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Trig Cheat Sheet


Definition of the Trig Functions
Right triangle definition For this definition we assume that p 0 < q < or 0 < q < 90 . 2 Unit circle definition For this definition q is any angle.
y

( x, y )
hypotenuse opposite
y 1 x

q
x

q
adjacent sin q = opposite hypotenuse adjacent cos q = hypotenuse opposite tan q = adjacent hypotenuse opposite hypotenuse sec q = adjacent adjacent cot q = opposite csc q = sin q = y =y 1 x cos q = = x 1 y tan q = x 1 y 1 sec q = x x cot q = y csc q =

Facts and Properties


Domain The domain is all the values of q that can be plugged into the function.
sin q , q can be any angle cos q , q can be any angle 1 tan q , q n + p , n = 0, 1, 2,K 2 csc q , q n p , n = 0, 1, 2,K 1 sec q , q n + p , n = 0, 1, 2,K 2 cot q , q n p , n = 0, 1, 2,K

Period The period of a function is the number, T, such that f (q + T ) = f (q ) . So, if w is a fixed number and q is any angle we have the following periods. sin ( wq ) cos (wq ) tan (wq ) csc (wq ) sec (wq ) cot (wq ) T= T T T T T 2p w 2p = w p = w 2p = w 2p = w p = w

Range The range is all possible values to get out of the function. csc q 1 and csc q -1 -1 sin q 1 -1 cos q 1 sec q 1 and sec q -1 - < tan q < - < cot q <

2005 Paul Dawkins

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Formulas and Identities


Tangent and Cotangent Identities sin q cos q tan q = cot q = cos q sin q Reciprocal Identities 1 1 csc q = sin q = sin q csc q 1 1 sec q = cos q = cos q sec q 1 1 cot q = tan q = tan q cot q Pythagorean Identities sin 2 q + cos 2 q = 1 tan 2 q + 1 = sec 2 q 1 + cot 2 q = csc 2 q Even/Odd Formulas sin ( -q ) = - sin q csc ( -q ) = - csc q cos ( -q ) = cos q tan ( -q ) = - tan q Periodic Formulas If n is an integer. sin (q + 2p n ) = sin q tan (q + p n ) = tan q sin ( 2q ) = 2sin q cos q cos ( 2q ) = cos 2 q - sin 2 q = 2 cos 2 q - 1 = 1 - 2sin 2 q 2 tan q tan ( 2q ) = 1 - tan 2 q Degrees to Radians Formulas If x is an angle in degrees and t is an angle in radians then p t px 180t = t= and x = 180 x 180 p sec ( -q ) = sec q cot ( -q ) = - cot q Half Angle Formulas 1 sin 2 q = (1 - cos ( 2q ) ) 2 1 cos 2 q = (1 + cos ( 2q ) ) 2 1 - cos ( 2q ) tan 2 q = 1 + cos ( 2q ) Sum and Difference Formulas sin (a b ) = sin a cos b cos a sin b cos (a b ) = cos a cos b m sin a sin b tan a tan b 1 m tan a tan b Product to Sum Formulas 1 sin a sin b = cos (a - b ) - cos (a + b ) 2 1 cos a cos b = cos (a - b ) + cos (a + b ) 2 1 sin a cos b = sin (a + b ) + sin (a - b ) 2 1 cos a sin b = sin (a + b ) - sin (a - b ) 2 Sum to Product Formulas a + b a - b sin a + sin b = 2sin cos 2 2 a + b a - b sin a - sin b = 2 cos sin 2 2 a + b a - b cos a + cos b = 2 cos cos 2 2 a + b a - b cos a - cos b = -2sin sin 2 2 Cofunction Formulas tan (a b ) =
p sin - q = cos q 2 p csc - q = sec q 2 p tan - q = cot q 2 p cos - q = sin q 2 p sec - q = csc q 2 p cot - q = tan q 2

csc (q + 2p n ) = csc q cot (q + p n ) = cot q

cos (q + 2p n ) = cos q sec (q + 2p n ) = sec q Double Angle Formulas

2005 Paul Dawkins

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Unit Circle y
1 3 - , 2 2 2 2 , 2 2 3 1 - , 2 2

( 0,1)

p 2
2p 3
90 120 60

p 3

1 3 2, 2 2 2 2 , 2 3 1 2 ,2

3p 4

p 4
45

5p 6

135

150

30

p 6

( -1,0 )

p 180

0 360

0 2p

(1,0 )

3 1 - ,- 2 2

7p 6

210 225

330 315 7p 300 270 4 5p 3p 3 2


( 0,-1)

2 2 , 2 2

5p 4

11p 6

4p 3

240

3 1 ,- 2 2

2 2 , 2 2

1 3 - , 2 2

1 3 , 2 2

For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( x, y ) : cos q = x and sin q = y Example 5p cos 3 1 = 2 5p sin 3 3 =2

2005 Paul Dawkins

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Inverse Trig Functions


Definition y = sin -1 x is equivalent to x = sin y y = cos -1 x is equivalent to x = cos y y = tan -1 x is equivalent to x = tan y Domain and Range Function Domain y = sin -1 x y = cos x y = tan -1 x
-1

Inverse Properties cos ( cos -1 ( x ) ) = x cos -1 ( cos (q ) ) = q sin ( sin -1 ( x ) ) = x sin -1 ( sin (q ) ) = q tan -1 ( tan (q ) ) = q tan ( tan -1 ( x ) ) = x Alternate Notation sin -1 x = arcsin x cos -1 x = arccos x tan -1 x = arctan x

-1 x 1 -1 x 1

- < x <

Range p p - y 2 2 0 y p p p - < y< 2 2

Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents


c
b

b
Law of Sines sin a sin b sin g = = a b c Law of Cosines a 2 = b2 + c 2 - 2bc cos a b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2ac cos b c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos g Mollweides Formula a + b cos 1 2 (a - b ) = c sin 1 2g Law of Tangents a - b tan 1 2 (a - b ) = a + b tan 1 2 (a + b ) b - c tan 1 2 (b -g ) = 1 b + c tan 2 ( b + g ) a - c tan 1 2 (a - g ) = a + c tan 1 2 (a + g )

2005 Paul Dawkins