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PSYC 333 Principles of Learning

Chapter 4 Study Guide

Questions that are different from those at the end of the chapter are in bold type (either I added the entire question or changed the one that was there already). *Questions that I am likely to choose as an ESSAY question for Exam 2 are indicated by an asterisk in front of the number. 1. Define acquisition. Draw a graph of a typical acquisition curve, and indicate the asymptote of conditioning.

Acquisition- the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

2. Define the processes of extinction and spontaneous recovery.

Extinction- a conditioned response can be weakened or eliminated when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US. Spontaneous Recovery- the reappearance of a conditional response following a rest period after extinction.
3. Define disinhibition. How does it differ from dishabituation?

Disinhibition- the sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced. Dishabituation is the reappearance of a habituated response.
4. Describe stimulus generalization and semantic generalization. Stimulus generalization- the tendency for a CR to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the CS. Semantic generalization- the generalization of a conditioned response to verbal stimuli that are similar in the meaning to the CS *5. What is stimulus discrimination? Outline an example of a discrimination training procedure.

The tendency for a response to be elicited more by on stimulus then another dog salicares in the presence of a 2000 HZ tone but not in the presence of a 1900 hz tone.
*6. Define experimental neurosis, and describe Shenger-Krestovnikova's procedure for producing it.

An experimentally produced disorder in whicj animals exposed to unpredictable events develop neurotic like symptoms The picture of the circle functioned as the CS+ and the picture of the ellipse functioned asd the CS-

*7. Define higher-order conditioning, and diagram an example. Be sure to label each component using the appropriate abbreviations.

A stimulus that is associated with a CS can also become a CS

*8. Define sensory preconditioning, and diagram an example. Label each component using the appropriate abbreviations.

When one stimulus is conditioned as a CS, another stimulus it was previously associated with can also become a CS

*9. Define overshadowing, and diagram an example. Use the appropriate abbreviations to label each component.

The most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS thereby interferes with conditioning of the least salient member.

*10. Define blocking, and diagram an example. Label each component using the appropriate abbreviations.

The presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS.

*11.Define latent inhibition, and diagram an example. Label each component using the appropriate abbreviations.

Is a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS then a stimulus that is unfamiliar stimulus.

12. What is temporal conditioning? Describe an example.

A form of classical conditioning in which the CS is the passage of time. Ex: if a dog is given a bite of food every 10 min the dog will begin to salivate hard towards the end of the 10 mins then at the start of the 10 min intervals.
13. Define occasion setting, and diagram an example. Use the appropriate abbreviations to label each component.

The procedure in which a stimulus signals that a CS is likely to be followed but the US with which it is associated.

14. Define external inhibition. Diagram an example. Use the appropriate abbreviations to label each component.

The presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the conditioned stimulus produces a decrease in the strength of the conditioned response.

15. Define US revaluation, and diagram an example. Use the appropriate abbreviations to label each component.

Involves the post-conditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity, therby altering the strength of a response to the previously conditioned CS

*16. How does pseudoconditioning differ from classical conditioning. How can one experimentally determine whether a response is the result of classical conditioning or pseudoconditioning?

Pseudoconditioning is an elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather then conditioning

*17. What are the two conditions under which sensory preconditioning works best and what is their significance?

First sensory works best is 2 NS are only paired only a few times in the preconditioning phase. Too many paring will build up of latent inhibition to both stimuli which will then interfere with later conditioning. Second sensory precond. Works best if the two NS are paired simultaneously rather than sequentially which is counterintuitive goven the realitive ineffectiveness of stimultaneous pairings between an NS and US

*18. In what sense can blocking be seen as a form of overshadowing?

It is similar in the sense except that the compound consists of a neutral stimulus and a CS rather then

two neutral stimuli that differ in salience.


*19. Why would Tolman have loved the phenomenon of blocking? It suggest that it is not automatic that there is a cognitive effect. That the second CS doesnt add anything new or different it organism ignores it. *20. Describe a good method for making a stimulus a conditioned inhibitor. Discuss one method for determining whether the stimulus has in fact become a conditioned inhibitor. *21. What skeletal and autonomic behaviors can be classically conditioned? Autonomi=onis response smooth muscle, emotion, GSR, blood sugar, drug tolerance, sex desire Hunger Reflex, food pref Autoshaping skeletal