ship as envisaged by ERICON provides capacities which go far beyond the possibilities of one single nation.. The ERICON-deliverables in general cover the governance of an innovative new international research icebreaker, the first of its kind and globally the largest climate- and enviroment-related scientific infrastructure project. For details see eri-aurora-borealis.eu website

8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

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1. Your name Frank Whitney 2. Your email address whitneyf@shaw.ca 3. Your affiliation Emeritus, Fisheries and Oceans Canada 4. Your discipline chemist, oceanographer 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. impacts of upper ocean stratification on air-sea gas exchange, especially as it affects hypoxia in some regions. 2. changes in heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere with declining ice production. This affects the production of dense ocean waters and the intensity of winter storms. 3. mixing processes in frontal regions that may be changing due to e.g. warming of interior ocean waters. I think especially here of possible changes in North Pacific Intermediate water along the subarctic front. 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1. impacts of expanding hypoxia on both habitat and nutrient cycles 2. unifying changes in ocean acidity and oxygen in interior ocean waters, explaining combined impacts on benthic ecosystems 3. understanding how changes in ocean circulation (e.g. increased stratification of the upper ocean) will impact ocean productivity. 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 1. most importantly, more data sets need to be made broadly available. This should include both fisheries and oceanographic data. Data recovery from past programs is essential. 2. scientists will need to find ways of making Ocean Observatory data applicable to large scale processes. This can be done with clever use of autonomous profilers and gliders. 3. tools allowing scientists to use huge amounts of data from observatory and profiler programs are needed. The size of some data sets could overwhelm many. I like for example what Giovanni (NASA website) has done for satellite data, consequently use their products frequently. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. My study region is the North Pacific, therefore my comments tend to focus on processes of importance in this region. I came across a couple of papers explaining how changes in ice cover in the Okhotsk and Bering Sea can impact downstream storm patterns. This kind of finding needs to be imbedded into climate models at some point, to help us understand both annual variability and long term trends in ocean structure.

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1. Your name Robert Anderson 2. Your email address boba@ldeo.columbia.edu 3. Your affiliation Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 4. Your discipline Chemical and paleoceanography 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. a) How does chemical-biological coupling influence (a) marine ecosystems and (b) marine biogeochemical cycles? Recent advances in molecular biology and in the analytical chemistry of micronutrients now makes possible the interdisciplinary investigation of these two-way interactions. b) How does the circulation of the Southern Ocean respond to external forcing (e.g., climate) and how can the relevant processes be modeled accurately? Southern Ocean circulation plays a critical role in supplying nutrients to low-latitude ecosystems and in regulating the efficiency of the oceans biological pump. Improvements are needed in both observations and models of the Southern Ocean. c) How sensitive are regional patterns of global climate to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation? Has the importance of AMOC been overestimated? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. a) How did the oxygen concentration in the deep ocean change throughout the geologically-recent past (e.g., past million years) and how can we reconstruct those changes quantitatively and reliably? b) What is the relative importance of rivers, atmospheric transport, exchange with ocean sediments and hydrothermal systems as sources of dissolved chemicals to the ocean? This is an old question, but the technologies needed to answer it quantitatively are now available. c) See also (1) 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? a) Coordinate more of the research in US oceanography to exploit the synergies of multi-investigator collaboration. Big problems are often global in scope, requiring large coordinated efforts to study them (e.g., ARGO, GEOTRACES two effective but different approaches, each appropriate for its field). b) Reverse the trend toward smaller research vessels. The next generation of oceanography will require more hands at sea, not fewer. Future interdisciplinary research topics, such as chemical-biological coupling (see Item #1) will require more hands than ever. Ships like the Thompson and Revelle have insufficient berths for such interdisciplinary research.

c) Simplify and reduce the bureaucracy associated with award administration. Multiple forms of compliance and reporting are consuming an inordinate fraction of an investigators time, often without guidance or limits of common sense. Implement a program to review the administrative demands on investigators. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Talk to your colleagues while working on the committee's charge. Regular interaction and feedback will be helpful.

Response ID:132 Data

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1. Your name Michael Strasser 2. Your email address strasser@erdw.ethz.ch 3. Your affiliation ETH Zurich, Switzerland 4. Your discipline Sedimentology, Marine Geology and Geophysics 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. What mechanisms control the occurance of oceanic geohazards including earthquake landslides and tsunamis? What are the origin and limits of life in the subseafloor? How does Earth's climate system, ecosystem, and biodiversity respons to elevated levels of atmospheric C02? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. when, where and how do great earthquake occur? How do subduction zone megathrust accumulate and relase strain in great earthquake or during slow slip events? Why do some earthquake trigger large tsunamigenic landslides while others don't? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Riser Drilling Subseafloor borehole observatories piston coring and shallow drilling of the sedimentary successions recording past occurance of oceanic geohazard events in the stratigraphic archive 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Scientific Ocean Drilling is a story of success and must be continued to keep making new discoveries and advancing our understanding in various fields reaching far beyond "Ocean Sciences objecties" (see above). The subseafloor Earth remains largly undersampled, hampering a holistic comprehesion of our Earth system.

Response ID:133 Data

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1. Your name Shouye Yang 2. Your email address syyang@tongji.edu.cn 3. Your affiliation State Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, China 4. Your discipline marine geology and geochemistry 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. How ocean influences global climate over the geologic past and in the future? Ocean acidification Elemental cycling in the ocean from water to sediment and rock 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. As above 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Cabled submarine observatory covering the coastal to deep ocean Geologic and geochemical section plan from the highest Tibet to the deepest Mariana Trench Ocean for the public: international program on ocean conservation 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge.

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1. Your name Parker MacCready 2. Your email address pmacc@uw.edu 3. Your affiliation University of Washington 4. Your discipline Physical Oceanography

5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1. How will ocean acidification alter marine ecosystems, particularly coastal and estuarine? 2. How can we best collaborate with computer scientists to enhance numerical modeling and data analysis? 3. How can we better connect our science to the public? Most people have very limited understanding of the ocean, and we have limited understanding of what stakeholders need. Do any of your non-oceanographer friends know what an internal wave is? Why should they care? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade. 1. How can we make modeling easier? 2. Access to observational data and model output is much harder than it needs to be. 3. What physics controls the strength of the estuarine exchange flow? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? 1. Strong institutional collaboration with computer science (joint teaching, research, advising). 2. Cheap robotic sensors - I want to be able to afford and deploy hundreds, and have them swim home at the end of the experiment. 3. Find a meaningful alternative to the soft money scientist track. In an age of tight funding it is a waste of time and talent. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Be creative and bold! Help us move toward a vision that is worth spending taxpayers money on.

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1. Your name Tom Pettigrew 2. Your email address tom.pettigrew@windstream.net 3. Your affiliation Pettigrew Engineering, PLLC 4. Your discipline Mechanical Engineer (CORK, etc.) 5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade. 1) What new technologies will be needed to achieve the science goals? 2) What new technologies are commercially available and applicable to achieving the science goals? 3) What new technologies need to be developed and what existing technologies need to be improved upon? 6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade.

1) Are the tools and equipment currently in IODP's arsenal sufficient to achieve the science goals? 2) Can the existing tools in equipment within the IODP arsenal be modified or improved upon to achieve the science goals? 3) What new tools and equipment are feasible of being developed of achieving the science goals? 7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)? Formation of a panel composed of existing IODP engineering expertise as well as former IODP personel who have intimate knowledge of existing IODP technologies, equipment, and operations, to review the science program and identify specific technologies required to achieve the science goals. These may be existing technologies or modifications of existing technologies or development of new technologies. 8. Other comments pertinent to the committees charge. Don't forget about the engineering aspect of the program and it's budget implications.