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Chapter 1.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Content of Theory of Elasticity Important Concept in Theory of Basic Assumptions Problems Elasticity

1.1 Contents of Theory of Elasticity

Theory of Elasticity is the branch of Solid Mechanics which deals with the stress and displacements in elastic solids produced by external forces or changes in temperature.

The purpose of study is to chec the sufficiency of the strength, stiffness and stability of structural and machine elements.

Solid Mechanics I ---- bar !Mechanics of Materials" Solid Mechanics II ---- bar system !Structure Mechanics" bars plates #olid $echanics Solid Mechanics III ---- bloc s !Theory of Elasticity" dams shells

Solid Mechanics VIII (Theory of Plasticity)


mech. of mater.

%or e&ample


theory of elasticity


mech of mater.

%or e&ample plate theory of elast.

'oint application of the abo(e three branches of solid mechanics ))))))))))))) Finite Element Method (FEM)

1.2 Some important concepts in theory of elasticity

E&ternal forces #tresses !internal force"

deformations ))) strains and displacement

There are two inds of e&ternal forces that act on the bodies *ra(itational force inertia forces !in motion"

!1" Body forces

definition of body force+ F,

Q V - V lim

!(ector .uantity"

Component of % ))) /0 10 20 the pro3ections of % on &0 y0 4 a&is 5imension is 6force76len*th7 3 0 e.&.0 89m 3 .

%i*. 1.2.1

pressure !in water0 atmosphere" !2" #urface force contact force


Q F = lim S - S

6force7 6len*th7 2

Components of % alon* &0 y0 4 a&es denoted by

0! 0 "

%i*. 1.2.2

!3" The internal forces produced by external forces

Stress at a point definition S !

# -


Q #

)) normal stress !normal component" )) shear stress !shear component "

!4" The stress state at a point 5efinition of the stress component and its sign

! 8ote + differences with the definition in solid mechanics II"

:elations between shear stresses

y$ = $y0

$x = x$0

xy = yx

;e will show that the stress state on any section throu*h the point can be calculated if we now the < stress components0 i.e.0 the " stress components completely define the stress state at a point.

#$% &eformation body

By deformation we mean the chan*e of shape of a

" strain components

x 0 y 0 $ 0 xy 0 y$ 0 x$


define the deformation condition !or strain condition" at that point

#"% &isplacement By displacement !unit+ len*th" we mean the chan*e of position0 the displacement components in the &0 y0 4 a&es are denoted by u0 (0 w respecti(ely.

All the abo(e

i% 0



at a point 'ary with the position

of the point considered0 so they are functions of coordinates in space.

1.( )asic assumptions in theory of elasticity

i%0 ui can be #1% The body is continuous* so i% 0 expressed by continuous functions in space
#2% The body is perfectly elastic---- +holly obeys ,oo-.s la+ of elasticity ---- linear relations bet+een stress components and strain components. #(% The body is homo/eneous * i.e.* the elastic properties are the same throu/hout the body--elastic constants +ill be independent of the location in the body. #0% The body is isotropic so that the elastic properties are the same in all directions* thus the elastic constants +ill be independent of the orientation of coordinate axes. example

polycrystalline ceramics and steels

+ood and fiber reinforced composite

#$% The displacements and strains are small* i.e.* the displacements components of all points of the body durin/ deformation are 'ery small compared +ith its ori/inal dimensions.

Problems (Exercise)& '('()* '('(+* ne,&

Chapter 2 Theory of 1lane 1roblems

2.1 1lane Stress and 1lane Strain

spatial problems plane problem )))) plane stress and plane strain problems !2" =lane strain problem and plane strain condition

!1" plane stress problem and plane stress condition

x = f1 ! x 0 y " y = f2 ! x 0 y " $ = x$ = y$ = -

x = f1 ! x 0 y " y = f2 ! x 0 y " $ = x$ = y$ = -

xy = f3 ! x 0 y "

xy = f3 ! x 0 y "

E&ample+ thin plate

E&ample+ dam

2.2 E2uation of E2uilibrium in Plane Problems