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King Hrothgar of Denmark, a descendant of the great king Shield Sheafson, enjoys a prosperous and successful reign.

He builds a great mead-hall, called Heorot, where his warriors can gather to drink, receive gifts from their lord, and listen to stories sung by the scops, or bards. But the jubilant noise from Heorot angers Grendel, a horrible demon who lives in the swamplands of Hrothgars kingdom. Grendel terrorizes the Danes every night, killing them and defeating their efforts to fight back. The Danes suffer many years of fear, danger, and death at the hands of Grendel. Eventually, however, a young Geatish warrior named Beowulf hears of Hrothgars plight. Inspired by the challenge, Beowulf sails to Denmark with a small company of men, determined to defeat Grendel. Hrothgar, who had once done a great favor for Beowulfs father Ecgtheow, accepts Beowulfs offer to fight Grendel and holds a feast in the heros honor. During the feast, an envious Dane named Unferth taunts Beowulf and accuses him of being unworthy of his reputation. Beowulf responds with a boastful description of some of his past accomplishments. His confidence cheers the Danish warriors, and the feast lasts merrily into the night. At last, however, Grendel arrives. Beowulf fights him unarmed, proving himself stronger than the demon, who is terrified. As Grendel struggles to escape, Beowulf tears the monsters arm off. Mortally wounded, Grendel slinks back into the swamp to die. The severed arm is hung high in the mead-hall as a trophy of victory. Overjoyed, Hrothgar showers Beowulf with gifts and treasure at a feast in his honor. Songs are sung in praise of Beowulf, and the celebration lasts late into the night. But another threat is approaching. Grendels mother, a swamp-hag who lives in a desolate lake, comes to Heorot seeking revenge for her sons death. She murders Aeschere, one of Hrothgars most trusted advisers, before slinking away. To avenge Aescheres death, the company travels to the murky swamp, where Beowulf dives into the water and fights Grendels mother in her underwater lair. He kills her with a sword forged for a giant, then, finding Grendels corpse, decapitates it and brings the head as a prize to Hrothgar. The Danish countryside is now purged of its treacherous monsters. The Danes are again overjoyed, and Beowulfs fame spreads across the kingdom. Beowulf departs after a sorrowful goodbye to Hrothgar, who has treated him like a son. He returns to Geatland, where he and his men are reunited with their king and queen, Hygelac and Hygd, to whom Beowulf recounts his adventures in Denmark. Beowulf then hands over most of his treasure to Hygelac, who, in turn, rewards him.

In time, Hygelac is killed in a war against the Shylfings, and, after Hygelacs son dies, Beowulf ascends to the throne of the Geats. He rules wisely for fifty years, bringing prosperity to Geatland. When Beowulf is an old man, however, a thief disturbs a barrow, or mound, where a great dragon lies guarding a horde of treasure. Enraged, the dragon emerges from the barrow and begins unleashing fiery destruction upon the Geats. Sensing his own death approaching, Beowulf goes to fight the dragon. With the aid of Wiglaf, he succeeds in killing the beast, but at a heavy cost. The dragon bites Beowulf in the neck, and its fiery venom kills him moments after their encounter. The Geats fear that their enemies will attack them now that Beowulf is dead. According to Beowulfs wishes, they burn their departed kings body on a huge funeral pyre and then bury him with a massive treasure in a barrow overlooking the sea.

http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/beowulf/summary.html

Principal Characters
Beowulf - The protagonist of the epic, Beowulf is a Geatish hero who fights the monster Grendel, Grendels mother, and a fire-breathing dragon. Beowulfs boasts and encounters reveal him to be the strongest, ablest warrior around. In his youth, he personifies all of the best values of the heroic culture. In his old age, he proves a wise and effective ruler. Read an in-depth analysis of Beowulf. King Hrothgar - The king of the Danes. Hrothgar enjoys military success and prosperity until Grendel terrorizes his realm. A wise and aged ruler, Hrothgar represents a different kind of leadership from that exhibited by the youthful warrior Beowulf. He is a father figure to Beowulf and a model for the kind of king that Beowulf becomes. Grendel - A demon descended from Cain, Grendel preys on Hrothgars warriors in the kings mead-hall, Heorot. Because his ruthless and miserable existence is part of the retribution exacted by God for Cains murder of Abel, Grendel fits solidly within the ethos of vengeance that governs the world of the poem. Read an in-depth analysis of Grendel.

Grendels mother - An unnamed swamp-hag, Grendels mother seems to possess fewer human qualities than Grendel, although her terrorization of Heorot is explained by her desire for vengeancea human motivation. The dragon - An ancient, powerful serpent, the dragon guards a horde of treasure in a hidden mound. Beowulfs fight with the dragon constitutes the third and final part of the epic.

Other Danes
Shield Sheafson - The legendary Danish king from whom Hrothgar is descended, Shield Sheafson is the mythical founder who inaugurates a long line of Danish rulers and embodies the Danish tribes highest values of heroism and leadership. The poem opens with a brief account of his rise from orphan to warrior-king, concluding, That was one good king (11).

Beow - The second king listed in the genealogy of Danish rulers with which the poem begins. Beow is the son of Shield Sheafson and father of Halfdane. The narrator presents Beow as a gift from God to a people in need of a leader. He exemplifies the maxim, Behavior thats admired / is the path to power among people everywhere (2425). Read an in-depth analysis of Beow.

Halfdane - The father of Hrothgar, Heorogar, Halga, and an unnamed daughter who married a king of the Swedes, Halfdane succeeded Beow as ruler of the Danes. Wealhtheow - Hrothgars wife, the gracious queen of the Danes. Unferth - A Danish warrior who is jealous of Beowulf, Unferth is unable or unwilling to fight Grendel, thus proving himself inferior to Beowulf. Read an in-depth analysis of Unferth. Hrethric - Hrothgars elder son, Hrethric stands to inherit the Danish throne, but Hrethrics older cousin Hrothulf will prevent him from doing so. Beowulf offers to support the youngsters prospect of becoming king by hosting him in Geatland and giving him guidance. Hrothmund - The second son of Hrothgar. Hrothulf - Hrothgars nephew, Hrothulf betrays and usurps his cousin, Hrethic, the rightful heir to the Danish throne. Hrothulfs treachery contrasts with Beowulfs loyalty to Hygelac in helping his son to the throne. Aeschere - Hrothgars trusted adviser.

Other Geats
Hygelac - Beowulfs uncle, king of the Geats, and husband of Hygd. Hygelac heartily welcomes Beowulf back from Denmark. Hygd - Hygelacs wife, the young, beautiful, and intelligent queen of the Geats. Hygd is contrasted with Queen Modthryth. Wiglaf - A young kinsman and retainer of Beowulf who helps him in the fight against the dragon while all of the other warriors run away. Wiglaf adheres to the heroic code better than Beowulfs other retainers, thereby proving himself a suitable successor to Beowulf. Read an in-depth analysis of Wiglaf.

Ecgtheow - Beowulfs father, Hygelacs brother-in-law, and Hrothgars friend. Ecgtheow is dead by the time the story begins, but he lives on through the noble reputation that he made for himself during his life and in his dutiful sons remembrances. King Hrethel - The Geatish king who took Beowulf in as a ward after the death of Ecgtheow, Beowulfs father. Breca - Beowulfs childhood friend, whom he defeated in a swimming match. Unferth alludes to the story of their contest, and Beowulf then relates it in detail.

Other Figures Mentioned


Sigemund - A figure from Norse mythology, famous for slaying a dragon. Sigemunds story is told in praise of Beowulf and foreshadows Beowulfs encounter with the dragon. King Heremod - An evil king of legend. The scop, or bard, at Heorot discusses King Heremod as a figure who contrasts greatly with Beowulf. Queen Modthryth - A wicked queen of legend who punishes anyone who looks at her the wrong way. Modthryths story is told in order to contrast her cruelty with Hygds gentle and reasonable behavior.

BEOWULF

Quiz

1 . Who is the father of Shield Sheafson?

(A) Beowulf (B) Hrothgar (C) Grendel (D) Sheafson is an orphan.


2 . How does Hrothgar know of Beowulf?

(A) Beowulf once proposed to his daughter. (B) Hrothgar was friends with Beowulfs father. (C) Beowulf had gained a widespread reputation after slaying a dragon. (D) He read about him on the Internet.
3 . About how long is the dragon?

(A) 50 feet (B) 20 feet (C) 100 feet (D) 200 feet
4 . How long does Beowulf reign as king of the Geats?

(A) 30 years

(B) 40 years (C) 50 years (D) 60 years


5 . What, according to Beowulf, is better than mourning a death?

(A) Celebrating a birth (B) Avenging a death (C) Drinking ones sorrows away (D) Making peace with ones enemies
6 . Who helps Beowulf against the dragon?

(A) Wulfgar (B) Unferth (C) Hrothgar (D) Wiglaf


7 . Who taunts Beowulf in Heorot?

(A) Unferth (B) Hrothgar

(C) Wiglaf (D) Wealhtheow


8 . Who is Modthryth?

(A) A Danish thane (B) King of the Swedes (C) A wicked queen of legend (D) A dragon
9 . From whom is Grendel descended?

(A) Satan (B) Cain (C) Judas (D) Ecgtheow


1 0 . Who is queen of the Geats?

(A) Wealhtheow (B) Modthryth (C) Unferth

(D) Hygd
1 1 . Whom does Grendels mother abduct and decapitate?

(A) Aeschere (B) Wulfgar (C) Hrothgar (D) Beowulf


1 2 . How many Geats does Grendel kill?

(A) Eleven (B) Eight (C) One (D) Four


1 3 . What is Hrunting?

(A) A mead-hall (B) A sword (C) A lake (D) A helmet

1 4 . Where do the Geats place Beowulfs Barrow?

(A) In Grendels swamp (B) In the dragons lair (C) In the palace temple (D) On a cliff overlooking the sea
1 5 . Who is Beowulfs father?

(A) Ecgtheow (B) Hrothgar (C) Wulfgar (D) Wealhtheow


1 6 . What is wyrd?

(A) The Anglo-Saxon concept of word, as in word of honor (B) The Anglo-Saxon term for worm, as in dragon (C) The Anglo-Saxon concept of fate (D) The Anglo-Saxon word that expresses the cultures valuing of oratorical skill
1 7 . Where do Grendel and his mother live?

(A) In a palace

(B) In a mead-hall (C) In a barrow (D) In a lake


1 8 . What is a scop?

(A) A mead-hall (B) A poet (C) A god (D) A ship


1 9 . Who guides Beowulf to the dragons barrow?

(A) Wulfgar (B) The thief (C) The slave-girl (D) Hygd
2 0 . Who gives Hygd three horses?

(A) Hygelac (B) Hrothgar

(C) Beowulf (D) Finn


2 1 . Which character is descended from Shield Sheafson?

(A) Beowulf (B) Wiglaf (C) Ecgtheow (D) Hrothgar


2 2 . What is the name of Hrothgars wife?

(A) Wealhtheow (B) Hygd (C) Modthryth (D) Grendel


2 3 . How did the dragons treasure get in the barrow?

(A) The dragon hauled it there with his teeth. (B) Hygelac had it buried there after he died. (C) The boat containing the body of Shield Sheafson landed there.

(D) It was buried there by the last survivor of a forgotten race.


2 4 . What is Hygelac wearing when he dies?

(A) His grandfathers armor (B) Wealhtheows torque (C) An invisibility suit (D) A tutu
2 5 . From about when does the only existing Beowulf manuscript date?

(A) 7 0 0 A . D . (B) 1 0 0 0 A . D . (C) 7 0 0 B . C . (D) 5 0 A . D .

Beowulf Quiz #1

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Beowulfs personal reason for coming to Denmark is his 1 . a. loyalty to Welthow. b. desire for lasting fame.

c. d.

friendship for Hrothgar. obedience to his leaders orders.

2 Referring to Grendel as "that shadow of death" is an example of a . a. boast. b. simile. c. caesura. d. kenning. In Beowulf, Grendel dies after his 3 . a. head is severed. b. arm is torn from its socket. c. armour yields to Waylands steel. d. heart is pierced by Beowulfs sword. 4 Prior to Beowulfs coming to their assistance against Grendel, Hrothgars people . a. fought among themselves. b. thought about escaping by sea. c. made sacrifices to the old stone gods. d. made plans to construct another mead hall. 5 Beowulf, the visitors to the Danish meadhall are In . a. Geats. b. Scyldings. c. English warriors. d. relatives from the south. Beowulf defeats Grendel with his 6 . a. shield. b. sword. c. powerful grip. d. loyal followers.

Beowulfs followers are unable to harm Grendel because 7 . a. they are sleeping soundly. b. they lack sufficient courage. c. Grendel proves too powerful. d. Grendel has put a spell on their weapons. 8 What does Beowulf do when he meets Hrothgar? . a. He begs for assistance. b. He boasts of his exploits. c. He gives the king a sword. d. He greets the king humbly.

Where is Beowulf from? Angle-Land Denmark Geatland Heorot

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