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ch6

1. When governments intervene in international trade, they often do so by restricting domestic production and exports, while adopting policies that promote imports of goods and services into their nation. True False

2. Tariffs are unambiguously pro-consumer and anti-producer. True False

3. Export tariffs are far less common than import tariffs. True False

4. Specific tariffs are levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good. True False

5. By lowering production costs, subsidies help domestic producers compete against foreign imports and gain export markets. True False

6. Under a tariff rate quota, a higher tariff rate is applied to imports within the quota than those over the quota. True False

7. A common hybrid of a quota and a rent is known as a quota rent. True False

8. Unlike other trade policies, local content regulations tend to benefit consumers and not producers. True False

9. The Buy America Act specifies that government agencies must give preference to American products when putting contracts for equipment out to bid unless the foreign products have a significant price disadvantage. True False

10. Bureaucratic rules designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country are local content requirements. True False

12.

Antidumping polices are designed to punish firms that are engaged in dumping. True False

13. Antidumping policies vary drastically from country to country. True False

14. The U.S. government has used the threat of punitive trade sanctions to try to get the Chinese government to enforce its intellectual property laws. True False

15. Many governments have long had regulations to protect consumers from unsafe products. True False

16. The Helms-Burton Act of 1996 was aimed at foreign companies that were undermining U.S. trade sanctions against Libya and Iran. True False

17. The infant industry argument is the latest argument for government intervention in trade. True False

18. Strategic trade policy suggests that a government should use subsidies to support promising firms that are active in newly emerging industries. True False

19. GATT has not recognized the infant industry argument as a legitimate reason for protectionism. True False

20. Krugman has suggested that trade policy designed to retaliate against another country's trade policy would hurt the citizens of both countries. True False

21. Governments do not always act in the national interest when they intervene in the economy; politically important interest groups often influence them. True False

22. The Smoot-Hawley Act raised tariff barriers in the hope of protecting jobs and diverting consumer demand away from foreign products. True False

24.

During the 1980s and early 1990s, the world trading system erected by the GATT gained momentum as protectionist demands generally decreased across the world. True False

25. The World Trade Organization was created as part of the Uruguay Round. True False

26. The WTO does not have the power to impose trade sanctions. True False

27. To date, the WTO's policing efforts have been a major failure. True False

28. A key issue in the "millennium round" of the WTO was to reduce barriers to cross-border trade in agricultural products. True False

29. Human rights activists see WTO rules as outlawing the ability of nations to stop imports from countries where child labor is used or working conditions are hazardous. True False

30. The WTO has the ability to force any member nation to take an action to which it is opposed. True False

31. One issue at the forefront of the current agenda of the WTO is the increase in continued high tariff rates on nonagricultural goods and services in many nations. True False

32. WTO rules do not allow countries to impose antidumping duties on foreign goods that are being sold cheaper than at home, or below their cost of production, even when domestic producers can show that they are being harmed. True False

33. Tariff rates on agricultural products are generally much lower than tariff rates on manufactured products or services. True False

34. Free trade in agriculture could jump-start economic growth among the world's poorer nations and alleviate global poverty. True False

35.

The TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and copyrights lasting 50 years. True False

36. Inadequate protections for intellectual property reduce the incentive for innovation. True False

37. Tariffs on industrial goods remain higher than tariffs on services. True False

38. Tariff barriers lower the costs of exporting products to a country. True False

39. The threat of antidumping action limits the ability of a firm to use aggressive pricing to gain market share in a country. True False

40. To conform to local content regulations, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a given market than it would otherwise. True False

41. Which of the following is not one of the main instruments of trade policy?

A. Tariffs

B. Credit portfolios

C. Local content requirements

D. Administrative policies

42. Specific tariffs are:

A. levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

B. levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

C. in the form of manufacturing or production requirements of goods.

D. government payment to domestic producers.

43. Tariffs do not benefit:

A. consumers.

B. domestic producers.

C. governments.

D. domestic firms.

44. Import tariffs:

A. reduce the price of foreign goods.

B. reduce the overall efficiency of the world economy.

C. create efficient utilization of resources.

45. All of the following are true of tariffs except:

A. they reduce the revenue for the government.

B. they can be levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

C. they can be levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

D. they impose significant costs on domestic consumers.

46. By lowering production costs,

A. tariffs

B. duties

C. quotas

D. subsidies

help domestic producers compete against foreign imports.

47. Which of the following observations about subsidies is false?

A. Government subsidies must be paid for, typically by taxing individuals and corporations.

B. They mainly benefit domestic producers, whose international competitiveness is increased.

C. Whether they generate national benefits that exceed their national costs is debatable.

D. They help foreign producers gain a competitive advantage over domestic producers.

48. Agricultural subsidies have been criticized for all of the following reasons except:

A. they allow inefficient farmers stay in business.

B. they discourage countries to overproduce heavily subsidized agricultural products.

C. they encourage countries to produce products that could be grown more cheaply elsewhere and imported.

D. they reduce international trade in agricultural products.

49. According to the industry.

A. strategic trade

B. antidumping

C. tariff quota

D. free trade

policy, subsidies can help a firm achieve a first-mover advantage in an emerging

50. This is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country.

A. Specific tariff

B. Import quota

C. Subsidy

D. Ad valorem tariff

51. In the United States, the only firms allowed to import cheese are certain trading companies, each of which is allocated the right to import a maximum number of pounds of cheese each year. Identify the trade restriction being imposed by the United States.

A. Import quota

B. Subsidy

C. Ad valorem tariff

52. A common hybrid of a quota and a tariff is known as a(n):

A. quota rent.

B. voluntary export restraint.

C. ad valorem tariff.

D. tariff rate quota.

53. A quota on trade imposed by the exporting country, typically at the request of the importing country's government is referred to as a(n):

A. voluntary export restraint.

B. specific tariff quota.

C. trade reconciliation.

D. ad valorem tariff.

54. A quota rent is:

A. a quota on trade imposed by the exporting country.

B. levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

C. levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

D. the extra profit producers make when supply is artificially limited by an import quota.

55. Foreign producers typically agree to voluntary export restrictions because:

A. their manufacturing capacity is limited.

B. they can divert their exports to other countries and charge more for their products.

C. they fear far more damaging punitive tariffs or import quotas might follow if they do not.

D. they are required to by the World Trade Organization.

56. Which of the following statements concerning a voluntary export restraint is false?

A. It benefits domestic producers by limiting import competition

B. In most cases, it benefits consumers

C. It raises the domestic price of an imported good

D. It is a variant of the import quota

57. These are requirements that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically.

A. Import quotas

B. Voluntary export restraints

C. Local content requirements

D. Antidumping duties

58. The

specifies that government agencies must give preference to American products when putting

contracts for equipment out to bid unless the foreign products have a significant price advantage.

A. Buy America Act

B. Anti-Dumping Act

C. Helms-Burton Act

59. Administrative trade policies are:

A. requirements that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically.

B. quotas on trade imposed by the exporting country.

C. bureaucratic rules designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country.

D. designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping.

60. Which of the following is variously defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their costs of production or as selling goods in a foreign market at below their "fair" market value?

A. Export restraint

B. Dumping

C. Local content requirement

D. Ad valorem

61. Antidumping duties are often called:

A. special circumstance duties.

B. positive duties.

C. retroactive duties.

D. countervailing duties.

62. The U.S. government using the threat of punitive trade sanctions to try to get the Chinese government to enforce its intellectual property laws is an example of government intervention based on:

A. human rights protection.

B. national security.

C. consumer protection.

D. retaliation.

63. If a government grants preferential trade terms to a country it wants to build strong relations with, the government is employing a policy:

A. of retaliation.

B. of human rights protection.

C. to protect national security.

D. to further foreign policy objectives.

64. This act allows Americans to sue foreign firms that use property in Cuba confiscated from them after the 1959 revolution.

A. The Buy America Act

B. The Anti-Dumping Act

C. The Helms-Burton Act

D. The D'Amato Act

65. According to the

argument, governments should temporarily support new industries until they have

grown strong enough to meet international competition.

A. retaliatory action

B. human rights

C. infant industry

66. suggests that a government should use subsidies to support promising firms that are active in newly emerging industries.

A. The infant industry argument

B. Strategic trade policy

C. Retaliation policy

D. The national security argument

67. The EU's Common Agricultural Policy is an example of a tax policy designed to benefit:

A. consumers.

B. taxpayers.

C. special-interest politics.

D. free trade in developed countries.

68. Economic problems during the Great Depression were compounded in 1930 when the U.S. Congress

passed the

consumer demand away from foreign products.

A. Smoot-Hawley Act

B. Anti-Dumping Act

C. Helms-Burton Act

D. D'Amato Act

, aimed at avoiding rising unemployment by protecting domestic industries and diverting

69. Which of the following is not a reason for the pressure for greater protectionism that occurred during the 1980s and early 1990s?

A. The growing U.S. trade surplus with Japan strained the world trading system.

B. Japanese economic success strained the world trading system.

C. The persistent trade deficit in the United States strained the world trading system.

D. Many countries found ways to get around GATT regulations.

70. In the 1986 Uruguay Round, GATT members sought to write rules for promoting all of the following except:

A. intellectual property protection.

B. agricultural subsidies.

C. GATT's monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

D. GATT rules to cover trade in services.

71. Until 1995, GATT rules applied to all of the following except:

A. manufactured goods.

B. services.

C. textiles.

D. agricultural products.

72. According to the 1986 Uruguay Round, the

A. World Trade Organization

B. International Monetary Fund

C. United Nations

was to be created to implement the GATT agreement.

73. After the Uruguay Round of GATT extended global trading rules to cover trade in services, the first two industries targeted for reform by the WTO were:

A. textiles and technology.

B. telecommunications and financial services.

C. automotives and aerospace.

D. agriculture and consulting services.

74. The "millennium round" ended in 1999 with:

A. a successful record on agricultural products.

B. a new agenda for the next round focusing on financial services.

C. no agreement on the reduction of barriers to cross-border trade and investment.

D. a decision to avoid FDI.

75. Which of the following is not a reason why WTO is being criticized by those opposing free trade?

A. Its trade laws allow imports from low-wage countries and result in a loss of jobs in high-wage countries.

B. Its rules outlawing the ability of nations to stop imports from countries where working conditions are hazardous.

C. The adverse impact that some of its rulings have had on environmental policies.

D. Its lack of ability to force any member nation to take an action to which it is opposed.

76. The WTO argues that by removing all tariff barriers and subsidies to agriculture, all of the following would occur except:

A. the overall level of trade would increase.

B. there would be overproduction of products that are heavily subsidized.

C. prices would fall for consumers.

D. global economic growth would rise.

77. The TRIPS regulations established at the 1995 Uruguay Round:

A. established regulations on patents and copyrights.

B. set a new level of agriculture subsidies.

C. organized OECD countries to eliminate tariffs on textiles.

D. established new tariff levels on technology.

78. TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to all of the following except:

A. grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years.

B. grant and enforce copyrights lasting 50 years.

C. comply with the rules within five years in the case of rich countries.

D. comply with the rules within 10 years in the case of the poorest countries.

79. are the highest rate that can be charged, which is often, but not always, the rate that is charged.

A. Ad valorem tariff rates

B. Tariff rents

C. Specific tariff rates

80. Identify the incorrect statement about trade barriers.

A. They raise the costs of exporting products to a country.

B. They may put a firm at a competitive advantage to indigenous competitors.

C. They may limit a firm's ability to serve a country from locations outside of that country.

D To conform to local content regulations, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a given

. market than it would otherwise.

81. Discuss the different types of tariff barriers. Consider the beneficiaries of tariff barriers and the losers.

82. Discuss the different types of subsidies. How do subsidies help domestic producers? 83. Compare
82. Discuss the different types of subsidies. How do subsidies help domestic producers?
83. Compare and contrast import quotas and voluntary export restraints.
84. What is a quota rent? Provide an example of how an import quota affects price.

85. Discuss the Buy America Act and its connection with local content requirements.

86. Explain how governments use administrative trade policies to boost exports and restrict imports. Provide
86. Explain how governments use administrative trade policies to boost exports and restrict imports. Provide an
example of an administrative trade policy.
87. What is dumping? How do governments respond to charges of dumping?
88. Explain the notion of predatory behavior with regard to dumping.
89. What are the political reasons for governments to intervene in markets?

90. Discuss the economic reasons for government intervention in markets.

91. Discuss the infant industry argument for intervention in markets. What is GATT's position on
91. Discuss the infant industry argument for intervention in markets. What is GATT's position on the
argument?
92. What is strategic trade policy? Provide an example.
93. What is Paul Krugman's position on strategic trade policy?
94. Discuss the establishment of GATT. What was GATT's objective?

95. What happened to GATT during the 1980s and early 1990s?

96. What has been the experience of the WTO to date? What does the future
96. What has been the experience of the WTO to date? What does the future look like for the organization?
97. What are the central issues facing the WTO at the present time?
98. Discuss the Doha Round of trade talks.
99. Why are tariff rates on agricultural products generally higher than tariff rates on manufactured products or
services?

100.Explain how trade barriers affect a firm's strategy.

1.

(p. 198)

2.

(p. 199)

3.

(p. 199)

4.

(p. 199)

5.

(p. 200)

ch6 Key

When governments intervene in international trade, they often do so by restricting domestic production

and exports, while adopting policies that promote imports of goods and services into their nation. FALSE

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #1 Learning Objective: 06-1

Tariffs are unambiguously pro-consumer and anti-producer. FALSE

Export tariffs are far less common than import tariffs. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #2 Learning Objective: 06-1

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #3 Learning Objective: 06-1

Specific tariffs are levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #4 Learning Objective: 06-1

By lowering production costs, subsidies help domestic producers compete against foreign imports and

gain export markets. TRUE

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #5 Learning Objective: 06-1

6.

Under a tariff rate quota, a higher tariff rate is applied to imports within the quota than those over the

(p. 201-

202)

7.

(p. 202)

8.

(p. 203)

9.

(p. 203)

10.

(p. 203)

11.

(p. 204)

quota. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #6 Learning Objective: 06-1

A common hybrid of a quota and a rent is known as a quota rent. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #7 Learning Objective: 06-1

Unlike other trade policies, local content regulations tend to benefit consumers and not producers. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #8 Learning Objective: 06-1

The Buy America Act specifies that government agencies must give preference to American products

when putting contracts for equipment out to bid unless the foreign products have a significant price disadvantage. FALSE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #9 Learning Objective: 06-1

Bureaucratic rules designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country are local content

requirements. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #10 Learning Objective: 06-1

A company that sells its product in a foreign market below the cost of production may be accused of

dumping. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #11 Learning Objective: 06-1

12.

(p. 205)

13.

(p. 205)

14.

(p. 206)

15.

(p. 206)

16.

(p. 208)

17.

(p. 209)

Antidumping polices are designed to punish firms that are engaged in dumping. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #12 Learning Objective: 06-1

Antidumping policies vary drastically from country to country. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #13 Learning Objective: 06-1

The U.S. government has used the threat of punitive trade sanctions to try to get the Chinese

government to enforce its intellectual property laws. TRUE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #14 Learning Objective: 06-2

Many governments have long had regulations to protect consumers from unsafe products. TRUE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #15 Learning Objective: 06-2

The Helms-Burton Act of 1996 was aimed at foreign companies that were undermining U.S. trade

sanctions against Libya and Iran. FALSE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #16 Learning Objective: 06-2

The infant industry argument is the latest argument for government intervention in trade. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #17 Learning Objective: 06-2

18.

Strategic trade policy suggests that a government should use subsidies to support promising firms that

(p. 210)

19.

(p. 210)

20.

(p. 211)

21.

(p. 211)

22.

(p. 213)

23.

(p. 214)

are active in newly emerging industries. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #18 Learning Objective: 06-2

GATT has not recognized the infant industry argument as a legitimate reason for protectionism. FALSE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #19 Learning Objective: 06-2

Krugman has suggested that trade policy designed to retaliate against another country's trade policy

would hurt the citizens of both countries. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #20 Learning Objective: 06-3

Governments do not always act in the national interest when they intervene in the economy; politically

important interest groups often influence them. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #21 Learning Objective: 06-3

The Smoot-Hawley Act raised tariff barriers in the hope of protecting jobs and diverting consumer

demand away from foreign products. TRUE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #22 Learning Objective: 06-4

A key goal of the 1986 Uruguay Round was to extend GATT to cover trade in services. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #23 Learning Objective: 06-4

24.

(p. 213)

25.

(p. 214)

26.

(p. 215)

27.

(p. 215)

28.

(p. 216)

29.

(p. 217)

During the 1980s and early 1990s, the world trading system erected by the GATT gained momentum as protectionist demands generally decreased across the world. FALSE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #24 Learning Objective: 06-4

The World Trade Organization was created as part of the Uruguay Round. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #25 Learning Objective: 06-4

The WTO does not have the power to impose trade sanctions. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #26 Learning Objective: 06-4

To date, the WTO's policing efforts have been a major failure. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #27 Learning Objective: 06-4

A key issue in the "millennium round" of the WTO was to reduce barriers to cross-border trade in

agricultural products. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #28 Learning Objective: 06-4

Human rights activists see WTO rules as outlawing the ability of nations to stop imports from countries

where child labor is used or working conditions are hazardous. TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #29 Learning Objective: 06-4

30.

(p. 217)

31.

(p. 218)

32.

(p. 218)

33.

(p. 219)

34.

(p. 220)

35.

(p. 220)

The WTO has the ability to force any member nation to take an action to which it is opposed. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #30 Learning Objective: 06-4

One issue at the forefront of the current agenda of the WTO is the increase in continued high tariff rates on nonagricultural goods and services in many nations. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #31 Learning Objective: 06-4

WTO rules do not allow countries to impose antidumping duties on foreign goods that are being sold

cheaper than at home, or below their cost of production, even when domestic producers can show that they are being harmed. FALSE

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #32 Learning Objective: 06-4

Tariff rates on agricultural products are generally much lower than tariff rates on manufactured products

or services. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #33 Learning Objective: 06-4

Free trade in agriculture could jump-start economic growth among the world's poorer nations and

alleviate global poverty. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #34 Learning Objective: 06-4

The TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and

copyrights lasting 50 years. TRUE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #35 Learning Objective: 06-4

36.

(p. 220)

37.

(p. 221)

38.

(p. 224)

39.

(p. 224)

40.

(p. 224)

Inadequate protections for intellectual property reduce the incentive for innovation. TRUE

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #36 Learning Objective: 06-4

Tariffs on industrial goods remain higher than tariffs on services. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #37 Learning Objective: 06-4

Tariff barriers lower the costs of exporting products to a country. FALSE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #38 Learning Objective: 06-4

The threat of antidumping action limits the ability of a firm to use aggressive pricing to gain market

share in a country. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #39 Learning Objective: 06-4

To conform to local content regulations, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a given market than it would otherwise. TRUE

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #40 Learning Objective: 06-4

41.

(p. 198)

Which of the following is not one of the main instruments of trade policy?

A.

Tariffs

B.

Credit portfolios

C.

Local content requirements

D.

Administrative policies

Trade policy uses seven main instruments: tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, voluntary export restraints, local content requirements, administrative policies, and antidumping duties.

42.

(p. 199)

Specific tariffs are:

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #41 Learning Objective: 06-1

A.

levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

B.

levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

C.

in the form of manufacturing or production requirements of goods.

D.

government payment to domestic producers.

Specific tariffs are levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported (for example, $3 per barrel of oil).

43.

(p. 199)

Tariffs do not benefit:

A.

consumers.

B.

domestic producers.

C.

governments.

D.

domestic firms.

Tariffs are unambiguously pro-producer and anticonsumer.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #42 Learning Objective: 06-1

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #43 Learning Objective: 06-1

44. 199)

(p.

Import tariffs:

A.

reduce the price of foreign goods.

B.

reduce the overall efficiency of the world economy.

C.

create efficient utilization of resources.

D.

are unambiguously pro-consumer and anti-producer.

Import tariffs reduce the overall efficiency of the world economy. They reduce efficiency because a protective tariff encourages domestic firms to produce products at home that, in theory, could be produced more efficiently abroad.

45.

(p. 199)

All of the following are true of tariffs except:

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #44 Learning Objective: 06-1

A.

they reduce the revenue for the government.

B.

they can be levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

C.

they can be levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

D.

they impose significant costs on domestic consumers.

46.

(p. 200)

Tariffs produce revenue for the government.

By lowering production costs,

A.

tariffs

B.

duties

C.

quotas

D.

subsidies

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #45 Learning Objective: 06-1

help domestic producers compete against foreign imports.

By lowering production costs, subsidies help domestic producers in two areas: (1) competing against foreign imports and (2) gaining export markets.

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #46 Learning Objective: 06-1

47.

(p. 200)

Which of the following observations about subsidies is false?

A.

Government subsidies must be paid for, typically by taxing individuals and corporations.

B.

They mainly benefit domestic producers, whose international competitiveness is increased.

C.

Whether they generate national benefits that exceed their national costs is debatable.

D.

They help foreign producers gain a competitive advantage over domestic producers.

By lowering production costs, subsidies help domestic producers in two areas: (1) competing against foreign imports and (2) gaining export markets.

48.

(p. 200)

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #47 Learning Objective: 06-1

Agricultural subsidies have been criticized for all of the following reasons except:

A.

they allow inefficient farmers stay in business.

B.

they discourage countries to overproduce heavily subsidized agricultural products.

C.they encourage countries to produce products that could be grown more cheaply elsewhere and imported.

D. they reduce international trade in agricultural products.

Agricultural subsidies encourage countries to overproduce heavily subsidized agricultural products.

49.

(p. 200)

According to the

emerging industry.

A.

strategic trade

B.

antidumping

C.

tariff quota

D.

free trade

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #48 Learning Objective: 06-1

policy, subsidies can help a firm achieve a first-mover advantage in an

Advocates of strategic trade policy favor subsidies to help domestic firms achieve a dominant position in those industries in which economies of scale are important and the world market is not large enough to profitably support more than a few firms. According to this argument, subsidies can help a firm achieve a first-mover advantage in an emerging industry.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #49 Learning Objective: 06-1

50.

(p. 201)

This is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country.

A.

Specific tariff

B.

Import quota

C.

Subsidy

D.

Ad valorem tariff

An import quota is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country. The restriction is usually enforced by issuing import licenses to a group of individuals or firms.

51.

(p. 201)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #50 Learning Objective: 06-1

In the United States, the only firms allowed to import cheese are certain trading companies, each of

which is allocated the right to import a maximum number of pounds of cheese each year. Identify the trade restriction being imposed by the United States.

A.

Import quota

B.

Subsidy

C.

Ad valorem tariff

D.

Specific tariff

An import quota is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country. The restriction is usually enforced by issuing import licenses to a group of individuals or firms.

52.

(p. 201)

A common hybrid of a quota and a tariff is known as a(n):

A.

quota rent.

B.

voluntary export restraint.

C.

ad valorem tariff.

D.

tariff rate quota.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #51 Learning Objective: 06-1

Under a tariff rate quota, a lower tariff rate is applied to imports within the quota than those over the quota.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #52 Learning Objective: 06-1

53.

(p. 202)

A quota on trade imposed by the exporting country, typically at the request of the importing country's

government is referred to as a(n):

A.

voluntary export restraint.

B.

specific tariff quota.

C.

trade reconciliation.

D.

ad valorem tariff.

A

variant on the import quota is the voluntary export restraint. Agreeing to a VER is seen as a way to

make the best of a bad situation by appeasing protectionist pressures in a country.

(p.

54. 202)

A quota rent is:

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #53 Learning Objective: 06-1

A.

a quota on trade imposed by the exporting country.

B.

levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported.

C.

levied as a proportion of the value of the imported good.

D.

the extra profit producers make when supply is artificially limited by an import quota.

The extra profit that producers make when supply is artificially limited by an import quota is referred to

as a quota rent.

55.

(p. 202)

Foreign producers typically agree to voluntary export restrictions because:

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #54 Learning Objective: 06-1

A.

their manufacturing capacity is limited.

B.

they can divert their exports to other countries and charge more for their products.

C.

they fear far more damaging punitive tariffs or import quotas might follow if they do not.

D.

they are required to by the World Trade Organization.

Foreign producers agree to VERs because they fear more damaging punitive tariffs or import quotas might follow if they do not. Agreeing to a VER is seen as a way to make the best of a bad situation by appeasing protectionist pressures in a country.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #55 Learning Objective: 06-1

56.

(p. 202)

Which of the following statements concerning a voluntary export restraint is false?

A.

It benefits domestic producers by limiting import competition

B.

In most cases, it benefits consumers

C.

It raises the domestic price of an imported good

D.

It is a variant of the import quota

As with all restrictions on trade, quotas do not benefit consumers.

57.

(p. 203)

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #56 Learning Objective: 06-1

These are requirements that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically.

A.

Import quotas

B.

Voluntary export restraints

C.

Local content requirements

D.

Antidumping duties

A local content requirement is a requirement that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically. The requirement can be expressed either in physical terms or in value terms.

58.

(p. 203)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #57 Learning Objective: 06-1

The

contracts for equipment out to bid unless the foreign products have a significant price advantage.

specifies that government agencies must give preference to American products when putting

A.

Buy America Act

B.

Anti-Dumping Act

C.

Helms-Burton Act

D.

D'Amato Act

The law specifies a product as "American" if 51 percent of the materials by value are produced domestically.

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #58 Learning Objective: 06-1

59.

(p. 203)

Administrative trade policies are:

A.

requirements that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically.

B.

quotas on trade imposed by the exporting country.

C.

bureaucratic rules designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country.

D.

designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping.

Administrative trade policies are bureaucratic rules designed to make it difficult for imports to enter a country.

60.

(p. 204)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #59 Learning Objective: 06-1

Which of the following is variously defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their costs of

production or as selling goods in a foreign market at below their "fair" market value?

A.

Export restraint

B.

Dumping

C.

Local content requirement

D.

Ad valorem

Dumping is viewed as a method by which firms unload excess production in foreign markets.

61.

(p. 205)

Antidumping duties are often called:

A.

special circumstance duties.

B.

positive duties.

C.

retroactive duties.

D.

countervailing duties.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #60 Learning Objective: 06-1

If a domestic producer believes that a foreign firm is dumping production in the U.S. market, it can file a petition with two government agencies, the Commerce Department and the International Trade Commission. If a complaint has merit, the Commerce Department may impose antidumping duties (often called countervailing duties) on the offending foreign imports.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #61 Learning Objective: 06-1

62.

(p. 206)

The U.S. government using the threat of punitive trade sanctions to try to get the Chinese government to

enforce its intellectual property laws is an example of government intervention based on:

A.

human rights protection.

B.

national security.

C.

consumer protection.

D.

retaliation.

Some argue that governments should use the threat to intervene in trade policy as a bargaining tool to help open foreign markets and force trading partners to "play by the rules of the game." The U.S. government has used the threat of punitive trade sanctions to try to get the Chinese government to enforce its intellectual property laws.

63.

(p. 207)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #62 Learning Objective: 06-2

If a government grants preferential trade terms to a country it wants to build strong relations with, the

government is employing a policy:

A.

of retaliation.

B.

of human rights protection.

C.

to protect national security.

D.

to further foreign policy objectives.

Governments sometimes use trade policy to support their foreign policy objectives. A government may grant preferential trade terms to a country with which it wants to build strong relations.

64.

(p. 208)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #63 Learning Objective: 06-2

This act allows Americans to sue foreign firms that use property in Cuba confiscated from them after the 1959 revolution.

A.

The Buy America Act

B.

The Anti-Dumping Act

C.

The Helms-Burton Act

D.

The D'Amato Act

In an attempt to further tighten the screws on Cuba, in 1996 the U.S. Congress passed the Helms-Burton Act. This act allows Americans to sue foreign firms that use property in Cuba confiscated from them after the 1959 revolution.

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #64 Learning Objective: 06-2

65.

(p. 209)

According to the

have grown strong enough to meet international competition.

argument, governments should temporarily support new industries until they

A. retaliatory action

B. human rights

C. infant industry

D. anti-dumping

According to the infant industry argument, many developing countries have a potential comparative advantage in manufacturing, but new manufacturing industries cannot initially compete with established industries in developed countries. To allow manufacturing to get a toehold, the argument is that governments should temporarily support new industries until they have grown strong enough to meet international competition.

66.

(p. 210)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Hill - Chapter 06 #65 Learning Objective: 06-2

suggests that a government should use subsidies to support promising firms that are active in

newly emerging industries.

A.

The infant industry argument

B.

Strategic trade policy

C.

Retaliation policy

D.

The national security argument

According to the strategic trade policy, it is argued that by appropriate actions, a government can help raise national income if it can somehow ensure that the firm or firms that gain first-mover advantages in an industry are domestic rather than foreign enterprises.

67.

(p. 211-

212)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #66 Learning Objective: 06-2

The EU's Common Agricultural Policy is an example of a tax policy designed to benefit:

A.

consumers.

B.

taxpayers.

C.

special-interest politics.

D.

free trade in developed countries.

Governments do not always act in the national interest when they intervene in the economy; politically important interest groups often influence them. The European Union's support for the Common Agricultural Policy, which arose because of the political power of French and German farmers, is an example.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #67 Learning Objective: 06-3

68.

(p. 213)

Economic problems during the Great Depression were compounded in 1930 when the U.S. Congress

passed the

diverting consumer demand away from foreign products.

, aimed at avoiding rising unemployment by protecting domestic industries and

A.

Smoot-Hawley Act

B.

Anti-Dumping Act

C.

Helms-Burton Act

D.

D'Amato Act

Aimed at avoiding rising unemployment by protecting domestic industries and diverting consumer demand away from foreign products, the Smoot-Hawley Act erected an enormous wall of tariff barriers.

69.

(p. 214)

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #68 Learning Objective: 06-4

Which of the following is not a reason for the pressure for greater protectionism that occurred during

the 1980s and early 1990s?

A.

The growing U.S. trade surplus with Japan strained the world trading system.

B.

Japanese economic success strained the world trading system.

C.

The persistent trade deficit in the United States strained the world trading system.

D.

Many countries found ways to get around GATT regulations.

The world trading system was strained by the persistent trade deficit in the world's largest economy, the United States. From a political perspective, the matter was worsened in 1992 by the $45 billion U.S. trade deficit with Japan, a country perceived as not playing by the rules.

70.

(p. 214)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #69 Learning Objective: 06-4

In the 1986 Uruguay Round, GATT members sought to write rules for promoting all of the following

except:

A.

intellectual property protection.

B.

agricultural subsidies.

C.

GATT's monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

D.

GATT rules to cover trade in services.

In the Uruguay Round, member countries sought to extend GATT rules to cover trade in services. They also sought to write rules governing the protection of intellectual property, to reduce agricultural subsidies, and to strengthen the GATT's monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #70 Learning Objective: 06-4

71.

(p. 214)

Until 1995, GATT rules applied to all of the following except:

A.

manufactured goods.

B.

services.

C.

textiles.

D.

agricultural products.

Until the Uruguay Round, GATT rules had applied only to trade in manufactured goods and commodities. In the Uruguay Round, member countries sought to extend GATT rules to cover trade in services.

72.

(p. 214)

According to the 1986 Uruguay Round, the

agreement.

A.

World Trade Organization

B.

International Monetary Fund

C.

United Nations

D.

World Bank

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #71 Learning Objective: 06-4

was to be created to implement the GATT

The Uruguay Round contained the provision that the World Trade Organization was to be created to implement the GATT agreement.

73.

(p. 216)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #72 Learning Objective: 06-4

After the Uruguay Round of GATT extended global trading rules to cover trade in services, the first two

industries targeted for reform by the WTO were:

A.

textiles and technology.

B.

telecommunications and financial services.

C.

automotives and aerospace.

D.

agriculture and consulting services.

The WTO was encouraged to extend its reach to encompass regulations governing foreign direct investment, something the GATT had never done. Two of the first industries targeted for reform were the global telecommunication and financial services industries.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #73 Learning Objective: 06-4

74.

(p. 216)

The "millennium round" ended in 1999 with:

A.

a successful record on agricultural products.

B.

a new agenda for the next round focusing on financial services.

C.

no agreement on the reduction of barriers to cross-border trade and investment.

D.

a decision to avoid FDI.

At the end of November 1999, representatives from the WTO's member states met in Seattle, Washington. The goal of the meeting was to launch a new round of talks—dubbed "the millennium round"—aimed at further reducing barriers to cross-border trade and investment. The talks ended December 3, 1999, without reaching any agreement.

75.

(p. 217)

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #74 Learning Objective: 06-4

Which of the following is not a reason why WTO is being criticized by those opposing free trade? A.Its trade laws allow imports from low-wage countries and result in a loss of jobs in high-wage countries.

B.Its rules outlawing the ability of nations to stop imports from countries where working conditions are hazardous.

C.

The adverse impact that some of its rulings have had on environmental policies.

D.

Its lack of ability to force any member nation to take an action to which it is opposed.

Supporters of the WTO and free trade have repeatedly pointed out that the WTO lacks the ability to force any member nation to take an action to which it is opposed.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #75 Learning Objective: 06-4

76.

(p. 220)

The WTO argues that by removing all tariff barriers and subsidies to agriculture, all of the following

would occur except:

A.

the overall level of trade would increase.

B.

there would be overproduction of products that are heavily subsidized.

C.

prices would fall for consumers.

D.

global economic growth would rise.

The net effect of the combination of high tariff barriers and significant subsidies is to raise prices to consumers, reduce the volume of agricultural trade, and encourage the overproduction of products that are heavily subsidized. Because global trade in agriculture currently amounts to 10.5 percent of total merchandized trade, the WTO argues that removing tariff barriers and subsidies could boost the overall level of trade, lower prices to consumers, and raise global economic growth by freeing consumption and investment resources for more productive uses.

77.

(p. 220)

The TRIPS regulations established at the 1995 Uruguay Round:

A.

established regulations on patents and copyrights.

B.

set a new level of agriculture subsidies.

C.

organized OECD countries to eliminate tariffs on textiles.

D.

established new tariff levels on technology.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #76 Learning Objective: 06-4

The TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and copyrights lasting 50 years.

78.

(p. 220)

TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to all of the following except:

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #77 Learning Objective: 06-4

A.

grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years.

B.

grant and enforce copyrights lasting 50 years.

C.

comply with the rules within five years in the case of rich countries.

D.

comply with the rules within 10 years in the case of the poorest countries.

The TRIPS regulations oblige WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and copyrights lasting 50 years. Rich countries had to comply with the rules within a year. Poor countries, in which such protection generally was much weaker, had five years' grace, and the very poorest had 10 years.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #78 Learning Objective: 06-4

79.

(p. 221)

are the highest rate that can be charged, which is often, but not always, the rate that is charged.

A. Ad valorem tariff rates

B. Tariff rents

C. Specific tariff rates

D. Bound tariff rates

While average tariffs are low, high tariff rates persist on certain imports into developed nations, which limit market access and economic growth. For example, Australia and South Korea, both OECD countries, still have bound tariff rates of 15.1 percent and 24.6 percent, respectively, on imports of transportation equipment.

80.

(p. 224)

Identify the incorrect statement about trade barriers.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #79 Learning Objective: 06-4

A.

They raise the costs of exporting products to a country.

B.

They may put a firm at a competitive advantage to indigenous competitors.

C.

They may limit a firm's ability to serve a country from locations outside of that country.

D To conform to local content regulations, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a

. given market than it would otherwise.

Tariff barriers raise the costs of exporting products to a country. This may put the firm at a competitive disadvantage to indigenous competitors in that country.

81.

(p. 199)

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #80 Learning Objective: 06-4

Discuss the different types of tariff barriers. Consider the beneficiaries of tariff barriers and the losers. There are two types of tariffs, specific tariffs that are levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good imported, and ad valorem tariffs that are levied as a proportion of the value of the imported product. The government gains from tariffs in the form of increased revenues. Domestic producers also benefit from the protection against foreign competition. Consumers lose because they must pay more for products that have been affected by tariffs.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #81 Learning Objective: 06-1

82.

(p. 200)

83.

(p. 201-

202)

84.

(p. 202-

203)

85.

(p. 203)

Discuss the different types of subsidies. How do subsidies help domestic producers? Subsidies are essentially a government payment to a producer. There are many forms of subsidies including cash grants, low-interest loans, tax breaks, and government equity participation in domestic firms. Subsidies benefit domestic producers in two ways: they help them compete against low-cost foreign imports and they help them gain export markets.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #82 Learning Objective: 06-1

Compare and contrast import quotas and voluntary export restraints. An import quota is a direct restriction on the quantity of some good that may be imported into a country. The restriction is normally enforced by issuing import licenses to a group of individuals or firms. In contrast, a voluntary export restraint (VER) is a quota imposed by the exporting country, typically at the request of the importing country's government. Foreign producers agree to VERs because they fear more damaging punitive tariffs or import quotas might follow if they do not. Both import quotas and VERs benefit domestic producers, but hurt consumers through higher prices.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #83 Learning Objective: 06-1

What is a quota rent? Provide an example of how an import quota affects price. The extra profit that producers make when supply is artificially limited by an import quota is referred to as a quota rent. If a domestic industry lacks the capacity to meet demand, an import quota can raise prices for both the domestically produced and the imported good. Students will probably use the example of the U.S. sugar industry when discussing the question.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #84 Learning Objective: 06-1

Discuss the Buy America Act and its connection with local content requirements. The Buy America Act specifies that government agencies must give preference to American products when putting contracts for equipment out to bid unless the foreign products have a significant price advantage. The law specifies a product as being American if 51 percent of the materials by value are produced domestically. This amounts to a local content requirement that calls for a specific fraction of a good to be produced locally.

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #85 Learning Objective: 06-1

86.

(p. 203)

87.

(p. 204-

205)

88.

(p. 204-

205)

Explain how governments use administrative trade policies to boost exports and restrict imports.

Provide an example of an administrative trade policy. Administrative trade policies are bureaucratic rules that are almost always deliberately designed to restrict the flow of a particular import into a country. The Japanese are considered masters of this trade barrier. Students will probably use the example of tulip bulbs when discussing this question. The Netherlands exports tulip bulbs to almost every country of the world except Japan. The reason is that Japanese customs inspectors insist on checking every tulip bulb by cutting it vertically down the middle, which in effect ruins the bulb.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #86 Learning Objective: 06-1

What is dumping? How do governments respond to charges of dumping? Dumping is defined as selling goods in a foreign market at below their costs of production, or as selling goods in a foreign market at below their "fair" market value. Antidumping policies are designed to punish foreign firms that engage in dumping. If a firm is found to be dumping, countervailing duties may be imposed. These duties can be fairly substantial and stay in place for up to five years.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #87 Learning Objective: 06-1

Explain the notion of predatory behavior with regard to dumping.

A

firm that is dumping is selling its product in a foreign market at below their costs of production,

or

is selling goods in a foreign market at below their "fair" market value. Dumping may be the result

of

predatory behavior, with producers using substantial profits from their home markets to subsidize

profits in a foreign market with a goal of driving indigenous competitors out of that market. Once the firm achieves its goal, the company will raise prices and earn substantial profits.

89.

(p. 205)

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #88 Learning Objective: 06-1

What are the political reasons for governments to intervene in markets? There are a number of political reasons why governments intervene in markets. The most common reason for intervention is to protect jobs and industries. Governments may also intervene to protect national security, to threaten punitive retaliatory actions, to protect consumers or to protect human rights, and to further foreign policy objectives.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #89 Learning Objective: 06-2

90.

(p. 208-

210)

91.

(p. 209-

210)

92.

(p. 210)

Discuss the economic reasons for government intervention in markets. The economic reasons for government interaction have undergone a renaissance in recent times as more economists support economic reasons for intervention. The oldest argument for intervention is the infant industry argument. Strategic trade policy is the other main reason given for economic government intervention in markets.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #90 Learning Objective: 06-2

Discuss the infant industry argument for intervention in markets. What is GATT's position on the

argument? Alexander Hamilton proposed the infant industry argument for intervention in markets in 1792. According to this argument, many developing countries have a potential comparative advantage in manufacturing, but new manufacturing industries cannot initially compete with established industries in developed countries. To allow manufacturing to get a toehold, the argument is that governments should temporarily support new industries until they have grown strong enough to meet international competitors. GATT has recognized the infant industry argument as a legitimate reason for protectionism.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #91 Learning Objective: 06-2

What is strategic trade policy? Provide an example. Strategic trade policy suggests that in industries where the existence of substantial scale economies implies that the world will profitably support only a few firms, countries may predominate in the export of certain products simply because they had firms that were able to capture first-mover advantages. Boeing's dominance in the aerospace industry has been attributed to these types of factors. According to strategic trade policy, a government can help raise national incomes if it can ensure that the firms that gain first-mover advantages in such industries are domestic rather foreign. Further, the theory argues that it might pay governments to intervene in an industry if it helps domestic firms overcome the barriers to entry created by foreign firms that have already reaped first-mover advantages.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #92 Learning Objective: 06-2

93.

(p. 211)

94.

(p. 213-

214)

95.

(p. 213-

214)

What is Paul Krugman's position on strategic trade policy? Paul Krugman suggests that strategic trade policy aimed at establishing domestic firms in a dominant position in a global industry is a beggar-thy-neighbor policy that boosts national income at the expense of other countries. Consequently, a country that uses this type of policy will probably draw retaliatory action. The resulting trade war would leave both countries worse off than if a free trade approach had been implemented to start. Krugman suggests that to avoid the disruptions a trade war would create, countries should instead help establish the rules of the game that minimize the use of trade-distorting subsidies.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #93 Learning Objective: 06-3

Discuss the establishment of GATT. What was GATT's objective? The GATT was a multilateral agreement whose objective was to liberalize trade by eliminating tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, and other trade barriers. GATT was established in 1947 with 19 members. Membership increased to more than 120 nations by the time it was superseded by the WTO. Under GATT, tariff reduction was spread over eight rounds. The last round, the Uruguay Round, resulted in the establishment of the WTO which, among other things took over the role of GATT in the global economy.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #94 Learning Objective: 06-4

What happened to GATT during the 1980s and early 1990s? During the 1980s and early 1990s, the world trading system established by GATT came under significant strain as pressures for greater protectionism mounted around the world. Three issues in particular were important. First, the economic success of Japan strained the world trading system. Second, the world's trading system was further strained by the persistent trade deficit in the world's largest economy, the United States. Finally, many countries found ways to get around GATT regulations.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Hard Hill - Chapter 06 #95 Learning Objective: 06-4

96.

(p. 215-

218)

97.

(p. 218)

98.

(p. 218-

223)

99.

(p. 219-

220)

What has been the experience of the WTO to date? What does the future look like for the organization? By 2009, the WTO had 153 members with more in the application process. The WTO has remained at the forefront of efforts to promote free trade. So far, it appears that its policing and enforcement mechanisms are having a positive effect. Countries are using the WTO to settle trade disputes, which represents an important vote of confidence in the organization's dispute resolution procedures. So far, the users of the system have included both developed and developing countries, which is also a promising development. In addition, some powerful developed countries, including the United States, have been willing to accept WTO rulings that have gone against them, which attest to the organization's legitimacy.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #96 Learning Objective: 06-4

What are the central issues facing the WTO at the present time? Four issues at the top of the agenda for the WTO are the increase in antidumping policies, the high level of protectionism in agriculture, the lack of strong protection for intellectual property rights in many nations, and continued high tariff rates on nonagricultural goods and services in many nations. These issues were a key focus at the Doha Round which began in 2001 and were still ongoing as of 2009.

AACSB: Analytic Skills Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #97 Learning Objective: 06-4

Discuss the Doha Round of trade talks. The Doha Round began in 2001. Its agenda focused on cutting tariffs on industrial goods and services, phasing out subsidies to agricultural producers, reducing barriers to cross-border investment, and limiting the use of antidumping laws. The agenda agreed upon at Doha should be seen as a game plan for negotiations over the next few years.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #98 Learning Objective: 06-4

Why are tariff rates on agricultural products generally higher than tariff rates on manufactured products

or services? Tariff rates on agricultural products are typically higher than tariffs on manufactured products. High tariff rates on agricultural products were designed to protect domestic agriculture and traditional farming communities from foreign competition. IMF estimates indicate that removing the tariffs and subsidies could raise global economic welfare by $128 billion annually.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #99 Learning Objective: 06-4

100.

(p. 224)

Explain how trade barriers affect a firm's strategy. There are four main ways trade barriers affect a firm's strategy. First, tariffs raise the cost of exporting, putting the firm at a competitive disadvantage. Second, quotas may limit a firm's ability to serve a country from outside of that country. Third, to conform to local content regulations, a firm may have to locate more production activities in a given market than it would otherwise. Finally, the threat of antidumping actions limits the firm's ability to use aggressive pricing to gain market share in a country.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Hill - Chapter 06 #100 Learning Objective: 06-4

ch6 Summary

Category

# of Questions

AACSB: Analytic Skills

61

AACSB: Domestic and Global Economic Environments

5

AACSB: Ethical/Legal Responsibilities

11

AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills

23

Blooms: Application

5

Blooms: Comprehension

27

Blooms: Knowledge

68

Difficulty: Easy

19

Difficulty: Hard

10

Difficulty: Medium

71

Hill - Chapter 06

100

Learning Objective: 06-1

42

Learning Objective: 06-2

15

Learning Objective: 06-3

4

Learning Objective: 06-4

39