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Proceedings of GT2005 ASME Turbo Expo 2005: Power for Land, Sea and Air June 6-9, 2005, Reno-Tahoe, Nevada, USA



Philip Levine/Fern Engineering, Inc.

Leonard Angello/EPRI


Methods of compressor performance maintenance for large utility combustion turbines continue to evolve. On-line water wash systems used to recover performance loss due to fouling are evolving that use less water. This paper derives a water wash model based on a thin film of water covering the airfoil surfaces. The economic potential for recovering “unrecoverable” losses due to increased roughness and erosion is evaluated. As an outage is needed to remove the compressor cover and perform the maintenance, the approach is to identify the most beneficial maintenance actions and an optimal maintenance interval. Keywords: Axial Compressors, Water Wash, Combustion Turbines







spark spread


blade height


heat rate


sand roughness


outage cost




roughness average


repair cost


blade spacing


scale factor


water velocity at edge of film


water flow rate


gravitational constant


local film velocity


air angle


film thickness


pressure loss coefficient





shear stress







reference conditions


inlet condition


outlet condition


Compressor performance maintenance is recognized as paramount to achieving the full capability of a combustion turbine and/or combined cycle. Daily on-line water washing is effective in recovering compressor aerodynamic efficiency due to fouling. It is not the intent to review all the relevant design features of a water wash system, but rather to investigate the rationale for an adequate water flow rate impinging on the airfoil surfaces. The water flow rate is important due to the potential for consequential erosion on some compressors and to limit de-mineralized water consumption. A water wash model based on a water film covering the airfoil surface is hypothesized to estimate the minimum water requirements and to define the important related compressor and operating parameters. Blade restoration is addressed to recover what is considered the “non-recoverable losses” due to roughness, erosion and corrosion. An economic model is shown to indicate the potential for an optimum outage interval to repair the compressor based on loss model and economic parameters.


Compressor Fouling Phenomena

Compressor fouling is due to the size, amount, and chemical nature of the aerosols in the inlet air flow, dust, insects, organic matter such as seeds from trees, rust or scale from the inlet ductwork, ingested water as a result of carry-over from a media type evaporative cooler, deposits from dissolved solids in a water spray inlet cooling system, oil from leaky compressor bearing seals, ingestion of the stack gas or plumes from nearby cooling towers. Advances in the design of inlet filters have resulted in high filter efficiency as shown in Fig. 1, but nevertheless fouling persists as the very fine particles get through and as a result of by-pass leakage or poor installation and/or maintenance.

ON-LINE WASHING Compressor Fouling Phenomena Compressor fouling is due to the size, amount, and chemical nature

Figure 1. Capture Efficiency of Filters (Sawyer [1])

Theoretical studies by Menguturk and Sverdrup[2], and by Parker and Lee [3] have contributed to the understanding of the fouling mechanisms. Fine particles adhere to rotating blades due to their stickiness that is sufficient to hold the particles even on the rotating blades where the centrifugal forces are high. Particles less than 1 micron in diameter diffuse to the surface at a rate proportional to their concentration. Transport of larger particles to the surface is enhanced by turbulent mixing and diffusion. Tests by Parker and Lee [3] show the rate of particle deposition varies around the airfoil, effectively changing the shape of the airfoil as the deposits build up. The effects of both fouling and roughness on rotor blade efficiency were tested by Turner and Hughes [4]. The test results demonstrated that fouling and roughness decrease the efficiency in a similar way. Therefore, boundary layer measurements on rough airfoils are likely to be indicative of the effects of fouling as well. Careful flow measurements by Bammert and Milsch [5] of the effects of roughness on an airfoil indicate that the boundary layer thickens much more on the suction side than on the pressure side effectively changing the airfoil shape to one that is thicker and has less curvature (less camber). These boundary layer changes and the deposition pattern result in the observed losses in compressor performance. For multiple stage compressors, it is of interest to assess the effect of the stage location on relative losses due to fouling.

Calculated results of a stage stacking and associated cycle analysis by Levine [6] found that the combustion turbine power and heat rate losses are most sensitive to the condition of the first several compressor stages as shown in Fig. 2.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Thermal Efficiency 0.5 Power 0.4 0.3 0.2 1 2 3 4
Thermal Efficiency
Relative Loss

Stage Number

Figure 2. Estimated Effects of Compressor Stage Loss Coefficient on GE 7EA CT Power and Thermal Efficiency Performance (Levine [6])

The stage losses shown in Fig. 2 are normalized with those for the first stage for the same pressure coefficient change. As the intensity of the fouling is likely to decrease as the stage number increases, the net combustion turbine performance losses due to stage location are likely to decrease more rapidly than shown in Fig. 2. To deal with the fouling phenomena described above, an on-line water wash system must provide the frequency, duration and flow rate and wash mechanisms to lift and/or dissolve the deposits due to the on-going accretion of fine particles. The injected water wash spray must also have unique characteristics to achieve water wash effectiveness for the first several stages.

Water Wash Mechanisms

Water Film Flow Model An on-line water wash system consists of an array of water nozzles intended to completely wet the airfoil surfaces the inlet guide vanes. Searching for an understanding of the actual washing mechanism, a flow model is hypothesized as shown in Fig. 3 of a water film covering the entire compressor airfoil surfaces. The aim of the model is to arrive at means to estimate the water flow requirements to achieve a water film of an average specified thickness. The droplet impacts around an airfoil are not uniform, as the inertial effects that cause the impacts are more strongly felt on the leading edge and the pressure side of an airfoil. Nevertheless, a simplified average film thickness model serves to initially identify parameters that may lead to a better understanding of the water wash phenomena.

Figure 3. Water Film Formed on an Airfoil by Impinging Droplets An estimate of the water

Figure 3. Water Film Formed on an Airfoil by Impinging Droplets

An estimate of the water film thickness formed by the droplet impacts and the film flow velocity is based on two conditions: 1) the water film must cover the entire blade surface to effectively clean the surface, and 2) there is a viscous shear stress in the water film that transfers the aerodynamic drag to the surface of the blade. At the interface between the air and the water film the water velocity is much lower than the air velocity, so the drag by the air is assumed to be the same as it would be on a solid surface under the condition of no slip. The fluid shear stresses in the air and the water at the interface are the same. The shear stress at the surface is assumed to be the same as that at the interface, so the drag of the air is transferred to the surface. The description above translates into the following expressions for the water flow rate for a surface of height (H) and a film thickness of (δ) on both sides:

W = water flow = 2 ρ w u w δ H Eq. (1)

where ρ w is the water density and (u w ) is the average axial water velocity in the film. The effects of body forces on the fluid film are neglected. In order to calculate the water rate flow, a relationship is needed between the average water velocity and the film thickness. The approach relates the boundary condition that the shear in the water film transfers the aerodynamic drag to the airfoil surface. The shear in the water film is simply estimated as:

τ = shear stress = µ / g (du / dy) Eq. (2)

where (µ) is the viscosity of water and du/dy is the gradient of the water velocity normal to the surface. Note that u = 0 at the surface under the condition of no slip, and since the shear is transferred to the surface, it is assumed constant so that du/dy = U/δ where U is the velocity at the edge of the film and δ is the film thickness. The shear stress in the water film becomes:

τ = µU / (gδ)

Eq. (3)

The shear stresses due to the air flow vary around an airfoil due to the initial laminar flow, transition to turbulent flow, roughness, airfoil shape and velocity distribution. As an initial step to simplify the model derivation an average shear stress is estimated based on the measured pressure loss coefficient. The pressure loss coefficient is defined as the ratio of the total pressure difference for the airfoil due to the aerodynamic losses divided by the dynamic pressure of the air flow relative to the airfoil. The relationship between the drag force and the total pressure loss coefficient is shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 3. Water Film Formed on an Airfoil by Impinging Droplets An estimate of the water

Figure 4. Airfoil Drag and the Total Pressure Loss Coefficient (Horlock [7])

An average surface shear stress is estimated by balancing the drag the airfoil with the total pressure losses such that, approximately:

τ = ω ρ a V 2 (S / C)cos(α m ) / (4g)

Eq. (4)

where ρ a is the air density, V is the relative air velocity to the airfoil, ω is the total pressure loss coefficient, S is the spacing, C is the chord and α m is mean flow angle relative to the axial direction. Estimates of the average shear stress, τ, based on data for the minimum pressure coefficient are likely to be conservative as there may be other losses due to the incidence angle, trailing edge loss and separation. Equating the air-drag shear stress and the water film shear stress, the water velocity at the film edge is:

U = τ δg / µ

Eq. (5)

The thickness of the film (on both sides of each blade) should be larger than the anticipated size of the particles that form the deposits (see Fig.1), but limited so as to minimize water consumption. An example case of δ =1 mil, (25 microns) and a 1 st stage rotor is given to illustrate the calculations. The velocity at the edge of the film is calculated for the following

conditions: ω =.01, ρ a = 0.07 lbs/ft 3 (1.1 kg/m 3 ), V = 800 fps (243.8 mps), δ = 0.001/12 ft (25 microns), µ = 0.0006 lb/ft-sec (0.0009 kg/m-sec), S/C = 0.7, α m = 40 deg. resulting in τ = 1.7 lbs/ft 2 (8.3 kg/m 2 ) and U = 7.7 fps (2.35 mps). The water flow required for the above film parameters on a rotor, wet on both sides, and the blade height is H = 1 ft (0.305 m) and N = 30 blades in the blade row is:

W = ρ w Uδ H N= σ w τ δ 2 g/µ H N = 1.2 lbs/sec

Eq. (6)

(8.6 gpm (33 lpm), or 0.2% of the air flow)

The estimates above correspond approximately to the pitch

radius for to a CT such as a GE 7E CT and an air/water ratio of


Air/Water Ratio

Application of the Water Film Model Besides the water flow needed to sustain a water film, some of the injected water droplets may evaporate or be ineffective. As a water wash system nozzle emits a spray with a droplet size variation, the finer droplets tend to evaporate and/or follow the streamlines without benefiting the water wash. There may also be evaporation from the surface of the water film due to convection. The water film model may be applied to each blade row of a compressor. The water wash spray first encounters the inlet guide vanes (IGVs), where the injected water losses to evaporation are likely to be low. For the case where there is a fogger or evaporative cooler in the CT inlet, the nearly saturated flow leaving the inlet will condense some of the water vapor to droplets as the air flow velocity increases, depressing the air flow static temperature at the IGVs. This condensing phenomenon is prominent when the inlet temperature is lowered to the point where the condensed droplets form ice particles. As a result of the condensing process, heat is released and the air flow temperature decrease is smaller, but the inlet guide vanes may still experience saturated air flow with water droplets without any injected water. Whereas the saturated condition limits further evaporation in the IGVs, the size of the droplets formed may be very small so that most of them may travel with the streamlines around the airfoils. The droplet size resulting from condensation is likely to be dependent on the concentration of contaminates in the air that serve as nuclei for droplet formation. In the case of low relative humidity at the compressor inlet, the relative humidity at the IGVs increases due to the increased air flow velocity so the disposition for evaporation of the injected water is decreased. Therefore, the injected water flow estimate based on the water film alone on the IGVs may be adequate. Experience confirms that the amount of water vapor entering via the inlet air can be beneficial to the washing mechanism (Stalder [8]). However, for the water wash benefit to extend to one or more stages, one must consider evaporation losses. The evaporation in the 1 st rotor depends on the aerodynamic reaction of the blade design as an impulse design would have no static temperature rise through the blade row. The maximum droplet and surface film evaporation rate in the 1 st stage to saturate the air flow depends on the stage pressure ratio and may require an air/water ratio of ~ 200. This result is found by a stepwise calculation adding water during the compression of the air so as to keep the air saturated. The water flow corresponding to the example above needed to keep the air saturated in the 1 st stage and maintain the water film thickness of 1 mil (25 microns) is 30 gpm (116 lpm), bringing the potential total injected air/water ratio to ~ 150. Utilizing a spray with large droplets slows the droplet evaporation such that the air is not saturated in the first stage, reducing the amount of water required. A water film scaling relationship for the air/water ratio for aerodynamically similar compressors but of different size may be derived as the product of HN may be written as: HN = H / C × C/S × πD, where H/C = aspect ratio, S/C = solidity, D = compressor diameter. The air flow (Wa) may be expressed as Wa ~ D 2 × (1 - HTR 2 ), where HTR is the hub/tip ratio. Therefore, for aerodynamically similar compressors, the air/water ratio for the

film scales as Wa / W ~ (Wa) 1/2 . Scaling results are shown in Fig. 4 for the estimated variation of the air/water ratio with CT power output for a water film with no evaporation and with evaporation. The results shown depend on the specific power of the CT and in this case, high efficiency large CTs were considered. For a CT with a high efficiency filter, the surface deposits are likely made up of very fine particles as shown in Fig. 1 so that a film thickness that could lift or dissolve the deposits could be as low as ten microns which would result in an air/water ratio as high as 3,000. The formation and stability of the thin film from relatively large impinging droplets may be enhanced by the aerodynamic shear stress that stretches and flattens the droplets until they merge into a thin film. The rationale for effectively using a very thin film is to increase the cleaning frequency so that thickness of the deposits is reduced.

Air/Water Ratio vs. CT Power

800 700 600 500 film only 400 film + evaporation 300 200 100 0 0 50
film only
film + evaporation

CT Power, MW

Figure 4. Estimated Air/Water Ratios Needed to Sustain a Water Film, δ = 0.001 inches (25 microns)

The results of a survey by Mund and Pilidis [9] of on-line water wash systems correlated the air/water ratio with CT output power and the results are shown in Fig. 5. The systems are categorized by high or low pressure (HP, LP) and high, medium and low flow (HF, MF, LF). The similarity of the correlation with the results for the example model in Fig. 4 is evident. Limited information on the amount of water injected provided by Mund and Pilidis [10] notes a variation in the injection duration from less than 1 minute to as much as 30 minutes. If a duration of 1 minute is sufficient, the total water usage in the example case described above could be as little as 27 gallons (104 liters). The use of anti-fouling coatings could likely reduce the duration of the water pulse needed to recover the performance loss. Whereas the model presented provides added insight into the water washing mechanisms, ultimately the water flow rate and duration that minimizes water consumption is best established by performance monitoring. The mechanical and control elements of the wash system must have flexibility to conveniently adjust the water flow rate and pulse interval.

Figure 5. Air-Fluid Ratio for Different Compressor Washing Systems (Mund and Pilidis [9]) COMPRESSOR BLADE RESTORATION

Figure 5. Air-Fluid Ratio for Different Compressor Washing Systems (Mund and Pilidis [9])


Airfoil Roughness Phenomena

Airfoil roughness is caused by particle impingements and corrosion. The aerodynamic effects on roughness are often tested by simulating the roughness with sand paper characterized by a sand roughness height, Ks. These tests have shown that there is a roughness height that corresponds to a condition of hydraulic smoothness where there are no effects of roughness. The condition for smoothness is that the roughness Reynolds number is less than 90, e.g., see Koch [11], so that:

Sand Roughness Reynolds Number = V × Ks × density / viscosity <= 90

To make use of the test data using sand roughness when performing average roughness (Ra) measurements using a contact surface tester stylus that is dragged over the surface, it

is estimated that Ks = 6.2 × Ra. Therefore, the critical condition for smoothness is an average roughness (Ra) Reynolds number of approximately 15. On a 1 st stage vane, the critical value of Ra may be as much as 70 micro-inches (1.778 microns). Because of the high relative air flow speed on the 1 st stage rotor, the critical roughness could be as low as 25 micro-inches (0.635 microns). Test results by Bammert and Milsch [5] on airfoils with sand roughness are shown in Fig. 6.

Figure 5. Air-Fluid Ratio for Different Compressor Washing Systems (Mund and Pilidis [9]) COMPRESSOR BLADE RESTORATION

o - From wake survey × - From boundary layer measurement

Figure 6. Effect of Surface Roughness on Flow Friction Losses for a Ratio of Blade Spacing to Chord Length of 1.25 and a Reynolds Number = 4.3 × 105 (Bammert & Milsch [5])

Inspection of Fig. 6 shows that the blade losses change very little until a critical amount of roughness is added, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 90. As shown, if the initial roughness is much less than the critical amount then roughness losses are delayed until the critical roughness is reached. These results suggest that very smooth coatings with a roughness of 15 micro-inches will likely yield higher aerodynamic efficiencies for a longer time.

Erosion Phenomena

The use of foggers, evaporative coolers and inter-stage cooling raises concerns of impingement of droplets on the airfoils. Droplets may cause erosion in highly stressed blade sections such as the root of the 1 st rotor. The total water ingested into the compressor is the sum of the carry-over of unevaporated droplets from foggers, evaporative coolers and the injected water from a water wash system. As a precaution, the airfoils should be inspected in accord with OEM recommendations. Leading edge erosion also causes a loss in compressor efficiency due to sharp corners resulting from increased bluntness. When water droplets entering the compressor are anticipated due to evaporative cooling, fogging, or on-line washing, a corrosion and erosion resistant coating should be considered, at least to the first several stages depending on experience with similar CTs and the OEM’s recommendations. If blunting of the leading edge of a blade occurs as shown in Fig. 7, it results in changes in smoothness of the air flow around the leading edge [12]. Leading edge blunting may introduce a rapid change in curvature (possibly a sharp corner) as shown in Fig. 8 such that the flow velocity increases rapidly and then is unable to stay attached to the surface downstream of the leading edge resulting in a flow separation, a pressure loss and an efficiency loss. This loss gets worse as blunting continues. If the leading edge is restored then new material should be added to the leading edge so the original contour is re-captured.

Figure 5. Air-Fluid Ratio for Different Compressor Washing Systems (Mund and Pilidis [9]) COMPRESSOR BLADE RESTORATION

Figure 7. Blunting of an Airfoil Due to Erosion and Refurbishment Options [12]

Figure 8. Leading Edge Induced Flow Separation Due to Erosion [12] (The x-axis is the ratio

Figure 8. Leading Edge Induced Flow Separation Due to Erosion [12] (The x-axis is the ratio of the distance from the leading edge to the chord.)

Detection of the Condition of the Compressor

The detection of the condition of the compressor can be by

direct or indirect methods. The direct measurement monitoring method can be a stand-alone method or combined with any of the other methods and provides more information on the condition of the compressor. This method is finding use in evolving limits on water washing and/or carry-over that will limit erosion and roughness. Direct measurements include:

Visual Inspection of the Condition of the Airfoils

Surface Measurements of Roughness

Dimensional Measurements, Thickness & Chord

Clearance Measurements

Leading Edge Erosion Molds

There is a diversity of trending methods that can be used to monitor the condition of the compressor. In general, a database is needed on the expected baseline performance. The degradation of the axial compressor performance causes an observable decrease in power. Experience has shown that although other factors may cause a decrease in the power output, the degradation of the compressor condition is the most likely cause of the power loss. Accurate power measurements

are required (±0.25%). The measured power is transposed to a standard reference condition, say dry ISO operation, so that the deviations in power are all with respect to a standard condition. Ancillary measurements of inlet air temperature, barometric pressure and specific humidity are needed to correct the power to standard conditions. Trending should be restricted to base load operation as correcting the power output to standard conditions at part load is less reliable. To correct the power, measurements of inlet and exhaust pressure drops and water and steam injection flows are also required. In addition to monitoring the output power, fuel flow monitoring is useful to perform economic optimization of the compressor maintenance interval. The fuel flow measurement must be accompanied by regular determinations of the fuel heating value. A fuel flow meter with good repeatability

(±0.25% or better) is needed to trend the small differences in fuel use and heat rate that can occur daily. For natural gas fuels, an on-line gas chromatograph facilitates the monitoring of the heat rate.






Compressor Blade Restoration Plan

The cost of on-line washing to recover losses due to fouling is relatively low and operators tend to wash daily to defer off-line washes and maintain high efficiency. In the case of non-recoverable losses, the approach is to determine an outage maintenance interval that in effect recovers the cost of the outage (lost revenue) and reduces losses as a result of compressor blade repair such as coating or restoration. At issue is whether the costs and benefits of additional compressor inspections and maintenance are economically justified. A typical non-recoverable performance curve is shown in Fig. 9 which includes the turbine section losses as well as the compressor losses. However, the turbine rate of degradation is much slower than that for the compressor, so the curve may be used as a conservative estimate for the short term non- recoverable compressor losses.

6 Output 5 4 3 Thermal Efficiency 2 1 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
Thermal Efficiency
Performance Loss (%)

Gas Turbine Fired Hours

Figure 9. Estimated Non-Recoverable Performance Losses Based on Normal Maintenance Procedures (Levine [6])

The decision to repair or replace blades depends on an inspection of the condition of the surface, dimension measurements, and a determination of whether the blades are repairable and at what cost. A blade reaches the end of its life when it becomes too thin for restoration and is unable to maintain structural integrity. The cost of compressor blade restoration and/or replacement is dependent on the ease of maintenance built into the CT, the availability of the material, the blend limits, and the availability of specific tooling for welding, profiling and surface finish.


The blade maintenance interval loss model is shown in Fig. 11 and assumes restoration recovers all the losses. The losses may occur more rapidly with use of inter-stage cooling [13] or

more slowly with the application of smooth erosion resistant coatings. Therefore, a scale factor, SF, is introduced to adjust the losses so as to match those observed.

6 5 Water Wash Only SF = 1 4 8000 Hour Restoration Intervals SF = 1
Water Wash Only
SF = 1
8000 Hour Restoration Intervals
SF = 1
SF = 0.8
Power Loss (%)

Gas Turbine Fired Hours

Figure 11. Maintenance Interval Model

An economic model based on the concept of spark spread is used to determine the cost/benefits of additional compressor inspections, trading off the added costs vs. the improved performance benefits. The spark spread is the margin between the power sales price and the fuel cost and in the real world can have marked peaks during a year, so a detailed site-related strategic analysis is desirable. The calculations can include the effects of ambient temperature as well, but for the present, an average ambient temperature is used. The following example is only to illustrate how this may be done and the potential benefits. Referring to Fig. 11, the increment in MW-hrs lost during each major overhaul interval is:

MW-hrs = (P0 - P(t)) dt Eq. (7)

where P0 - P(t) = P0 × SF × pplf(t) / 100 Eq. (8)

SF = loss scale factor due to repairs that lower the rate of the loss pplf(t) = percent power loss from Fig. 11

Using the approach where the spark spread is the net difference in the power sales price and the cost of fuel, then the loss in net revenue (NR) during each major overhaul interval (MOI) is calculated as:

NR = ES × MW-hrs - (OC + RC) × (MOI / MCI - 1) Eq. (9)

where ES is the spark spread in dollars/MW-hrs, OC is the

outage cost, RC is the repair cost at each outage, MCI is the compressor maintenance interval.









compressor maintenance to search for an optimum. The overall net loss without any added maintenance inspections is also calculated based on 48,000 hours between major overhauls. Say, for example, there are inspections at 8000 hours, or 5 added inspections between overhauls as shown in Fig. 11. The total net revenue loss over a maintenance overhaul interval would be 5 times that calculated for each compressor inspection interval. The benefit is then the difference between the net revenue lost due to lower power without any compressor

inspections to that amount lost with added compressor inspections. The cost of the 5 added inspections must be subtracted from the revenue to get the net benefit. As there may

be planned outages for other inspections, there would be a lower outage cost penalty for the compressor. When the compressor is inspected, the measurements to assess the

condition of the blades are used to determine the extent of repair. Some sample parametric results are given in Fig. 12 for

the following specific inputs:

P0 - 150 MW, new & clean average power

H0 - 10,665 Btu/kW-hr, new & clean average heat rate

ES - 20, average spark spreads, $/MW-hrs

OC = 48 × ES × PO, outage cost

RC = $ 0.1, millions, cost of repairs to inspect, restore, smooth and/or coat airfoil surfaces SF = 0.8

3 Optimum Interval 2 1 0 1000 2000 4000 8000 16000 24000 32000 48000 Gas Turbine
Optimum Interval
2000 4000
Gas Turbine Fired Hours
Too Small
Maintenance Interval
Too Large
Profit, Millions $$

Figure 12. Effect of Compressor Maintenance Interval on Profit Over a 48,000 Hour Major Overhaul Interval (SF = 0.8, RC = 0.1, ES = 20)


The concept of a water wash film provides insights to the

optimization of water use for containing the compressor losses due to fouling. The rationale for very high air/water ratios appears to rely on efficient filters and frequent washes. Nozzles that provide large droplets are essential to delay evaporation so that cleaning is effective for one or more stages. Compressor and CT performance monitoring is essential to optimize the water wash system flow rate, injection duration and injection frequency. A strategy to contain the compressor losses due to erosion, and roughness requires monitoring the compressor and CT performance and the development of an outage plan that includes repair and profitability scenarios. The optimization concept presented suggests that an annual outage for compressor repair may be profitable.


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13. “Wet


Quarter 2004.