0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

11 просмотров25 страницImpact modeling

Nov 28, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Impact modeling

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

11 просмотров25 страницImpact modeling

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

using adaptive discrete

element techniques

M.G. Cottrell

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea

J. Yu and Z.J. Wei

Rockeld Software Ltd, Technium, Prince of Wales Dock, Swansea

D.R.J. Owen

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea

Keywords Adaptive techniques, Ceramics

Abstract In recent years, developments in the eld of lightweight armour have been of primary

importance to the defence industry. This necessity has led to many organisations adopting

composite armours comprising both the traditional heavy armours and new lighter weight ceramic

armours. The numerical modelling of metal based armour systems has been well documented over

the years using purely continuum based methods; and also the modelling of brittle systems using

discrete element methods, therefore it is the objective of this paper to demonstrate how a coupled

nite and discrete element approach, can be used in the further understanding of the quantitative

response of ceramic systems when subjected to dynamic loadings using a combination of adaptive

continuum techniques and discrete element methods. For the class of problems encountered within

the defence industry, numerical modelling has suffered from one principal weakness; for many

applications the associated deformed nite element mesh can no longer provide an accurate

description of the deformed material, whether this is due to large ductile deformation, or for the

case of brittle materials, degradation into multiple bodies. Subsequently, two very different

approaches have been developed to combat such deciencies, namely the use of adaptive remeshing

for the ductile type materials and a discrete fracture insertion scheme for the modelling of material

degradation. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of this paper is to present examples

demonstrating the potential benets of explicitly coupling adaptive remeshing methods to the

technique of discrete fracture insertion in order to provide an adaptive discontinuous solution

strategy, which is computationally robust and efcient.

The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm

This work was sponsored in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

(EPSRC) under the support of the Defence Science and Technology Laboratories (DSTL),

Chertsey, UK.

Notation

A Johnson-Cook yield strength; initial

or current elemental area

B Johnson-Cook hardening coefcient

C Johnson-Cook strain rate constant

C

v

specic heat capacity

E elastic modulus

EC

20,1

82

Received May 2002

Accepted September

2002

Engineering Computations

Vol. 20 No. 1, 2003

pp. 82-106

q MCB UP Limited

0264-4401

DOI 10.1108/02644400310458856

Introduction

The use of ceramic material is becoming more important in the design of

lightweight vehicle armour. Combined ceramic and metal armours have the

potential to be used in highly weight efcient armour systems not only for

todays projectile velocities (1,500-1,800 m/s) but also for considerably higher

impact velocities that are inevitably likely to be used tomorrow

(2,500-3,000 m/s). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to advance the

development of robust and efcient numerical strategies that can aid in the

development and understanding of such composite ceramic and metallic

armour systems.

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that techniques based on

continuum adaptive remeshing and discrete element fracture can be coupled to

obtain well-dened and quality time-resolved results for the impact of metallic

deformable projectiles into ceramics. Enhancement of the understanding of the

fracture processes, which occur for various impact velocities, is of primary

importance.

Continuum adaptive remeshing

Adaptive remeshing is today becoming an increasingly recognised important

feature of nite element modelling in areas of application such as cold forging,

crash worthiness tests and, of principal interest here, ballistic impact tests that

are frequently encountered within the defence industry (Camacho and Ortiz,

1997; Cottrell et al., in press). The key factors associated with any adaptive

mesh generation analysis are:

f

t

maximum tensile strength

f adaptive error assessment

frequency; adiabatic heating

conversion factor

F elemental or local failure factor

F associated nodal failure factor

G elastic shear modulus

G

f

specic fracture energy

h nite element mesh size

h

size

h

min

minimum global nite element

mesh size

h

max

maximum global nite element

mesh size

i, j, k elemental index

K elastic bulk modulus

m Johnson-Cook softening exponent

n Johnson-Cook strain hardening

exponent

N elemental shape function

p nodal index

q eld variable

T Johnson-Cook current temperature;

target thickness

T

melt

Johnson-Cook melting temperature

T

ref

Johnson-Cook reference temperature

V initial or current elemental volume

w weighting factor for fracture

insertion

a initial or current nite element

corner angle

1

f

inelastic fracturing strain

1

f

c

critical inelastic fracturing strain

1 total incremental strain rate

1

p

inelastic incremental strain rate

1

p

effective inelastic strain

L

j local elemental error

u elemental discrete fracture

orientation

u

orientation

V element

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

83

.

the ability to base models on a geometric entity or assignment level;

.

indication of the quality associated with element distortion for a given

mesh;

.

the automated prediction of element density within the newly generated

mesh;

.

the re-generation of the mesh based upon the predicted densities, and

.

the accurate transfer of history dependent variables between the two

meshes.

A large amount of literature associated with the above listed topics can be

found elsewhere (Camacho and Ortiz, 1997; Cottrell et al., in press; Dyduch

et al., 1992; Morancay et al., 1997; Peric et al., 1994, 1996, 1999; Yu, 1999;

Zienkiewicz and Zhu, 1987, 1991) and it is the intention of this paper to

provide only a brief technical description of techniques that can be

successfully employed to provide an efcient coupled adaptive/discrete

formulation.

Mesh adaptivity is the process by which the element mesh is changed at

selected intervals, either to preserve the quality of element shape or to control

the error in the solution. Mesh adaptation is triggered by control criteria, which

monitor threshold values of specic problem parameters. Typical quantities

such as element distortion or element and nodal quantities such as velocity

gradients are often employed (Camacho and Ortiz, 1997; Yu, 1999). Aremeshing

indicator based on element distortion (Camacho and Ortiz, 1997; Dyduch et al.,

1992) is used in this work and has been proven to provide an efcient criterion

for large deformation problems. Typically element distortion is measured from

the ratio of internal angles, or the ratio of areas between the initially generated

nite element and the deformed nite element, which provides

a computationally cheaper alternative. An error estimator, for example, the

Zienkiewicz error norm type (Zienkiewicz and Zhu, 1987), is then employed to

provide the prediction of the element density distribution required in the new

nite element mesh.

The distortion of a given nite element can adversely affect the ability to

obtain a numerical result that is of the desired resolution. To this end Dyduch

Dyduch et al. (1992) proposed that a function based on the current and initial

elemental areas could provide an indicator that can be used as a trigger for

continuum adaptive remeshing.

j

k

A

c

2A

0

A

0

100 1

In equation (1), it is clear to see howthe proposed remeshing indicator is formed

as a function of both the initial and current element areas, which are denoted by

their appropriate subscripts.

EC

20,1

84

Due to the simplistic nature of this indicator, there are key issues that render

the above formulation problematic for many mesh discretisations. One of the

fundamental difculties, lies with the fact that when an element undergoes a

purely shear based distortion, then zero volume change will be realised, hence

the element can potentially be highly distorted yet the indicator will suggest

that there is zero deformation.

Therefore it has been proposed that supplementary checks be made if the

initial indicator, in equation (1), signals that there is zero element distortion,

whereby an additional measure is derived from the internal nodal angles of the

considered triangular area. The function that checks each corner angle in turn

is given in equation (2), and if this function yields a distortion value that is not

realised using the original triangular area estimator this value will be used as

an alternative.

j

k

a

c

2a

0

a

0

100 2

This form of remeshing indicator lends itself as an ideal tool for the automated

triggering of adaptive remeshing processes due to the fact that the entire

indicator computation is relative based.

Once the remeshing estimation process has been completed and it is deemed

that one or more elements violate the selected error criterion, then mesh

prediction must be completed immediately prior to the generation of a new

mesh. The task of the error estimator is to provide an error map for the

prediction of the element densities within the new nite element mesh.

The development of error estimator procedures for nonlinear problems is

still the subject of intense research and, as yet, no universal measure that is

applicable to completely general problems is available. Consequently, explicit

error measures are currently employed to control the mesh density for classes

of problems exhibiting specic phenomena.

For example, for problems in which the strain elds are predominantly

elastic and continuous the standard elastic energy norm indicator proposed by

Zienkiewicz and Zhu (1987) can be used to good effect. However, situations that

involve strain localisation phenomena, such as multi-fracturing quasi-brittle

solids, can benet from using strain rate criteria to develop appropriate

adaptive mesh predictions. On the other hand, error estimates for problems

involving large-scale plastic deformation, such as forming processes

or penetration of ductile materials, are more appropriately based on either

incremental or total plastic work indicators (Peric et al., 1994).

To illustrate the procedure by which element density predictions are

produced in a mesh adaptivity process, the process is summarised below for

the elastic energy norm error estimator.

The associated error for a generic element k in the form of the standard

energy norm is dened as

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

85

_

_

e

*

s

_

_

2

k

_

V

_

s* 2s

h

_

T

D

21

_

s* 2s

h

_

dV 3

where the terms

h

represents the stress tensor obtained from the nite element

analysis and the term s* denotes the solution obtained using the process of

smoothed stress recovery (Zienkiewicz and Zhu, 1991). The associated error

from the elemental level is summed over all of the elements in the domain to

give,

_

_

e

*

s

_

_

2

n

elem

i1

_

_

e

*

s

_

_

2

i

4

Then the relative global error is given by the function, which comprises the

summed elemental error and the standard energy norm terms as

h

s

<

_

_

e

*

s

_

_

_

C

*

s

_

_

e

*

s

_

_

2

1

2

; C

*

s

_

V

_

s

T

D

21

s

_

dV 5

If we consider the relative global error h

s

with the relative target allowable

error h, then the local target error for each element is dened as

e h

C*

n

elem

_ _

6

which is then used to evaluate the element error indicator j

k

.

j

k

_

_

e*

_

_

k

e

7

If the element error indicator is less than unity the current mesh density for the

considered element may be coarsened, if however, the element error indicator is

greater than unity then the mesh density is required to be increased. Through

use of the current element size, the predicted element size may be obtained

based on the asymptotic convergence properties of elements, and restricting

attention to linear elements, as

h

k

h

k

j

k

8

where the term h

k

is the considered element current size.

For problems involving strain localisation, as is the case in multi-fracturing

solids, the current incremental strain rate provides a very effective measure for

predicting the new mesh density requirements. Such an approach has been

EC

20,1

86

successfully employed by Yu (1999) for the numerical modelling of fracturing

events including discrete ballistic impact tests similar to those described in

Cottrell et al. (in press), Strassburger and Senf (1995), Westerling et al. (2001)

and Yu, (1999). This methodology is based on dening a heuristic element size

distribution based on the current effective total incremental strain rate

distribution. Practically, this is implemented by providing information in a

piecewise linearly interpolated manner as illustrated in Table I. The

methodology provides a computationally efcient strategy in that a high

mesh density is produced in regions with high strain rates, with coarse

renements in areas of low strain rate activity.

Whatever approach is adopted for mesh density prediction, the following

steps are common to all. Firstly, mesh regeneration must be undertaken using

any of the standard techniques such as advancing front or Delauney

triangulation (Peraire et al., 1987; Sloan, 1987). In the examples presented in this

work, the advancing front formulation has been employed for performing the

remeshing process. Secondly, it is necessary to transfer the eld variables from

the original nite element mesh to the newly generated mesh. A schematic of

the technique adopted is given in Figures 1-3.

(1) The quadrature point values

h

1

P

n;G

;

h

q

n;G

_ _

are directly projected on to

the corresponding element nodes to provide the nodal point values of

h

1

P

n; N

;

h

q

n; N

_ _

. Typically, the nite element shape functions N may be

used for the projection of the quadrature values back to the

corresponding nodal positions. Upon completion of quadrature point

projection, nodal point averaging is performed which then results in the

nodal point values of

h

1

P*

n; N

;

h

q

*

n; N

_ _

.

(2) Interpolation of the nodal point values

h

1

P*

n;N

;

h

q

*

n;N

_ _

from the

quadrature point values

h

1

P*

n;G

;

h

q

*

n;G

_ _

is then required. This operation

results in the nodal components of the state variables being transferred

from the nodal points on the old nite element mesh h to the nodal points

on the newly generated nite element mesh h+1 resulting in the new

nodal state variables of

h1

1

P*

n;N

;

h1

q

*

n;N

_ _

. The completion of this

process is achieved through three distinct steps, rstly the construction

Parameter effective total incremental strain rate Updated mesh density

0.00E+000 h

k

1.00E+003 h

k+1

1.00E+004 h

k+2

1.00E+005 h

k+3

Table I.

Mesh renement

control data based

on effective total

incremental strain

rate

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

87

of the nite element background mesh, then dening a local coordinate

system, and nally the transfer of the nodal values from the old nite

element mesh to the nodal positions on the new nite element mesh.

These three key steps are outlined in the following steps.

.

Construction of the nite element background mesh is required for

each nodal point A of the newly generated nite element mesh h+1,

which has the known nodal global coordinates

h1

x

n;A

; the

background nite element is located on the old nite element mesh

h, i.e. nite element

h

V

e

for which

h1

x

n; A

[

h

V

e

is satised.

Figure 2.

Procedural

representation of the key

stages required for the

transfer of eld variables

from the original mesh to

the new mesh, showing

the transfer of the nodal

variables

h

1

P*

n;N

;

h

q

*

n;N

_ _

from the old mesh to the

nodal points on the

newly generated mesh

h1

1

P*

n;N

;

h1

q

*

n;N

_ _

Figure 1.

Procedural

representation of the key

stages required for the

transfer of eld variables

from the original mesh to

the new mesh, showing

the projection of the

quadrature point

variables

h

1

P

n;G

;

h

q

n;G

_ _

to the nodal positions

h

1

P

n;N

;

h

q

n;N

_ _

using the

elemental shape

functions. Then nodal

point averages are then

performed resulting in

h

1

P*

n;N

;

h

q

*

n;N

_ _

EC

20,1

88

.

Evaluation of the local coordinate system for each element present in

the background nite element mesh is required. The local coordinate

system

h

r

A

;

h

s

A

_ _

is required within each background element

h

V

e

that corresponds to the global position of node A in the newly

generated nite element mesh h+1, this is obtained from the

expression

h1

x

n; A

3

b1

h

N

b

h

r

A

;

h

s

A

_ _

h

x

n;b

9

where the elemental shape functions of the element

h

V

e

are

denoted

h

N

b

: For the previous mesh, namely the background mesh

h, which is composed of linear triangular elements, the values of

the local coordinates

h

r

A

;

h

s

A

_ _

for each nodal point A on the new

nite element mesh can be obtained through solution of the

equation

h1

x

n; A

3

b1

h

N

b

h

r

A

;

h

s

A

_ _

h

x

n;b

10

.

Mapping of the nodal point values is the nal and most complex part

of the mapping transfer operation. Through use of the element shape

functions

h

N

b

h

r

A

;

h

s

A

_ _

the state variable point values

h

~

L

n;B

h

1

P*

n; B

;

h

q

*

n; B

_ _

are then directly mapped from the nodes B located on

the old nite element mesh h to the nodal points A on the new nite

element mesh h+1, through use of the mapping function

Figure 3.

Procedural

representation of the key

stages required for the

transfer of eld variables

from the original mesh to

the new mesh, with the

re-interpolation of the

Gauss point variables

back from the nodal

points

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

89

h1

~

L

n;A

3

b1

h

N

b

r

A

; s

A

h

~

L

n; b

11

(3) The transfer of the new nodal point state variable values to the

quadrature points

h1

1

P*

n;G

;

h1

q

*

n;G

_ _

on the new nite element mesh

h+1 are obtained through further use of the element

h1

V

e

shape

functions N and the quadrature point global coordinates via the function

h1

~

L

n; A

3

a1

h1

N

a

r

G

; s

G

h1

~

L

n; A

12

The mapping operator detailed above ( Peric et al., 1994, 1996, 1999 ) has proven

to be very successful in the transfer of eld variables between nite element

meshes for both small and large deformation cases. However, experience has

found that simulations, which involve signicant changes in geometry, coupled

to adiabatic heat generation, can inherently suffer from excessive amounts of

diffusion of the eld variables such as inelastic strain. The diffusion process

itself is recognisable through several salient features with regard to high and

hyper velocity ballistic impact situations. Firstly, the inelastic state variables

are often propagated or diffused into regions in which inelastic activity should

be minimal. In addition, interpolation-mapping operators smooth the numerical

solution hence the region located at the initial impact interface rarely retains

the high gradients associated with the penetration process. Consequently, the

development of new mesh transfer techniques, specically weighted least

squares mapping operators (Morancay et al., 1997), has received much research

attention.

Discrete fracture insertion

Traditionally, the nite element method has focused on continuum modelling,

however for many applications it is necessary to degrade a single body into a

set of independent physical entities (Camacho and Ortiz, 1996; Klerck, 2000;

Yu, 1999). The numerical capability to degrade a continuum body is paramount

to the successful numerical modelling of brittle systems subject to

deformations arising from both low and high velocity impact situations. The

transition of a brittle body from a continuum description into a discrete

(or multi-body) system is developed from the dispersed micro cracks coalescing

into macroscopic fractures. In an attempt to provide an accurate description of

the material failure processes experienced within quasi-brittle materials, a

number of constitutive model have been developed. Typically these models

have adopted the common softening plasticity and damage theories so often

presented in non-linear nite element analysis.

EC

20,1

90

The failure mechanisms in brittle materials are generally associated with

anisotropic fracture phenomena. The coalescence and development of micro-

cracks within a brittle solid occur in directions that attempt to maximise

the subsequent energy release rate and simultaneously minimise the strain

energy density. The manifestation of a discrete fracture within the material

results in the realisation of localised inelastic strains and the associated

unloading of the surrounding material. In an impact situation, these

macroscopic fractures typically align themselves with the direction of the

maximum principal strain. The subsequent localisation of micro cracking

into effective crack bands then results in the softening process occurring

normal to the crack directions.

The onset of discrete fracture is directly considered from the anisotropic

rotating smeared crack plasticity model presented by Cope et al. (1980). This

model utilises a tensile strain softening formulation to represent the

degradation of strength in the tensile regime. The smeared crack model

provides a mechanism for directional softening within a continuum framework

by envisaging a cracked solid as an equivalent anisotropic continuum with

degraded properties in directions normal to crack band orientation. After initial

yield the rotating crack formulation introduces anisotropic damage by

degrading the elastic modulus in the direction of the current principal stress

invariant. The model enforces coincident rotation of the principal axes of

orthotropy and the principal strain axes. It provides an effective mechanism for

eliminating stress locking and excess shear stress and has been shown to yield

a more reliable lower bound response compared to xed crack models.

However, damage rotation is only realised in a smeared or average sense with

respect to the material response at the macroscopic level.

Although energy dissipation in the crack band model is rendered objective

by normalising the softening curve with respect to the specic fracture

energy, the spatial localisation is necessarily arbitrary. Localisation occurs

in individual elements, resulting in the width of localisation and the crack band

spacing depending on the mesh discretisation. Furthermore, the mesh

orientation gives rise to a directional bias of propagating crack bands due to

the fact that strain discontinuities exist at the element boundaries. Optional

formulations of regularisation techniques, which render the mesh discretisation

objective, include non-local damage models, Cosserat continuum approaches,

gradient constitutive models, viscous regularisation and fracture energy

releasing/strain softening approaches. All models effectively result in the

introduction of a length scale and have specic advantages depending on the

model of fracture and loading rate. The current approach adopts a non-local

averaging of the damage measure in each orthotropic direction to ensure

discretisation objectivity by introducing a length scale to govern the width of

the localisation zone. Acomprehensive overviewof the various techniques used

to obtain mesh objectivity is given in Klerck (2000).

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

91

Within a numerical simulation environment, the insertion of discrete

fractures into a continuum domain introduces additional degrees of freedom

that are associated with the nodes introduced to dene the fracture geometry.

Furthermore, the introduction of discrete fractures also introduces additional

contact surfaces that must be included in the nite element solution procedure.

The process of inserting a discrete fracture into a continuum based nite

element mesh follows a set of three key steps. Firstly the creation of a non-local

failure map, which is based upon the weighted nodal averages of the failure

parameters within individual elements, is required. Then the failure map is

used to determine the onset of local fracture within the domain. Once the onset

of fracture has been determined, then the nal task of a numerical code is to

perform the topological update whereby a discrete fracture is inserted into the

domain, any additional nodes must be inserted and the necessary elemental

connectivities are updated. The so-called failure fracture indicator is typically

dened as the ratio of the inelastic fracturing strain 1

f

to the critical fracturing

strain 1

f

c

. The elemental or local failure factor F

k

that is associated with the

Gauss point of a considered element k is given by

F

k

1

f

1

f

c

_ _

k

13

where F

k

is also associated with the elemental local fracture direction u

k

which

is dened as being normal to the local failure softening direction. Discrete

fracture is realised through the failure factor reaching a value of unity. Use of a

nodal basis for fracture leads to a simpler and more efcient methodology for

the insertion and creation of discrete fractures. The associated failure factor F

p

and the direction of failure for the considered node p are given by the weighted

expressions,

F

p

ngauss

adj

k1

F

k

w

k

ngauss

adj

k1

w

k

;

u

k

ngauss

adj

k1

u

k

w

k

ngauss

adj

k1

w

k

14

where the summation is taken over the number of element Gauss integration

points that are immediately adjacent, and w

k

is the elemental weighting factor,

normally taken as the elemental area or volume.

When the associated failure factor F

p

and the direction of failure for the

considered node p have been determined, as soon as the limiting value is

reached a discrete fracture in the given orientation will be inserted into the

nite element mesh passing through the associated nodal point. It is not

realistic to make the assumption that just a single nodal point will fail during

any given time step. It is often more likely that a series of nodal points of

EC

20,1

92

adjoining elements will fail simultaneously during the same time increment. It

is for this reason that it is most necessary to provide a systematic method of

inserting a discrete fracture sequence prior to performing the nal topological

update for the considered time step.

As previously stated, the process by which a discrete fracture is inserted into

a nite element mesh is associated with the denition of a failure plane which

passes through a failed nodal point and is orientated in the direction of the

weighted average fracture direction of the adjoining elements, as shown in

Figure 4(a). Having identied that a nodal point is to undergo the fracture

insertion process, it is necessary to identify the actual discrete crack orientation

within the nite element mesh.

Generally, there is one of two choices to be made. Firstly the fracture plane

can be aligned in the exact same orientation as the weighted average nodal

failure direction, thereby following a process known as intra-element fracturing

where a series of new nodal points and elements are systematically created, as

shown in Figure 4(b). Or as is computationally less demanding, the discrete

fracture orientation is aligned to the best orientated element boundary attached

to the node considered, thereby following a process known as inter-element

fracturing where a series of new nodal points are systematically created but no

new elements are created, as shown in Figure 4(c).

The process of inter-element fracturing, provided a ne mesh is utilised, will

often yield satisfactory results for most numerical simulations. The reasoning

behind the preference lies in the ability to effectively maintain control over the

critical time step used in the explicit time integration algorithm.

Post fracture insertion, all adjoining nite elements that have failed are

generally reinitialised assuming that all of the accrued element damage has been

coalesced into the establishment of the discrete crack. However, with the likely

creation of new nite elements, from intra-element fracturing, mapping of all of

the required state variables is very computationally expensive for little

improvement in numerical resolution, hence it is assumed that all failed elements

effectively heal themselves and all state variables are accordingly reinitialised.

Figure 4.

(a) The weighted average

nodal failure direction,

(b) intra-element

fractures description and

(c) inter-element fracture

description

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

93

Numerical simulations

Numerical simulations, which can demonstrate a coupled adaptive discrete

formulation, are based upon the experimental work presented by Riou et al.

(1998), in which silicon carbide ceramic targets of varying degrees of

connement are subjected to impacts from a steel impactor of low L=D 1:81

ratio. It should be noted that as in the previous experimental work, the current

numerical work also adopts a normal impact technique, as opposed to the

reverse ballistic techniques that are often employed (Westerling et al., 2001).

The impacting penetrator is 20 mm in length and 11 mm in diameter, which

impacts a conned or unconned silicon carbide beam with a velocity ranging

from 100 to 350 m/s. The beam is 100 mm in length, 10 mm in width, and the

thickness T is 15 or 20 mm. A schematic of the impact conguration for an

unconnedandfor aRHAsteel backedsiliconcarbidebeam is giveninFigure5.

The ceramic element of the system is numerically modelled using the

rotating crack tensile softening plasticity model followed by discrete crack

insertion (Cope et al., 1980; Klerck, 2000; Yu, 1999). The corresponding material

data are given in Table II.

Figure 5.

Geometric model

description (Riou et al.,

1998)

Parameter Notation Value used

Initial density (kg/m

3

) r

0

3,150

Elastic bulk modulus (MPa) K 192,000

Elastic shear modulus (MPa) G 175,000

Specic fracture energy (J/m) G

f

24.70

Maximum tensile strength (MPa) f

t

370

Coulomb coefcient of friction m 0.25

Table II.

Material parameters

for silicon carbide

ceramic (Riou et al.,

1998)

EC

20,1

94

In addition, the metallic elements including the RHA impactor and the

connement are numerically modelled using the Johnson-Cook viscoplastic

constitutive model ( Johnson and Cook, 1983). The governing equation for the

yield stress associated with the Johnson-Cook viscoplastic constitutive model is

given as

s A B 1

pn

1 C ln _ 1

p

1 2

T 2T

ref

T

melt

2T

ref

_ _

m

_ _

15

where 1

p

is the accrued inelastic strain, 1

p

is the inelastic strain rate, T is the

material temperature which is accounted for through use of adiabatic heating

with given thermal conversion coefcients, and A, B, C, m, n, T

ref

and T

melt

are

user dened material parameters.

Unlike the simulations presented by Riou et al. (1998), the impactor and

connement are modelled with material non-linearity so as to enable greater

user control over the adaptive remeshing algorithms. The non-linear material

parameters for the RHA steel components are chosen as those referenced from

Westerling et al. (2001), these parameters are provided in Table III.

The domain is initially discretised with 3-node triangular elements. The use

of triangular elements as opposed to the 4 node quadrilateral elements is due to

the fracture insertion technology currently available for this type of element.

The adopted error estimation parameters selected for the adaptive discrete

calculations are given in Table IV.

In the present work the inelastic strain has been used as a measure for

controlling the mesh densities associated with the steel impactor and the steel

connement block. For the ceramic material mesh density prediction is based

on the total incremental strain rate. The data controlling the mesh-density

algorithms are given in Table V, with linear interpolation being used between

the points provided.

Parameter Notation Value used

Density (kg/m

3

) r

0

7,830

Elastic bulk modulus (MPa) K 159,000

Elastic shear modulus (MPa) G 81,800

Static yield limit (MPa) A 792

Strain hardening modulus (MPa) B 510

Strain hardening exponent n 0.26

Strain rate coefcient C 0.014

Thermal softening exponent m 1.03

Initial reference temperature (K) T

ref

300

Specic heat capacity (J/kg/K) C

v

477

Melting temperature (K) T

melt

1,793

Energy conversion coefcient (%) f 90

Table III.

Material parameters

for RHA steel

(Westerling et al.,

2001)

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

95

In the experimental and numerical works of Riou et al. (1998), four impact test

cases are presented. In three of the test cases, an unconned conguration is

used at impact velocities 203, 250 and 320 m/s, and a single conned sample is

used at an impact velocity of 260 m/s. For the presented simulations, a single

unconned example will be presented with the corresponding impact velocity

of 203 m/s, and the single conned case will additionally be considered.

Figure 6 shows the experimental ndings of Riou et al. (1998) for the

unconned target conguration at an impact velocity of 203 m/s. The rst

Silicon carbide ceramic RHA steel impactor RHA steel connement

Strain rate

Mesh size

(mm) Inelastic strain

Mesh size

(mm) Inelastic strain

Mesh size

(mm)

0.00 5.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 5.00

1.00E+006 0.75 0.50 1.00 0.50 0.75

5.00E+006 0.50 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.50

1.00E+008 0.50 10.00 0.50 10.00 0.50

Table V.

Adaptive mesh

coarsening control

data

Parameter Notation Value used

Error assessment frequency (steps) f 50

Mesh density prediction type

Inelastic strain / Total strain rate

renement

Allowable element distortion error (%) j 2.50

Minimum global bound element size (mm) h

min

0.50

Maximum global bound element size (mm) h

max

5.00

Table IV.

Adaptive error

estimation control

parameters

Figure 6.

Experimental discrete

fracture evolution in an

unconned 20 mm thick

silicon carbide target

impacted at 203 m/s, at

1.00 ms intervals between

pictures ( Riou et al.,

1998)

EC

20,1

96

image is approximately 0.90 ms post impact and indicates that there is minimal

cracking present in the ceramic specimen. However the next image,

corresponding to 1.90 ms post impact, indicates the initial formation of

conical fragmentations. As indicated by Riou et al. (1998), the sample surface

exhibits a cracked zone with a high crack density.

Under the assumption that the crack front proceeds at a constant velocity,

then a crack front velocity corresponding to 8; 200 ^500 m=s can be estimated.

In addition, for the special case of an isolated crack, the experimental ndings

indicate an approximate velocity of 4,000 m/s. Figure 6 presents the

experimental images (Riou et al., 1998).

The estimate of crack front velocity conrms that the damage evolution does

not directly depend on the compressive waves, which move at a longitudinal

wave velocity equal to 11,800 m/s. Figure 6 suggests that much of the

fragmentation is initiated near the distal face of the ceramic, in addition to

those originating at the impact interface, which is caused by the reection of

the compressive waves as tensile components.

Figure 7 presents the simulated fracture patterns attained using the

proposed methodology of explicitly coupling continuum adaptive remeshing

with discrete fracture insertion processes. Upon comparison with Figure 6, it is

clear to see that the proposed technology is capable of capturing all of the

salient features present within the experimental tests. The numerical

simulations correctly identify key features, such as conical type fractures

dominating the fragmentation process. In addition, a degree of spalling type

fracture is also accurately predicted to occur on the distal face of the ceramic as

well as at the impact interface.

In addition to the fracture proles presented in Figure 7, an important

feature is the evolution of the nite element mesh associated with the adaptive

remeshing scheme. The driving motivation behind the proposed technology is

the ability to realise a numerical solution with a high level of accuracy with

efcient computational costs. Figure 8 demonstrates that the evolving nite

element mesh can be effectively governed to provide a high resolution in

regions of high strain rate activity and coarsened elsewhere.

The means of controlling the nite element mesh size using a criterion based

upon the total incremental strain rate term appears to function well for the

fragmenting silicon carbide. In addition when this is combined with the

inelastic strain criterion (Yu, 1999) it provides the numerical modeller with a

exible strategy for the efcient modelling of both metallic and ceramic

systems using coupled continuum adaptive remeshing and discrete fracture

insertion processes.

The methodology clearly demonstrates that the nite element mesh

evolution can be efciently controlled by an approach that is exible enough

to localise around regions of high strain rate. It should be noted that all of the

test congurations presented by Riou et al. (1998) have been numerically

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

97

simulated in this work using the proposed adaptive discrete methodology and

in all cases the technology has been successful in capturing the prominent

features present in the original experimental works.

The second numerical example considers the experiments performed by

Field (1988), in which spherical pellets of varying materials, including steel,

tungsten carbide and lead, were impacted at low velocity into ceramic and

glass target plates. Field (1988) made detailed examinations of the fracture

patterns experienced within the ceramic plates, which included large conical

fragments and also monitored the failure mechanisms of the impacting pellets.

In the proposed axi-symmetric nite element model of the experimental

system shown in Figure 9, an initial prescribed velocity in the range

300-500 m/s is applied to the hardened steel pellet. In the experiments

considered, a 5 mm diameter hardened steel pellet is impacted against a Sintox

Alumina plate of 8.6 mm in thickness and 50 mm in diameter. The pellets are

Figure 7.

Simulated discrete

fracture evolution in an

unconned 20 mm thick

silicon carbide target

impacted at 203 m/s, at

1.00 ms intervals between

pictures, with (a) 0.90,

(b) 1.90, (c) 2.90, (d) 3.90,

(e) 4.90, (f) 5.90, (g) 6.90

and (h) 7.90 ms

EC

20,1

98

red at the ceramic plates at velocities of 300 m/s and 500 m/s. The xity

conditions applied to the system consist of fully restraining the outer perimeter

of the target plate against any form of translational movement. The material

properties utilised as presented by Field (1988) and Camacho and Ortiz (1996)

are collated in Tables VI and VII.

Unlike the previously presented simulations, the hardened steel pellet is also

modelled using a tensile rotating crack fracture model as opposed to a

continuum based plasticity model, the data for which are given in Table VII.

In a similar fashion to the previous simulations, the initial discretisation

consists of a uniform distribution of 3-node linear triangular elements. The

initial mesh density for the simulation is prescribed as 0.75 mm, however

through the adaptive remeshing and discrete fracture algorithms, elements

ranging from a minimum 0.10 mm to a maximum 1.50 mm will be introduced

into the domain. A summary of the adaptivity control data adopted for the

simulations presented is given in Table VIII.

Figure 8.

Simulated nite element

mesh evolution in an

unconned 20 mm thick

silicon carbide target

impacted at 203 m/s, at

1.00 ms intervals between

pictures, with (a) 0.90,

(b) 1.90, (c) 2.90, (d) 3.90,

(e) 4.90, (f) 5.90, (g) 6.90

and (h) 7.90 ms

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

99

The total incremental strain rate measure has been used for controlling the

mesh densities associated with both the Sintox Alumina target and the

hardened steel pellet. The data controlling the mesh density prediction

algorithm for the materials in the simulation are given in Table IX, with linear

interpolation being again employed between the quoted values.

As can be seen in Table IX identical mesh prediction data is prescribed for

both the target and pellet components. The use of the total incremental strain

rate measure, as a means for controlling the predicted mesh densities is

preferred over the inelastic strain measure, for the case of a discrete description,

since inelastic straining is typically minimal at the point of fracture in quasi-

brittle materials.

Figure 9.

Model description for

(a) the experimental

geometry (Field, 1988),

and (b) the 2D

axi-symmetric geometry

EC

20,1

100

Figure 10 presents the simulated fracture patterns attained using the

proposed methodology of explicitly coupling continuum adaptive remeshing

with discrete fracture insertion processes. Upon comparison with Camacho and

Ortiz (1996) and Field (1988), it is clear that the developed technology is capable

of capturing all of the prominent features present within the experimental

ndings.

The numerical simulations, presented in Figure 10, correctly identify the key

feature of conical fracturing dominating the fragmentation process.

Furthermore, it is clearly evident that the use of a strain rate mesh

Parameter Notation Value used

Initial density (kg/m

3

) r

0

3,690

Elastic bulk modulus (MPa) K 149,425

Elastic shear modulus (MPa) G 107,438

Specic fracture energy (J/m) G

f

34.00

Maximum tensile strength (MPa) f

t

500

Coulomb coefcient of friction m 0.25

Table VI.

Material parameters

for Sintox Alumina

ceramic (Camacho

and Ortiz, 1996;

Field, 1988 )

Parameter Notation Value used

Initial density (kg/m

3

) r

0

7,800

Elastic bulk modulus (MPa) K 164,000

Elastic shear modulus (MPa) G 78,000

Specic fracture energy (J/m) G

f

4074

Maximum tensile strength (MPa) f

t

400

Coulomb coefcient of friction m 0.25

Table VII.

Material parameters

for hardened steel

pellet (Camacho and

Ortiz, 1996;

Field, 1988)

Parameter Notation Value used

Error assessment frequency (steps) f 50

Mesh density prediction type Total strain rate renement

Allowable element distortion error (%) j 2.50

Minimum global bound element size (mm) h

min

0.10

Maximum global bound element size (mm) h

max

1.50

Table VIII.

Adaptive error

estimation control

parameters

Sintox Alumina ceramic target plate Hardened steel pellet

Incremental strain rate Mesh size (mm) Incremental strain rate Mesh size (mm)

0.00E+000 1.50 0.00E+000 1.50

1.00E+005 0.10 1.00E+005 0.10

1.00E+008 0.10 1.00E+008 0.10

Table IX.

Adaptive mesh

coarsening control

data

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

101

Figure 10.

Finite element mesh

evolution and simulated

discrete fracture

development in an

unconned 8 mm thick

Sintox Alumina target

impacted at 300 m/s,

with times post impact of

(a) + (b) 0.00, (c) + (d)

1.00, (e) +(f) 2.00, (g) +(h)

3.00 and (i) + (j) 4.00 ms

EC

20,1

102

controlling algorithm enables the efcient localisation of the nite element

mesh around signicant features such as the propagating wave front and

generated crack tip. Upon comparison with Figure 11(a) it is clear that the

proposed technology correctly identies the correct form of Hertzian crack. In

addition, the numerical simulations provide good correlation with the failure

mechanism that is observed in the hardened steel pellet, as depicted in

Figure 11(b).

The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed adaptive discrete

formulation can accurately model fragmentation induced by impact within

brittle solids. Furthermore, techniques that are available enable this to be done

with a high level of computational efciency.

Conclusions

The use of individual discrete element techniques or adaptive techniques

within nite element formulations has been well established in the multi-

fracturing numerical modelling of brittle type materials (Camacho and Ortiz,

1996; Cottrell et al., in press; Klerck, 2000; Yu, 1999). In the present work, it has

been shown that the use of adaptive remeshing and discrete element techniques

can be effectively coupled and employed in the complex numerical modelling of

ceramic armoured systems when subjected to normal low velocity metallic

impacts.

The implemented mesh transfer operators (Peric et al., 1996, 1999), which

perform the transfer of internal state variables between the previous distorted

mesh and the newly generated mesh can, for many large deformation

Figure 11.

Plots obtained from the

experimental report

(Field, 1988)

Note:

These show (a) the impact damage produced in sintox alumina impacted by a hardened steel

pellet (at 225 m/s). The upper portion of the cone corresponds to the propagation of the Hertzian

crack, and the lower rougher cone is from the interaction with the reected tensile wave, and

(b) a schematic diagramof the failure observed in a hardened steel pellet after impact on alumina.

An inverted cone, n, is formed in the sphere together with fracture planes, r. The arrows indicate

the radial movement of material observed in such type of impacts.

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

103

applications, suffer from numerical diffusion of eld variables. In an attempt to

resolve this deciency, a weighted least squares mapping algorithm has been

proposed (Morancay et al., 1997) that is superior to the standard nodal

interpolation operators. The use of this type of transfer operator should provide

signicantly reduced diffusion of variables and subsequently provide more

pronounced gradients within the numerical solution, such as those that would

be of importance for hypervelocity depth of penetration tests.

At present, appropriate error measures for use in mesh size prediction are

dependent on the class of problem involved. For cases in which the strain elds

are predominantly elastic and continuous the standard elastic energy norm

indicator can be used to good effect. However, as it has been shown, for

situations that involve strain localisation phenomena, such as multi-fracturing

quasi-brittle solids, strain rate criteria can be used to develop appropriate

adaptive mesh predictions. On the other hand, error estimates for problems

involving large-scale plastic ows, such as forming processes or penetration of

ductile materials, are more appropriately based on either incremental or total

plastic work indicators. The ultimate goal, naturally, is the development of a

mesh size predictor that is applicable to problems in which all or some of these

features may be present. However, such a theoretical framework will require

long-term numerical research.

A potential benet of using such a exible technology is that for many

advanced constitutive models and problem geometries a numerical model

requires a suitably ne nite element mesh in local regions in order to resolve a

solution of desired accuracy. Therefore, the technology presented here offers a

means of localising the nite element mesh density into regions of high strain

or strain rate and providing fewer elements in low activity regions.

An important issue that arises from the present works is the ability to

correctly couple the nite element mesh size with the fracture insertion process.

Currently the length of the fracture is dictated by the size of the adjoining nite

element. However, it is more preferable to be able to dene the nite element

mesh size from the size of fracture that should be inserted into the system.

Local mesh renement is useful for resolving crack tip elds, and will

undoubtedly aid the prevention of premature crack arrest (Camacho and Ortiz,

1996). Furthermore increased mesh density at the crack tip enables the number

of possible crack orientations to increase. Therefore it is essential that

computational strategies be developed, which can be used to determine the size

and location of a aw completely independently of the surrounding nite

element mesh. It is also note worthy that remeshing is a means of departing

from directional bias associated with a xed nite element mesh employed in

the case of inter-element fracturing.

Naturally, the presented simulations represent only the initial steps in

providing a robust and computationally efcient tool for fully coupled discrete

EC

20,1

104

adaptive technology. Current work involves extension into 3D, which provides

many challenges in relation to the mesh regeneration process.

References

Camacho, G.T. and Ortiz, M.L. (1996), Computational modelling of impact damage in brittle

materials, International Journal of Solids Structures, Vol. 33 No. 20-22, pp. 2899-938.

Camacho, G.T. and Ortiz, M.L. (1997), Adaptive lagrangian modelling of ballistic penetration of

metallic targets, Computer Methods Applied Mechanics And Engineering, Vol. 142,

pp. 269-301.

Cope, R.J., Rao, P.V., Clark, L.A. and Norris, P. (1980), Modelling of reinforced concrete

behaviour for nite element analysis of bridge slabs, Numerical Methods for Nonlinear

Problems, Pineridge Press, Swansea, pp. 457-70.

Cottrell, M.G., Yu, J. and Owen, D.R.J. (in press), The adaptive and erosive numerical modelling

of boron carbide subjected to large-scale dynamic loadings with element conversion to

undeformable meshless particles, International Journal of Impact Engineering.

Dyduch, M., Habraken, A.M. and Cescotto, S. (1992), Automatic adaptive remeshing for

numerical simulations of metal forming, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Engineering, Vol. 101, pp. 238-98.

Field, J.E. (1988), Investigation of the impact response of various glass and ceramic systems,

USARDSG-UK, ARO-E, DAJA45-85-C-0021, University of Cambridge.

Johnson, G.R. and Cook, W.H. (1983), Aconstitutive model and data for metals subjected to large

strains, high strain rates and high temperatures, Proceedings of the 7th International

Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Klerck, P.A. (2000), The nite element modelling of discrete fracture in quasi-brittle materials,

PhD thesis, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea.

Morancay, L., Homsi, H. and Roelandt, J.M. (1997), Application of remeshing techniques to the

simulation of metal cutting by punching, in Owen, D.R.J., Onate, E. and Hinton, E. (Eds),

CIMNE, Barcelona.

Peric, D., Vaz, M. Jnr and Owen, D.R.J. (1999), On adaptive strategies for large deformations of

elasto-plastic solids at nite strains: computational issues and industrial applications,

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 176, pp. 279-312.

Peric, D., Yu, J. and Owen, D.R.J. (1994), On error estimates and adaptivity in elasto-plastic

solids: applications to the numerical simulation of strain localisation in classical and

consserat continua, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 37,

pp. 1351-79.

Peric, D., Hochard, C.H., Dutko, M. and Owen, D.R.J. (1996), Transfer operators for evolving

meshes in small strain elasto-plasticity, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Engineering, Vol. 137, pp. 331-44.

Peraire, J., Vahdati, M., Morgan, K. and Zienkiewicz, O.C. (1987), Adaptive remeshing for

compressible ow computations, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 72, pp. 449-66.

Riou, P., Denoul, C. and Cottenot, C.E. (1998), Visualisation of the damage evolution in impacted

silicon carbide ceramics, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 21 No. 4,

pp. 225-35.

Sloan, S.W. (1987), A fast algorithm for constructing Delauney triangulations in plane,

Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 9, pp. 34-55.

Strassburger, E. and Senf, H. (1995), Experimental investigations of wave and fracture

phenomena in impacted ceramics and glasses, Report ARL-CR-214.

Numerical

modelling of

ceramics

105

Westerling, L., Lundberg, P. and Lundberg, B. (2001), Tungsten long-rod penetration into

conned cylinders of boron carbide at and above ordnance velocities, International

Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 25, pp. 703-14.

Yu, J. (1999), A contact interaction framework for numerical simulation of multi-body problems

and aspects of damage and fracture for brittle materials, PhD thesis, University of Wales

Swansea, Swansea.

Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Zhu, J.Z. (1987), A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for

practical engineering analysis, International Journal for Numerical Methods Engineering,

Vol. 24, pp. 337-57.

Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Zhu, J.Z. (1991), Super convergent derivative techniques and a posteriori

error estimation in the nite element method, Part I A general super convergent recovery

technique; Part II The Zienkiewicz Zhu error estimator, report of INME, University of

Wales Swansea, CR/671/91 and CR/672/91.

EC

20,1

106